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Sample records for volcanic aquifers sicily

  1. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania—Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  2. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania-Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  3. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  4. Major and trace elements in Boletus aereus and Clitopilus prunulus growing on volcanic and sedimentary soils of Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, M G; Dongarrà, G; La Rosa, A; Tamburo, E; Vasquez, G; Varrica, D

    2018-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the content of 28 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn) in fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus Bull. and Clitopilus prunulus P. Kumm collected from eleven unpolluted sites of Sicily (Italy) and, also to relate the abundance of chemical elements in soil with their concentration in mushrooms. Median concentrations of the most abundant elements in Boletus aereus ranged from 31,290 μg/g (K) to 107 μg/g (Zn) in caps and from 24,009 μg/g (K) to 57 μg/g (Zn) in stalks with the following abundance order: K > Na > Ca > Mg > Fe > Al > Rb > Zn. The same elements, in the whole fruiting body of Clitopilus prunulus samples, varied in the range 54,073-92 μg/g following the abundance order: K > Na > Mg > Ca > Fe > Al > Rb > Zn. Metal contents in Boletus aereus and in the whole fruiting body of Clitopilus prunulus, collected from the same sampling sites, showed statistically significant differences for most elements. In particular, Clitopilus prunulus contained around two to four times more Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Pb, U and V than caps and stalks of Boletus aereus species which, in turn, was from two to four times more enriched in Cu, Se and Tl. Thus, the elemental content of Boletus aereus and Clitopilus prunulus appeared to be species-dependent. The distribution of chemical elements in Boletus aereus was not uniform throughout the whole fruiting body as most elements were significantly bioconcentrated in caps. Furthermore, the fruit bodies of Boletus aereus from the volcanic soil differed both in major and minor elements concentrations from those collected from sedimentary soils. Cadmium and lead concentrations were below the threshold limits for wild mushrooms proposed by EU Directives (2008 and 2015). The elemental content was not significantly influenced by soil pH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the processes involved in weathering and experimental alteration of glassy materials. The case of some volcanic glasses from eastern Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the effects of weathering and experimental alteration in order to understand the geochemical processes involved and the variation of mineral phases in altered natural glasses. For the first time, five samples of natural volcanic glasses having different composition were collected in eastern Sicily (Italy) in order to be artificially altered and analyzed. The study of naturally altered samples has allowed to observe the effects of weathering after a period of time corresponding to the age of the sample. Moreover, the use of samples of natural glass of volcanic origin has allowed to obtain some powder or thin plates of fresh silicate glass that have been subjected to artificial alteration in the laboratory, in order to model the geochemical processes that have occurred. Alteration experiments were conducted in pure water at 90 C; samples have been altered from 1 to 1000 days of experiment. The characterization of the samples was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, which showed the effects of the devitrification and the presence of some secondary minerals such as carbonates and anatase on the obsidian thin plates, but also phillipsite and chabazite, two varieties of zeolite usually found in the cavities of oldest basalts. Solid modifications were observed by SEM. The analysis showed the formation of several secondary minerals having a composition compatible with smectites, determined by EDS spectroscopy. All these results allow to test the geochemical modeling in the long term. Further analysis will be needed to reach a full understanding of the weathering of glassy materials. (author)

  6. Mercury concentration, speciation and budget in volcanic aquifers: Italy and Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Parello, F.; D'Alessandro, W.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of volcanism to global mercury (Hg) emissions is important to understand the pathways and the mechanisms of Hg cycling through the Earth's geochemical reservoirs and to assess its environmental impacts. While previous studies have suggested that degassing volcanoes might contribute importantly to the atmospheric budget of mercury, little is known about the amount and behaviour of Hg in volcanic aquifers. Here we report on detailed investigations of both the content and the speciation of mercury in aquifers of active volcanoes in Italy and Guadeloupe Island (Lesser Antilles). In the studied groundwaters, total Hg (THg) concentrations range from 10 to 500 ng/l and are lower than the 1000 ng/l threshold value for human health protection fixed by the World Health Organization [WHO (1993): WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality- http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/index.htlm]. Positive co-variations of (THg) with sulphate indicate that Hg-SO 4-rich acid groundwaters receive a direct input of magmatic/hydrothermal gases carrying mercury as Hg 0(gas). Increasing THg in a volcanic aquifer could thus be a sensitive tracer of magmatic gas input prior to an eruption. Since the complex behaviour and toxicity of mercury in waters depend on its chemical speciation, we carefully determined the different aqueous forms of this element in our samples. We find that dissolved elemental Hg 0(aq) and particulate-bound Hg (Hg P) widely prevail in volcanic aquifers, in proportions that highlight the efficiency of Hg adsorption onto colloidal particles. Moreover, we observe that dissolved Hg 0aq and Hg(II) forms coexist in comparable amount in most of the waters, in stark contrast to the results of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. Therefore, chemical equilibrium between dissolved mercury species in volcanic waters is either prevented by natural kinetic effects or not preserved in collected waters due to sampling/storage artefacts. Finally, we

  7. Accidental contamination during hydrocarbon exploitation and the rapid transfer of heavy-mineral fines through an overlying highly karstified aquifer (Paradiso Spring, SE Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Rosario; Forti, Paolo; Antoci, Maria Lucia; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    The area around Ragusa in Sicily is well known for the exploration of petroleum deposits hosted in Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These reservoirs are overlain by less permeable rocks, whereas the surface geology is characterized by outcrops of Oligo-Miocene carbonate units hosting important aquifers. Some of the karst springs of the area are used as drinking water supplies, and therefore these vulnerable aquifers should be monitored and protected adequately. In the early afternoon (14:00) of 27 May until the late evening (19:30) of 28 May 2011, during the construction of an exploitation borehole (Tresauro 2), more than 1000 m3 of drilling fluids were lost in an unknown karst void. Two days later, from 06:30 on 30 May, water flowing from Paradiso Spring, lying some 13.7 km SW of the borehole and 378 m lower, normally used as a domestic water supply, was so intensely coloured that it was unfit for drinking. Bulk chemical analyses carried out on the water have shown a composition that is very similar to that of the drilling fluids lost at the Tresauro borehole, confirming a hydrological connection. Estimations indicate that the first signs of the drilling fluids took about 59 h to flow from their injection point to the spring, corresponding to a mean velocity of ∼230 m/h. That Paradiso Spring is recharged by a well-developed underground drainage system is also confirmed by the marked flow rate changes measured at the spring, ranging from a base flow of around 10-15 l/s to flood peaks of 2-3 m3/s. Reflecting the source and nature of the initial contamination, the pollution lasted for just a few days, and the water returned to acceptable drinking-water standards relatively quickly. However, pollution related to heavy-mineral fines continues to be registered during flooding of the spring, when the aqueducts are normally shut down because of the high turbidity values. This pollution event offers an instructive example of how hydrocarbon exploitation in intensely karstified

  8. Volcanic activity at Etna volcano, Sicily, Italy between June 2011 and March 2017 studied with TanDEM-X SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, J.; Raible, B.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution and up-to-date topographic data are of high value in volcanology and can be used in a variety of applications such as volcanic flow modeling or hazard assessment. Furthermore, time-series of topographic data can provide valuable insights into the dynamics of an ongoing eruption. Differencing topographic data acquired at different times enables to derive areal coverage of lava, flow volumes, and lava extrusion rates, the most important parameters during ongoing eruptions for estimating hazard potential, yet most difficult to determine. Anyhow, topographic data acquisition and provision is a challenge. Very often, high-resolution data only exists within a small spatial extension, or the available data is already outdated when the final product is provided. This is especially true for very dynamic landscapes, such as volcanoes. The bistatic TanDEM-X radar satellite mission enables for the first time to generate up-to-date and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) repeatedly using the interferometric phase. The repeated acquisition of TanDEM-X data facilitates the generation of a time-series of DEMs. Differencing DEMs generated from bistatic TanDEM-X data over time can contribute to monitor topographic changes at active volcanoes, and can help to estimate magmatic ascent rates. Here, we use the bistatic TanDEM-X data to investigate the activity of Etna volcano in Sicily, Italy. Etna's activity is characterized by lava fountains and lava flows with ash plumes from four major summit crater areas. Especially the newest crater, the New South East Crater (NSEC) that was formed in 2011 has been highly active in recent years. Over one hundred bistatic TanDEM-X data pairs were acquired between January 2011 and March 2017 in StripMap mode, covering episodes of lava fountaining and lava flow emplacement at Etna's NSEC and its surrounding area. Generating DEMs of every bistatic data pair enables us to assess areal extension of the lava flows, to

  9. Volcanic and anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal content in lichens from Mt. Etna and Vulcano island (Sicily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D; Aiuppa, A; Dongarrà, G

    2000-05-01

    Major and trace element concentrations were determined in two lichen species (Parmelia conspersa and Xanthoria calcicola) from the island of Vulcano and all around Mt. Etna. In both areas, the average concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, P and Ti are substantially greater than those of other elements. Several elements (Br, Pb, Sb, Au, Zn, Cu) resulted enriched with respect to the local substrates. The Br and Pb enrichment factors turned out to be the highest among those calculated in both areas. Data indicate that mixing between volcanic and automotive-produced particles clearly explains the range of Pb/Br shown by lichen samples. Sb is also enriched, revealing a geogenic origin at Vulcano and a prevailing anthropic origin at Mt. Etna. Distribution maps of the enrichment factors show a generalized enrichment of Au and Zn near Mt. Etna, whereas Cu appears to be enriched prevalently in the NE-SE area. The highest levels of Au and Cu at Vulcano occur E-SE from the craters, following the prevailing wind direction.

  10. Volcanic aquifers of Hawai‘i—Hydrogeology, water budgets, and conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Engott, John A.; Rotzoll, Kolja; Bassiouni, Maoya; Johnson, Adam G.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mair, Alan

    2016-06-13

    ahu, and Maui; 2008 land cover and 1916–1983 rainfall for Hawai‘i Island) are 875, 660, 1,308, and 6,595 Mgal/d for Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island, respectively. Recent recharge values differ from predevelopment recharge values by only a few percent for all islands except Hawai‘i Island, where changes in forest cover affected recharge. Spatial distribution of recharge mimics the orographic rainfall pattern—recharge is high on windward slopes and mountain peaks below the top of the trade-wind inversion. Human activity such as irrigation also contributes to recharge in some areas.Outflows from Hawai‘i’s aquifers include withdrawals from wells and natural groundwater discharge to springs, streams, wetlands, and submarine seeps. Under predevelopment conditions, groundwater withdrawal is assumed to be negligible and natural groundwater discharge probably was equal, or close, to recharge. Under recent conditions (2000–2010), groundwater withdrawal averaged 19, 209, 104, and 103 Mgal/d on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island, respectively. If recent withdrawal and recharge rates are maintained until steady state is achieved, natural groundwater discharge will be reduced by an amount equal to the withdrawal rate. Total recent withdrawal for the four islands is only about 5 percent of total recharge, but about half of the withdrawal comes from O‘ahu, whereas O‘ahu receives only 7 percent of the total recharge. Effects of high withdrawals on O‘ahu cannot be mitigated by the lower withdrawals on other islands because no freshwater flows between islands. Even within an island, high withdrawals from one area cannot be completely mitigated by recharge in another area. Water-level, saltwater/freshwater-transition-zone, spring, and stream base-flow data indicate an overall reduction in storage for most areas where groundwater has been developed.Groundwater occurrence and movement in Hawai‘i’s volcanic aquifers can be described in terms of

  11. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2018-03-30

    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  12. Rock–water interactions and pollution processes in the volcanic aquifer system of Guadalajara, Mexico, using inverse geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morán-Ramírez, J.; Ledesma-Ruiz, R.; Mahlknecht, J.; Ramos-Leal, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand and mitigate the deterioration of water quality in the aquifer system underlying Guadalajara metropolitan area, an investigation was performed developing geochemical evolution models for assessment of groundwater chemical processes. The models helped not only to conceptualize the groundwater geochemistry, but also to evaluate the relative influence of anthropogenic inputs and natural sources of salinity to the groundwater. Mixing processes, ion exchange, water–rock–water interactions and nitrate pollution and denitrification were identified and confirmed using mass-balance models constraint by information on hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry, lithology and stability of geochemical phases. The water–rock interactions in the volcanic setting produced a dominant Na−HCO_3 water type, followed by Na−Mg−Ca−HCO_3 and Na−Ca−HCO_3. For geochemical evolution modeling, flow sections were selected representing recharge and non-recharge processes and a variety of mixing conditions. Recharge processes are dominated by dissolution of soil CO_2 gas, calcite, gypsum, albite and biotite, and Ca/Na exchange. Non-recharge processes show that the production of carbonic acid and Ca/Na exchange are decreasing, while other minerals such as halite and amorphous SiO_2 are precipitated. The origin of nitrate pollution in groundwater are fertilizers in rural plots and wastewater and waste disposal in the urban area. This investigation may help water authorities to adequately address and manage groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • The Inverse geochemical modeling was used to study to processes occurring in a volcanic aquifer. • Three flow sections were selected to apply inverse hydrogeochemical modeling. • Three main groundwater flows were identified: a local, intermediate and regional flow. • The models show that in the study area that groundwater is mixed with local recharge. • In the south, the aquifer has thermal influence.

  13. Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  14. Estimation of hydrodinamics parameters in a volcanic fractured phreatic aquifer in Costa Rica. Part II. Double porosity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, Julio; Vargas, Asdrubal

    2017-01-01

    MIM 1D transport model was successfully applied to simulate the asymmetric behavior observed in three breakthrough curves of tracer tests performed under natural gradient conditions in a phreatic fractured volcanic aquifer. The transport parameters obtained after adjustment with a computer program, suggest that only 50% of the total porosity effectively contributed to the advective-dispersive transport (mobile fraction) and the other 50% behaved as a temporary reservoir for the tracer (immobile fraction). The estimated values of hydraulic properties and MIM model parameters are within the range of values reported by other researchers. It was possible to establish a conceptual and numerical framework to explain the three-tracer tests curves behavior, despite the limitations in quality and quantity of available field information. (author) [es

  15. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  16. Sicily, Italy Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This transitional shield-to-stratovolcano in northeastern Sicily has released lava flows more than 150 times since activity was first recorded in 1500 B.C.

  17. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  18. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in Sicily: The Role of Environmental Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tavarelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30–40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA.MethodsUsing the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA.ResultsForty-three ATCs were identified in Sicily in the period 2002–2009. In our series only age <70 years at diagnosis (p = 0.01, coexistence with DTC (p = 0.027 and tumor size ≤6 cm (p = 0.012 were significant factors for increased survival at univariate analysis (only age at multivariate analysis. No difference in ATC incidence was found in urban vs rural areas and in iodine-deficient and industrial vs control areas. By contrast, in the volcanic area of Sicily, where DTC incidence is doubled relative to the rest of the island, also ATC incidence was increased. ATC data in Sicily were similar to those reported in the same period in the USA where overall survival rate at 6 and 12 months, however, was smaller.ConclusionThe similar ATC data observed in Sicily and USA (having different genetic background and lifestyle and the increased ATC incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily paralleling the increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer are compatible with the possibility that casual additional mutations, more frequent in a background of increased cell replication like DCT, are the major causes of ATC rather than

  19. The effects of agriculture on the volcanic aquifers of the canary islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, E.; Guerra, J. A.; Jiménez, J.; Medina, J. A.; Soler, C.

    1983-12-01

    Agriculture is a basic economic activity in the Canary Islands, a Spanish region in the Atlantic Ocean, facing the Sahara. The main crops are bananas, tomatoes, and other special ones suitable for exportation. Fertilizers are applied in high quantities on the scarce land available. The relatively good vertical permeability of the soils favors the deep infiltration of irrigation return flows. Water is obtained by an extraordinary net of shaft wells and water galleries, supplemented when possible by surface reservoirs in the deep gullies. Water is distributed by an extensive network of pipes and canals, allowing the transportation of water to virtually any point from any water source. Water quality is widely variable, from almost rain water to brackish, with a high frequency of sodium bicarbonate types. Return flows, especially when water is applied with good irrigation techniques and the original quality is poor, are saline and contain chemicals leached from the fertilizers. On Tenerife Island, most of the return flows go to coastal aquifers, while most of the water comes from high-altitude water galleries. Agricultural pollution is not generally appraised, but it exists. It can be masked by the frequent, high natural nitrate content in groundwater. On Gran Canaria Island, since water comes mainly from deep shaft wells near the irrigated areas, the nitrate pollution is much more clear. On La Palma Island, besides the nitrate pollution, a potassium pollution of agricultural origin has been mentioned. Other situations on the remaining islands are also discussed. It can be concluded that agriculture is a big concern for the water quality in many areas and impairs its suitability for other uses. Because of the great depth of the water table, the nitrate pollution may not become obvious for many years, especially for the deep-water galleries.

  20. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  1. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  2. Assessing hydraulic connections across a complex sequence of volcanic rocks - Analysis of U-20 WW multiple-well aquifer test, Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Reiner, Steven R.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic property estimates of rocks and structures in this flow system are necessary to assess radionuclide migration near underground nuclear testing areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a 12 month (October 1, 2008— October 1, 2009) intermittent pumping schedule of well U-20 WW and continuously monitored water levels in observation wells ER-20-6 #3, UE-20bh 1, and U-20bg as a multi-well aquifer test to evaluate hydraulic connections across structural blocks, bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks, and the hydraulic significance of a major fault. Measured water levels were approximated using synthetic water levels generated from an analytical model. Synthetic water levels are a summation of environmental water-level fluctuations and a Theis (1935) transform of the pumping signal from flow rate to water-level change. Drawdown was estimated by summing residual differences between measured and synthetic water levels and the Theis-transformed pumping signal from April to September 2009. Drawdown estimates were used in a three‑dimensional numerical model to estimate hydraulic properties of distinct aquifers, confining units, and a major fault.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of volcanic rocks in Pahute Mesa using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests, Nevada National Security Site, 2009–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Jackson, Tracie R.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Damar, Nancy A.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Reiner, Steven R.

    2017-01-20

    An improved understanding of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration downgradient from underground nuclear-testing areas at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, requires accurate subsurface hydraulic characterization. To improve conceptual models of flow and transport in the complex hydrogeologic system beneath Pahute Mesa, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests. Single-well aquifer-test analyses provided transmissivity estimates at pumped wells. Transmissivity estimates ranged from less than 1 to about 100,000 square feet per day in Pahute Mesa and the vicinity. Drawdown from multiple-well aquifer testing was estimated and distinguished from natural fluctuations in more than 200 pumping and observation wells using analytical water-level models. Drawdown was detected at distances greater than 3 miles from pumping wells and propagated across hydrostratigraphic units and major structures, indicating that neither faults nor structural blocks noticeably impede or divert groundwater flow in the study area.Consistent hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting drawdown from the 16 multiple-well aquifer tests with an integrated groundwater-flow model composed of 11 well-site models—1 for each aquifer test site. Hydraulic properties were distributed across volcanic rocks with the Phase II Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity distributions spanned more than two orders of magnitude in hydrostratigraphic units. Overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges among units indicated that most Phase II Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model units were not hydraulically distinct. Simulated total transmissivity ranged from 1,600 to 68,000 square feet per day for all pumping wells analyzed. High-transmissivity zones exceeding 10,000 square feet per day exist near caldera margins and extend

  4. Assessment of hydraulic properties of sedimentary and volcanic aquifer systems under arid conditions in the Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalludin, Mohamed; Razack, Moumtaz

    The Republic of Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 inhabitants), located within the Horn of Africa, undergoes an arid climate with an average annual rainfall less than 150 mm. Water resources are provided up to 98% by groundwater. Two types of aquifers are encountered: volcanic and sedimentary aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties, which is necessary for future tasks regarding the management of these aquifers. To this end, a data base consisting of all available pumping test data obtained since the 1960s was compiled. Pumping tests have been interpreted to determine transmissivity. Solely for volcanic aquifers, transmissivity also has been estimated through an empirical relationship using specific capacity corrected for turbulent well losses. The transmissivity of each type of aquifer can span up to four orders of magnitude, pointing out their strong heterogeneity. For the various volcanic rocks, the younger the rock, the higher the transmissivity. The transmissivity of volcanic rocks has therefore decreased in the course of geological time. At present, a much better understanding of the hydraulic properties of these complex aquifers has been obtained, which should enable optimal management of their groundwater resources through the use of numerical modeling. La République de Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 habitants), située dans la Corne de l'Afrique, subit un climat aride avec une pluviométrie moyenne annuelle inférieure à 150 mm. Les ressources en eau sont fournies à plus de 98% par les eaux souterraines contenues dans des aquifères sédimentaires ou volcaniques. Cet article a pour objectif l'évaluation des propriétés hydrauliques de ces aquifères, étape indispensable pour entreprendre par la suite des études en vue de la gestion de ces aquifères. Une base rassemblant les données d'essais par pompage disponibles depuis les années Soixante a d'abord été établie. Les essais par pompage ont été interprétés pour

  5. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  6. Effects of steam-heating processes on a stratified volcanic aquifer: Stable isotopes and dissolved gases in thermal waters of Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, C.; Capasso, G.; Paonita, A.; Favara, R.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. The work focuses on a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies. The model is based on the differences in partition coefficients between liquid water and vapor characterizing oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, as well as volcanic gases (CO 2, S species, and HCl). Based on both physical conditions of aquifers identified during drilling campaigns and the composition of the volcanic vapor, mass and enthalpy balances are applied in a multistep process of steam separation and condensation in shallower aquifers. By comparing the model results with measured data, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water meteoric in origin; (ii) the high CO 2 content measured in the fumarolic vapor during 1988-1993 affected the δ18O value of the steam-heated water due to CO 2-H 2O isotope exchange; (iii) the high pCO 2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive enrichment of this gas in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iv) the high Cl - and SO 42-contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed or expected during periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth.

  7. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  8. Crustal structure of Central Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2018-01-01

    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  9. ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

    2010-05-01

    Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-OνDE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with

  10. Soil radon monitoring in the NE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at a fixed location on the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, a high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recent volcanic activity on soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements have been performed since July 2001. While comparison between the trend in in-soil radon concentration and the acquired meteorological series (temperature, humidity and pressure) appear to confirm a general seasonal correlation, nevertheless particular anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics

  11. THE LYGEO-STIPETEA CLASS IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRULLO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basing on literature data and unpublished relevés from Sicily, a survey of the syntaxa belonging to the class Lygeo-Stipetea Rivas-Martínez 1978 is presented. This perennial vegetation is characterized by the dominance of big caespitose hemicryptophytes, and it is widely distributed in Sicily from the sea level up to 1500 m a.s.l. The class is represented in Sicily by two orders, floristically and ecologically well differentiated: Lygeo-Stipetalia, including the sole alliance Moricandio-Lygeion exclusively of clayey substrates, and Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, including five alliances (Hyparrhenion hirtae, Avenulo cincinnatae-Ampelodesmion mauritanici, Thero-Brachypodion ramosi, Bromo-Oryzopsion miliaceae, and Arundion collinae occurring on various substrates. Within the class, 50 associations have been recognized. To support the syntaxonomic proposal, a multivariate numerical analysis, considering literature and personal data, has been performed. Nomenclature, floristic settlement, ecology, syndynamism and chorology are examined for each syntaxon.

  12. Sicily in its Mediterranean geological frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Island of Sicily is generally considered to be the geological link between the North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, in Italy. This comes from a cylindristic meaning and is only partly exact. As a matter of fact, Sicily is essentially Greek; Ionian. Up to Middle Cretaceous time, the Sicilian area was a submerged shoal in the sea or the Panormide area, bordering the Ionian Ocean. This shoal lay between the future North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, forming an intermediate link between the Appenninic, Apulian, Panormian and Tunisian platforms. It was only during the Middle to Upper Cretaceous that the Atlantic and Ligure Oceans merged, making a continuous relationship between the Appenninic, Sicilian and North African sedimentary series. The key time periods are the Permian, Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene periods leading to the formation of the actual Calabro-Sicilian arc. From the Permian to the present, the Sicilian geological history pertains to three oceanic domains: Ionian, Ligurian and Atlantic, of which the Ionian and Ligurian were under the influence of Tethys (Neo and Paleo-Tethys). The Tethysian identity of Sicily constitutes the major aspect of its geological history. However, the European and African plate tectonic movements complicated its structure. During the Middle Miocene subduction, southern Sicily became African, meanwhile its north-eastern part became, in Pliocene time, Maghrebian by accretion. Sicily is thus a truly geological patchwork, but its main section remains Ionian and now constitutes a link between North Africa and the Appennines. With older data, but also by means of recent results, we will replace Sicily in its Mediterranean frame, giving the mean stages of its paleogeographical and then its tectonic evolution. We will review the calabro-sicilian arc evolution from the Oligocene, developing the actual context and recalling the main fundamental play of the Numidian flysch. (Author)

  13. The Byzantine Chant Heritage in Sicily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    historical development, and function as marker of identity among the Arbëreshe community in Sicily. Therefore, the Byzantine chant heritage in Sicily is not an inflexible and static musical tradition, but it envisages a dynamic mode of existence, susceptible to changes, and maintained by interior principles...... of organisation. After five centuries of oral transmission, it still lives, despite, or maybe thanks to the lack of ‘original’ written sources, and it might thus be seen as a multi-layered musical tradition, featuring multiple versions and encompassing a certain degree of melodic heterogeneity....

  14. A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Brancato, Alfonso; Carbone, Serafina; Gresta, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to investigate the structure and composition of the Permo-Triassic basement of the Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel. Comparisons of published data on peridotites and spinels from different geodynamic settings, and new data on Hyblean spinels, reveal the affinity of the Hyblean basement with an ultra-slow spreading oceanic lithosphere, rather than with the Africa continental plate. Similar results derive from volcanic rocks of the studied area, whose Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb ratio hints at their affinity with the MORB-OIB array, even excluding any possible contamination with continental crust lithologies, unlike North Africa lavas. The comparison of He isotopic ratios from Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel highlights their similarity with values measured in fluids emitted from the Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Based on petrologic and geochemical evidence for the oceanic nature of the Permo-Triassic basement in southeastern Sicily, and the occurrence of serpentinized harzburgite xenoliths in Hyblean diatremes, the P-wave velocity model proposed for the investigated area is used to estimate lithospheric pressure, density, degree of serpentinization and magnetic susceptibility also considering both abyssal and ophiolitic serpentinites. The resulting values suggest the presence of peridotites affected by different degrees of serpentinization (35-100 vol.%) ranging to a depth of 8-19 km. As a whole, combined seismic, gravimetric and magnetic data indicate the presence of a marked anomaly at a depth of about 19 km. As a consequence, we consider the Moho discontinuity as a serpentinization front, by fixing the relative top at a depth of 19 km. Our results suggest that the oceanic lithospheric model for southeastern Sicily could be broadened to the Sicily Channel, which is possibly correlated to the adjacent Ionian oceanic basin, inferred as belonging to the Oman-Iraq-Levantine-Sicily seaway.

  15. On the road of dung: hypothetical dispersal routes of dung beetles in the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, M.; Agoglitta, R.; Dawson, H.; Zunino, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analysed dung beetle communities on ten volcanic islands located around Sicily (Italy) to identify the most probable dispersal routes in the colonization of these islands. Assuming two scenarios, we analysed the dung beetle communities through the coefficient of dispersal direction DD2. Our results suggest that dispersal fluxes do not strictly follow the ‘stepping stone’ dynamic. Lipari and Vulcano are the likely core source areas for the north–of–Sicily area. In the Sicily Channel, Linosa appears to have been the main target area with three equivalent fluxes from Tunisia, Sicily, and Malta, while the fauna of Pantelleria resulted from their interchange and proximity to Tunisian fauna. In light of the congruence of our results with the known history of human movements and colonization, we propose a likely human contribution to the genesis of the dung beetle fauna of the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands. (Author)

  16. Vulsino volcanic aquifer in Umbria Region : Hydrogeological survey for the characterization of the presence of arsenic and aluminium and the correct use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fratini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In December 2009 and the first months of 2010, a large water crisis took place in the Orvieto area, because of sudden high concentration of aluminum (Al in the groundwater of the vulsino aquifer. This represents a supply for Orvieto’s population and other near municipalities (about 20,000 people. The contamination had reached values of about 3000 μg/l. Water crisis was made worse because of the expiring, in the same period, as expected, of the derogation of European Commission that allowed Arsenic concentrations above 10 μg/l (up to 50 μg/l. The contamination by Al occurred after intense and persistent rains, that mobilized a large amount of aluminum hydroxides in perched water table, in the form of colloidal particles. The field analysis showed that the potable water catchments are not interested in the same way by the contamination, i.e. the vulsino aquifer was not wholly conditioned by the presence of Al; in addition, in the same period in which the Al contamination occurred, there were no changes in the levels of As in groundwater. This paper shows the study of the complex hydrogeological Vulsino system; the aim is to identify technical solutions for realizing new catchments in order to manage the resource, in qualitative and quantitative terms, replacing/integrating the current equipments, which represent a risk because of the presence of Al and, secondly, As. A numerical flow and transport model was implemented to support the hydrogeological study, that has allowed us to formulate reliable predictions regarding the risk of Al contamination of future new wells.

  17. War and Storm. Treasures from the Sea around Sicily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, D.W.P.; Calis, R.; Kelder, J.; Sofroniew, A.; Tusa, S.; van Beek, R.

    2017-01-01

    Sicily. Island of myths and monsters, meeting place of cultures, hub of naval trade routes, source of artistic inspiration and of great material wealth, and much-coveted strategic location in the Mediterranean. Phoenician and Greek colonists were the first outsiders to settle on Sicily and enjoy the

  18. Behaviour Codes in Sicily. Bypassing the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Blok

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Focused on oral culture in western Sicily, this paper explores informal behaviour codes in their interaction with formal law. State-formation in Italy left people in peripheral areas to forge strategies of self-help and negotiate support from patrons (called “friends”. Ironically, the very networks of clientelism and their attendant behaviour codes further weakened the state’s control over its southern periphery and hindered its economic integration into the national and international economy – which in turn reinforced the impact of informal codes and practices on the working of formal law. The Sicilian case provides an example of the periphery as a locus of innovation.

  19. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  20. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  1. Mount Etna-Iblean volcanism caused by rollback-induced upper mantle upwelling around the Ionian slab edge : An alternative to the plume model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    Volcanism in Sicily (Italy) at Mount Etna (0.5 Ma to present) and the Iblean Plateau (ca. 7.0-1.1 Ma) remains enigmatic, because it is located in close proximity to, but is laterally offset from, the Calabrian subduction zone. Previous work suggests that the volcanism results from a plume or from

  2. Indoor radon survey in Eastern Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, R.; Immè, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Tazzer, A. Rosselli

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radon (Rn-222) and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Nowadays, high radon exposures have been shown to cause lung cancer and many governments all over the world have therefore recommended that radon exposures in dwellings and indoor workplaces should be limited. Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area depending on local geology. This paper presents the results of a long-term survey of radon concentrations carried out from 2005 till 2010 in schools and dwellings of Eastern Sicily, using the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The investigated area shows medium-high indoor radon concentrations, higher than the Italian average of about 70 Bq/m 3 , with peaks of 500 Bq/m 3 or more in buildings near active faults. Fortunately, only a small fraction of the measurements, about 1.5% of total, was found greater than EU and Italian action limits for indoor and workplaces. - Highlights: ► In this paper we report radon monitoring survey carried out in the east Sicily in schools and dwellings. ► The detection methodology was the solid-state nuclear track detector one. ► The work was supported by a national projects financed by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  3. The reuse of regenerated water for irrigation of a golf course: evolution geochemistry and probable affection to a volcanic aquifer (Canary Islands); La reutilizacion de aguas regeneradas para riego de un campo de golf: evolucion geoquimica y probable afeccion a un acuifero volconico (Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Palacios, M. P.; Estevez, E.; Cruz, T.; Hernandez-Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez-Vera, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    Irrigation reuse of treated urban wastewater presents unquestionable advantages, but recently some possible unfavourable effects that need to be studied in the long term have been detected. The Bandama golf course, located at the NE of Gran Canaria, has been selected to develop an integrated study of the affection on a medium-long term, due to it has been irrigated with reused water for more than 30 years. The characterization of irrigation water, soil, soil lixiviate and aquifer functioning has allowed to obtain preliminary conclusions pointing to the importance of the soil nature, the precipitation, the irrigation management and the hydrogeologic conditions in the soil and aquifer response, In the study area, this is complicated for the existence of about 250 m thick unsaturated zone conformed by volcanic materials where water must flow through fractures, making impossible to be sampled. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Climate effects on cork growth in Cork oak plantations in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cork oak (Quercus suber L. is usually dominant in silvopastoral systems in many areas of Sicily, where the trees are debarked periodically for cork production. In spite of the importance of cork and cork oak stands in Sicilian forests and the potential economic scenarios, few research works have been carried out on these systems. Given the importance of cork thickness in cork quality evaluation, the main objective of this work is to study cork growth in cork oak productive stands spread on the north (Nebrodi Mountains and south-east (Iblei Mountains of Sicily. Image analysis techniques were used on cork surfaces of transverse sections of planks to measure cork rings. Dendrochronological analysis was applied to study annual fluctuation on rings growth in relation to various climate parameters in a cork cycle production. Results showed that rainfall, summer drought and temperature are determining factors in controlling cork growth. In siliceous areas of Nebrodi Mountains correlation between cork growth index and rainfall indicates that the rain period from May to September strongly influences phellogen activity. Temperature and water stress indices, on the other hand, show a negative correlation with cork growth. In clay and evolved soils of volcanic plateau of Iblei Mountains January precipitation shows a positive correlation with cork growth index. Also absolute minimum temperature in June and absolute maximum temperature in September show a positive correlation when temperature possibly has influence on phellogen activity during growing season.

  5. Integrated techniques to evaluate the features of sedimentary rocks of archaeological areas of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Sicily includes a great variety of lithologies, giving a high complexity to the geologic landscape. Their prevalent lithology is sedimentary. It is well known that rocks of sedimentary origin, compared with metamorphic and volcanic deposits, can be relatively soft and hence fairly easy to model. Nevertheless, this workability advantage is a drawback for Cultural Heritage applications. In fact, these materials show a high porosity, with pore-size distributions that lead to deterioration through absorption of water. In this paper, several sedimentary rocks used in historical Cultural Heritage items of Sicily, from "Magna Graecia" to nowadays, are classified for mineralogical features, chemical composition, and for porosity. Particularly, some samples collected in quarries relevant to the archaeological sites of 41 Agrigento, Segesta and Selinunte will be considered and characterized using integrated techniques (XRD, XRF, NMR and CT. Data on samples obtained in laboratory will be compared with the relevant values measured in situ on monuments of historical-cultural interest of the quoted archaeological places.

  6. Anisakidae in fishing products sold in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.

  7. New strategic solid waste management in Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is, today, a very critical issue. In spite of all the attempts in order to recovery and to recycle waste, the dump still remains the more followed solution, while only a small part of solid waste is going to be burnt down. But the rubbish dump isn't, actually, an environmentally sustainable solution. In the last years the waste incineration systems with energy recovery are spreading more over the territory, and if on one hand they allow to recover energy, on the other they also generate waste. So the emergency remains and it has to be faced. Today, the waste incineration system with energy recovery seems to be the best solution for this problem. the following article examinates the main strategic aspects of the solid waste management in Sicily after the General Plan of Waste Management application [it

  8. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  9. Seismicity and earthquake risk in western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. COSENTINO

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismicity and the earthquake risk in Western Sicily are here
    evaluated on the basis of the experimental data referring to the historical
    and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in this area (from 1248
    up to 1968, which have been thoroughly collected, analyzed, tested and
    normalized in order to assure the quasi-stationarity of the series of
    events.
    The approximated magnitude values — obtained by means of a compared
    analysis of the magnitude and epicentral intensity values of the
    latest events — have allowed to study the parameters of the frequency-
    magnitude relation with both the classical exponential model and
    the truncated exponential one previously proposed by the author.
    So, the basic parameters, including the maximum possible regional
    magnitude, have been estimated by means of different procedures, and
    their behaviours have been studied as functions of the threshold magnitude.

  10. Ozark Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base and top, the extent, and the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Kansas. The Ozark...

  11. Guarani aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The environmental protection and sustain ability develop project of Guarani Aquifer System is a join work from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay with a purpose to increase the knowledge resource and propose technical legal and organizational framework for sustainable management between countries.The Universities funds were created as regional universities support in promotion, training and academic research activities related to environmental al social aspects of the Guarani Aquifer System.The aim of the project is the management and protection of the underground waters resources taking advantage and assesment for nowadays and future generations

  12. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  13. Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

    1999-08-01

    A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

  14. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  15. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  16. Derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the primary trigger of shallow landslides that can cause fatalities, damage to properties and economic losses in many areas of the world. For this reason, determining the rainfall amount/intensity responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to mitigate the related risk and save lives. Efforts have been made in different countries to investigate triggering conditions in order to define landslide-triggering rainfall thresholds. The rainfall thresholds are generally described by a functional relationship of power in terms of cumulated or intensity event rainfall-duration, whose parameters are estimated empirically from the analysis of historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. The aim of this paper is the derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Sicily, southern Italy, by focusing particularly on the role of the antecedent wet conditions. The creation of the appropriate landslide-rainfall database likely represents one of main efforts in this type of analysis. For this work, historical landslide events occurred in Sicily from 1919 to 2001 were selected from the archive of the Sistema Informativo sulle Catastrofi Idrogeologiche, developed under the project Aree Vulnerabili Italiane. The corresponding triggering precipitations were screened from the raingauges network in Sicily, maintained by the Osservatorio delle Acque - Agenzia Regionale per i Rifiuti e le Acque. In particular, a detailed analysis was carried out to identify and reconstruct the hourly rainfall events that caused the selected landslides. A bootstrapping statistical technique has been used to determine the uncertainties associated with the threshold parameters. The rainfall thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 10%, were defined in terms of cumulated event rainfall, E, and rainfall duration, D. The role of rainfall prior to the damaging events was taken into account by including in the analysis

  17. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  18. The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Mariangela

    2008-01-01

    Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine

  19. Integration of geophysical datasets by a conjoint probability tomography approach: application to Italian active volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We expand the theory of probability tomography to the integration of different geophysical datasets. The aim of the new method is to improve the information quality using a conjoint occurrence probability function addressed to highlight the existence of common sources of anomalies. The new method is tested on gravity, magnetic and self-potential datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Vesuvius (Naples, and on gravity and dipole geoelectrical datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily. The application demonstrates that, from a probabilistic point of view, the integrated analysis can delineate the signature of some important volcanic targets better than the analysis of the tomographic image of each dataset considered separately.

  20. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  1. Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.

  2. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  3. NEW BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC DATA FROM THE REITANO FLYSCH AUCT. (SICILY, ITALY: A KEY TO A REVISED STRATIGRAPHY OF THE SICILIDE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANO TORRICELLI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of palynomorphs and calcareous nannofossils recovered from the volcano-arenitic succession outcropping at Troina and Cerami (Sicily documents Rupelian assemblages comparable to those published for the Tusa Tuffite. This new evidence, combined with petrographic, geochemical and sedimentological affinities documented in the literature, eventually proves the genetic relationships between these units. Accordingly, the new name Troina-Tusa Formation is proposed to include all these lower Oligocene volcano-sedimentary units and to replace inappropriate names formerly used. The Troina-Tusa Formation conformably lies on a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate turbidite succession, lacking volcanic detritus, reported in the literature with different names (Polizzi Formation, Varicoloured Shales, Troina-Tusa Flysch and different ages (ranging from Eocene to Early Miocene. Palynomorphs and nannofossils recovered from its uppermost part, indicate an earliest Oligocene age. The denomination Polizzi Formation is recommended for this unit that includes also the Varicoloured Shales (Eocene-basal Oligocene. The appearance of conglomerates and volcano-arenites in the basal portion of the Troina-Tusa Formation, immediately above the top of the Polizzi Formation, marks a sudden reorganization of the Rupelian depositional systems related to the rise and erosion of a volcanic belt. Apparently, no biostratigraphically detectable hiatus is associated to this boundary. Differences in the composition of sandstones, sedimentary features and relationships with the substratum do exist between the ‘internal’ Reitano Flysch, outcropping in the type-area on the northern slope of the Nebrodi Mountains, and the volcano-arenitic successions of Cerami and Troina, reported by some authors as ‘external’ Reitano Flysch. These differences are widely documented in the literature, where the ‘internal’ Reitano Flysch is shown to lack volcanic detritus and to rest

  4. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian

  5. Mediterranean salt giants beyond the evaporite model: The Sicily perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo Manuella, Fabio; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Hovland, Martin; Johnsen, Hans-Konrad; Rueslåtten, Håkon

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean salt giants, occurring both in sub-seafloor and in onshore settings (the "Gessoso Solfifera Group"), are traditionally explained by repeated cycles of desiccation and replenishment of the entire basin. However, such hypotheses are strongly biased by mass balance calculations and geodynamic considerations. In addition, any hypothesis without full desiccation, still based on the evaporite model, should consider that seawater brines start to precipitate halite when 2/3 of the seawater has evaporated, and hence the level of the basin cannot be the same as the adjacent ocean. On the other hand, hydrothermal venting of hot saline brines onto the seafloor can precipitate salt in a deep marine basin if a layer of heavy brine exists along the seafloor. This process, likely related to sub-surface boiling or supercritical out-salting (Hovland et al., 2006), is consistent with geological evidence in the Red Sea "Deeps" (Hovland et al., 2015). Although supercritical out-salting and phase separation can sufficiently explain the formation of several marine salt deposits, even in deep marine settings, the Mediterranean salt giant formations can also be explained by the serpentinization model (Scribano et al., 2016). Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites does not involve seawater salts, and large quantities of saline brines accumulate in pores and fractures of the sub-seafloor serpentinites. If these rocks undergo thermal dehydration, for example, due to igneous intrusions, brines and salt slurries can migrate upwards as hydrothermal plumes, eventually venting at the seafloor, giving rise to giant salt deposits over time. These hydrothermal processes can take place in a temporal sequence, as it occurred in the "Caltanissetta Basin" (Sicily). There, salt accumulation associated with serpentinization started during Triassic times (and even earlier), and venting of heavy brines onto the seafloor eventually occurred in the Messinian via the hydrothermal plume mechanism

  6. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  7. Landslide hazard in the Nebrodi Mountains (Northeastern Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubito, A.; Ferrara, V.; Pappalardo, G.

    2005-03-01

    The eastern sector of the Nebrodi Mountains (NE Sicily), a part of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic chain, is characterized by an high landslide hazard. The village of S. Domenica Vittoria, which lies in the area, has been particularly affected by various landslide phenomena, with resulting damage to buildings and infrastructure. The rocks outcropping in the area belong to the Cretaceous Monte Soro Flysch; they consist of an alternation of argillaceous and calcareous beds at the base and argillaceous and quartzarenitic beds at the top. The lithotechnical characteristics of the formation and the steepness of the slopes in the area lead to an elevated instability, as testified by the widespread occurrence of sub-vertical arcuate cliffs (landslide scarps) and sub-horizontal areas (landslide terraces), typical of a landslide-controlled morphology. From a kinematics point of view, the observed phenomena can be referred to multiple rotational slides, flows, and complex landslides, often with a retrogressive development and enlargement. Triggering causes lie principally in the intense rainfalls that determine the decay of the geomechanical properties of the terrain and supply discontinuos groundwater circulation that is evident in seasonal springs. Human activity, such as the construction of roads and buildings on steep slopes and dispersal of water from supply systems and sewers has a significant impact as well. Due to the instability of the area, expansion of the village, which is already limited by the morphological conditions, is made difficult by the high hazard level, especially in the areas at higher elevations, where the principal landslide scarps are located, and even more on the rims of the scarps. Considering the high hazard level, S. Domenica Vittoria has been inserted by the National Geological Service among the sites in Sicily to be monitored by means of a GPS network. The survey carried out along the entire slope hosting the village has furnished the base

  8. Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

    1990-03-01

    RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population.

  9. Helianthemum sicanorum (Cistaceae, a new species from Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brullo, Salvatore Brullo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Helianthemum sicanorum, an endemic species occurring on calcareous marls near Gela (S Sicily, is described and illustrated. Due to its habit and flower morphology, H. sicanorum shows close relationships with H. kahiricum Del., circumscribed to the semi-arid habitats of northern Africa and the Middle East. H. sicanorum is quite rare and localized on steep slopes facing the sea, where it is a member of thermophilous garigues of the Cisto-Micromerietea class.Se describe e ilustra la nueva especie Helianthemum sicanorum,que crece sobre margas calizas cerca de Gela, en el sur de Sicilia.Por su hábito y morfología floral, H. sicanorum está relacionadocon H. kahiricum Del., especie propia de ambientes subdesérticosdel norte de África y Asia Menor. H. sicanorum es muy raro,y está limitado a laderas abruptas que miran al mar, donde creceen garrigas termófilas de la clase Cisto-Micromerietea.

  10. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  11. Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giammanco Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children. Methods Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. Determinants of the attitude towards recommended vaccinations and social influence on the decision-making process were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1,500 selected parents, 81.0% participated in the study. Prior to the survey, the majority of children (97.6% received recommended vaccines. Most parents (74.4% received information about vaccinations from Family Paediatricians, showed a good knowledge about the side effects of the vaccines (73.1%, did not worry about their potential dangerousness (53.0% and would have accepted their children to be vaccinated even if it was not required for day care (84.1%. The majority (79.9% were not disposed to follow the advises of the anti-vaccination movements. Parents' background characteristics, sources of information and social influence were not significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccines for childhood. Conclusions This study suggests that health information by Family Paediatricians is significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccinations.

  12. Volcanism on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  13. New elements for the definition of swords "Thapsos type" from Bronze Age contexts in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Veca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of metal weapons from contexts of southern Italy and Sicily between the half of 15th and the half of 13th century BC. Weapons and related military schemes seem to develop gradually through the definition of standards of technology and function, traditionally associated to the swords of Pertosa Type. The accurate analysis of many specimens from Sicily allowed to make clear the level of relations/differences in the weapons of treated contexts, in order to define the "Thapsos Type", distinct and independent from Pertosa Group

  14. Within-plate Cenozoic Volcanism and Mantle Sources Within The Western-central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.; Siena, F.

    An integrated study of anorogenic basic magmas and entrained mantle xenoliths rep- resents a promising approach for a comprehension of the magmatogenic events occur- ring within the lithospheric mantle in the western-central Mediterranean area. In this contribution we review the geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas and associated peridotite xenoliths from three anorogenic volcanic districts: Pliocene-Quaternary vol- canism of Sardinia; Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism of the Iblean area (eastern Sicily); Paleocene-Oligocene Veneto Volcanic Province. Investigations have been focused on 1) petrological features of parental magmas, which may contribute to infer the com- positional characteristics of mantle sources and to constrain the modes of partial melt- ing; 2) modelling the depletion events and metasomatic enrichments in mantle xeno- liths of the three volcanic districts, as well as the nature of their causative agents. Petrological features and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data, both of lava and xenoliths, indicate that DM+HIMU components distinguish the lithospheric mantle sections of Iblean and Veneto Volcanic Provinces. On the other hand, lavas and xenoliths from Sardinia display a significant different isotopic signature characterised by DM+EM1. Similar geochemical fingerprints, i.e. the significant presence of EM components are gener- ally recorded by mafic lavas and mantle xenoliths from the European Plate, whereas they are not observed in the stable African lithospheric domain.

  15. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  16. Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    One of the major goals of modern volcanology is to set up sound risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard must be managed with reliable estimates of quantitative long- and short-term eruption forecasting, but the large number of observables involved in a volcanic process suggests that a probabilistic approach could be a suitable tool in forecasting. The aim of this work is to quantify probabilistic estimate of the vent location for a suitable lava flow hazard assessment at Mt. Etna volcano, through the application of the code named BET (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008). The BET_EF model is based on the event tree philosophy assessed by Newhall and Hoblitt (2002), further developing the concept of vent location, epistemic uncertainties, and a fuzzy approach for monitoring measurements. A Bayesian event tree is a specialized branching graphical representation of events in which individual branches are alternative steps from a general prior event, and evolving into increasingly specific subsequent states. Then, the event tree attempts to graphically display all relevant possible outcomes of volcanic unrest in progressively higher levels of detail. The procedure is set to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to accommodate it by using past data, and to modify it further by using current monitoring data. For the long-term forecasting, an a priori model, dealing with the present tectonic and volcanic structure of the Mt. Etna, is considered. The model is mainly based on past vent locations and fracture location datasets (XX century of eruptive history of the volcano). Considering the variation of the information through time, and their relationship with the structural setting of the volcano, datasets we are also able to define an a posteriori probability map for next vent opening. For short-term forecasting vent opening hazard assessment, the monitoring has a leading role, primarily

  17. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  18. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  19. Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

    2011-08-01

    Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (μ-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S═O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite

  20. A Byzantine chant collection from Sicily: a collaboration between Copenhagen and Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the collaboration between a collector of the Byzantine chant tradition of Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo) in Sicily, namely fr. Bartolomeo Di Salvo, and the editorial board of the Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, i.e. an institution under the aegis...

  1. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  2. The upper and lower Thvera sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from southern Sicily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, A.A.M. van; Langereis, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed paleomagnetic records of the upper and lower Thvera polarity transitions have been determined from Pliocenc marine marls in southern Sicily. The dominant magnetic mineral is fine grained magnetite. The two transitions have VGP paths following a great circle passing South America and the

  3. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  4. 77 FR 54647 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sicily: Art and Invention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... exhibition ``Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome,'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California from on or about April 3, 2013, until on or about August 19, 2013; and then at the Cleveland Museum of Art in Cleveland, Ohio from...

  5. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  6. Ogallala Aquifer Mapping Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A computerized data file has been established which can be used efficiently by the contour-plotting program SURFACE II to produce maps of the Ogallala aquifer in 17 counties of the Texas Panhandle. The data collected have been evaluated and compiled into three sets, from which SURFACE II can generate maps of well control, aquifer thickness, saturated thickness, water level, and the difference between virgin (pre-1942) and recent (1979 to 1981) water levels. 29 figures, 1 table

  7. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  8. Interannual Variations of Surface Currents and Transports in the Sicily Channel Derived From Coastal Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Fatma; Zakardjian, Bruno; Birol, Florence; Bouffard, Jérôme; Jullion, Loïc.; Sammari, Cherif

    2017-11-01

    A 20 year coastal altimetry data set (X-TRACK) is used, for the first time, to gain insight into the long-term interannual variations of the surface circulation in the Sicily Channel. First, a spectral along with a time/space diagram analysis are applied to the monthly means. They reveal a regionally coherent current patterns from track to track with a marked interannual variability that is unequally shared between the Atlantic Tunisian Current and Atlantic Ionian Stream inflows in the Sicily Channel and the Bifurcation Tyrrhenian Current outflow northeast of Sicily. Second, an empirical altimetry-based transport-like technique is proposed to quantify volume budgets inside the closed boxes formed by the crossing of the altimetry tracks and coastlines over the study area. A set of hydrographic measurements is used to validate the method. The inferred altimetry transports give a well-balanced mean eastward Atlantic Waters baroclinic flow of 0.4 Sv and standard deviations of 0.2 Sv on a yearly basis throughout the Sicily Channel and toward the Ionian Sea, which is fairly coherent with those found in the literature. Furthermore, the analysis allows to quantify the intrusions of Atlantic Waters over the Tunisian Shelf (0.12 ± 0.1 Sv) and highlights two main modes of variability of the main surface waters path over the Sicily Channel through the Bifurcation Atlantic Tunisian Current and Atlantic Ionian Stream systems. Some physical mechanisms are finally discussed with regards to changes in the observed currents and transports.

  9. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  10. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  11. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  12. Groundwater characteristics and problems in volcanic rock terrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.

    1989-01-01

    Volcanic rock formations, each with their own particular hydrogeological characteristics, occur in circumstances that cover a multiplicity of situations. These range from permeable porous rock formations to permeable fissured formations and include all types of intermediate situation between the two. The type of volcanism, distance from the source of emission, age, alteration processes and tectonics are all factors which determine their behaviour. Volcanic formations usually constitute a single aquifer system, even though this may be very heterogeneous and may locally be separated into clearly defined subunits. At times, formations may be hundreds of metres thick and are fairly permeable almost throughout. As a rule, volcanic material does not yield directly soluble salts to the water that flows through it. Mineralization of the water is due to the concentration of rainfall and the hydrolysis of silicates as a result of CO 2 being absorbed from the atmosphere and the ground, or as a result of volcanism itself. Cationic grouping is usually closely correlated to that of the rock formation in which the chemical composition is formed. Most environmental isotope and radioisotope techniques may be used, and at times are of unquestionable value. However, the existence of evaporation in the soil with possible isotopic fractionation, the effects of marked relief, the dilution of dissolved carbon by volcanic carbon and isotopic exchange brought about by volcanic carbon, etc., should be taken into account before valid conclusions are drawn. The paper uses examples taken from existing studies, mainly those being carried out in the Canary Islands (Spain). (author). 98 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  13. American Perceptions of Sicily as a Tourist Destination as Experienced Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Puleo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the ways in which residents in the United States perceive Sicily as a tourist destination based on representations of the island encountered through commercial cinema. Twelve participants viewed trailers or clips of twelve feature films and then rated their impressions of the people, places, activities, and moods of each piece. They then responded to an open-ended question about whether what they saw made them want to go to Sicily. Next, I reviewed each participant’s responses with them to investigate their perceptions further. I mix the findings of this process with insights gleaned from the literature on film-induced tourism as well as from analyses of the films themselves.

  14. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P

    2017-12-05

    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  15. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  16. A comparison of medicinal plant use in Sardinia and Sicily-De Materia Medica revisited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura; Sanna, Francesca; Bonsignore, Leonardo

    2009-01-21

    Written records of oral medical traditions have had significant impact on the development of medicine and the pharmacopoeias. Modern ethnobotanical studies in Europe and the Mediterranean region, however, have so far largely overlooked the richness and accuracy of historic sources and ignored their probable influence on the development of today's local traditional medicines. Here, we explore the common fundament of traditional knowledge for the medicinal plant uses in Sardinia and Sicily by comparing the selection of medicinal species and specific uses with those of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. We use (i) a quantification of citations for medicinal species mentioned in ethnobotanical studies conducted in Sardinia and Sicily (ii) a comparison of the flora and medicinal flora with a chi(2)-test (iii) a binomial approach recently introduced into ethnobotany (iv) a comparison of the most frequently used species with the indications cited in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (v) and a crosscheck of all mentioned species with their appearance in Berendes' translation of De Materia Medica. We identified a core group of 170 medicinal species used on either islands, which accumulate 74% of all citations and are best represented in De Materia Medica. The 15 most frequently used species of both islands demonstrate intriguing parallels for indications with Dioscorides' work. The ethnopharmacopoeia of Sicily and Sardinia are shallow stereotypes of the different editions of De Materia Medica and talking of oral tradition in this respect is a contradiction. The medicinal species of Sardinia and Sicily are largely widespread and common species, including many weeds, which are not facing threat of extinction. Therefore, using traditional medicinal practices as an argument for conservation biology or vice versa is not scientifically sound.

  17. Kawasaki disease in Sicily: clinical description and markers of disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, M.; Corsello, G.; Prinzi, E.; Cimaz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of small and middle size arteries; 15-25 % of untreated patients and 5 % of patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) develop coronary artery lesions (CAL). Many studies tried to find the most effective treatment in the management of resistant KD and to select the risk factors for CAL. Our data are assessed on children from west Sicily, characterized by a genetic heterogeneity. Methods We studied the clinical data ...

  18. Identification of Optimal Mechanization Processes for Harvesting Hazelnuts Based on Geospatial Technologies in Sicily (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sicily is a region located in the southern Italy. Its typical Mediterranean landscape is appreciated due to its high biodiversity. Specifically, hazelnut plantations have adapted in a definite area in Sicily (the Nebroidi park due to specific morphological and climatic characteristics. However, many of these plantations are not used today due to adverse conditions, both to collect hazelnuts and to reach hazel groves. Though a geospatial analysis, the present paper aims to identify which hazelnut contexts can be actively used for agricultural, economic (e.g., introduction of a circular economy and energetic purposes (to establish a potential agro-energetic district. The examination revealed the most suitable areas giving several criteria (e.g., slope, road system, ensuring an effective cultivation and consequent harvesting of hazelnuts and (ii providing security for the operators since many of hazelnut plants are placed in very sloped contexts that are difficult to reach by traditional machines. In this sense, this paper also suggests optimal mechanization processes for harvesting hazelnuts in this part of Sicily.

  19. Meteotsunami ("Marrobbio") of 25-26 June 2014 on the Southwestern Coast of Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander; Tinti, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    A major tsunami-like event, locally known as `marrobbio', impacted the southwestern coast of Sicily on 25-26 June 2014. The event was part of a chain of hazardous episodes in the Mediterranean and Black seas during the last week of June 2014 resulting from an anomalous atmospheric system ("tumultuous atmosphere") propagating eastward over the region. The synoptic patterns and vertical structure of the atmosphere over Sicily at the time of the event indicate that atmospheric wave ducting was responsible for the generation of tsunamigenic air pressure disturbances that produced especially high sea level responses ("meteotsunamis") at certain sites along the Sicilian coast. The strongest sea level oscillations were observed at Mazara del Vallo, where a 1-m meteotsunami bore, propagating upstream in the Mazaro River, was generated. The combined effects of external resonance (Proudman resonance on the western Sicilian shelf) and internal resonant conditions (bathymetric and topographic characteristics of specific sites) were found to be the key factors that caused the meteotsunami (marrobbio phenomenon) on the coast of Sicily and the meteobore at Mazara del Vallo.

  20. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sarno

    Full Text Available Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic

  1. Backprojection of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  2. The groundwater budget: A tool for preliminary estimation of the hydraulic connection between neighboring aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Lotti, Francesca; Paolucci, Vittorio; Mazza, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater management authorities usually use groundwater budget calculations to evaluate the sustainability of withdrawals for different purposes. The groundwater budget calculation does not always provide reliable information, and it must often be supported by further aquifer monitoring in the case of hydraulic connections between neighboring aquifers. The Riardo Plain aquifer is a strategic drinking resource for more than 100,000 people, water storage for 60 km2 of irrigated land, and the source of a mineral water bottling plant. Over a long period, the comparison between the direct recharge and the estimated natural outflow and withdrawals highlights a severe water deficit of approximately 40% of the total groundwater outflow. A groundwater budget deficit should be a clue to the aquifer depletion, but the results of long-term water level monitoring allowed the observation of the good condition of this aquifer. In fact, in the Riardo Plain, the calculated deficit is not comparable to the aquifer monitoring data acquired in the same period (1992-2014). The small oscillations of the groundwater level and the almost stable streambed spring discharge allows the presumption of an additional aquifer recharge source. The confined carbonate aquifer locally mixes with the above volcanic aquifer, providing an externally stable recharge that reduces the effects of the local rainfall variability. The combined approach of the groundwater budget results and long-term aquifer monitoring (spring discharge and/or hydraulic head oscillation) provides information about significant external groundwater exchanges, even if unidentified by field measurements, and supports the stakeholders in groundwater resource management.

  3. Hydrogeological and quantitative groundwater assessment of the Basaltic Aquifer, Northern Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaibani, A.; Abokhodair, Abdulwahab A.; Lloyd, J.W.; Al-Ahmari, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Northern Harrat Rahat consists of 300m basalt lavas covering some 2000 km2 to the south-east of Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia. Like many basalt sequences, the Rahat basalts form an important aquifer and groundwater resource. The aquifer has a saturated thickness of up to 60m and made up of the weathered upper part of underlying basement, pre-basalt sands and gravels and the fractured basalts. Since 1992, groundwater has been abstracted from the aquifer as part of the Al-Madinah water supply. To assess the potential of the aquifer an assessment has been made based on pumping tests of 70 wells. The hydraulic parameters have been shown to be highly variable typical of the fractured domain. The aquifer contains good-quality water in storage, but receives limited recharge. Groundwater temperature anomalies indicate remnant volcanic activity locally. A numerical groundwater model has been constructed, which has been calibrated using limited groundwater head measurements, but with good abstraction records. Prediction of groundwater heads and the examination of several abstraction scenarios indicate that the aquifer can continue to support part of the Al-Madinah demand for the next several years, if certain well distributions are adopted. The predictions also show that the aquifer can only support the total demand of the city for a few days as a contingency resource. (author)

  4. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  5. Chants of the Byzantine Rite: the Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily / Canti Ecclesiastici della Tradizione Italo-Albanese in Sicilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Garofalo, Girolamo

    Chants of the Byzantine Rite: The Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily offers for the first time transcriptions of the full repertory of orally transmitted hymns for the celebration of the Byzantine Rite in Sicily. This little-known chant tradition has without interruption been cultivated by the Al...

  6. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miodrag Jelic

    resistance (ρ); dielectric constant (ε); magnetic permeability (η); electrochemical activity ..... comprises grey sands of different particle size distribution ..... groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in. Bangladesh.

  7. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  8. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  9. Automatic semi-continuous accumulation chamber for diffuse gas emissions monitoring in volcanic and non-volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Norelli, Francesco; Virgili, Giorgio; Continanza, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Since various decades the accumulation chamber method is intensively used in monitoring activities of diffuse gas emissions in volcanic areas. Although some improvements have been performed in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility of the detectors, the equipment used for measurement of gas emissions temporal variation usually requires expensive and bulky equipment. The unit described in this work is a low cost, easy to install-and-manage instrument that will make possible the creation of low-cost monitoring networks. The Non-Dispersive Infrared detector used has a concentration range of 0-5% CO2, but the substitution with other detector (range 0-5000 ppm) is possible and very easy. Power supply unit has a 12V, 7Ah battery, which is recharged by a 35W solar panel (equipped with charge regulator). The control unit contains a custom programmed CPU and the remote transmission is assured by a GPRS modem. The chamber is activated by DataLogger unit, using a linear actuator between the closed position (sampling) and closed position (idle). A probe for the measure of soil temperature, soil electrical conductivity, soil volumetric water content, air pressure and air temperature is assembled on the device, which is already arranged for the connection of others external sensors, including an automatic weather station. The automatic station has been tested on the field at Lipari island (Sicily, Italy) during a period of three months, performing CO2 flux measurement (and also weather parameters), each 1 hour. The possibility to measure in semi-continuous mode, and at the same time, the gas fluxes from soil and many external parameters, helps the time series analysis aimed to the identification of gas flux anomalies due to variations in deep system (e.g. onset of volcanic crises) from those triggered by external conditions.

  10. landforms evolution in collisional-dominated settings: the case of Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    tilting, which induces synchronously mass elevation and subsidence. Not considering sea-level fluctuations and the climatic-lithologic parameters, the 2D distribution of uplift rate influences the landmass evolution in time. The tendency of rock masses to equilibrium resulting from concurrent tectonic building and denudation forces defines the geomorphic cycle. This evolution is checked by different stages, each characterised by a well-recognisable morphometric patterns. The dominance of uplift or erosion and concurrent block tilting induce characteristic a landform evolution tendency, which may be evaluated with the morphometric analysis. A lot of morphometric functions describe the equilibrium stage of landmasses, providing useful tools for deciphering how tectonics acts in typology (e.g. inducing uplift uniformly or with crustal block tilting) and resulting effects on landforms (magnitude of uplift rate vs tilting rate). We aim to contribute in the description of landforms evolution in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) under different morphoevolutive settings, where may prevails uplift, tilting or erosion, each characterised by different morphometric trends. The present-day elevation of Pliocene to upper Pleistocene deposits suggests that Northen Sicily underwent neotectonic uplift. The recent non-uniform uplift of Northern Sicily coastal sector is suggested by the different elevation of the Pliocene-Upper Pleistocene marine deposits. The maximum uplift rate characterise the NE Sicily and the minimum the NW Sicily. The overall westwards decreasing trend of uplift is in places broken in the sectors where are located a lot of morphostructures. Localised uplift rates higher than the adjacent coastal plains are suggested by the present-day elevation of the beachshore deposits of Tyrrhenian age. Northern Sicily may be divided into a lot of crustal blocks, underwent to different tilting and uplift rates. Accentuate tilting and uplift results from transtensional active faulting

  11. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  12. Branding Sicily as Gastronomically Attractive Destination, viewed by Kempinski Hotel Giardino di Costanza

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinina, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate the opportunity of destination brand-ing through the tool of its gastronomy. In order to render concrete to the topic I chose a popular destination – Sicily and Sicilian gastronomy. It is a fact that the theme of gastronomic direction in tourism and the role of gastronomy in des-tination branding is not developed at all. Besides, personally I have been always attracted by gastronomic experiences in tourism. So it was a challenge for my-self to explor...

  13. A new tubeworm of possible serpulid affinity from the Permian of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Sanfilippo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new tubeworm, Palaeotubus sosiensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Permian Pietra di Salomone limestone (Sosio Valley, W Sicily. The new species is characterized by a thick tube ornamented with slightly flared peristomes and numerous longitudinal keels. The internal structure of the tube was obliterated during diagenesis, which prevents the tube unequivocal systematic attribution. Nevertheless, all preserved morphological characters strongly suggest that the new tube belongs to serpulids. When confirmed by further findings, the positive attribution of this new species to serpulids will imply that it represents the ancestor of the Serpulidae, and the earliest evidence of calcareous tubeworm polychaetes from the Palaeozoic.

  14. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  15. Diversity and flight activity of Staphylinidae in a citrus orchard of the Catania Plain (Sicily)

    OpenAIRE

    Adorno, Antonio Salvatore Maria

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the diversity and flight activity of Staphylinidae in a citrus orchard of the Catania Plain (Sicily) using different sampling methods (car-net, window traps and pit-fall traps). The study looks at the complex of flying rove beetles with the aim of defining preliminarily the faunistic and zoogeographical structure of this family in the study area. A second aim of the study is to investigate, using window-traps and pit-fall traps, the spatial distribution ...

  16. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  17. Israeli Spotted Fever in Sicily. Description of two cases and minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Colomba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF is endemic in Italy, where Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii was thought to be the only pathogenic rickettsia and Rhipicephalus sanguineus the vector and main reservoir. R. conorii subsp. israelensis, which belongs to the R. conorii complex, is the agent of Israeli spotted fever (ISF; apart from Israel, it has also been found in Italy (Sicily and Sardinia and in different regions of Portugal. We describe here two severe cases of ISF which occurred in otherwise healthy Italian adults. Their characteristics are analyzed and discussed in the light of other 91 cases found through a systematic review of international literature.

  18. Ground-based remote sensing of volcanic CO2 and correlated SO2, HF, HCl, and BrO, in safe-distance from the crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Andre; Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Kostinek, Julian; Fieber, Lukas; Fischerkeller, Constanze; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kuhn, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Tu, Qiansi

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing of CO2 enhancements in volcanic plumes can be a tool to estimate volcanic CO2 emissions and thereby, to gain insight into the geological carbon cycle and into volcano interior processes. However, remote sensing of the volcanic CO2 is challenged by the large atmospheric background concentrations masking the minute volcanic signal. Here, we report on a demonstrator study conducted in September 2015 at Mt. Etna on Sicily, where we deployed an EM27/SUN Fourier Transform Spectrometer together with a UV spectrometer on a mobile remote sensing platform. The spectrometers were operated in direct-sun viewing geometry collecting cross-sectional scans of solar absorption spectra through the volcanic plume by operating the platform in stop-and-go patterns in 5 to 10 kilometers distance from the crater region. We successfully detected correlated intra-plume enhancements of CO2 and volcanic SO2, HF, HCl, and BrO. The path-integrated volcanic CO2 enhancements amounted to about 0.5 ppm (on top of the ˜400 ppm background). Key to successful detection of volcanic CO2 was A) the simultaneous observation of the O2 total column which allowed for correcting changes in the CO2 column caused by changes in observer altitude and B) the simultaneous measurement of volcanic species co-emitted with CO2 which allowed for discriminating intra-plume and extra-plume observations. The latter were used for subtracting the atmospheric CO2 background. The field study suggests that our remote sensing observatory is a candidate technique for volcano monitoring in safe distance from the crater region.

  19. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  20. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  2. Analysis of the seismicity of Southeastern Sicily: a proposed tectonic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Barbano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Sicily is one of the Italian regions with high seismic risk and is characterised by the occurrence in the past of large destructive events (MS = 6.4-7.3 over a territory which is densely urbanised today. The main earthquakes were analysed and some minor damaging shocks reviewed to investigate the main seismogenic features of the region. The comparison between the pattern of seismicity and evidence of Quaternary tectonics allowed us to propose a first tentative, tectonic interpretation of the earthquakes. On the whole, the seismicity of SE Sicily seems distributed along regional fault systems which have had a role in the recent geodynamic evolution of the area. The Malta escarpment, the only structure whose late Quaternary-recent activity is currently known, appears the most probable source for earthquakes with about 7 magnitude. Although no evidence of tectonics subsequent to the middle Pleistocene is available for them, the Scicli line and the NE-SW fault system delimiting the northern sector of the Hyblean plateau seem seismically active with events with maximum magnitude of 5.2 and 6.4, respectively.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Spatial Interpolation Methods in the Mediterranean Area: Application to Temperature in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Di Piazza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive comparison among different spatial interpolation algorithms was carried out in order to derive annual and monthly air temperature maps for Sicily (Italy. Deterministic, data-driven and geostatistics algorithms were used, in some cases adding the elevation information and other physiographic variables to improve the performance of interpolation techniques and the reconstruction of the air temperature field. The dataset is given by air temperature data coming from 84 stations spread around the island of Sicily. The interpolation algorithms were optimized by using a subset of the available dataset, while the remaining subset was used to validate the results in terms of the accuracy and bias of the estimates. Validation results indicate that univariate methods, which neglect the information from physiographic variables, significantly entail the largest errors, while performances improve when such parameters are taken into account. The best results at the annual scale have been obtained using the the ordinary kriging of residuals from linear regression and from the artificial neural network algorithm, while, at the monthly scale, a Fourier-series algorithm has been used to downscale mean annual temperature to reproduce monthly values in the annual cycle.

  4. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) bioindicator of lead and copper pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccari, C; Giangrosso, G; Macaluso, A; Billone, E; Cicero, A; D'Ascenzi, C; Ferrantelli, V

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Pb and Cu accumulation in muscle and skin samples of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Sicily, for monitoring of environmental metals pollution. Metals determination, carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), showed the presence of Pb and Cu in all samples analyzed. Pb concentrations were similar in muscle (0.04±0.009 mg/kg) and skin (0.03±0.004 mg/kg) samples, while Cu levels resulted higher in muscle (1.842±0.178 mg/kg) than in skin (1.22±0.151 mg/kg). In addition, a comparative analysis of Pb and Cu concentrations was carried out among samples from different areas of Sicily and between female and male, young and old, immature and mature foxes. Metals content found in all muscle and skin samples demonstrates that V. vulpes could be a valid "sentinel" species of rural and suburban areas to study the environmental metals pollution and the habitat quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropogenic Influences in Land Use/Land Cover Changes in Mediterranean Forest Landscapes in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato S. La Mela Veca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and quantifies the land use/land cover changes of the main forest and semi-natural landscape types in Sicily between 1955 and 2012. We analyzed seven representative forest and shrubland landscapes in Sicily. These study areas were chosen for their importance in the Sicilian forest panorama. We carried out a diachronic survey on historical and current aerial photos; all the aerial images used to survey the land use/land cover changes were digitalized and georeferenced in the UTM WGS84 system. In order to classify land use, the Regional Forest Inventory 2010 legend was adopted for the more recent images, and the CORINE Land Cover III level used for the older, lower resolution images. This study quantifies forest landscape dynamics; our results show for almost all study areas an increase of forest cover and expansion, whereas a regressive dynamic is found in rural areas due to intensive agricultural and pasturage uses. Understanding the dynamics of forest landscapes could enhance the role of forestry policy as a tool for landscape management and regional planning.

  6. Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, Marco; D'Alberti, Vincenzo; Franzitta, Vincenzo; Columba, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, and civil and industrial users have been stored in the GIS to define potential areas for gathering the residues coming from the pruning of olive groves, vineyards, and other agricultural crops, and to assess biomass available for energy cultivation. Further, it was possible to assess the potential of biodiesel production, supposing the cultivation of rapeseed in arable crop areas. For the biomass used for direct combustion purposes, the economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass and comparing it with other fuels. This assessment has shown the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in an efficient way. Moreover, the economic potential of biodiesel was assessed considering the on-going financial regime for fuel. At the same time, the study has shown a significant competitiveness of the finished biomass (pellets), and good potential for a long-term development of this market. An important result was the determination of biofuel production potential in Sicily. An outcome of the study was to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System and Rural Development Plan. (author)

  7. A PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTION FOR ESTIMATING THE SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erodibility factor, K, of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE is a simple descriptor of the soil susceptibility to rill and interrill erosion. The original procedure for determining K needs a knowledge of soil particle size distribution (PSD, soil organic matter, OM, content, and soil structure and permeability characteristics. However, OM data are often missing and soil structure and permeability are not easily evaluated in regional analyses. The objective of this investigation was to develop a pedotransfer function (PTF for estimating the K factor of the USLE in Sicily (south Italy using only soil textural data. The nomograph soil erodibility factor and its associated first approximation, K’, were determined at 471 sampling points distributed throughout the island of Sicily. Two existing relationships for estimating K on the basis of the measured geometric mean particle diameter were initially tested. Then, two alternative PTFs for estimating K’ and K, respectively, on the basis of the measured PSD were derived. Testing analysis showed that the K estimate by the proposed PTF (eq.11, which was characterized by a Nash-Suttcliffe efficiency index, NSEI, varying between 0.68 and 0.76, depending on the considered data set, was appreciably more accurate than the one obtained by other existing equations, yielding NSEI values varying between 0.21 and 0.32.

  8. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia Sardinia Sicily area during spring 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammari, C.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Stefani, A.; Brahim, M.

    1999-10-01

    Within the framework of the Tunisian - EC SALTO/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10-20 km sampling interval in April-June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of the Channels of Sardinia and Sicily, and allow reliable specification of the hydrological characteristics of the area. For the first time, and as confirmed by infrared satellite images, these data sets show (i) the large mesoscale variability of the surface flow entering the study area, as expected from the characteristics of the Algerian Current upstream, (ii) the rapid changes it undergoes around northeastern Tunisia, as it shifts roughly from southward to eastward within less than a few weeks. These data also show a large heterogeneity at intermediate levels, clearly associated with waters of very different origins that follow converging routes and mix in both the study area and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. They finally document the fundamental importance of bathymetric features of relatively small scale such as the Skerki passage.

  9. Cropland versus Gariga schrubland on soil organic carbon storage under Mediterranen climatic condition of Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Santoro, A.; Poma, I.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is the largest among the terrestrial pool and it plays a key role to mitigate climate change. The restoration of SOC pool represents a potential sink for atmospheric CO2. Land use is one of the most important factors controlling organic carbon content. The main land uses throughout the Mediterranean are croplands (olive, wheat and vineyards) and scrublands. The land abandonment or the reclamation of land is changing the cover of scrubland and cropland. This will change the carbon cycle. The aim of this work is determining the direction and magnitude of soil organic change associated with land use change under Mediterranean Climatic Conditions. Using both historic record and land cover crop maps we estimated the effect of land cover change on the stock carbon from 1972 to 2008 in Sicily. A system of paired plots was established on Mollic Gypsiric cambisol and Gypsiric cambisol on agriculture and rangeland land uses. The study sites were selected at the natural reserve "Grotta di S. Ninfa", in the West of Sicily. Soil samples (24) were taken at 20 and 40 cm depth, air dried and sieved at 2 mm. Dry aggregate size fractions selected were >1000 µm, 1000-500 µm, 500-250 µm, 250-63 µm, 63-25 µm and <25 µm. The results show that gariga increase the organic matter in soil, mainly on the organic horizon. Key worlds: Land use change, Soil organic Carbon , Mediterranean, aggregates, gariga, cropland.

  10. Low incidence of psychosis in Italy: confirmation from the first epidemiological study in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuccio, V.; Fearon, P.; Ferraro, L.; Kirkbride, J.B.; La Cascia, C.; Sartorio, C.; Seminerio, F.; Tripoli, G.; Di Forti, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of psychotic disorders varies in different geographical areas. As there have been no reports from Southern Italy, this study aimed to determine the incidence rate of first episode psychosis in Palermo, Sicily. Methods All patients, aged 18-65 years, presenting with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) (ICD-10 F20-F29, F30-F33) to mental health services in Palermo, were recorded over a 3-year period. Incidence rates of psychotic disorders and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Poisson regression was applied to estimate the differences in incidence rate ratio (IRR) by age, sex and migrant status. Results Two hundred and four FEP participants were identified during the three years; 183 (89.7%, males n=112) participants were native Italians and 21 were migrants (10.3%, males n=14). The crude incidence of all psychoses was 15.9 (95% CI 13.7-18.1). As predicted, the risk of schizophrenia F20 was higher in males compared to females (adjusted IRR=1.99, 95% CI 1.36-2.88) and in migrants compared to native Italians (adjusted IRR= 4.02, 95% CI 2.39-6.75). Conclusions This study, the first from Sicily, confirms previous findings from Northern Italy that the risk of schizophrenia and other psychoses is much lower in Italian cities than those reported from cities in Northern Europe; the reasons for this disparity may provide important clues to the aetiology of psychosis. PMID:28032136

  11. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  12. The end-Triassic mass extinction: A new correlation between extinction events and δ13C fluctuations from a Triassic-Jurassic peritidal succession in western Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Simona; Rigo, Manuel; Randazzo, Vincenzo; Di Stefano, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    A new δ13Ccarb curve was obtained from an expanded peritidal succession in western Sicily and was used to investigate the relationships between isotopic signatures and biological events on carbonate platforms across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB). The resulting curve shows two main negative carbon isotopic excursions (CIEs) that fit well with the "Initial" and "Main" CIEs that are recognized worldwide and linked to the End-Triassic Extinction (ETE). In the studied section, the first negative CIE marks the disappearance of the large megalodontids, which were replaced by small and thin-shelled specimens, while the "Main" CIE corresponds to the last occurrence (LO) of the megalodontids and, approximately 50 m upsection, to the total demise of the Rhaetian benthic foraminifer community. Upward, the carbon curve shows a positive trend (ca. +1‰) and a gradual recovery of the benthic communities after an approximately 10 m-thick barren interval populated only by the problematic alga Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera. A comparison between the Mt. Sparagio δ13Ccarb curve and other coeval Ccarb and Corg curves from carbonate platform, ramp and deep basin successions indicates similar isotopic trends; however, the diverse magnitudes and responses of benthic communities confirm that the carbon cycle perturbations have been globally significant, and were influenced by external forces such as CAMP volcanism. The multiphase nature of the extinction pulses could have been caused by local environmental changes related to transgression/regression phenomena. Overall, this study adds new data and a new timing to the effect of the acidification process on carbon productivity and benthic communities in different environments across the TJB.

  13. Environmental effects of aquifer overexploitation: a case study in the highlands of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Maria Vicenta; Diaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2002-02-01

    There are several environmental processes occurring under aquifer overexploitation conditions. These processes include groundwater table decline, subsidence, attenuation and drying of springs, decrease of river flow, and increased pollution vulnerability, among others processes. Some of these effects have been observed on the Upper Basin of the Lerma River. The Lerma River begins in the SE of the Valley of Toluca at 2,600 m asl, in the wetland known as Lagoons of Almoloya del Río. This wetland is made up of a group of lagoons, which are an important aquatic system from an environmental point of view. The water inflow of this wetland is a discharge of springs, which occur between the fractured volcanic material of the mountain range and granular volcanic-continental deposits of the Valley of Toluca aquifer. The intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer to supply urban and industrial water to Mexico City and Toluca began in 1950 and is responsible for a steady decline of piezometric levels of 1-3.5 m/yr. Other effects of this exploitation--the drying of the wetland, the decrease of river flow and the land subsidence--caused serious ecological and social impacts. The authorities declared this aquifer as overexploited in order to reduce the exploitation and preserve the availability of water resources in this important region.

  14. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  15. aquifer in ajaokuta, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... (1969) straight line method (observation well) of draw-down analysis in an unconfined aquifer (B=1) yield ... April) and a short wet season (May-September). .... DECOMPOSED. GRANITIC ROCK WITH. QUARTZ VEINS. 13.

  16. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  17. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  18. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  19. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  20. Volcanic crisis in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Víctor Manuel Pérez Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of an investigation which is focussed on some deontological aspects of the scientificjournalism. In the first place it gives a theoretical vision about science, journalism, internet and including some reflectionsabout the deontological principles in handling the information about science and technology. This focus is useful as it formsthe base of an investigation where we deal with the information about a possible ”volcanic crisis” in El Teide during the years2004-2005 done by the digital newspaper” El Dïa” a canarian newspaper from Tenerife. The work required the revision of theinformation which was published and a followed analysis of its context. It was used the digital version with the purpose ofvisualizing the news which was published. It was also compared with a printed version, with local cover but divulged theinformation to the public who was most affected by this particular news. The results give rise to some questions regardinghow the information is given to a topic which is of local interest as well as national and international interest due to therepercussions in the social, economical and tourist field (the tourist field is the main industrial sector in Tenerife by receivingthis type of news.

  1. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    has been applied also on the scientific output of MED-SUV WP6, as a tool for the short-term probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment. For the Campi Flegrei volcanic system, the expected tool has been implemented to compute hazard curves, hazard maps and probability maps for tephra fallout on a target grid covering the Campania region. This allows the end user to visualize the hazard from tephra fallout and its uncertainty. The response of end-users to such products will help to determine to what extent end-users understand them, find them useful, and match their requirements. In order to involve also Etna area in WP6 TASK 3 activities, a questionnaire developed in the VUELCO project (Volcanic Unrest in Europe and Latin America) has been proposed to Sicily Civil Protection officials having decision-making responsibility in case of volcanic unrest at Etna and Stromboli, to survey their opinions and requirements also in case of volcanic unrest

  2. Occurrence of aflatoxins in feedstuff, sheep milk and dairy products in Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Finoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of feedstuffs (15, milk (40, and cheese (30 coming from sheep and dairy farms (23 or market in WesternSicily were analyzed for their respective content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and M1 (AFM1 to evidence any possible indirectmycotoxin contamination risk to the consumer. Analyses using HPLC and fluorescence detection were performed afterimmunoaffinity column sample extraction and cleanup; AFM1 was detected in 30% of the milk samples at levels rangingfrom 4 to 23 ng/l and in 13% of the cheeses from 21 to 101 ng/kg; in the feed the AFB1 ranged from None of the contaminated samples exceeded the legal limits set down by the European Union for milk (50 ng/l and feed(5 μg/kg , or that in force in the Netherlands for cheese (200 ng/kg.

  3. Land-estimation questions in improvement of the Trazzera’s regional property in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giuffrida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The “demanio trazzerale” (herd way regional property in Sicily constitutes a significant quota of the territorial social capital, due to its historical and cultural origin.A recent law draft considers its new and diverse potentiality to be assumed in the re-planning of the territory at inter-municipal scale, but some criticalities concern the calculation of the legitimization corresponding sale price.The contribution provides appraisal tools for: the legitimizations in urban areas, with a valuation model of the fair market value; b the valuation of the territorial value of a “trazzera”, in order to select the ones more suitable to be included within a recovery land plan for a new and different territorial policy, which the administration will have to undertake if the law draft is validated.

  4. PROPOTAMOCHOERUS SP. (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF GRAVITELLI (MESSINA, SICILY, ITALY REDISCOVERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANNI GALLAI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two casts of a suid from the Late Miocene of Gravitelli (Messina, Sicily, originally described by Seguenza in 1902. The entire Gravitelli faunal collection was lost in the early 1900¡¦s. The recent rediscovery of two casts in the collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Florence represent the only available material from this locality (in addition to the original description and illustration by Seguenza. The study of these casts allow a revision of the Gravitelli suid and its attribution to the genus Propotamochoerus. Although a specific determination is not possible, we suggest probable affinities with the species P. hysudricus or P. provincialis.

  5. Diagnostics pre and post Conservation on a 14th Century Gilded Icon from Taormina, Sicily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Antonino; Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Cristaudo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the pre and post conservation diagnostics of a 14th century icon, the Virgin with the Child and a Saint, by an unknown author, belonging to the Library of Taormina, Sicily. A set of non­invasive imaging techniques for the investigation of the small painting was applied before...... and after the restoration treatment. The methods used included technical photography (UV Fluorescence, UV Reflected, Infrared, Infrared False Color, and Infrared Fluorescence), Infrared Reflectography (IRR), Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) and two spectroscopic imaging techniques, Terahertz Time...... been tested by THz­TDI, imaging the support­primerpaint interfaces. This study is a valid example of the application of non­invasive imaging methods before and after the conservation treatment of a work of art....

  6. Components from the Essential oil of Centaurea aeolica Guss. and C. diluta Aiton from Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Jemia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from florets, leaves and stems and branches of Centaurea aeolica Guss. harvested in Lipari, Sicily, Italy, were analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were β-eudesmol, caryophyllene oxide, ( E -12-norcaryophyll-5-en-2-one and hexahydrofarnesylacetone in flowers, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, 2-methyloctadecane and tricosane in the leaves and hexadecanoic acid , caryophyllene oxide and β-eudesmol in the stems and branches . The analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea diluta Aiton gave mainly fatty acids and derivatives, the main ones being hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester.

  7. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility: a test for the Mili catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, G.; Amato, G.; Bonasera, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performances of the presence-only approach, Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment (Sicily, Italy). This catchment underwent several meteorological stresses

  8. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  9. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco-Roman land use and fire. Ostracode valve geochemistry (Sr/Ca, δ18O) suggests significant changes in early vs. late Holocene hydrochemistry, either as changes in salinity or in the seasonality of precipitation. Harmonizing the autecological and geochemical data from Gorgo Basso suggests the latter was more likely, with relatively more late Holocene precipitation falling during the spring, summer, and fall, than winter compared to the early Holocene. Our ostracode-inferred paleosalinity data indicate that moisture availability did not decline during the late Holocene in the central Mediterranean region. Instead, moisture availability was lowest during the early Holocene, and most abundant during the late Holocene.

  10. A molecular survey of Rickettsia felis in fleas from cats and dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Giudice

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily. Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51% collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49% on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%, 12 from dogs (32.43% and 22 (22.68% from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR, confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42 were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13 and 48.28% of cats (14/29. It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites.

  11. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  12. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  13. Subaqueous volcanism in the Etnean area: evidence for hydromagmatic activity and regional uplift inferred from the Castle Rock of Acicastello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, R. A.; Cristofolini, R.

    2000-01-01

    The subalkaline rocks outcropping at the Acicastello Castle Rock, Catania, Sicily, and on its abrasion platforms, are related to the oldest Etnean volcanism (500-300 ka; [Gillot, P.Y., Kieffer, G., Romano, R., 1994. The evolution of Mount Etna in the light of potassium-argon dating. Acta Vulcanol. 5, 81-87.]). Here, submarine lavas with pillows closely packed onto each other are associated with heterogeneous and poorly sorted volcaniclastic breccia levels with sub-vertical sharp boundaries. The present-day attitude was previously interpreted as due to a local tilt [Di Re, M., 1963. Hyaloclastites and pillow-lavas of Acicastello (Mt. Etna). Bull. Volcanol. 25, 281-284.; Kieffer, G., 1985. Evolution structurale et dynamique d'un grand volcan polygenique: stades d'edification et activitè actuelle de l'Etna (Sicile). Clermont Ferrand IIDoctorat Etat Tesi, Clermont Ferrand II.], or to the seaward sliding of the entire eastern Etnean flank [Borgia, A., Ferrari, L., Pasquarè, G., 1992. Importance of gravitational spreading in the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mount Etna. Nature 357, 231-235.], on the assumption of originally horizontal boundaries. On the contrary, our observations do not match the hypothesis of a significantly tilted succession and lead us to conclude that, apart from the strong regional uplift, the present Castle Rock exposure did not suffer any substantial change of its attitude.

  14. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Dillon, P; Toze, S; Sidhu, J P S

    2010-01-01

    In this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during Aquifer Storage Transfer Recovery (ASTR) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology. The ASTR project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. In this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter respectively based on pathogen diffusion chamber results. The aquifer treatment barrier was found to vary in importance vis-à-vis the pre-treatment via a constructed wetland and potential post-treatment options of UV-disinfection and chlorination for the reference pathogens. The risk assessment demonstrated that the human health risk associated with potable reuse of stormwater can be mitigated (disability adjusted life years, DALYs aquifer is integrated with suitable post treatment options into a treatment train to attenuate pathogens and protect human health.

  16. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  17. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  18. Craft dynasties as a historiographical dilemma for the architecture of south-oriental Sicily in the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rosario Nobile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the case of the documented beginnings of a dynasty of master builders (in south-east Sicily in the mid 16th century: the Odierna family. The brevity and incompleteness of the sources lead to an initial, superficial interpretation; a simple artisan dimension with little real information. However, it requires an additional - deeper interpretation to grasp the true picture - of the first modern age of the Island. After the 1542 earthquake, a multi-disciplinary study of the surviving monuments, of the patrons and of the relations with the other artists reveal a moment of particular activity in the area, enriched by the still mysterious but talented “external” presences.  Keywords: Sicily, master builders, 16tn century, Odierna family

  19. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  20. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment, Tigray, ... using geological and hydrogeological methods in Ellala catchment (296.5km. 2. ) ... Current estimates put the available groundwater ... Aquifer characterization takes into.

  1. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System) for Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella; Gueli, Roberto; Basile, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System), specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF). The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA) model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall-streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall-runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall-runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015) have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002-2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall threshold models to produce

  2. Craft dynasties as a historiographical dilemma for the architecture of south-oriental Sicily in the 16th century

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rosario Nobile

    2016-01-01

    The essay examines the case of the documented beginnings of a dynasty of master builders (in south-east Sicily in the mid 16th century): the Odierna family. The brevity and incompleteness of the sources lead to an initial, superficial interpretation; a simple artisan dimension with little real information. However, it requires an additional - deeper interpretation to grasp the true picture - of the first modern age of the Island. After the 1542 earthquake, a multi-disciplinary study of the su...

  3. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  4. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  5. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  6. THE CLASS QUERCO-FAGETEA SYLVATICAE IN SICILY: AN EXAMPLE OF BOREO-TEMPERATE VEGETATION IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brullo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the class Querco-Fagetea sylvaticae in Sicily, based on literature data and unpublished relevés, is presented. This class groups the mesophilous woods characterized by the dominance of deciduous trees (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Quercus sp. pl., Acer sp. pl., and more rarely by conifers (Taxus baccata, Pinus nigra subsp. calabrica, as well as by other broadleaved trees, such as Betula aetnensis, Populus tremula, Castanea sativa. In Sicily, these woody communities are widespread in the northern and north-eastern districts of the island, chiefly on the highest peaks (Madonie, Nebrodi, Peloritani, and Etna. This class is represented in Sicily by two, both floristically and ecologically well differentiated orders: Fagetalia sylvaticae, with the sole alliance Geranio versicoloris-Fagion sylvaticae, and Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, with the endemic alliance Pino calabricae-Quercion congestae. On the whole, 22 associations have been recognized within the class Querco-Fagetea and for each of them nomenclature, floristic assessment, ecology, syndinamic relationships, and chorology are examined.

  7. Perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among teachers and high school and college students in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Teresa; Quattropani, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    The study was aimed at investigating perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among college students of the University of Messina in Sicily (Italy), high school students, and teachers from Sicily in order to structure health educational programs to remediate inadequate knowledge and stigma about epilepsy. Participants in this study consisted of 932 subjects (571 males, 361 females) aged between 13 and 63 years old (M 21.75 ± 8.7): 571 college students aged between 18 and 35 years old (M 21.54 ± 2.59), 62 teachers aged between 38 and 63 years old (M 51.18 ± 6.27), and 299 high school students aged between 13 and 19 years old (M 16.05 ± 1.67). Measures were two anonymous questionnaires to collect sociodemographic information and to assess knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perception of epilepsy. Analyses were performed with descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, frequency counts, and percentages) and Mann-Whitney U-test nonparametric for two independent samples. This study provides general information about psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Sicily which provides the basis for further studies and the development of interventions to eliminate prejudices against persons with epilepsy and related myths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Nicot, J.P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3-164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ≥ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2-43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman's ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO 2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ 2 H: -65 to -27; δ 18 O: -9.1 to -4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying Triassic Dockum aquifer. Mobilization

  9. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Nicot, J.-P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3–164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ⩾ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2–43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman’s ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ2H: −65 to −27; δ18O: −9.1 to −4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying

  10. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei

  11. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  12. Tsunami vulnerability analysis in the coastal town of Catania, Sicily: methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Sara; Tonini, Roberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Catania lies on the eastern coast of Sicily and is one of the most important towns in Sicily as regards history, tourism and industry. Recent analyses conducted in the frame of the project TRANSFER have shown that it is exposed not only to tsunamis generated locally, but also to distant tsunamis generated in the western Hellenic arc. In the frame of the European project SCHEMA different scenarios covering local sources such as the 11 January 1693 event and the 1908 case as well as remote sources such as the 365 AD tsunami have been explored through numerical modelling in order to assess the vulnerability of the area to tsunami attacks. One of the primary outcomes of the scenario analysis is the quantification of the inundation zones (location, extension along the coast and landward). Taking the modelling results on flooding as input data, the analysis has focussed on the geomorphological characteristics of the coasts and on the buildings and infrastructure typology to make evaluation of the vulnerability level of the Catania area. The coast to the south of the harbour of Catania is low and characterized by a mild slope: topography reaches the altitude of 10 m between 300-750 m distance from the shoreline. Building density is low, and generally tourist structures prevail on residential houses. The zone north of the harbour is high-coast, with 10 m isoline usually close to the coastline, and little possibility for flood to penetrate deep inland. Here there are three small marinas with the corresponding services and infrastructure around, and the city quarters consists of residential buildings. Vulnerability assessment has been carried out by following the methodology developed by the SCHEMA consortium, distinguishing between primary (type and material) and secondary criteria (e.g. ground, age, foundation, orientation, etc.) for buildings, and by adopting a building damage matrix, basically depending on building type and water inundation depth. Data needed for such

  13. Kawasaki disease in Sicily: clinical description and markers of disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Maria Cristina; Corsello, Giovanni; Prinzi, Eugenia; Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-11-02

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of small and middle size arteries; 15-25 % of untreated patients and 5 % of patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) develop coronary artery lesions (CAL). Many studies tried to find the most effective treatment in the management of resistant KD and to select the risk factors for CAL. Our data are assessed on children from west Sicily, characterized by a genetic heterogeneity. We studied the clinical data of 70 KD Sicilian children (36 males: 51 %; 34 females: 49 %), analysed retrospectively, including: demographic and laboratory parameters; echocardiographic findings at diagnosis, at 2, 6 and 8 weeks, and at 1 year after the onset of the illness. Forty-seven had Typical KD, three Atypical KD and twenty Incomplete KD. Age at the disease onset ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 years. IVIG were administered 5 ± 2 days after the fever started. Defervescence occurred 39 ± 26 hours after the first IVIG infusion. Fifty-six patients (80 %) received 1 dose of IVIG (responders); 14 patients (20 %) had a resistant KD, with persistent fever after the first IVIG dose (non responders). Ten (14 %) non responders responded to the second dose, 4 (5 %) responded to three doses; one needed treatment with high doses of steroids and Infliximab. Cardiac involvement was documented in twenty-two cases (eighteen with transient dilatation/ectasia, fifteen with aneurysms). Pericardial effusion, documented in eleven, was associated with coronaritis and aneurysms, and was present earlier than coronary involvement in seven. Hypoalbuminemia, D-dimer pre-IVIG, gamma-GT pre-IVIG showed a statistically significant direct correlation with IVIG doses, highlighting the role of these parameters as predictor markers of refractory disease. The persistence of elevated CRP, AST, ALT levels, a persistent hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia after IVIG therapy, also had a statistical significant correlation with IVIG doses. Non responders

  14. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  15. Reconsidering Volcanic Ocean Island Hydrology: Recent Geophysical and Drilling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Pierce, H. A.; Lautze, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent results of geophysical surveys and exploratory drilling in Hawaii have suggested that Hawaii's hydrogeology may be more complex than has been generally recognized. Instead of a more-or-less homogeneous pile of highly permeable eruptive basalts that are intermittently punctuated by volcanic dikes confined to calderas and rift zones, we are finding that dike compartmentalization is occurring outside of recognized rift zones, leading to significantly higher volumes of stored groundwater within the island. Analysis of recent geophysical surveys have shown local water table elevations that are substantially higher than can be accounted for by the high hydraulic conductivities of Hawaiian basalts. Recent diamond wireline drilling results have also shown that sub-horizontal variations in permeability, associated with significant changes in eruptive character (e.g. explosive vs effusive activity) are acting as significant perching and confining bodies over significant aerial extents and suggest that these features also contribute to increased storage of recharge. Not only is storage much higher than previously assumed, these features appear to impact subsurface groundwater flow in ways that are not accounted for in traditional methods of computing sustainable yields for near shore aquifers: where buried confining formations extend to depths well below sea level, higher elevation recharge is being intercepted and diverted to deep submarine groundwater discharge well below depths that are typically investigated or quantified. We will provide a summary of the recent geophysical survey results along with a revised conceptual model for groundwater circulation within volcanic ocean islands.

  16. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  17. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  18. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  19. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  20. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  1. Evaluation on changes caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as a natural barrier for the HLW disposal. Literature survey and groundwater observation conducted at Mt. Iwate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is very important in the site characterization for the HLW disposal to understand changes in geochemical performances caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as the natural barrier. The various effects and its magnitude of changes were listed up and were filed from literature surveys of the correlation between volcanic activities and hydrological can geochemical changes (e.g. water temperature, water pressure, water level, dissolved gas concentration of He and Rn, isotopic ratio of He, and chloride concentration) in volcanic aquifer. However, it is difficult to evaluate the magnitude of impacts, which volcanic activities will give to the groundwater environment in the natural barrier, through only the literature surveys. We have started monitoring of groundwater level and changes in groundwater quality, since volcanic activities have enhanced at Mt. Iwate from June in 1998. Judging from variation of isotopic ratio of dissolved He in groundwater, a prompt and sharp signals indicating volcanic activities will easily be found in shallow groundwater and discharged ponds. On the other hands, geochemical conditions in deep groundwater surroundings from some 100 m to 1000 m deep will be very stable, if the area being more than 5 km apart from the volcanic active center. Consequently, our observed results suggest that the groundwater environment which is not directly disturbed by the underground magmatic activities spreads under the area that is connected to trench side of the volcanic front. (author)

  2. Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Cyanotoxins in the Mediterranean: New Data from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugliè, Antonella; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riccardi, Elena; Bruno, Milena; Pigozzi, Silvia; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Satta, Cecilia Teodora; Stacca, Daniela; Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Farina, Pasqualina; Padedda, Bachisio Mario; Pulina, Silvia; Sechi, Nicola; Milandri, Anna

    2017-11-16

    Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses indicated the highest toxicity for A. pacificum strains (total PSTs up to 17.811 fmol cell-1). The PSTs were also assessed in a strain of A. tamarense. The results encourage further investigation to increase the knowledge of toxic species still debated in the Mediterranean. This study also reports new data on microcystins (MCs) and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from a Sardinian artificial lake (Lake Bidighinzu). The presence of MCs and BMAA was assessed in natural samples and in cell cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BMAA positives were found in all the analysed samples with a maximum of 17.84 µg L-1. The obtained results added further information on cyanotoxins in Mediterranean reservoirs, particularly BMAA, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  4. Investigating the Hurst-Kolmogorov behavior of Sicily's climatological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, M.; Lombardo, F.; Mineo, C.

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that many geophysical processesexhibit long-term persistence(LTP, also calledlong-range dependence). Overlooking this type of behaviorcan lead to wrong inferences and false claims about the properties of processes studied in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, meteorology, and engineering. In this light, the present study investigates the statistical properties of precipitation and temperature datasets from Sicily (Italy),in order to analyzethe presence of LTP. The case study region(i.e., the largest island in the Mediterranean)is characterized by typical Mediterranean climate with mild winter and severe drought conditions in summer time. The latter have become one of the most challenging issuesall over the Mediterranean region due to the growth of population, contamination of water supplies, and expansion of agricultural, energy and industrial sectors. The severity and duration of the drought eventsare clearly influenced by the presence of LTP in precipitation and temperature processes. Improving understanding ofsuch phenomenonis therefore central to new research challenges related to the estimation and management of water resources.

  5. FIRST RECORD OF ICHTHYOSAURS IN SICILY(UPPER TRIASSIC OF MONTE SCALPELLO, CATANIA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO DAL SASSO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report for the first time on the presence of ichthyosaurs in Sicily, southern Italy. The deposit of origin (Mufara Formation can be dated to the upper Carnian (Tuvalian substage based on a typical association of ammonites, one of which (Shastites sp. is embedded in the sediment still encrusting one of the bone specimens recently found. The latter consist of two isolated vertebral centra that are referred to the Ichthyosauria thanks to their disk-like shape (i.e. they are much taller than long combined with the amphicelous condition, lack of transverse processes, and presence of rib articulations on the central sides. The largest specimen is more precisely an anterior dorsal vertebra from an adult individual, ascribed to Shastasauridae indet. By the presence of elongated reniform diapophyseal facets, cranially not truncated, and absence of parapophyses. The smaller specimen represents an anterior cervical element from an immature individual of a likely smaller-sized, indeterminate taxon. These finds indicate that the biodiversity of the Monte Scalpello Triassic fauna is higher than previously known, but above all represent the southernmost occurrence of Triassic ichthyosaurs in the western Tethys basin.

  6. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from ass' milk in Sicily: case report, safety and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, F; Passantino, A

    2008-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (Es) infections are likely to involve newborns and infants, causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Contamination of infant formulae milk during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Es has been isolated from environmental sources and from food other than infant formula and milk powder, but why it is associated only with the consumption of infant formulae, is unclear. According to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, Es is considered a microorganisms of greatest concern in infant formulae and follow-on formulae. Es is included between "safety criteria". The isolation of two strains of Es from 50 samples of ass' milk in Sicily is described. The antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates revealed a multiple resistance profile, including fluoroquinolones, commonly used to treat the infections. The authors underline the importance of survey because in Italy ass' milk is considered one of the solutions for infants suffering from hypersensitivity to milk protein of some animal species. There is scarce information about the ecology and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in the children and adults; the authors are concerned that ass' milk could become a high-risk food.

  7. Altimetric signal and three-dimensional structure of the sea in the Channel of Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno; Santoleri, Rosalia; Iudicone, Daniele; Zoffoli, Simona; Marullo, Salvatore

    1999-09-01

    The 1996 Altimeter/Synoptic Mesoscale Plancton Experiment (ALT/SYMPLEX) was specifically designed to perform in situ measurements simultaneous with the passage of TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) and ERS 2 over selected tracks in the central and eastern Sicily Channel. This experiment made it possible to have, for the first time, a validation of altimetry with in situ data over the Mediterranean, where weak dynamics results in a modest sea elevation, rarely exceeding 10 cm. Historical infrared and altimetric satellite data were first analyzed in order to study the variability of the circulation in the area. The comparative and integrative analysis of simultaneous satellite data and in situ measurements permitted investigation of the relation between the altimeter-derived surface topography and the three-dimensional structure of the sea. The Pearson correlation coefficients between altimeter data and dynamic heights along track resulted to be 0.72-0.89 (T/P) and 0.88 (ERS 2) when using conventional repeat track analysis. For T/P, a correlation value of 0.87 was found for time differences computed basing on a collinear analysis technique. This analysis also led to the identification of a strong barotropic component of the velocity field located near the Sicilian continental shelf, where it is responsible for approximately 60% of the signal.

  8. Hydraulic reliability of a horizontal wetland for wastewater treatment in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A; Ventura, D; Cirelli, G L; Aiello, R; Vanella, D; Rapisarda, R; Barbagallo, S; Consoli, S

    2018-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the hydraulic behavior of a horizontal subsurface wetland (HF), that is part of the hybrid wetland (hybrid-TW) of the IKEA® store in Eastern Sicily (Italy), influences the overall wastewater treatment performance. The HF unit experiences frequent overloading peaks due to the extreme variability in the number of visitors at the store, and after 2 years of operation it showed signals of partial clogging at the inlet area. The hydraulics of the HF unit has been monitored through measurements of hydraulic conductivity at saturation (Ks), tracer tests, and geophysical (i.e. electrical resistivity tomography-ERT) measurements carried out during the years 2016 and 2017. Results indicated a general good agreement between the performed measurement techniques, thus their combination, if adequately performed and calibrated, might be a reliable tool for detecting those wetland areas mainly affected by clogging conditions. The results also indicated that partial clogging had no significant effect on the quality of the discharged water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  10. Centenarians and diet: what they eat in the Western part of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasto Sonya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper pays attention to the modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition that might influence life extension and successful ageing. Previous data reported that in Sicily, the biggest Mediterranean island, there are some places where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The present data show that in Sicani Mountain zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in five villages of Sicani Mountains, there were 19 people with an age range of 100–107 years old from a total population of 18,328 inhabitants. So, the centenarian number was 4.32-fold higher than the national average (10.37 vs. 2.4/10,000; the female/male ratio was 1.1:1 in the study area, while the national ratio is 4.54:1. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile with low glycemic index food consumed. To reach successful ageing it is advisable to follow a diet with low quantity of saturated fat and high amount of fruits and vegetables rich in phytochemicals.

  11. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cliffs and quarries in the eastern coast of the Favignana island (Sicily, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Luca; Peloso, Alessandro; Screpanti Tatì, Angelo; Verrubbi, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy) is a historical and environmental attraction site frequented by tourists especially during the long warm season of the year. Over several centuries the sea cliffs constituted by calcareous sandstone outcropping in the east side of the island have been exploited for the production of building stone. Currently the quarries used for the rock extraction as well as the natural cliffs are undergoing extensive erosional and gravitational processes. Besides putting at risk the safety of the people attending the area, the widespread rock falls are likely to threaten sites of great historical and anthropological value that, once destroyed, can no longer be reconstructed. The rock mass quality assessment and slope displacements monitoring of cliffs were conducted with the aim of identifying the most active areas and providing support to the local authorities in the implementation of effective and sustainable mitigation measures. If adequate measures are taken in the future, operators and users of the tourist circuit will have the opportunity to enjoy these amazing sites with a lower landslide risk [it

  13. Mantle ingredients for making the fingerprint of Etna alkaline magmas: implications for shallow partial melting within the complex geodynamic framework of Eastern Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Mantle ingredients responsible for the signature of Etnean Na- and K-alkaline magmas and their relationships with short-term geochemical changes of the erupted volcanic rocks have been constrained through a partial melting model that considers major, trace elements and water contents in the produced liquids. Characteristics of the Etnean source for alkaline magmas have been supposed similar to those of the mantle accessible at a regional scale, namely below the Hyblean Plateau. The assumption that the Etnean mantle resembles the one beneath the Hyblean Plateau is justified by the large geochemical affinities of the Etnean hawaiites/K-trachybasalts and the Hyblean hawaiites/alkali basalts for what concerns both trace elements and isotope systematics. We have modeled partial melting of a composite source constituted by two rock types, inferred by lithological and geochemical features of the Hyblean xenoliths: 1) a spinel lherzolite bearing metasomatic, hydrous phases and 2) a garnet pyroxenite in form of veins intruded into the spinel lherzolite. The partial melting modeling has been applied to each rock type and the resulting primary liquids have been then mixed in various proportions. These compositions have been compared with some Etnean alkaline magmas of the post ∼60 ka activity, which were firstly re-equilibrated to mantle conditions through mass balance calculations. Our results put into evidence that concentrations of major and trace elements along with the water obtained from the modeling are remarkably comparable with those of Etnean melts re-equilibrated at primary conditions. Different proportions of the spinel lherzolite with variable modal contents of metasomatic phases and of the garnet pyroxenite can therefore account for the signature of a large spectrum of Etnean alkaline magmas and for their geochemical variability through time, emphasizing the crucial role played by compositional small-scale heterogeneity of the source. These heterogeneities are

  14. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Matrix Diffusion of Dissolved Organic Carbon Carbon-14 in Southern Nevada Fractured-rock Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyatt [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) is used to estimate groundwater ages by comparing the DIC 14C content in groundwater in the recharge area to the DIC 14C content in the downgradient sampling point. However, because of chemical reactions and physical processes between groundwater and aquifer rocks, the amount of DIC 14C in groundwater can change and result in 14C loss that is not because of radioactive decay. This loss of DIC 14C results in groundwater ages that are older than the actual groundwater ages. Alternatively, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C in groundwater does not react chemically with aquifer rocks, so DOC 14C ages are generally younger than DIC 14C ages. In addition to chemical reactions, 14C ages may also be altered by the physical process of matrix diffusion. The net effect of a continuous loss of 14C to the aquifer matrix by matrix diffusion and then radioactive decay is that groundwater appears to be older than it actually is. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure matrix diffusion coefficients for DOC 14C in volcanic and carbonate aquifer rocks from southern Nevada. Experiments were conducted using bromide (Br-) as a conservative tracer and 14C-labeled trimesic acid (TMA) as a surrogate for groundwater DOC. Outcrop samples from six volcanic aquifers and five carbonate aquifers in southern Nevada were used. The average DOC 14C matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 2.9 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was approximately the same at 1.7 x 10-7 cm2/s. The average Br- matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 10.4 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was less at 6.5 x 10-7 cm2/s. Carbonate rocks exhibited greater variability in

  15. The contribution of cluster and discriminant analysis to the classification of complex aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, G P; Angelopoulou, D; Tzirtzilakis, E E; Giannoulopoulos, P

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an innovated method for the discrimination of groundwater samples in common groups representing the hydrogeological units from where they have been pumped. This method proved very efficient even in areas with complex hydrogeological regimes. The proposed method requires chemical analyses of water samples only for major ions, meaning that it is applicable to most of cases worldwide. Another benefit of the method is that it gives a further insight of the aquifer hydrogeochemistry as it provides the ions that are responsible for the discrimination of the group. The procedure begins with cluster analysis of the dataset in order to classify the samples in the corresponding hydrogeological unit. The feasibility of the method is proven from the fact that the samples of volcanic origin were separated into two different clusters, namely the lava units and the pyroclastic-ignimbritic aquifer. The second step is the discriminant analysis of the data which provides the functions that distinguish the groups from each other and the most significant variables that define the hydrochemical composition of the aquifer. The whole procedure was highly successful as the 94.7 % of the samples were classified to the correct aquifer system. Finally, the resulted functions can be safely used to categorize samples of either unknown or doubtful origin improving thus the quality and the size of existing hydrochemical databases.

  16. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  17. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  18. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  20. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  1. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  2. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  3. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

    1982-10-10

    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  4. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  5. Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A Mannino

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP. Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of

  6. Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness

  7. Volcanic spreading forcing and feedback in geothermal reservoir development, Amiata Volcano, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Allocca, Carmine; Delcroix, Carlo; Micheli, Luigi; Vercellino, Alberto; Grieco, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    -water aquifer) and the rocks of the geothermal field, constitute ideal pathways for water recharge during vapour extraction for geothermal energy production. We think that volcanic spreading could maintain faults in a critically stressed state, facilitating the occurrence of induced and triggered seismicity.

  8. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides minerals were saturated

  9. High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

    Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by

  10. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    permanent displacement potentially induced by an seismic scenario. Such methodologies found on the consideration that the conditions of seismic stability and the post-seismic functionality of engineering structures are tightly related to the entity of the permanent deformations that an earthquake can induce. Regarding the existing simplified procedures among slope stability models, Newmark's model is often used to derive indications about slope instabilities due to earthquakes. In this way, we have evaluated the seismically-induced landslides hazard in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) using the Newmark-like model. In order to determine the map distribution of the seismic ground-acceleration from an earthquake scenario, the attenuation-law of Sabetta & Pugliese has been used, analyzing some seismic recordings occurred in Italy. Also, by evaluating permanent displacements, the correlation of Ambraseys & Menu has been assumed. The seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily has been carried out using GIS application, also considering max seismic ground-acceleration peak distribution (in terms of exceedance probability for fixed time), slope acclivity, cohesion/angle of internal friction of outcropping rocks, allowing the zoning of the unstable slopes under seismic forces.

  11. Aquifer thermal-energy-storage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Lecroy, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    A model aquifer was constructed to simulate the operation of a full size aquifer. Instrumentation to evaluate the water flow and thermal energy storage was installed in the system. Numerous runs injecting warm water into a preconditioned uniform aquifer were made. Energy recoveries were evaluated and agree with comparisons of other limited available data. The model aquifer is simulated in a swimming pool, 18 ft by 4 ft, which was filled with sand. Temperature probes were installed in the system. A 2 ft thick aquifer is confined by two layers of polyethylene. Both the aquifer and overburden are sand. Four well configurations are available. The system description and original tests, including energy recovery, are described.

  12. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  13. Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

  14. Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available Herniation pits (HPs of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA. The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5% adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases.

  15. Water Quality and Soil Natural Salinity in the Southern Imera Basin (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Selvaggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Imera river crosses one of the most arid part of Sicily. The geochemical composition of the river water is due to the solubilization processes of gypsum rocks, which accounts for the particularly low quality of resources in the areas in which the presence of evaporitics deposits is highest. The geochemical composition and hydraulic parameters of river was monitored with the aim of reaching a better understanding of the relationships between litology and water quality. The Imera river is a potential local hydric resource, but seasonal variability of salinity does not allow farmers to use its water. A geochemical monitoring of the Imera river water has been carried out in selected localities integrating a GIS analysis of the river hydrography basin and of the distribution of the evaporitic formation. During 2003 and 2005 we performed four monitoring surveys of water chemicophysical parameters (temperature, pH and electrical conductivity and of the main ionic concentrations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO4 2- . We also installed a multiparameter probe next to the hydrometrical station of Drasi, about 15 km from the river mouth. Such multiparameter probe was used to determine, continuously and simultaneously, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potenzial, water level. The geochemical composition of the water allowed to confirm the results of Roda (1971 and Favara (2000, who pointed out that the main cause of degrade of the Southern Imera river are the salt-rich waters of some tributaries flowing over gypsum rocks and halite deposits. We have been able to identify which specific areas are the main contributors to the degradation of the Imera river.

  16. Environmental concentrations of fibers with fluoro-edenitic composition and population exposure in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Maria Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The town of Biancavilla (Sicily was included in the National Priorities List of Contaminated Sites due to environmental dispersion of amphibole fibers owing to the extraction of materials from a local quarry. The present report summarizes results from several, hitherto unpublished, environmental surveys carried out in the area, as well as from published analyses of the chemistry and composition of fibers. METHODS. Data included here comprises environmental fiber concentrations by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS analysis in soil, indoor and outdoor air, personal monitoring, as well as a chemical characterization of the fibers. The full chemical structure and spectroscopic characterization of fibers were obtained through a multi-analytical approach: SEM-EDS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, as well as Mössbauer (MS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies. RESULTS. Data analyzed provided a spatial and temporal picture of fiber concentrations in Biancavilla, and a qualitative assessment of population exposure. Results suggest that until 2000, the population had been exposed to high levels of amphibole fibers. Mitigation measures adopted since 2001, gradually reduced exposure levels to about 0.10.4 ff/l. Previous studies on fibrous amphiboles from Biancavilla reported considerable chemical variability. Differences in composition, especially concerning the presence of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na, were found both within and between samples. Compared to the previously investigated prismatic fluoro-edenite, these fibrous fluorine amphiboles consistently showed higher average values of Si and Fe content, whereas Ca was significantly lower, which we consider a distinctive characteristic of the fluorine fibrous variety. CONCLUSIONS. The population of Biancavilla had been highly exposed to a suite of fibrous amphiboles for over 50 years. Dust mitigation measures have gradually reduced exposure, but

  17. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  18. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System for Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brigandì

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System, specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF. The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall–streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall–runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall–runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015 have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002–2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall

  19. Prevalence of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV genotypes in south-central Sicily: a comparative study between 2003 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liborio Bellomo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue is about our Human Papilloma Virus (HPV DNA test. We have examined two cohorts of patients from south-central Sicily, who were tested for HPV -DNA derived from cervical sampling, respectively in 2003 and 2011. In 2003, the most represented genotypes were: 31, 16. Instead, in 2011 there was a higher prevalence for genotypes: 42, 16. It is remarkable to note that the 35 genotype, noticed in 2003, has never been found in the second most recent group.

  20. Observations of volcanic earthquakes and tremor at Deception Island - Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morales

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families of seismic events: 1 long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2 volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10; 3 hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very

  1. Geothermal surveys in the oceanic volcanic island of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Pasqua, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic island chains are generally characterised by young volcanic systems that are predominately composed of basaltic lavas and related magmatic products. Although hot springs are occasionally present, the pervasive, massive, recent outpourings of basaltic lavas are the primary manifestation of the existence of geothermal resources. These islands may have, in principle, significant potential for the exploitation of geothermal energy. In this paper, we present results of recent investigations aimed at the evaluation of geothermal resources of the island of Mauritius, that is the emerging portion of a huge submarine, aseismic, volcanic plateau extending in the SW part of the Indian Ocean. The plateau is related to a long-lived hotspot track, whose present-day expression is the active volcano of La Réunion Island, located about 200 km SW of Mauritius. The island does not show at present any volcanic activity, but magmatism is quite recent as it dates from 7.8 to 0.03 Myr. Geochemical data from water samples collected from boreholes do not indicate the presence of mature water, i.e. circulating in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs, and argue for short-term water-rock interaction in shallow hydrogeological circuits. However, this cannot rule out that a deep magmatic heat source, hydraulically insulated from shallow aquifers, may occur. To evaluate the geothermal gradient, a 270-m-deep hole was thus drilled in the island central portion, in which the most recent volcanic activity (0.03 Myr) took place. Temperature-depth profiles, recorded after complete thermal equilibration, revealed a thermal gradient of 40 mK/m. Attempts of extracting additional thermal information were also made by measuring the temperature in a 170-m-deep deep water hole, no longer used. The results were consistent with the gradient hole, i.e. pointing to a weak or null deep-seated thermal anomaly beneath Mauritius and low geothermal potential. The deep thermal process (mantle plume) invoked

  2. Hydrochemistry of New Zealand's aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry on a national scale has never been studied in New Zealand apart from a few studies on nitrate concentrations and pesticides. These studies are covered in Chapter 8 of this book. However general studies of groundwater chemistry, groundwater-rock interaction and regional characteristics of water quality have not been previously addressed in much detail. This is partly because New Zealand aquifers are relatively small on a world scale and are geologically and tectonically diverse (see Chapter 3). But New Zealand has also recently lacked a centralised agency responsible for groundwater quality, and therefore, no national assessments have been undertaken. In recent years, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has managed a programme of collecting and analysing the groundwater chemistry of key New Zealand aquifers. This programme is called the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) and is funded by the New Zealand Public Good Science Fund. The programme started in 1990 using only 22 wells, with four regional authorities of the country participating. The NGMP now includes all 15 regional and unitary authorities that use groundwater and over 100 monitoring sites. The NGMP is considered a nationally significant database by the New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology. The NGMP allows a national comparison of aquifer chemistries because the samples are all analysed at one laboratory in a consistent manner and undergo stringent quality control checks. Poor quality analyses are thus minimised. In addition, samples are collected quarterly so that long-term seasonal trends in water quality can be analysed, and the effects of changes in land use and the vulnerability of aquifers to contaminant leaching can be assessed. This chapter summarises the water quality data collected for the NGMP over the past 10 years. Some records are much shorter than others, but most are greater than three years. Additional information is

  3. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides

  4. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Aquifer Characterization, Groundwater Potential, Electrical Resistivity, Lithologic Logs ... State Water Corporation currently cannot meet the daily water ... METHOD OF STUDY ... sections which were constrained with the available.

  5. Volcanic hazards and public response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1988-05-01

    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  6. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  7. Potential impact of genetically modified Lepidoptera-resistant Brassica napus in biodiversity hotspots: Sicily as a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, Barbara; Bazan, Giuseppe; Schicchi, Rosario

    2018-03-14

    The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed. Here we consider the potential exposure of butterflies as results of possible cultivation or naturalization of spilled seed in Sicily (Italy). Diurnal Lepidoptera, which are pollinators, can be exposed directly to the insecticidal proteins as larvae (mainly of Pieridae) through the host and through the pollen that can deposit on other host plants. Adults can be exposed via pollen and nectar. The flight periods of butterflies were recorded, and they were found to overlap for about 90% of the flowering period of B. napus for the majority of the species. In addition, B. napus has a high potential to hybridise with endemic taxa belonging to the B. oleracea group. This could lead to an exposure of non-target Lepidoptera if introgression of the Bt gene into a wild population happens. A rank of the risk for butterflies and wild relatives of oilseed rape is given. We conclude that, in environmental risk assessments, attention should be paid to plant-insect interaction especially in a biodiversity hotspot such as Sicily. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Crustal Structure of the Ionian Basin and Eastern Sicily Margin: Results From a Wide-Angle Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellong, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Kopp, Heidrun; Graindorge, David; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Murphy, Shane; Gutscher, Marc-Andre

    2018-03-01

    In the Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean) the slow convergence between Africa and Eurasia results in the formation of a narrow subduction zone. The nature of the crust of the subducting plate remains debated and could represent the last remnants of the Neo-Tethys ocean. The origin of the Ionian basin is also under discussion, especially concerning the rifting mechanisms as the Malta Escarpment could represent a remnant of this opening. This subduction retreats toward the south-east (motion occurring since the last 35 Ma) but is confined to the narrow Ionian basin. A major lateral slab tear fault is required to accommodate the slab roll-back. This fault is thought to propagate along the eastern Sicily margin but its precise location remains controversial. This study focuses on the deep crustal structure of the eastern Sicily margin and the Malta Escarpment. We present two two-dimensional P wave velocity models obtained from forward modeling of wide-angle seismic data acquired onboard the R/V Meteor during the DIONYSUS cruise in 2014. The results image an oceanic crust within the Ionian basin as well as the deep structure of the Malta Escarpment, which presents characteristics of a transform margin. A deep and asymmetrical sedimentary basin is imaged south of the Messina strait and seems to have opened between the Calabrian and Peloritan continental terranes. The interpretation of the velocity models suggests that the tear fault is located east of the Malta Escarpment, along the Alfeo fault system.

  9. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  10. Hypsometry and relief analysis of the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, NE-Sicily (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavano, F.; Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.

    2018-03-01

    Tectonic forcing causes the relief-building of mountain chains and enforces the surficial processes in a persistent dismantling of rock volumes, continuously modelling Earth's surface. Actually, we observe transient landscapes that have temporarily recorded tectonic forcing as a codified signal. The Late Quaternary tectonic evolution of northeastern Sicily, located along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, has been dominated by intense Plio-Pleistocene dynamics that severely modified the Late Miocene landscape. The present work aims to investigate geomorphically northeastern Sicily, essentially focusing on the hypsometric and relief analyses of the region in order to define how the topography responds to the post-Pliocene tectonic deformation. We apply different relief morphometric indices (Hypsometric Integral, Topographic Relief and Topographic Dissection) measured for each differently sized moving window, and we use different swath topographic profiles as well. Our analysis evidences differential morphological responses between distinct morphotectonic domains of the studied area, led by the combination of earlier morphological background and Late Quaternary tectonic deformation stages of the region. In addition, in the context of a constant and uniform tectonic uplift, the results define the general space- and time-relating pathways of the landscape geomorphic metrics. This enables us to bring out the controls of the vertical scale of landscape on hypsometry, exploring their mutual relationships. Finally, we reconstruct the Late Quaternary morphotectonic evolution of the region, defining the role played by the main tectonic alignments on the present geomorphic setting.

  11. Diagnosis of the Ghiss Nekor aquifer in order to elaborate the aquifer contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baite, Wissal; Boukdir, A.; Zitouni, A.; Dahbi, S. D.; Mesmoudi, H.; Elissami, A.; Sabri, E.; Ikhmerdi, H.

    2018-05-01

    The Ghiss-Nekor aquifer, located in the north-east of the action area of the ABHL, plays a strategic role in the drinkable water supply of the city of Al Hoceima and of the neighboring urban areas. It also participates in the irrigation of PMH. However, this aquifer has problems such as over-exploitation and pollution. In the face of these problems, the only Solution is the establishment of a new mode of governance, which privileges the participation, the involvement and the responsibility of the actors concerned in a negotiated contractual framework, namely the aquifer contract. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the current state of the Ghiss Nekor aquifer, the hydrogeological characterization of the aquifer, the use of the waters of the aquifer, the Problem identification and the introduction of the aquifer contract, which aims at the participatory and sustainable management of underground water resources in the Ghiss- Nekor plain, to ensure sustainable development.

  12. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  13. Estimating Aquifer Properties Using Sinusoidal Pumping Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Haborak, K. G.; Young, M. H.

    2001-12-01

    We develop the theoretical and applied framework for using sinusoidal pumping tests to estimate aquifer properties for confined, leaky, and partially penetrating conditions. The framework 1) derives analytical solutions for three boundary conditions suitable for many practical applications, 2) validates the analytical solutions against a finite element model, 3) establishes a protocol for conducting sinusoidal pumping tests, and 4) estimates aquifer hydraulic parameters based on the analytical solutions. The analytical solutions to sinusoidal stimuli in radial coordinates are derived for boundary value problems that are analogous to the Theis (1935) confined aquifer solution, the Hantush and Jacob (1955) leaky aquifer solution, and the Hantush (1964) partially penetrated confined aquifer solution. The analytical solutions compare favorably to a finite-element solution of a simulated flow domain, except in the region immediately adjacent to the pumping well where the implicit assumption of zero borehole radius is violated. The procedure is demonstrated in one unconfined and two confined aquifer units near the General Separations Area at the Savannah River Site, a federal nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Aquifer hydraulic parameters estimated using this framework provide independent confirmation of parameters obtained from conventional aquifer tests. The sinusoidal approach also resulted in the elimination of investigation-derived wastes.

  14. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  15. Sr isotope variations in the Carnian-Norian succession at Pizzo Mondello, Sicani Mountains, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, T.; Yamashita, K.; Rigo, M.; Abate, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Norian stage in the Late Triassic is exceptionally long (23 Myr) and was subdivided into three substages: the Lacian, Alaunian, and Sevatian. In order to infer the Norian environmental changes in the western Tethys Ocean, the stratigraphic variations of 87Sr/86Sr in the Upper Triassic limestone succession in Sicily were examined. The Pizzo Mondello section studied here mainly consists of a pelagic carbonate sequence of the Scillato Formation, and ranges in age from Tuvalian (late Carnian) to Rhaetian. The Scillato Formation represents a deep-water pelagic facies deposited along the Sicanian Basin in the western Tethys Ocean. We selected fine-grained limestone samples from both the microfacies of lime-mudstone and wackestone to approximate the primary 87Sr/86Sr signature of the limestone beds. The 87Sr/86Sr values are relatively constant in the Tuvalian and Lacian (early Norian). However, the remarkable rise in 87Sr/86Sr occurred across the Lacian-Alaunian (early-middle Norian) transition. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr values show an increasing trend in 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7077 at the base of Lacian to 0.7080 in the Sevatian (late Norian). In the Sevatian, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios display a sudden negative excursion toward lower values and show a relatively quick recovery to pre-excursion 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Korte et al. (2003) suggested that the rise in the 87Sr/86Sr values from the middle Carnian to the late Norian coincide with the Cimmerian orogeny. Our new 87Sr/86Sr data from the Pizzo Mondello section reveal a comparable trend, with a sharp increase in 87Sr/86Sr within the Alaunian, suggesting the rapid uplift and erosion in the Cimmerian Mountains at this time. The cause of the 87Sr/86Sr excursion in the Sevatian remains uncertain. However, the biostratigraphic record of conodonts suggests that a morphological evolution towards platform-less elements occurred with the beginning of the Sr-isotope excursion.

  16. Impact of SLA assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: model skills and mesoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean sea level anomalies along-track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SIM, which does not assimilate data with an analysis (AN assimilating SLA along-track multi-mission data produced in the framework of MyOcean project. The quality of the analysis was evaluated by computing RMSE of the misfits between analysis background and observations (sea level before assimilation. A qualitative evaluation of the ability of the analyses to reproduce mesoscale structures is accomplished by comparing model results with ocean colour and SST satellite data, able to detect such features on the ocean surface. CTD profiles allowed to evaluate the impact of the SLA assimilation along the water column. We found a significant improvement for AN solution in terms of SLA RMSE with respect to SIM (the averaged RMSE of AN SLA misfits over 2 years is about 0.5 cm smaller than SIM. Comparison with CTD data shows a questionable improvement produced by the assimilation process in terms of vertical features: AN is better in temperature while for salinity it gets worse than SIM at the surface. This suggests that a better a-priori description of the vertical error covariances would be desirable. The qualitative comparison of simulation and analyses with synoptic satellite independent data proves that SLA assimilation allows to correctly reproduce some dynamical features (above all the circulation in the Ionian portion of the domain and mesoscale structures otherwise misplaced or neglected by SIM. Such mesoscale changes also infer that the eddy momentum fluxes (i.e. Reynolds stresses show major changes in the Ionian area. Changes in Reynolds stresses reflect a different pumping of eastward momentum from the eddy to

  17. Hatching phenology and voltinism of Heterocypris barbara (Crustacea: Ostracoda from Lampedusa (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Rossi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of crustacean populations in ephemeral ponds requires appropriate adaptations in life history strategies (e.g. in hatching phenology. Organisms take advantage of pond filling when it occurs and hedge their bets for the possibility to complete one or more life cycles or to produce resting stages that ensure that the population will not go extinct. We carried out laboratory experiments to investigate the dynamics of a sexual population of Heterocypris barbara from a vernal pool in Lampedusa Island (Sicily. Experimental organisms were obtained hydrating sediments from Aria Rossa temporary pond. Recruitment from resting eggs, voltinism, mean body size and sex ratio were observed in microcosms at different conductivities (high 2.0-2.7 mS cm-1, intermediate 1.0-1.1 mS cm-1 and low 0.5-0.6 mS cm-1. Microcosms were kept in laboratory controlled conditions: constant (24°C 12:12 L:D and 16°C 10:14 L:D photoperiod or fluctuating thermal regimes. The experiment lasted 7 months. Resting and non-resting egg production and up to a bivoltine life cycle were observed. Recruitment events from egg bank and voltinism varied by thermal regime and conductivity. A prolonged recruitment phase occurred in conditions that could be considered a proxy of a rainy season (16°C, 10:14 L:D and low conductivity or of long hydroperiods (spring thermal fluctuating regime and intermediate conductivity. At 24°C, age at reproduction of females from resting eggs almost doubled at low conductivity (in comparison with high conductivity. Low conductivity also reduced hatching time of resting eggs while it increased development time and age at maturity. In thermal fluctuating regime, degree-days to reproduction were about double than at constant 24°C. Males, observed in all microcosms, reached maturity faster and had a shorter life span than females. Males initially outnumbered females, but later in the experiments females became dominant. We also evaluated the

  18. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in gynaecologic outpatients of Messina, eastern Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Simone, Angela; Todaro, Paolo; Le Donne, Maria; Caruso, Carmela; Pizzo, Alfonsa; Granese, Domenico

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in sexually active female population in Messina, we tested cervical scrapes of women referred to university clinics for routine gynaecologic care. Between March and December 2008, a total of 680 cervical samples of 598 patients (573 Italian from province of Messina and 25 resident aliens) were examined consecutively from laboratory of molecular biology at the Department of Human Pathology. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted (QIAamp DNA mini kit, Qiagen), followed by a PCR-based HPV DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping (HPV-HS Bio plus HPV-strip, AB Analytica or HPV-type, AB Analytica). The overall rate of HPV DNA detection in Italian patients (mean age 34 years; range 15-69) was 70.5% (404/573), with 163 cases of multiple infections (40.3%). In 335 patients (82.9%) a high-risk HPV infection was detected. In this group the coexistence of a low-risk HPV infection was documented in 97 cases while 65 patients exhibited only a low-risk HPV infection. HPV-16 was the most prevalent (33.4%), followed by HPV-6 (28.0%), HPV-31 (24.3%), HPV-58 (11.4%), HPV-66 (11.1%), HPV-53 (6.4%), HPV-18 (6.2%), HPV-56 (5.4%), HPV-33 (5.2%) while the other genotypes identified (HPV-11, -40, -42, -43, -44, -54, -61, -70, -81, -26, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -59, -68, -73, -82) were below 5%. HPV prevalence (any type) was 78.7% at age or =45 years. A significant association (chi2=12.718; P=0.006) between HPV DNA detection and the younger age was encountered. Since available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV infection in Italy are somewhat discordant, this study represents a helpful contribution to the knowledge on the circulation of precise genotypes in east Sicily in order to improve new HPV vaccines.

  19. Multi-proxy constraints on sapropel formation during the late Pliocene of central Mediterranean (southwest Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancq, Julien; Grossi, Vincent; Pittet, Bernard; Huguet, Carme; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2015-06-01

    The late Pliocene (Piacenzian) in the Mediterranean region was punctuated by short-lived episodes of widespread deposition of organic-rich sedimentary layers known as sapropels. The causes of their formation remain a long-standing debate in the science community, and require disentangling the roles of climatic/oceanographic processes that triggered higher primary productivity or enhanced organic matter preservation. The lack of data, especially of sea temperatures at sufficient temporal resolution, is one of the main challenges to solve this debate. Here, we present new organic geochemistry and micropaleontological data from the late Pliocene at Punta Grande/Punta Piccola sections (southwest Sicily) that allow untangling the mechanisms that favored the formation of two sapropel series (noted S and A) in the central Mediterranean area during this period. Sea surface (SSTs) and subsurface temperatures were estimated using three distinct organic geochemical proxies namely the alkenone unsaturation index (UK‧37), the long-chain diol index (LDI) and the tetraether index (TEX86). Reconstructed SSTs are relatively stable throughout the late Pliocene and ∼4 °C higher than modern Mediterranean SSTs, which is consistent with the climatic conditions inferred for this period from paleoclimate modeling. An increase in SST is, however, recorded by UK‧37 and LDI proxies across each sapropel horizon, supporting that the two sapropel series S and A were formed during warmer climate conditions. The comparison of SST data with variations in accumulation rates of total organic carbon and lipid-biomarkers (alkenones, long-chain alkyl diols, archaeal and bacterial tetraethers), and with changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages, indicates that the studied sapropels might have formed under different environmental conditions. The first series of sapropels (S), deposited between 3.1 and 2.8 Ma, is likely due to a better preservation of organic matter, induced by the development

  20. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  1. Persistence of phlebotomine Leishmania vectors in urban sites of Catania (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Oscar; D'Urso, Vera; Vaccalluzzo, Valerio; Bongiorno, Gioia; Khoury, Cristina; Severini, Francesco; Di Muccio, Trentina; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

    2014-12-09

    Pioneering research on "Mediterranean Kala-Azar" carried out by Adler and Theodor early in the past century (~1930s) had identified Catania city (Sicily) as a major focus of the disease nowadays known as zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Despite the fact that disease in both humans and dogs has continued to be highly prevalent in the Catania province up to the present times, research on Leishmania vectors in this urban focus dates back to that distant period. This study aimed to evaluate the persistence and current composition of the sand fly fauna in urban environments of Catania in recent years, 2006 and 2013. In 2006 fifty-one suitable collecting sites were identified within 44 sub-units of a grid drawn to include the urban Catania area. In 2013 the survey was restricted to four of the most productive and representative sites resulting from the 2006 survey. In both periods 3 collections per month were performed using standard sticky traps set for 3 days in wall holes/cavities along public roads, from the end of April through December. 43/51 sites (84.3%) were found positive for sand flies. The 2006 collections accounted for a total of 4341 specimens including six species. Among competent Leishmania vector species, P. perniciosus was the most prevalent (36.5%) being identified in all sand fly-positive sites, with significant abundance in those of the old city centre. Other species of interest were P. sergenti (2.5%) and P. neglectus (1.5%). The 2013 survey produced 1130 sand flies, of which 39.5% were P. perniciosus, 1.6% P. sergenti and 0.7% P. neglectus. A search for Leishmania DNA in a small sample of 72 P. perniciosus females revealed 11% infection prevalence. Our findings from an old urban focus of leishmaniasis demonstrate that phlebotomine sand flies have adapted fairly well to the drastic environmental changes that have occurred in cities of the Western world in the past century and still represent a potential risk for Leishmania transmission.

  2. A neighborhood revealed by geophysical prospection: An example of urbanization at the Phoenician-Punic settlement of Mozia (western Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, D.; Alfonsi, L.; Sapia, V.; Urbini, S.

    2014-05-01

    The archaeological site of Mozia, a small island in front of the western coast of Sicily (Italy), is one of the most important Phoenician-Punic settlements in the Mediterranean; it preserves important vestiges and remains, located in an uncontaminated site, inhabited and car-free. The remains are still partially hidden under vegetation and vineyards.

  3. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  4. New High Voltage Interconnections with Islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Malta and Sicily. Analysis of the Effects on Renewable Energy Sources Integration and Benefits for the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the benefits coming from the operation of the recent electrical high voltage (HV interconnections between Sicily, Malta and mainland Italy. These new interconnections allow zonal prices of electricity considerably lower than in the past, ensuring greater flexibility to the system and a better integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. After briefly illustrating the two high-voltage electrical systems (Sicily and Malta, and having provided a description of the interconnection cable with Malta and its protection devices, the authors hypothesized two modes of operation (Sicily-Malta system islanded or interconnected to the rest of Europe. For the first case (islanded some simulations are performed through the use of an electric network model realized in the Neplan® environment, and for the second case an analysis of one year real data was made. The results of the simulation, thanks to the use of a power flow tracing method, show that this new interconnection between the two islands (Sicily and Malta allows an important improvement in the integration and dispatching of the power generated by RES of the Sicilian territory, better operation of traditional Sicilian generation units, lower electricity zonal prices and a significant reduction in emissions from obsolete fuel oil thermal units located in Malta.

  5. The Gelechiidae of the Longarini salt marsh in the “Pantani della Sicilia Sud-Orientale” nature reserve in southeastern Sicily, Italy (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, S.; Karsholt, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the results of field research on Gelechiidae from the “Pantano Longarini” salt marsh (southeastern Sicily). The area is located inland to the “Pantani della Sicilia Sud-Orientale” regional nature reserve. A total of twenty-four species are recognized; among the recorded taxa...

  6. Eruptive pattern classification on Mount Etna (Sicily) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst; Ferrazzini, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­SUV) project, Mt. Etna (Italy) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) were chosen as "European Supersite Demonstrator" and test site, respectively, to promote the transfer and implementation of efficient tools for the identification of impending volcanic activity. Both are "open-conduit volcanoes", forming ideal sites for the test and validation of innovative concepts, which can contribute to minimize volcanic hazard. One of the aims of the MED-SUV project was the development of software for machine learning applicable to data processing for early-warning purposes. Near-real time classification of continuous seismic data stream has been carried out in the control room of INGV Osservatorio Etneo since 2010. Subsequently, automatic alert procedures were activated. In the light of the excellent results for the 24/7 surveillance of Etna, we examine the portability of tools developed in the framework of the project when applied to seismic data recorded at Piton de la Fournaise. In the present application to data recorded at Piton de la Fournaise, the classifier aims at highlighting changes in the frequency content of the background seismic signal heralding the activation of the volcanic source and the imminent eruption. We describe the preliminary results of this test on a set of data of nearly two years starting on January 2014. This period follows three years of inactivity and deflation of the volcano and marks a renewal of the volcano activity with inflation, deep seismicity (-7km bsl) and five eruptions with fountains and lava flows that lasted from a few hours to more than two months. We discuss here the necessary tuning for the implementation of the software to the new dataset analyzed. We also propose a comparison with the results of pattern classification regarding recent eruptive activity at Etna.

  7. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  8. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  9. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  10. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  11. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  12. IAEA KEN 7005 project: Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Kilimanjaro Aquifer applying Isotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, A.N.E.

    2017-01-01

    Mombasa City is the second largest city in Kenya, has inadequate water supply and experiences a chronic water shortage. Mombasa City and the other areas to its north are supplied with water from the Mzima springs and other systems. Mzima Springs is location in relation to Chyulu Hills and Mt. Kilimanjaro. This study therefore attempts to examine the relationship between Mzima Springs on one hand and Kilimanjaro Aquifer and Chyulu Hills aquifer/springs on the other. The overall objective of this project is to conduct water resources assessment to quantify water in the project area and establish the relationship between surface and groundwater resources in the Mt. Kilimanjaro, Lakes Jipe/Challa, Mzima and Chyulu Hills ecosystem. The Kilimanjaro aquifer includes the volcanic pyroclastic and volcanic alluvium deposits found at the base of Mount Kilimanjaro and extending across the Kenyan-Tanzanian border. Occurrence of groundwater in the surrounding basement plains is limited to faults, fractures and small parts of weathered zones and also to the bottom layers of wide alluvial valleys which are recharged by natural flood spreading. One of the achievement include establishment and equipping of the National Isotope Hydrology Laboratory

  13. Construction, Geology, and Aquifer Testing of the Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank Monitor Wells, Kauai, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    The Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank monitor wells were constructed using rotary drilling methods between July 1998 and August 2002 as part of a program of exploratory drilling, aquifer testing, and hydrologic analysis on Kauai. Aquifer tests were conducted in the uncased boreholes of the wells. The Maalo Road monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 915 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows. Most of the rock samples from this well had chemical compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but the deepest sample analyzed had a composition similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. Water temperature ranged from 25.6 to 27.4 degrees Celsius and specific conductance ranged from 303 to 627 microsiemens per centimeter during aquifer testing. Discharge rate ranged from 174 to 220 gallons per minute and maximum drawdown was 138.25 ft during a 7-day sustained-discharge test, but the test was affected by pump and generator problems. The Aahoaka Hill monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 804 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows and possibly dikes. The well penetrated rocks having chemical compositions similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During the first three hours of a sustained-discharge aquifer test in which the discharge rate varied between 92 and 117 gallons per minute, water temperature was 24.6 to 25.6 degrees Celsius, and specific conductance was 212 to 238 microsiemens per centimeter; this test was halted after a short period because drawdown was high. In a subsequent 7-day test, discharge was 8 to 23 gallons per minute, and maximum drawdown was 37.71 feet after 1,515 minutes of testing. The Upper Eleele Tank monitor well is near the Hanapepe River Valley. The well penetrated 740 feet through soil, sediment, mafic lava flows, volcanic ash, and scoria. Rocks above a depth of 345 feet had compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but a sample from 720 to 725 feet had a composition similar to rocks of the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During a 7-day aquifer

  14. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  15. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  16. Evaluation of the Theoretical Geothermal Potential of Inferred Geothermal Reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and the Sabatini Volcanic Districts (Central Italy by the Application of the Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cinti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the theoretical geothermal potential of identified unexploited hydrothermal reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and Sabatini volcanic districts (Latium region, Italy has been made on the basis of a revised version of the classical volume method. This method is based on the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in shallow and deep aquifers to delimit areas of geothermal interest, according to the hypothesis that zones of high CO2 flux, either from soil degassing and dissolved into aquifers, are spatially related to deep hydrothermal reservoirs. On the whole, 664 fluid discharges (cold waters, thermal waters, and bubbling pools have been collected from shallow and deep aquifers in the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District for chemical and isotopic composition, in an area of approximately 2800 km2. From this large hydro-geochemical dataset the pCO2 values have been computed and then processed to obtain a contour map of its spatial distribution by using geostatistical techniques (kriging. The map of pCO2 has been used to draw up the boundaries of potentially exploitable geothermal systems within the two volcanic districts, corresponding to the areas where endogenous CO2 raise up to the surface from the deep hydrothermal reservoirs. The overall estimated potential productivities and theoretical minimum and maximum thermal power of the two volcanic districts are of about 45 × 103 t/h and 3681–5594 MWt, respectively. This makes the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District very suitable for both direct and indirect exploitation of the geothermal resources, in view of the target to reduce electricity generation from conventional and poorly sustainable energy sources.

  17. Study of aquifer's characteristic at BPLP-BATAN, Cipanas, West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Gde Sukadana; Adi Gunawan Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Farms Observational Land Agricultural (BPLP) BATAN lies at Palasari's Village, Cipanas's district, Cianjur's regency, West Java. The currently used water resources, come from shallow well that groundwater's quality adverse, brownish rust colored, so indecent being utilized as source of fresh water. Drilling activity of groundwater exploration is objected in order to obtain aquifer's characteristics which cover lithology, porosity of lithology, ground water condition that interpreted from well cutting, bores-hole geophysical data, pumping test data and water quality on the aquifer. These Regions constitute geologically volcanic rock, varied of volcanic breccia with grain size of sand to boulder. Potential aquifers at these regions are conglomeratic sandstone, breccias, and sandstone. The result of drilling activity shows that its lithology are yield of soil (depth 0-6 m), breccia (36-38 m), middle-rough sandstone (depth 38-40 m), breccia (40-52 m), sandy breccia (depth 52-97 m) and inter spaced tuff with middle-rough sandstone (depth 97-125 m). As a result, therefore, the well has been constructed with straight PVC pipe 6'', on depth of 0-40 m made by grouting cements, screen is assembled on depth of 60-82 m and 90-110 m. Result of pumping test that well's with maximum debit 17,25 L/sec, and optimum debit 13,2 L/sec. Static water level on 11 m depth. Current assembled pump is 5 L/sec on the 86 m depth. Result of groundwater quality test in laboratory shows that the water has good quality with fresh water quality standard, which mean that the water is suitable to be consumed. (author)

  18. Dinasour extinction and volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, J. A.

    There is at present some controversy about the reason for the mass extinction of dinosaurs and other forms of life at the end of the Cretaceous. A suggestion by Alvarez et al. [1980] that this was due to the collision of the earth with a meteorite 10 km or so in diameter has excited considerable interest [Silver and Schultz, 1982] and also some criticism [Stanley, 1984]. A recent publication [Wood, 1984] describing the catastrophic effects of a relatively minor lava flow in Iceland suggests that intense volcanic activity could have played a large part in the extinctions. In this letter it is pointed out that the Deccan lava flows in India took place in the appropriate time and may well have been of sufficient magnitude to be a major factor in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (C-T) boundary catastrophe.

  19. Changes of freshwater-lens thickness in basaltic island aquifers overlain by thick coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Oki, Delwyn S.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater-lens thickness and long-term changes in freshwater volume in coastal aquifers are commonly assessed through repeated measurement of salinity profiles from monitor wells that penetrate into underlying salt water. In Hawaii, the thickest measured freshwater lens is currently 262 m in dike-free, volcanic-rock aquifers that are overlain by thick coastal sediments. The midpoint depth (depth where salinity is 50% salt water) between freshwater and salt water can serve as an indicator for freshwater thickness. Most measured midpoints have risen over the past 40 years, indicating a shrinking lens. The mean rate of rise of the midpoint from 1999–2009 varied locally, with faster rates in highly developed areas (1.0 m/year) and slower rates in less developed areas (0.5 m/year). The thinning of the freshwater lenses is the result of long-term groundwater withdrawal and reduced recharge. Freshwater/salt-water interface locations predicted from measured water levels and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle may be deeper than measured midpoints during some periods and shallower during other periods, although depths may differ up to 100 m in some cases. Moreover, changes in the midpoint are slower than changes in water level. Thus, water levels may not be a reliable indicator of the amount of freshwater in a coastal aquifer.

  20. Hydrology of the Claiborne aquifer and interconnection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2017-04-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, to define the hydrologic properties of the Claiborne aquifer and evaluate its connection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia. The effort involved collecting and compiling hydrologic data from the aquifer in subarea 4 of southwestern Georgia. Data collected for this study include borehole geophysical logs in 7 wells, and two 72-hour aquifer tests to determine aquifer properties.The top of the Claiborne aquifer extends from an altitude of about 200 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) in Terrell County to 402 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County, Georgia. The base of the aquifer extends from an altitude of about 60 feet above NAVD 88 in eastern Sumter County to about 750 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County. Aquifer thickness ranges from about 70 feet in eastern Early County to 400 feet in Decatur County.The transmissivity of the Claiborne aquifer, determined from two 72-hour aquifer tests, was estimated to be 1,500 and 700 feet squared per day in Mitchell and Early Counties, respectively. The storage coefficient was estimated to be 0.0006 and 0.0004 for the same sites, respectively. Aquifer test data from Mitchell County indicate a small amount of leakage occurred during the test. Groundwater-flow models suggest that the source of the leakage was the underlying Clayton aquifer, which produced about 2.5 feet of drawdown in response to pumping in the Claiborne aquifer. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining unit between the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers was simulated to be about 0.02 foot per day.Results from the 72-hour aquifer tests run for this study indicated no interconnection between the Claiborne and overlying Upper Floridan aquifers at the two test sites. Additional data are needed to monitor the effects that increased withdrawals from the Claiborne aquifer may have on future water resources.

  1. Habitat preferences of bats in a rural area of Sicily determined by acoustic surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Di Salvo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bat fauna of a 60 km2 wide area representing the typical rural landscape of inland Sicily and including the small “Rocche di Entella” karstic plateau (Natural Reserve and SAC was surveyed between May 2006 and September 2007. Sampling was carried out at 95 sites, distributed proportionally in six main habitats. Bat calls were time-expanded with a D980 bat detector and then identified to species level by a Discriminant Function Analysis. We recorded 305 bat passes and identified 96.4% of recorded calls. Moon phase, cloud cover and their interaction did not affect total bat activity, nor did the sampling period. Aquatic and riparian habitats were preferred, whilst Eucalyptus plantations and vineyards were avoided. At species level, all bats selected the former habitats, except H. savii, and avoided field crops, except Myotis sp. Thermo-Mediterranean shrub formations showed the highest species richness, whereas vineyards had the lowest. Our study emphasizes the value of riparian habitats and low-intensity farming for bat conservation.
    Riassunto Preferenze ambientali dei chirotteri in un’area rurale della Sicilia. Il presente lavoro espone i risultati di un’analisi di selezione del habitat da parte della chirotterofauna in un’area di 60 km2 rappresentativa del tipico paesaggio rurale dell’entroterra siciliano e comprensiva del plateau carsico "Rocche di Entella" (Riserva Naturale e SIC. Da maggio a settembre 2006 e 2007, abbiamo effettuato campionamenti mediante bat detector (Pettersson D980 in 95 stazioni distribuite proporzionalmente alla disponibilità di habitat. I segnali sono stati identificati mediante Analisi della Funzione Discriminante. Abbiamo re- gistrato 305 passaggi, identificandone il 96.4% a livello di specie. Né la fase lunare, né la nuvolosità o l’interazione tra queste hanno influenzato

  2. Dynamic rockfall risk assessment along the SS113 coastal road (Northern Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolembo, V. Brunella; Penna, Ivanna; Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are natural hazards that usually affect only small areas. However, due to the big amount of material that can be moved and the associated kinetic energy they can cost serious damages to infrastructures and people. Even fairly small rockfall fragments are a significant hazard if deposited on a highway or along a rail-road track since they are not easily detected and can cause accidents or derailments. Rockfalls can also cause the closure of streets resulting in long term indirect economic losses due to transportation delays as well as to the impact on the commercial and tourist activities. In letterature there are numerous examples of rockfall risk assessments along transportation corridors, most of them are based on the use of standard risk estimation methods. The latters are static approaches founded on a macroscopic view of road traffic, assumed as uniform in space and time, thus characterized by average values of parameters. Lately, a new dynamic approach has been developed within the 'risk analysis group' at the University of Lausanne (Voumard, 2013). It consists of a kinematic interpretation of road traffic where vehicles are parametrized as single entities with different characteristics, speed, dimensions and behaviour. We apply this new approach to estimate the dynamic risk due to rockfall occurrence on the SS113 national road running along the northern coast of Sicily. In this work we focus our attention on a ≈10 km section along which the SS113 road and a railway connect all the costal villages going through very steep cliffs and very close to the sea with evident problems of erosion and maintenance. The area is a tourist destination and many hotels and facilities are found along the road. Moreover the area was already hit in the past by numerous rockfalls resulting in the closure of the road for periods running from a few days up to a few years with big direct and indirect damages to the local socio-economic activities. In order to achieve a

  3. Changes in chemical and microbiological parameters of some varieties of Sicily olives during natural fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo, Flora V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes and features of some olive cultivars during natural fermentation in brine were examined. The cultivars were typical of Sicily: “Nocellara messinese”, “Nocellara etnea”, “Moresca”, “Ogliarola” and “Tonda iblea”. The carpological data revealed their good quality. Chemical characteristics such as reducing sugars, titratable acidity, total phenols and dry matter were also investigated. The physical and chemical changes of olives and brines throughout the process time were monitored. Sodium chloride concentration was gradually increased from 5% (w/v to 6% after 60-75 days and 7% after 90. The olives were put in brine acidified up to pH = 4. The salt concentration and pH value were necessary to favor lactic fermentation. An uniform trend of pH was measured for all the olive cultivars: a stable pH under 4.5 value was measured. The course of titratable acidity measured in fermentation brines was in  agreement with the pH trend. The concentration of total phenols in flesh olives through the brine storage and fermentation is reported and the reduction of total phenols during the brine fermentation was fast in “Tonda iblea”, “Nocellara etnea” and “Moresca” olives.To measure the degree of oleuropein disappearance, the course of hydroxytyrosol in brine was monitored. Throughout the brining period, the growth of microbial populations was revealed on selective media: lactic acid bacteria, mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts and moulds.Los cambios y las características de algunas variedades de aceitunas han sido examinados durante la fermentación natural. Las variedades estudiadas fueron las típicas de Sicilia. Las determinaciones carpológicas revelan una buena calidad de los frutos. Las características químicas (azúcares, acidez, fenoles y materia seca han sido estudiadas. El cloruro de sodio en la salmuera se aumentó gradualmente del 5% al 6% después de 60-75 días y hasta 7% después de 90 días. Las

  4. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire for Italian adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed for individuals living in Sicily, southern Italy. This study was conducted on a convenient sample of 178 adult volunteers aged 18-80 years recruited in the urban population of Catania. Dietary intake estimated by 2 FFQs was compared with six 24-h recalls covering a period of 10 months. A total of 110 food items were included in the FFQ. Person's coefficients between the first FFQ and mean of the six 24-h recalls showed high correlations for coffee, tea, pasta and dairy products, alcohol, total fats and carbohydrates (in women). The test-retest analysis showed high reproducibility of the FFQ. We showed that our FFQ provided a useful estimate of both food and nutrient intake in a healthy adult population.

  5. Voyages of a successful text. The Dialogi of Gregory the Great in Medieval Sicily (XII-XIV Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Barcellona

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstructs two “Sicilian chapters” of great success from the Dialogi by Gregorius Magnus which were enjoyed in the medieval era. These are the legend of Placido (Placido is a Benedict's young disciple mentioned in the Dialogi, which has Sicily as a background, as recounted by Pietro, Deacon of Montecassino between the XI and the XII centuries, and the Sicilian vulgarization of the work, carried out by Giovanni Campolo in the first half of the XIV century. The literary voyage of Placido and the work of Campolo are two excellent examples of the circulation and the fruition of an exemplary and authoritative text. Each highlights the complex intricacy of religion, culture and politics in the various systems of power and in the various historical settings that the medieval age explored.

  6. Development and Modelling of a High-Resolution Aquifer Analog in the Guarani Aquifer (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Höyng, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and detailed knowledge about the spatial distribution of physical and chemical properties in heterogeneous porous aquifers plays a decisive role for a realistic representation of governing parameters in mathematical models. Models allow the simulation, prediction and reproduction of subsurface flow and transport characteristics. This work explains the identification, characterization and effects of small-scale aquifer heterogeneities in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in S...

  7. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  8. Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are

  9. THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA FROM THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE-BEARING DEPOSITS OF S. TEODORO CAVE (NORTH-EASTERN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ESU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with terrestrial, freshwater and marine molluscs collected in the upper Pleistocene deposits of clay, sands and gravels of S. Teodoro Cave (North-eastern Sicily. Beginning from 1998 two trenches have been excavated (1998 and 2002-2004. A highly diversified assemblage of endemic and not endemic vertebrates (elephant, horse, wild ox, deer, wild boar, hyaena, fox, mouse, ground vole, shrew, hedgehog, bats, birds, reptiles, invertebrates (molluscs and vegetal remains have been collected from the two trenches. The molluscan fauna is represented by poor to rich-species assemblages of land and freshwater gastropods and bivalves with Mediterranean-European character. Some species have been found for the first time as fossils in Sicily. The land snails prevail in the 1998 trench showing a persistent arid environment during the time of the sediment deposition. The freshwater species, characteristic of slow-running water, point to the presence of a small water body (stream or spring inside the cave, probably more consistent in the 2002-2004 trench where this fauna prevails. The dispersal of the molluscan fauna of S. Teodoro Cave from the mainland during the low stand sea-level phases of the upper Pleistocene probably belongs to the same dispersal events following the Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e which introduced into the island not endemic faunal elements which are associated with endemic faunal elements in S. Teodoro Cave. Littoral marine reworked molluscs found in the cave deposits probably come from the sedimentary cover of a middle Pleistocene terrace which overlies the roof of the cave. SHORT NOTE

  10. Investigation on potential landslide sources along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment for the 1693 tsunami in Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The study of the source of 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (South Italy) is still debated in the scientific community. Macroseismic analyses provide inland location for the epicenter of the earthquake, while historical reports describing 1-2 m waves hitting the coast suggest the existence of at least an offshore extension of the fault. Furthermore, an anomalous water elevation was described in Augusta (between Siracusa and Catania), that was interpreted as the manifestation of a local submarine landslide. The presence of the steep Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, that runs parallel to the eastern coast of Sicily at a short distance from the shoreline and is cut by several canyons and scars, corroborates the hypothesis of a landslide occurrence, though no clear evidence has been found yet. This research, realized in the frame of the project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), aims at assessing the effect of landslide-generated tsunamis on the coastal stretch around Augusta considering different scenarios of collapsing masses along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment. The slide dynamics is computed by means of the numerical code UBO-BLOCK1 (developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team), and the corresponding tsunami is simulated via the code UBO-TSUFD. The sliding bodies are placed in different positions in order to assess which of them could produce significant effects on the town of Augusta, providing then clues on the possible source area for the hypothesized slide related to the 1693 tsunami. The sensitivity analysis shows the spatial dependence of the coastal tsunami height on the source volume, position, distance from the coast, and on other parameters.

  11. Potential biogas production from agricultural by-products in Sicily. A case study of citrus pulp and olive pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valenti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources represent a suitable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, due to the possible advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction. Anaerobic digestion of biomasses could be considered an environmental friendly way to treat and revalorise large amounts of by-products from farming industries because it ensures both pollution control and energy recovery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to define a methodology for evaluating the potential biogas production available from citrus pulp and olive pomace, which are suitable agricultural by-products for biogas production. In the first phase of the study, the spatial distribution of both olive and citrus-producing areas was analysed in Sicily, a geographical area of the Mediterranean basin highly representative of these types of cultivation. Then, a GIS-based model, which had been previously defined and utilised to evaluate the amount of citrus pulp and olive pomace production, was applied to this case study. Based on the results obtained for the different provinces of Sicily, the province of Catania was chosen as the study area of this work since it showed the highest production of both citrus pulp and olive pomace. Therefore, a further analysis regarded the quantification of olive pomace and citrus pulp at municipal level. The results of this analysis showed that the total amount of available citrus pulp and olive pomace corresponded theoretically to about 11,102,469 Nm3/year biogas. Finally, the methodology adopted in this study made it possible to identify suitable areas for the development of new biogas plants by considering both the spatial distribution of the olive and citrus growing areas and the locations of the existing processing industries.

  12. Comparison of aquifer characteristics derived from local and regional aquifer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.; Maslia, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the aquifer parameter values obtained through the analysis of a local and a regional aquifer test involving the same area in southeast Georgia is made in order to evaluate the validity of extrapolating local aquifer-test results for use in large-scale flow simulations. Time-drawdown and time-recovery data were analyzed by using both graphical and least-squares fitting of the data to the Theis curve. Additionally, directional transmissivity, transmissivity tensor, and angle of anisotropy were computed for both tests. -from Authors Georgia drawdown transmissivity regional aquifer tests

  13. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  14. Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high-resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    2005-08-01

    The variability of the water transport through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica) was investigated using a high-resolution model. This model of the Mediterranean circulation was developed in the context of the Mercator project. The region of interest is the western Mediterranean between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Strait of Sicily. The major water masses and the winter convection in the Gulf of Lions were simulated. The model reproduced the meso-scale and large-scale patterns of the circulation in very good agreement with recent observations. The western and the eastern gyres of the Alboran Sea were observed but high interannual variability was noticed. The Algerian Current splits into several branches at the longitude of the Strait of Sicily level, forming the Tyrrhenian branch, and, the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Atlantic Tunisian Current in the eastern Mediterranean. The North Current retroflexed north of the Balearic Islands and a dome structure was observed in the Gulf of Lions. The cyclonic barotropic Algerian gyre, which was recently observed during the MATER and ELISA experiment, was evidenced in the simulation. From time-series of 10-day mean transport, the three straits presented a high variability at short time-scales. The transport was generally maximum, in April for the Strait of Gibraltar, in November for the Strait of Sicily, and in January for the Strait of Corsica. The amplitudes of the transport through the Straits of Gibraltar (0.11 Sv) and Sicily (0.30 Sv) presented a weaker seasonal variability than that of the Strait of Corsica (0.70 Sv). The study of the relation between transport and wind forcing showed that the transport through the Strait of Gibraltar is dependent on local zonal wind over short time-scales (70%), which was not the case for the other straits (less than 30%). The maximum (minimum) of the transport occurred for an eastward (westward) wind stress in the strait. An interannual

  15. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  16. Hydrogeologic characterization of devonian aquifers in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1988-01-01

    This article carried out the assistance research project implementation in devonian sedimentary units as a potentials aquifers and their best use to school supplying and rural population in central area of Uruguay.

  17. Aquifer parameter identification and interpretation with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unfortunately, field data deviations from the model type curves are not considered in ... Such an extensive Study can only he done when there is a set of aquifer test data with main and .... 1990; 1995) methods are employed for qualitative.

  18. Development methodologies evaluation of the charge and vulnerability of the Aquifer Guarani System in Argentina and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Gomez, A.; Oleaga, A.

    2007-01-01

    The study area is located in the Uruguayan/Brazilian border near the cities of Rivera (Uruguay) and Santa Ana do Livramento (Brasil) and their surroundings. The area is characterized by the presence of fractured basalts of the Arapey or Serra Geral Formation and sandstones of the Tacuarembo-Rivera (Botucatu) Formation that form up the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The general objectives of the project were to adapt and apply methodologies to estimate the recharge to the fractured aquifer and to estimate the fraction of that recharge that eventually reaches the GAS in the study area. The development of new methodologies for the vulnerability assessment of the Serra Geral Formation was also sought. Piezo metric data, geological and structural analyses and hydrogeochemical studies were used to construct the conceptual model of the system behavior. Then, a numerical model was implemented to validate the conceptual model, reproduce the current system behavior, and estimate the recharge to the sandstones (either from the overlying basalts or from rainfall). The model would indicate a downward flow, i.e., recharge from the fractured basalt to the shallow aquifer, and from it to the deep aquifer, which matches the hypothesis of this research. As for the vulnerability of the GAS below the fractured zone, and reminding that there would be recharge from the basalt, adapted methodologies from flat-land scenarios were proposed, integrating the degree of fracturing of the volcanic rocks and the thickness of the unsaturated zone

  19. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  20. Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.; Leonard, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a multi-disciplinary research programme was launched, a GNS Science-University of Auckland collaboration with the aim of DEtermining VOlcanic Risk in Auckland (DEVORA). A major aspiration of DEVORA is development of a probabilistic hazard model for the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). This will be achieved by investigating past eruption magnitude-frequency relationships and comparing these with similar data from analogous volcanic fields. A key data set underpinning this is an age database for the AVF. To this end a comprehensive dating campaign is planned as part of DEVORA. This report, Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field, is a synthesis of all currently available age data for the AVF. It represents one of several reports carried out as part of the 'synthesis' phase of DEVORA, whereby existing data from all previous work is collated and summarised, so that gaps in current knowledge can be identified and addressed. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Past Volcanic Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The statistical foundation of disaster risk analysis is past experience. From a scientific perspective, history is just one realization of what might have happened, given the randomness and chaotic dynamics of Nature. Stochastic analysis of the past is an exploratory exercise in counterfactual history, considering alternative possible scenarios. In particular, the dynamic perturbations that might have transitioned a volcano from an unrest to an eruptive state need to be considered. The stochastic modeling of past volcanic crises leads to estimates of eruption probability that can illuminate historical volcanic crisis decisions. It can also inform future economic risk management decisions in regions where there has been some volcanic unrest, but no actual eruption for at least hundreds of years. Furthermore, the availability of a library of past eruption probabilities would provide benchmark support for estimates of eruption probability in future volcanic crises.

  3. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  4. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  5. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  6. Understanding Kendal aquifer system: a baseline analysis for sustainable water management proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, A.; Aryanto, M. D.; Pramudito, A.; Andhika, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    North coast of Java has been grown as the center of economic activities and major connectivity hub for Sumatra and Bali. Sustainable water management must support such role. One of the basis is to understand the baseline of groundwater occurrences and potential. However the complex alluvium aquiver system has not been well-understood. A geoelectric measurements were performed to determine which rock layer has a good potential as groundwater aquifers in the northern coast of Kaliwungu Regency, Kendal District, Central Java province. Total of 10 vertical electrical sounding (VES) points has been performed, using a Schlumberger configuration with the current electrode spacing (AB/2) varies between 200 - 300 m and the potential difference electrode spacing (MN/2) varies between 0.5 to 20 m with depths target ranging between 150 - 200 m. Geoelectrical data processing is done using Ip2win software which generates resistivity value, thickness and depth of subsurface rock layers. Based on the correlation between resistivity value with regional geology, hydrogeology and local well data, we identify three aquifer layers. The first layer is silty clay with resistivity values vary between 0 - 10 ohm.m, then the second layer is tuffaceous claystone with resistivity value between 10 - 60 ohm.m. Both layers serve as impermeable layer. The third layer is sandy tuff with resistivity value between 60 - 100 ohm.m which serves as a confined aquifer layer located at 70 - 100 m below surface. Its thickness is vary between 70 to 110 m. The aquifer layer is a mixing of volcanic and alluvium sediment, which is a member of Damar Formation. The stratification of the aquifer system may change in short distance and depth. This natural setting prevent us to make a long continuous correlation between layers. Aquifer discharge is estimated between 5 - 71 L/s with the potential deep well locations lies in the west and southeast part of the study area. These hydrogeological settings should be used

  7. The tropospheric processing of acidic gases and hydrogen sulphide in volcanic gas plumes as inferred from field and model investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aiuppa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the constraints on the atmospheric fate and depletion rates of acidic compounds persistently emitted by non-erupting (quiescent volcanoes is important for quantitatively predicting the environmental impact of volcanic gas plumes. Here, we present new experimental data coupled with modelling studies to investigate the chemical processing of acidic volcanogenic species during tropospheric dispersion. Diffusive tube samplers were deployed at Mount Etna, a very active open-conduit basaltic volcano in eastern Sicily, and Vulcano Island, a closed-conduit quiescent volcano in the Aeolian Islands (northern Sicily. Sulphur dioxide (SO2, hydrogen sulphide (H2S, hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF concentrations in the volcanic plumes (typically several minutes to a few hours old were repeatedly determined at distances from the summit vents ranging from 0.1 to ~10 km, and under different environmental conditions. At both volcanoes, acidic gas concentrations were found to decrease exponentially with distance from the summit vents (e.g., SO2 decreases from ~10 000 μg/m3at 0.1 km from Etna's vents down to ~7 μg/m3 at ~10 km distance, reflecting the atmospheric dilution of the plume within the acid gas-free background troposphere. Conversely, SO2/HCl, SO2/HF, and SO2/H2S ratios in the plume showed no systematic changes with plume aging, and fit source compositions within analytical error. Assuming that SO2 losses by reaction are small during short-range atmospheric transport within quiescent (ash-free volcanic plumes, our observations suggest that, for these short transport distances, atmospheric reactions for H2S and halogens are also negligible. The one-dimensional model MISTRA was used to simulate quantitatively the evolution of halogen and sulphur compounds in the plume of Mt. Etna. Model predictions support the hypothesis of minor HCl chemical processing during plume transport, at least in cloud-free conditions. Larger

  8. Guarani aquifer hydrogeological synthesis of the Guarani aquifer system. Edicion bilingue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This work represents the synthesis of current knowledge of the Guarani Aquifer System, based on technical products made by different companies and consultants who participated in the framework of the Project for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer.

  9. The Origin of Widespread Long-lived Volcanism Across the Galapagos Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages for rocks dredged (SO144 PAGANINI expedition) and drilled (DSDP) from the Galapagos Volcanic Province (Cocos, Carnegie, Coiba and Malpelo aseismic ridges and associated seamounts) show evidence of 1) increasing age with distance from the Galapagos Archipelago, 2) long-lived episodic volcanism at many locations, and 3) broad overlapping regions of coeval volcanism. The widespread nature of synchronous volcanism across the Galapagos Volcanic Province (GVP) suggests a correspondingly large Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly (O'Connor et al., 2004). Development of the GVP via Cocos and Nazca plate migration and divergence over this broad melting anomaly would explain continued multiple phases of volcanism over millions of years following the initial onset of hotspot volcanism. The question arising from these observations is whether long-lived GVP episodic volcanism is equivalent to `rejuvenescent' or a `post-erosional' phase of volcanism that occurs hundreds of thousands or million years after the main shield-building phase documented on many mid-plate seamount chains, most notably along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain? Thus, investigating the process responsible for long-lived episodic GVP volcanism provides the opportunity to evaluate this little understood process of rejuvenation in a physical setting very different to the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain (i.e. on/near spreading axis versus mid-plate). We consider here timing and geochemical information to test the various geodynamic models proposed to explain the origin of GVP hotspot volcanism, especially the possibility of rejuvenated phases that erupt long after initial shield-building.

  10. Aquifer response to earth tides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    The relation presented in the first part of this paper are applicable to packed-off wells and other situations where appreciable flow to the well does not exist. Comparisons of aquifer properties determined from the response to earth tides and from the more standard pumping tests for the two California fields are reasonably good. The case of an open well makes the problem more complicated, since there may be an appreciable amount of flow to the well. This flow to the well is seen as either a phase lag or as a difference in the ratio of the well signal to the tide for the semidiurnal and diurnal components of the tide. The latter is probably the better and more accurate indicator of flow to the well. Analyses of such situations, however, become involved and are probably best done as case-by-case studies. The numerical solutions show that treating the inverse problem through numerical modeling is at least feasible for any individual situation. It may be possible to simplify the inverse problem through the generation of type curves, but general type curves that are applicable to diverse situations are not likely to be practical. 7 figures

  11. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  12. Earthquake-triggered landslides along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (off Augusta, eastern Sicily, Italy) - assessment of the related tsunamigenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Sicily is affected by earthquakes and tsunamis of local and remote origin, which is known through numerous historical chronicles. Recent studies have put emphasis on the role of submarine landslides as the direct cause of the main local tsunamis, envisaging that earthquakes (in 1693 and 1908) did produce a tsunami, but also that they triggered mass failures that were able to generate an even larger tsunami. The debate is still open, and though no general consensus has been found among scientists so far, this research had the merit to attract attention on possible generation of tsunamis by landslides off Sicily. In this paper we investigate the tsunami potential of mass failures along one sector of the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME). facing Augusta. The HME is the main offshore geological structure of the region running almost parallel to the coast, off eastern Sicily. Here, bottom morphology and slope steepness favour soil failures. In our work we study slope stability under seismic load along a number of HME transects by using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, which is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. The main goal is to identify sectors of the HME that could be unstable under the effect of realistic earthquakes. We estimate the possible landslide volume and use it as input for numerical codes to simulate the landslide motion and the consequent tsunami. This is an important step for the assessment of the tsunami hazard in eastern Sicily and for local tsunami mitigation policies. It is also important in view of tsunami warning system since it can help to identify the minimum earthquake magnitude capable of triggering destructive tsunamis induced by landslides, and therefore to set up appropriate knowledge-based criteria to launch alert to the population.

  13. Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interest and activity in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in southern Florida has increased greatly during the past 10 to 15 years. ASR wells have been drilled to the carbonate Floridan aquifer system at 30 sites in southern Florida, mostly by local municipalities or counties located in coastal areas. The primary storage zone at these sites is contained within the brackish to saline Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system. The strategy for use of ASR in southern Florida is to store excess freshwater available during the wet season in an aquifer and recover it during the dry season when needed for supplemental water supply. Each ASR cycle is defined by three periods: recharge, storage, and recovery. This fact sheet summarizes some of the findings of a second phase retrospective assessment of existing ASR facilities and sites.

  14. High-precision gravity measurements using absolute and relative gravimeters at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of time gravity changes attributable to the dynamics of volcanoes requires high-precision gravity measurements. With the aim of improving the quality of data from the Mount Etna gravity network, we used both absolute and relative gravimeters in a hybrid method. In this report, some of the techniques for gravity surveys are reviewed, and the results related to each method are compared. We show how the total uncertainty estimated for the gravity measurements performed with this combined use of absolute and relative gravimeters is roughly comparable to that calculated when the measurements are acquired using only relative gravimeters (the traditional method. However, the data highlight how the hybrid approach improves the measurement capabilities for surveying the Mount Etna volcanic area. This approach enhances the accuracy of the data, and then of the four-dimensional surveying, which minimizes ambiguities inherent in the gravity measurements. As a case study, we refer to two gravity datasets acquired in 2005 and 2010 from the western part of the Etna volcano, which included five absolute and 13 relative stations of the Etna gravity network.

  15. Hydrological connectivity of perched aquifers and regional aquifers in semi-arid environments: a case study from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated isotopic and hydrological tracers along with standard hydrological data are used to understand complex dry land hydrological processes on different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the perched aquifers and the regional aquifer using hydrochemical data and isotopic composition in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia. This relation between the aquifers will aid in understanding groundwater recharge processes and flow dynamics. Perched aquifers are discontinuous shallow aquifers with water level ranging from 0 to 30 meters below ground level. The regional aquifer occurs in semi-consolidated sandstone at depths between about 60 and 160 meters below ground level. Water samples were collected from both aquifers in 10 villages and were analysed for major ions and stable isotopes. The results show overlapping hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions of both aquifers in 8 villages which suggest the possibility of perched aquifer water infiltrating into the regional aquifer. In two villages the hydrochemistry and isotopic composition of the aquifers are totally different and this suggests that there is no interaction between this aquifers. Areas where perched aquifers are connected to regional aquifers maybe recharge zones. These finding have important implications for groundwater resource management.

  16. First results of an INGV project for the integrated analysis of the active tectonics in SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Mario; Giovanni, Barreca; Carla, Bottari; Valentina, Bruno; Pierfrancesco, Burrato; Fabrizio, Cultrera; Luigi, Dardanelli; Sofia, De Gregorio; Luigi, Ferranti; Laura, Guzzetta; Paolo, Madonia; Carmelo, Monaco; Claudia, Pipitone; Fabrizio, Pepe; Francesco, Guglielmino

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of a project financed by the "Struttura Terremoti" of INGV to study the potential sources of earthquakes in south-western Sicily, including the area hit by the 1968 Belice earthquake sequence and the archaeological area of Selinunte, affected by two earthquakes in historical times. We adopt in this project a multi-disciplinary approach, with the goal of addressing the following points: 1) define the active tectonic framework of south-western Sicily, 2) investigate and characterize on-shore and off-shore faults, potential sources of damaging earthquakes, and 3) evaluate the current deformation rates. To do this, we collected a new set of geodetic (GPS and InSAR) and geochemical data, and performed geological and geomorphological surveys on-land in the area between Mazara, Castelvetrano and Selinunte. We also acquired high-resolution Sparker seismic profiles off-shore Sciacca. Geological and geomorphological surveys have been focused around the 10 km long Castelvetrano-Campobello di Mazara (CCM) lineament, where previous research (Barreca et al., 2014) showed geodetic and geoarchaeological evidence of recent deformation. In particular, a detailed survey of Quaternary coastal forms and deposits was performed, in order to reconstruct the sequence of uplifted paleoshorelines and to search for differential motions between adjacent coastal sectors spanning the CCM. Preliminary observations indicate that the footwall of the CCM hosts a larger number, and a more elevated position of paleo-shorelines suggestive of syntectonic uplift . A grid of about 200 km of high-resolution reflection seismic profiles was recorded along the continental shelf in the offshore of Sciacca. Profiles are mostly oriented in the WNW-ESE direction, with tie lines acquired in ENE-WSW direction. The acoustic source used during seismic prospecting was a 1 kJ Sparker power supply with a multi-tips Sparker array. Preliminary seismic data interpretation indicates that a

  17. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  18. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  19. Tracking the invasion of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852 (Decapoda Cambaridae in Sicily: a “citizen science” approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Faraone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the red swamp crayfish in Sicily dates back to 2003 and, since then, the species seemed to be confined to a few localities in western Sicily. A small “citizen science” project carried out from November 2016 onwards led to the creation of the “Sicilian Procambarus working group” (SPwg, which aims at monitoring the distribution and impact of the species in Sicily. To date, the SPwg found the red swamp crayfish in five new sites on the island, thus doubling the number of local sites of occurrence. The new Procambarus clarkii sites lie in different river basins, some of them located several hundred kilometres from the invaded areas known to date, suggesting the existence of multiple independent releases of the species in the wild. The need of better informing the local population on the risks exerted by invasive species on biological diversity, and of carefully monitoring the impact of P. clarkii on the Sicilian inland water biota is briefly stressed.

  20. Volcanism on differentiated asteroids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    after passing through optically dense fire fountains. At low eruption rates and high volatile contents many clasts cooled to form spatter or cinder deposits, but at high eruption rates and low volatile contents most clasts landed hot and coalesced into lava ponds to feed lava flows. Lava flow thickness varies with surface slope, acceleration due to gravity, and lava yield strength induced by cooling. Low gravity on asteroids caused flows to be relatively thick which reduced the effects of cooling, and many flows probably attained lengths of tens of km and stopped as a result of cessation of magma supply from the reservoir rather than cooling. On most asteroids larger than 100 km radius experiencing more than ~30% mantle melting, the erupted volcanic deposits will have buried the original chondritic surface layers of the asteroid to such great depths that they were melted, or at least heavily thermally metamorphosed, leaving no present-day meteoritical evidence of their prior existence. Tidal stresses from close encounters between asteroids and proto-planets may have very briefly increased melting and melt migration speeds in asteroid interiors but only gross structural disruption would have greatly have changed volcanic histories.

  1. Changes in shear-wave splitting before volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    We have shown that observations of shear-wave splitting (SWS) monitor stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before earthquakes which allows the time, magnitude, and in some circumstances fault-plane of impending earthquakes to be stress-forecast. (We call this procedure stress-forecasting rather than predicting or forecasting to emphasise the different formalism.) We have stress-forecast these parameters successfully three-days before a 1988 M5 earthquake in SW Iceland, and identified characteristic anomalies retrospectively before ~16 other earthquakes in Iceland and elsewhere. SWS monitors microcrack geometry and shows that microcracks are so closely spaced that they verge on fracturing and earthquakes. Phenomena verging on failure in this way are critical-systems with 'butterfly wings' sensitivity. Such critical-systems are very common. The Earth is an archetypal complex heterogeneous interactive phenomenon and must be expected to be a critical-system. We claim this critical system as a New Geophysics of a critically-microcracked rock mass. Such critical systems impose a range of fundamentally-new properties on conventional sub-critical physics/geophysics, one of which is universality. Consequently it is expected that we observe similar stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before volcanic eruptions to those before earthquakes. There are three eruptions where appropriate changes in SWS have been observed similar to those observed before earthquakes. These are: the 1996 Gjálp fissure eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland; a 2001 flank eruption on Mount Etna, Sicily (reported by Francesca Bianco, INGV, Naples); and the 2010 Eyjafjajökull ash-cloud eruption, SW Iceland. These will be presented in the same normalised format as is used before earthquakes. The 1996 Gjálp eruption showed a 2½-month stress-accumulation, and a ~1-year stress-relaxation (attributed to the North Atlantic Ridge adjusting to the magma injection beneath the Vatnajökull Ice Cap). The

  2. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  3. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  4. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  5. Microbially-induced Fe and Mn oxides in condensed pelagic sediments (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Western Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; Di Stefano, P.; Martire, L.; Kolo, K.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a petrographic comparison of the Rosso Ammonitico facies of Western Sicily and the original Rosso Ammonitico Veronese of Northern Italy based on a total of 27 sections. The Rosso Ammonitico has been the subject of numerous controversies that range from bathyal to shallow-water platform sedimentation. Therefore it seemed interesting to verify if the term Rosso Ammonitico has the same geologic connotation from region to region. The Middle-Upper Jurassic Rosso Ammonitico of Western Sicily is a condensed succession formed during a period of extensional synsedimentary tectonics related to the spreading of the Ionian Ocean. Slope-to-basin or pelagic carbonate deposits characterize the sedimentation which consists of reddish mudstones and wackestones. The abundant fauna is composed of radiolarians, protoglobigerinids, Saccocoma, Bositra associated with ammonites. A few ferruginous hardgrounds, Fe-Mn oxide crusts and Mn-coated condensation horizons are also present. The red matrices contain abundant Fe-Mn encrusted, microbored and bioeroded bioclasts. Sporadic Fe-Mn oncolites composed of amorphous Mn-minerals and goethite are also conspicuous. The matrix, as well as the shells and the fillings of the complex associated veinlets, are frequently altered into calcite microsparite. Submicronic iron bacterial and fungal filaments associated with mineralized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are observed in the matrix. They record dysaerobic microenvironments at or near the sediment-water interfaces. Early mineralized discontinuities enhanced by subsequent pressure dissolution are reported in the succession. Mn-(Ni) bacterial filaments are exceptionally observed in the cortex of the Fe-Mn oncolites. As a consequence of an early lithification, the Mn filaments are poorly preserved. The pigmentation of the rock is due to the dispersion of submicronic oxyhydroxides (now goethite and amorphous iron) formed by bacterial mediation during early diagenesis

  6. Worst-Case Scenario Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Two Historically and Economically Important Districts in Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Paparo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The portion of the eastern Sicily coastline (southern Italy), ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf (to the north) down to the southern-eastern end of the island, represents a very important geographical domain from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view. Here the two major cities of Augusta and Siracusa are found. In particular, the Augusta bay hosts one of the largest petrochemical poles in the Mediterranean, and Siracusa is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2005. This area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, the most famous being the 365, 1169, 1693 and 1908 tsunamis. The choice of this area as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction is then fully justified. This is being developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). We assess the tsunami hazard for the Augusta-Siracusa area through the worst-case credible scenario technique, which can be schematically divided into the following steps: 1) Selection of five main source areas, both in the near- and in the far-field (Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, Messina Straits, Ionian subduction zone, Calabria offshore, western Hellenic Trench); 2) Choice of potential and credible tsunamigenic faults in each area: 38 faults were selected, with properly assigned magnitude, geometry and focal mechanism; 3) Computation of the maximum tsunami wave elevations along the eastern Sicily coast on a coarse grid (by means of the in-house code UBO-TSUFD) and extraction of the 9 scenarios that produce the largest effects in the target areas of Augusta and Siracusa; 4) For each of the 9 scenarios we run numerical UBO-TSUFD simulations over a set of five nested grids, with grid cells size decreasing from 3 km in the open Ionian

  7. The speleothem record from Sicily, an important palaeoclimate testimony in the heart of the Mediterranean: overview of current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; Vattano, Marco; McDermott, Frank; Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea; Frank, Norbert; Spötl, Christoph; Scholz, Denis; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana

    2017-04-01

    Sicily is located in the heart of the Mediterranean and takes a strategic position between the western and eastern Mediterranean as well as between northern Africa and continental Europe. It is a place of a diverse and great cultural heritage that goes back many thousands of years; it had been colonised by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks and Romans in Ancient times and served as a trading post and granary - the latter particularly for the Romans. Climate change scenarios studies suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems could change into deserts as a consequence of shifting temperature and precipitation patterns unparalleled in the Holocene period (Guiot and Cramer, 2016). It is, therefore, essential to shed light on past precipitation changes to gain knowledge on the timing, dynamics and causes of these changes by making use of natural environmental archives (such as speleothems). This information is not only important for palaeoclimate data-model comparisons but can also give archaeologists a wealth of information when studying cultural transformations. Speleothems are valuable natural archives of past climatic and environmental conditions on the continents. Major strengths include their suitability for accurate U-series age determinations and their preservation of multiple quasi-independent climate proxies - that can be linked to precipitation changes. Hence, speleothems proxy time series from the Mediterranean can be regarded as an important testimony of past environmental and climate changes (including precipitation) that allow to provide answers to the aforementioned questions. Here we present first result of ongoing speleothem research on Sicily, with focuses on Pietrazzi cave (Grotta dei Pietrazzi) located west of Palermo. It developed in limestone (limestone consisting of bioclastic packstone/wackestones, fore reef coral rudstones (calcirudite) and calcarenites.) of the Calcare di Piano Battaglia Formation. Pietrazzi cave is more than 600 m in length and

  8. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine; Reiner, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  9. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  10. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  11. 40 CFR 147.502 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.502... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.502 Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] ...

  12. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Seawater intrusion; coastal aquifers; density-dependent flow and ... The seawater intrusion mechanism in coastal aquifers generally causes the occurrence of ... (4) The dynamic viscosity of the fluid does not change with respect to salinity and.

  13. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can

  14. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  15. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  16. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  17. Unconsolidated Aquifers in Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2000-01-01

    Unconsolidated aquifers consisting of saturated sand and gravel are capable of supplying large quantities of good-quality water to wells in Tompkins County, but little published geohydrologic inform ation on such aquifers is available. In 1986, the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) began collecting geohydrologic information and well data to construct an aquifer map showing the extent of unconsolidated aquifers in Tompkins county. Data sources included (1) water-well drillers. logs; (2) highway and other construction test-boring logs; (3) well data gathered by the Tompkins County Department of Health, (4) test-well logs from geohydrologic consultants that conducted projects for site-specific studies, and (5) well data that had been collected during past investigations by the USGS and entered into the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. In 1999, the USGS, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Department of Planning, compiled these data to construct this map. More than 600 well records were entered into the NWIS database in 1999 to supplement the 350 well records already in the database; this provided a total of 950 well records. The data were digitized and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) coverage so that well locations could be plotted on a map, and well data could be tabulated in a digital data base through ARC/INFO software. Data on the surficial geology were used with geohydrologic data from well records and previous studies to delineate the extent of aquifers on this map. This map depicts (1) the extent of unconsolidated aquifers in Tompkins County, and (2) locations of wells whose records were entered into the USGS NWIS database and made into a GIS digital coverage. The hydrologic information presented here is generalized and is not intended for detailed site evaluations. Precise locations of geohydrologic-unit boundaries, and a description of the hydrologic conditions within the units, would require additional detailed, site

  18. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  19. Venus - Volcanic features in Atla Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image from the Atla region of Venus shows several types of volcanic features and superimposed surface fractures. The area in the image is approximately 350 kilometers (217 miles) across, centered at 9 degrees south latitude, 199 degrees east longitude. Lava flows emanating from circular pits or linear fissures form flower-shaped patterns in several areas. A collapse depression approximately 20 kilometers by 10 kilometers (12 by 6 miles) near the center of the image is drained by a lava channel approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) long. Numerous surface fractures and graben (linear valleys) criss-cross the volcanic deposits in north to northeast trends. The fractures are not buried by the lavas, indicating that the tectonic activity post-dates most of the volcanic activity.

  20. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  1. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  2. Modelling contaminant transport in saturated aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, V.; Nayak, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    With the increase in population and industrialization the problem of pollution of groundwater has become critical. The present study deals with modelling of pollutant transport through saturated aquifers. Using this model it is possible to predict the concentration distribution, spatial as well as temporal, in the aquifer. The paper also deals with one of the methods of controlling the pollutant movement, namely by pumping wells. A simulation model is developed to determine the number, location and rate of pumping of a number of wells near the source of pollution so that the concentration is within acceptable limits at the point of interest. (Author) (18 refs., 14 figs., tab.)

  3. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  4. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  5. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  6. Reproductive features of the deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidae, in the Strait of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. BIANCHINI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep‑water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846, is one of the most valuable and heavily exploited demersal species of the Mediterranean bottom trawl fisheries. The basic life traits of this shrimp, in particular its reproductive aspects, are regularly monitored during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Mediterranean Sea. Gonadic condition and maturity status for estimating the size at onset of sexual maturity are commonly assessed in females, using macroscopic color scales, histologically validated only in a few geographical areas. In this study, histological analyses were performed on rose shrimps collected from a trawl survey carried out in the Strait of Sicily, in order to support the empirical 4‑stage macroscopic scale locally employed. Ovaries from females of different sizes, ranging between 16 mm and 40 mm carapace length, were collected and used for microscopic examination of their structure, for oocytes counts and for oocyte diameter frequency distributions; oocytes diameter was measured by imaging analysis. The collected data were also used to estimate other basic vital parameters of the rose shrimp population. The histological observations show a broad correspondence between ovarian development and macroscopic features; therefore, the classifications derived by the empirical scale remain suitable for estimating the maturity parameters.

  7. Meiobenthos and nematode assemblages from different deep-sea habitats of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANDULLI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is currently devoted at upgrading our knowledge on biodiversity and functioning of deep water ecosystems. Information is constantly enriched by researchers, even from basins as the long-studied Mediterranean Sea. In such a perspective, we studied meiobenthic and nematode communities inhabiting muddy sediments from three different habitats at bathyal depths in the Strait of Sicily: a cold-water coral site (CS in the Maltese Coral Province, a muddy bottom in the same area (MS, and a hydrocarbon imprinted pockmark site (PS in the Gela Basin. The average meiofauna density at CS (1343 ind/10 cm2 and MS (1804 ind/10 cm2 is much higher than that reported in literature for similar habitats; it is also markedly more elevated than that recorded at PS (224 ind/10 cm2. Although nematodes of the three sites show different abundances, they share similar assemblage structure. Nematodes (avg. 86% and copepods (avg. 9.3% were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa at all sites followed by annelids, kinorhynchs and turbellarians. Nematodes were composed by 21 families and 46 genera, with Terschellingia, as most abundant genus (12.4%, followed by Microlaimus (11%, Daptonema (11%, Thalassomonhystera (10.8%, Acantholaimus (9.5% and Sabatieria (8.7%. The genera Thalassomonhystera, Terschellingia, Microlaimus, Daptonema, Chromadorita, Sabatieria, and Anticoma display a dominance in at least one station. The taxonomic structure of meiofaunal communities of the studied sites is rather similar but differences in relative abundance are evident.

  8. A unique fossil record from neptunian sills: the world's most extreme example of stratigraphic condensation (Jurassic, western Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jobst

    2017-06-01

    Neptunian sills at Rocca Busambra, a fragment of the Trapanese/Saccense Domain in western Sicily, host the most abundant ammonite and gastropod fauna which has ever been recorded from the Jurassic of the western Tethys. The fauna is dominated by parautochthonous organisms which were swept into the sills by gentle transport. Ammonites are characterized by perfect preservation and small size, a feature which is due to the predominance of microconchs but also of stunting. The most complete sill is 0.7 m thick and could be separated into 17 levels which range in age from the early Toarcian into the late Kimmeridgian, thus representing the most extreme case of palaeontologically and depositionally documented stratigraphic condensation in Earth history. The unique feature of the Rocca Busambra sills is due to the interaction of three processes: extreme stratigraphic condensation on the sea floor, weak tectonic fracturing of the host rock and repeated reopening on top of already existing sills. Contrasting percentages of gastropods in individual levels reflect sea-level oscillations which correspond to long known low- and highstands during the Jurassic of the western Tethys. Comparisons with other ammonite-bearing sill faunas reveal several similarities, but represent only short-timed phases of tectonic pulses and deposition.

  9. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  10. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  11. Evidence of aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome in a mummy from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Thompson, Randall C; Hergan, Klaus; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2018-06-08

    The authors report on the assessment of an anthropogenic mummy of a young man from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, tentatively dated from the mid- to late 19 th century AD. The mummy was investigated by full-body CT examination. CT images clearly showed aortic dissection classified as Stanford-A. Due to the relation of aortic dissection to inherited connective tissue diseases in young people, such as Marfan syndrome, conspicuous and pathological findings possibly indicating the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome were assessed. Several systemic features were scored that supported the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome in this mummy. These findings were: pectus carinatum and chest asymmetry, dural ectasia, protrusio acetabuli, dolichocephaly, down-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia and (probable) reduced elbow extension. Aortic dissection, a cardinal feature of Marfan syndrome, turned out to be the diagnostic key for the paleoradiological diagnosis of this disease. The demonstrated CT findings contribute to the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and inherited connective tissue disease in the fields of paleopathology and paleoradiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recognition of Earthquake-Induced Damage in the Abakainon Necropolis (NE Sicily): Results From Geomorphological, Geophysical and Numerical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, C.; Albano, M.; Capizzi, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Doumaz, F.; Martorana, R.; Moro, M.; Saroli, M.

    2018-01-01

    Seismotectonic activity and slope instability are a permanent threat in the archaeological site of Abakainon and in the nearby village of Tripi in NE Sicily. In recent times, signs of an ancient earthquake have been identified in the necropolis of Abakainon which dating was ascertained to the first century AD earthquake. The site is located on a slope of Peloritani Mts. along the Tindari Fault Line and contains evidence for earthquake-induced landslide, including fallen columns and blocks, horizontal shift and counter slope tilting of the tomb basements. In this paper, we used an integrated geomorphological and geophysical analysis to constrain the landslide. The research was directed to the acquisition of deep geological data for the reconstruction of slope process and the thickness of mobilized materials. The applied geophysical techniques included seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography. The surveys were performed to delineate the sliding surface and to assess approximately the thickness of mobilized materials. The geophysical and geomorphologic data confirmed the presence of different overlapped landslides in the studied area. Moreover, a numerical simulation of the slope under seismic loads supports the hypothesis of a mobilization of the landslide mass in case of strong earthquakes (PGA > 0.3 g). However, numerical results highlight that the main cause of destruction for the Abakainon necropolis is the amplification of the seismic waves, occasionally accompanied by surficial sliding.

  13. Characterization of soil bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities inhabiting archaeological human-impacted layers at Monte Iato settlement (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Öhlinger, Birgit; Cajthaml, Tomas; Kistler, Erich; Margesin, Rosa

    2018-01-30

    Microbial communities in human-impacted soils of ancient settlements have been proposed to be used as ecofacts (bioindicators) of different ancient anthropogenic activities. In this study, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities inhabiting soil of three archaic layers, excavated at the archaeological site on Monte Iato (Sicily, Italy) and believed to have been created in a chronological order in archaic times in the context of periodic cultic feasts, were investigated in terms of (i) abundance (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and quantitative PCR)), (ii) carbon(C)-source consumption patterns (Biolog-Ecoplates) and (iii) diversity and community composition (Illumina amplicon sequencing). PLFA analyses demonstrated the existence of living bacteria and fungi in the soil samples of all three layers. The upper layer showed increased levels of organic C, which were not concomitant with an increment in the microbial abundance. In taxonomic terms, the results indicated that bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were highly diverse, although differences in richness or diversity among the three layers were not detected for any of the communities. However, significantly different microbial C-source utilization patterns and structures of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in the three layers confirmed that changing features of soil microbial communities reflect different past human activities.

  14. Geo-helminthiasis among migrants in Sicily: a possible focus for re-emerging neurocysticercosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patamia, Ildebrando; Nicotra, Piermario; Amodeo, Davide; Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    A dramatic increasing immigration flow was recorded in Europe during the last years. Only in Sicily 120,239 people arrived in 2014. Immigrants may carry neglected tropical diseases endemic in their origin countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of geo-helminthiasis, and in particular of intestinal taeniasis, in a sample of migrants hosted in a large asylum seeker centre in the province of Catania. A stool sample was obtained from all the enrolled subjects and a coproparasitological examination was performed. Out of the 274 enrolled subjects (249 men; mean age 26.4 ± 6.2), 30 (11%) carried at least one helminthic infestation. Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris trichiura and Taenia species (spp) were the most common, the latter found in 6 (2.16%) subjects. T. solium carriers can represent a focus of infection for the more complex neurocysticercosis. Even if coproparasitological examination did not allow us to differentiate Taenia spp, we cannot exclude the presence of T. solium carriers among these subjects. Further studies, including coproantigen ELISA to detect Taenia spp, should be carried out in larger samples to better estimate the real burden of T. solium carriers.

  15. Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

  16. Joint Terrestrial and Aerial Measurements to Study Ground Deformation: Application to the Sciara Del Fuoco at the Stromboli Volcano (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2002–2003 Stromboli eruption triggered the failure of part of the Sciara del Fuoco slope, which generated a tsunami that struck the island and the northern coastline of Sicily. The Sciara del Fuoco is a very steep slope where all lava flows from the craters’ emplacement; most lateral eruptions usually take place from fissures propagating in this sector of the volcano. The eruption went on to produce a lava field that filled the area affected by the landslide. This in turn led to further instability, renewing the threat of another slope failure and a potentially related tsunami. This work describes a new joint approach, combining surveying data and aerial image correlometry methods, to study the motion of this unstable slope. The combination has the advantage of very precise surveying measurements, which can be considered the ground truth to constrain the very-high-resolution aerial photogrammetric data, thereby obtaining highly detailed and accurate ground deformation maps. The joint use of the two methods can be very useful to obtain a more complete image of the deformation field for monitoring dangerous and/or rather inaccessible places. The proposed combined methodology improves our ability to study and assess hazardous processes associated with significant ground deformation.

  17. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily both from near and far-field sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  18. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  19. Distribution and biology of the Blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Blackmouth catshark, Galeus melastomus, Rafinesque, 1810 (Carcharhiniformes; Scyliorhinidae, is a common, although at present discarded, by- catch of the bottom trawl fisheries in the Strait of Sicily. Given its ecological interest, data gathered in experimental bottom trawl surveys were analysed in order to describe its distribution and main biological traits. The Blackmouth catshark was sampled almost exclusively on the upper slope (200-800, showing the highest frequency of occurrence (69-100%, biomass (BI; 10-85 kg*km-2 and density (DI; 54-506 N*km-2 indexes in the deeper (501-800m grounds. Individual size (total length, TL, mm were between 70-590 and 90-510 in females and males, respectively. The sex ratio (SR was around 0.5. The SR by size showed a gradual decrease till 450 mm class size, followed by an increase up 1 after 500 mm. Virginal/immature specimens represented the bulk of the samples in both females (77% and males (65%; the length at 50% of sexual maturity (Lm50% and corresponding maturity range (Lm25% - Lm75% was 433 (423-443 and 380 (366-394 mm, respectively.

  20. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Peloritani Mts. (Sicily, Italy and clues for tectonic control of relief processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Guidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many destructive shallow landslides hit villages in the Peloritani Mountains area (Sicily, Italy on 1 October 2009 after heavy rainfall. The collection of several types of spatial data, together with a landslide inventory, allows the assessment of the landslide susceptibility by applying a statistical technique. The susceptibility model was validated by performing an analysis in a test area using independent landslide information, the results being able to correctly predict more than 70% of the landslides. Furthermore, the susceptibility analysis allowed the identification of which combinations of classes, within the different factors, have greater relevance in slope instability, and afterwards associating the most unstable combinations (with a short–medium term incidence with the endogenic processes acting in the area (huge regional uplift, fault activity. Geological and tectonic history are believed to be key to interpreting morphological processes and landscape evolution. Recent tectonic activity was found to be a very important controlling factor in landscape evolution. A geomorphological model of cyclical relief evolution is proposed in which endogenic processes are directly linked to superficial processes. The results are relevant both to risk reduction and the understanding of active geological dynamics.

  1. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy: preservation and economic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Di Maio

    Full Text Available In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy where traditional (non-industrial winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  2. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  3. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  4. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  5. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  6. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  7. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  8. Investigating river–aquifer relations using water temperature in an anthropized environment (Motril-Salobreña aquifer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duque, Carlos; Calvache, Marie; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2010-01-01

    Heat was applied as a tracer for determining river–aquifer relations in the Motril-Salobreña aquifer (S Spain). The aquifer has typically been recharged by River Guadalfeo infiltration, nevertheless from 2005 a dam was constructed changing the traditional dynamic river flow and recharge events...

  9. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  10. Hydrological controls on transient aquifer storage in a karst watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, P.; Martin, J.; Gulley, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    While surface storage of floodwaters is well-known to attenuate flood peaks, transient storage of floodwaters in aquifers is a less recognized mechanism of flood peak attenuation. The hydraulic gradient from aquifer to river controls the magnitude of transient aquifer storage and is ultimately a function of aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and effective porosity. Because bedrock and granular aquifers tend to have lower hydraulic conductivities and porosities, their ability to attenuate flood peaks is generally small. In karst aquifers, however, extensive cave systems create high hydraulic conductivities and porosities that create low antecedent hydraulic gradients between aquifers and rivers. Cave springs can reverse flow during high discharges in rivers, temporarily storing floodwaters in the aquifer thus reducing the magnitude of flood discharge downstream. To date however, very few studies have quantified the magnitude or controls of transient aquifer storage in karst watersheds. We therefore investigate controls on transient aquifer storage by using 10 years of river and groundwater data from the Suwannee River Basin, which flows over the karstic upper Floridan aquifer in north-central Florida. We use multiple linear regression to compare the effects of three hydrological controls on the magnitude of transient aquifer storage: antecedent stage, recharge and slope of hydrograph rise. We show the dominant control on transient aquifer storage is antecedent stage, whereby lower stages result in greater magnitudes of transient aquifer storage. Our results suggest that measures of groundwater levels prior to an event can be useful in determining whether transient aquifer storage will occur and may provide a useful metric for improving predictions of flood magnitudes.

  11. Can Remote Sensing Detect Aquifer Characteristics?: A Case Study in the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Thomas, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global water supply resiliency depends on groundwater, especially regions threatened by population growth and climate change. Aquifer characteristics, even as basic as confined versus unconfined, are necessary to prescribe regulations to sustainably manage groundwater supplies. A significant barrier to sustainable groundwater management exists in the difficulties associated with mapping groundwater resources and characteristics at a large spatial scale. This study addresses this challenge by investigating if remote sensing, including with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), can detect and quantify key aquifer parameters and characteristics. We explore this through a case study in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) of South America, validating our remote sensing-based findings against the best available regional estimates. The use of remote sensing to advance the understanding of large aquifers is beneficial to sustainable groundwater management, especially in a trans-boundary system, where consistent information exchange can occur within hydrologic boundaries instead of political boundaries.

  12. State Aquifer Recharge Atlas Plates, Geographic NAD83, LDEQ (1999) [aquifer_recharge_potential_LDEQ_1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the boundaries of aquifer systems in the state of Louisiana and adjacent areas of Texas, Arkansas and a portion of Mississippi....

  13. Volcanic degassing at Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) inferred by chemical and isotopic signatures of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliro, S. [Osservatorio Vesuviano sezione di Napoli dell' Istituto, Nazionale Geofisica Vulcanologia, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: caliro@ov.ingv.it; Chiodini, G. [Osservatorio Vesuviano sezione di Napoli dell' Istituto, Nazionale Geofisica Vulcanologia, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Naples (Italy); Avino, R. [Osservatorio Vesuviano sezione di Napoli dell' Istituto, Nazionale Geofisica Vulcanologia, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Naples (Italy); Cardellini, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Perugia (Italy); Frondini, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Perugia (Italy)

    2005-06-15

    A geochemical model is proposed for water evolution at Somma-Vesuvio, based on the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwaters, submarine gas emission and chemical composition of the dissolved gases. The active degassing processes, present in the highest part of the volcano edifice, strongly influence the groundwater evolution. The geological-volcanological setting of the volcano forces the waters infiltrating at Somma-Vesuvio caldera, enriched in volcanic gases, to flow towards the southern sector to an area of high pCO{sub 2} groundwaters. Reaction path modelling applied to this conceptual model, involving gas-water-rock interaction, highlights an intense degassing process in the aquifer controlling the chemical and isotopic composition of dissolved gases, total dissolved inorganic C (TDIC) and submarine gas emission. Mapping of TDIC shows a unique area of high values situated SSE of Vesuvio volcano with an average TDIC value of 0.039 mol/L, i.e., one order of magnitude higher than groundwaters from other sectors of the volcano. On the basis of TDIC values, the amount of CO{sub 2} transported by Vesuvio groundwaters was estimated at about 150 t/d. This estimate does not take into account the fraction of gas loss by degassing, however, it represents a relevant part of the CO{sub 2} emitted in this quiescent period by the Vesuvio volcanic system, being of the same order of magnitude as the CO{sub 2} diffusely degassed from the crater area.

  14. Volcanic degassing at Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) inferred by chemical and isotopic signatures of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Avino, R.; Cardellini, C.; Frondini, F.

    2005-01-01

    A geochemical model is proposed for water evolution at Somma-Vesuvio, based on the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwaters, submarine gas emission and chemical composition of the dissolved gases. The active degassing processes, present in the highest part of the volcano edifice, strongly influence the groundwater evolution. The geological-volcanological setting of the volcano forces the waters infiltrating at Somma-Vesuvio caldera, enriched in volcanic gases, to flow towards the southern sector to an area of high pCO 2 groundwaters. Reaction path modelling applied to this conceptual model, involving gas-water-rock interaction, highlights an intense degassing process in the aquifer controlling the chemical and isotopic composition of dissolved gases, total dissolved inorganic C (TDIC) and submarine gas emission. Mapping of TDIC shows a unique area of high values situated SSE of Vesuvio volcano with an average TDIC value of 0.039 mol/L, i.e., one order of magnitude higher than groundwaters from other sectors of the volcano. On the basis of TDIC values, the amount of CO 2 transported by Vesuvio groundwaters was estimated at about 150 t/d. This estimate does not take into account the fraction of gas loss by degassing, however, it represents a relevant part of the CO 2 emitted in this quiescent period by the Vesuvio volcanic system, being of the same order of magnitude as the CO 2 diffusely degassed from the crater area

  15. Nutrient Removal during Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery in an Anoxic Carbonate Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Page, Declan W; Dillon, Peter J; Barry, Karen E; Gonzalez, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Stormwater harvesting coupled to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides a means to use the often wasted stormwater resource while also providing protection of the natural and built environment. Aquifers can act as a treatment barrier within a multiple-barrier approach to harvest and use urban stormwater. However, it remains challenging to assess the treatment performance of a MAR scheme due to the heterogeneity of aquifers and MAR operations, which in turn influences water treatment processes. This study uses a probabilistic method to evaluate aquifer treatment performance based on the removal of total organic C (TOC), N, and P during MAR with urban stormwater in an anoxic carbonate aquifer. Total organic C, N, and P are represented as stochastic variables and described by probability density functions (PDFs) for the "injectant" and "recovery"; these injectant and recovery PDFs are used to derive a theoretical MAR removal efficiency PDF. Four long-term MAR sites targeting one of two tertiary carbonate aquifers (T1 and T2) were used to describe the nutrient removal efficiencies. Removal of TOC and total N (TN) was dominated by redox processes, with median removal of TOC between 50 and 60% at all sites and TN from 40 to 50% at three sites with no change at the fourth. Total P removal due to filtration and sorption accounted for median removal of 29 to 53%. Thus, the statistical method was able to characterize the capacity of the anoxic carbonate aquifer treatment barrier for nutrient removal, which highlights that aquifers can be an effective long-term natural treatment option for management of water quality, as well as storage of urban stormwater. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Risk assessment and management of an oil contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braxein, A.; Daniels, H.; Rouve, G.; Rubin, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the provision of the basic information needed for the decision making process regarding the remedial measures leading to reutilization of an oil contaminated aquifer. The study refers to the case history of jet fuel contamination of an aquifer comprising part of the coastal aquifer of Israel. Due to that contamination two major water supply wells were abandoned. This study examines the use of numerical simulations in order to restore the contamination history of the aquifer. Such simulations also provide quantitative information needed for the decision making process regarding the future management of the contaminated aquifer

  17. Remediation of a contaminated thin aquifer by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J.; Hoetzl, H. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany); Frank, K. [GEO-Service GmbH, Rheinmuenster (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    At an industrial site in Bruchsal (Germany) a huge trichloroethene contamination was found. After common remedial actions proved to be widely ineffective, new investigations led to a highly contaminated thin aquifer above the main aquifer. The investigation and the beginning of the remediation of the thin aquifer by two horizontal wells is described in this paper. Special attention was given to the dependence between precipitation and the flow direction in the thin aquifer and to hydraulic connections between the thin and the main aquifer. Also a short introduction into a new remedial technique by horizontal wells and first results of the test phase of the horizontal wells are given.

  18. Groundwater sustainability assessment in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work investigates the response of shallow, coastal unconfined aquifers to anticipated overdraft conditions and climate change effect using numerical simulation. The groundwater flow model MODFLOW and variable density groundwater model SEAWAT are used for this investigation. The transmissivity and ...

  19. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological

  20. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater aquifer using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrochemical data analysis revealed four sources of solutes. The processes responsible for their enrichment include: chemical weathering, leaching of the overlying sediments, domestic activities, climatic condition and the flow pattern of the aquifer. The factors have contributed to the changes of the groundwater chemistry ...

  1. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  2. Aquifer restoration: state of the art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knox, Robert C; Knox, R. C

    1986-01-01

    ... of chemicals or waste materials, improper underground injection of liquid wastes, and placement of septic tank systems in hydrologically and geologically unsuitable locations. Incidents of aquifer pollution from man's waste disposal activities have been discovered with increasing regularity. At the same time, demands for groundwater usage have been inc...

  3. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  4. VULNERABILITY AND RISK OF CONTAMINATION KARSTIC AQUIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Aguilar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Karstic systems occupy nearly 20% of the surface of the earth and are inhabited by numerous human communities. Karstic aquifers are the most exposed to pollution from human activities. Pollution of karstic aquifers is a severe environmental problem worldwide.  In order to face the vulnerability of karstic aquifers to pollution, researchers have created a diversity of study approaches and models, each one having their own strengths and weaknesses depending on the discipline from which they were originated, thus requiring a thorough discussion within the required multidisciplinary character. The objective of this article was to analyze the theoretical and methodological approaches applied to the pollution of karstic aquifers. The European hydrogeological, land evaluation, hydropedological and a geographic approach were analyzed. The relevance of a geomorphological analysis as a cartographic basis for the analysis of vulnerability and risks were emphasized. From the analysis of models, approaches and methodologies discussed the following recommendation is made: to form an interdisciplinary work team, to elaborate a conceptual model according to the site and the working scale and to e, apply and validate the model.

  5. isotopic characteristics of aquifers in sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gamal, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    the environmental isotopes data (expressed as δ 2 d and δ 18 O) of different aquifers in sinai were treated using correlation and regression techniques. whereas, rain water isotopic data were treated using empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) techniques. environmental isotopes for different aquifers expressed in terms of O-18 and H-2, were taken to represent the isotopic characteristics. regression equations using the highly correlated variables of δ 2 d and δ 18 O were constructed for each aquifer. the latitudinal variations (of rainwater in sinai and selected climatic stations east mediterranean ) versus rainwater isotopic compositions were analyzed using the normalized variables. it was found that the latitudinal variations of the rainwater isotopic compositions ( δ 2 D, δ 18 O), vapor pressure, and surface temperature occurred in parallel and decreased with latitude. in the east mediterranean, empirical linear relationship between altitude and δ 2 D has indicted that the rate of change of δ 2 D with height is comparable with the dry lapse rate in the atmosphere.The obtained regression equations of environmental isotopes data have impacted on different slopes and different constants expressing the non-homogeneity in the isotopic composition of rainwater recharging the aquifers of sinai , due to the presence of different air masses

  6. Isotope studies on mechanisms of groundwater recharge to an alluvial aquifer in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.; Morawska, L.

    1997-01-01

    Gatton is an important agricultural area for Queensland where about 40% of its vegetables needs are produced using groundwater as the main source. An alluvial Aquifer is located about 30m beneath the layers of alluvial sediments ranging from black soils of volcanic origin on top, layers of alluvial sands, clays and beds of sand and gravel. The leakage of creek flows has been considered to be the main source of recharge to this aquifer. A number of weirs have been built across the Lockyer and Laidley creeks to allow surface water to infiltrate through the beds when the creeks flow. Water levels in bores in a section located in the middle of the alluvial plain (Crowley Vale) have been declining for the last 20 years with little or no success in recharging from the creeks. Acute water shortages have been experienced in the Gatton area during the droughts of 1980-81, 1986-87 and 1994-97. Naturally occurring stable isotopes, 2 H, 18 0 and 13 C as well as radioisotopes 3 H and 14 C have been used to delineate sources of recharge and active recharge areas. Tritium tracing of soil moisture in the unsaturated soil was also used to determine direct infiltration rates

  7. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  8. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  9. Volcanic Characteristics of Kueishantao in Northeast Taiwan and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kueishantao (KST is a small offshore volcanic island located at the southernmost part of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we conducted a detailed mapping incorporating the new high resolution LiDAR DTM laser scanning device to accurately construct a volcanic sequence. A new 1/5000 geological map was established. One primary volcanic cone, composed of layers of both lava flows and pyroclastic rocks constituted the major edifice of KST. The other minor volcanic cone, which consists of volcanic lapillis and blocks, is seated to the east of the main cone. The escarped and nearly straight coast in the southern part of the KST indicates that the volcano suffered a large post-volcanic edifice collapse erasing nearly one half of the volume of both volcanic cones. The increase in the abundance of the xenoliths of sedimentary rocks from the lower to the upper part of the volcanic sequence indicates that the formation of volcanic rocks of the KST involved an intensification of crustal contamination. The possibility of volcanic eruption can not be excluded in the future based on the present thermolu¬minescene age data of 7 ka. The associated eruptive ash fall and tsunami induced by the further collapse of the KST volcanic edifice might have great influence to the adjacent inland. Thus, long-term monitoring of volcanic activities around KST should be required for future hazard assessments.

  10. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: constraints and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized

  11. Monogenetic volcanism: personal views and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, K.; Kereszturi, G.

    2015-11-01

    Monogenetic volcanism produces small-volume volcanoes with a wide range of eruptive styles, lithological features and geomorphic architectures. They are classified as spatter cones, scoria (or cinder) cones, tuff rings, maars (maar-diatremes) and tuff cones based on the magma/water ratio, dominant eruption styles and their typical surface morphotypes. The common interplay between internal, such as the physical-chemical characteristics of magma, and external parameters, such as groundwater flow, substrate characteristics or topography, plays an important role in creating small-volume volcanoes with diverse architectures, which can give the impression of complexity and of similarities to large-volume polygenetic volcanoes. In spite of this volcanic facies complexity, we defend the term "monogenetic volcano" and highlight the term's value, especially to express volcano morphotypes. This study defines a monogenetic volcano, a volcanic edifice with a small cumulative volume (typically ≤1 km3) that has been built up by one continuous, or many discontinuous, small eruptions fed from one or multiple magma batches. This definition provides a reasonable explanation of the recently recognized chemical diversities of this type of volcanism.

  12. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  13. Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scollo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of a project ongoing at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. The objective is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present by multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite, visual and thermal cameras, and three radar disdrometers able to detect ash dispersal and fallout. Forecasting is performed by using automatic procedures for: i downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii running models of tephra dispersal, iii plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing field data collected after the end of recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring system. The system was tested on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007 successfully. The potentiality use of monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, in a way to prevent threats to aviation from volcanic ash, is finally discussed.

  14. X-ray microanalysis of volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, S L; Buse, B

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated the disruptive nature of high-level volcanic ash emissions to the world's air traffic. The chemistry of volcanic material is complex and varied. Different eruptions yield both compositional and morphological variation. Equally a single eruption, such as that in Iceland will evolve over time and may potentially produce a range of volcanic products of varying composition and morphology. This variability offers the petrologist the opportunity to derive a tracer to the origins both spatially and temporally of a single particle by means of electron microbeam analysis. EPMA of volcanic ash is now an established technique for this type of analysis as used in tephrachronology. However, airborne paniculate material may, as in the case of Eyjafjallajökull, result in a particle size that is too small and too dispersed for preparation of standard EPMA mounts. Consequently SEM-EDS techniques are preferred for this type of quantitative analysis . Results of quantitative SEM-EDS analysis yield data with a larger precision error than EPMA yet sufficient to source the original eruption. Uncoated samples analyzed using variable pressure SEM yield slightly poorer results at modest pressures.

  15. Amazonian volcanism inside Valles Marineris on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, E.; Wray, J. J.; Michael, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 473, September (2017), s. 122-130 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars * Valles Marineris * volcanism * scoria cone * hydrothermal activity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2016

  16. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M

    2017-11-14

    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  17. Environment tracers application to groundwater circulation assessment in an alluvial aquifer in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Maurizio; Vitale, Stefania

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important tool in order to plan any groundwater protection strategy. The aim of this study is to experiment a specific approach to give a conceptual model about groundwater circulation characterization. This approach has been applied to a suspected contaminated site in a large alluvial plan, made of sediments coming from weathered volcanic rocks, laying on marine sediments, where more than thirty years ago had been built a very important urban waste solid landfill. In referring to this case history it has been pointed out the importance of natural chemical interaction between ground water and rock mass, especially when pyroclastic origin sediments are involved. The landfill had been isolated from the surrounding environment, especially to protect aquifers, by a waterproof diaphragm This land is characterised by intensive agricultural and industrial activities (oil refineries, medical waste incinerators, concrete production, tar factory). The study will highlight the importance of environmental tracers which provide information about the flow and mixing processes of water coming from different sources. They are also useful to point out directions of groundwater flow and to determine origin Environmental tracers are natural chemical and isotopic substances that can be measured in groundwater and used to understand hydrologic properties of aquifers. They may be input into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. In combination with these, the basic idea is to use. In this case enviromental tracers have been integrated by temperature and electric conductivity logs, to better investigate different levels of faster

  18. Sources of Quaternary volcanism in the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoazanamparany, C.; Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.; Raharimahefa, T.; Rakotondrazafy, F. M. A.; Rakotondravelo, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present new major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope data for Quaternary basaltic lavas and tephra from the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, representing the most recent volcanism in Madagascar. Mafic magmas from Itasy and Ankaratra exhibit significant inter- and intra-volcanic field geochemical heterogeneity. The Itasy eruptive products range in composition from foidite to phonotephrite whereas Ankaratra lavas range from basanite to trachybasalts. Trace element signatures of samples from both volcanic fields are very similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), with significant enrichment in Nb and Ta, depletion in Rb, Cs, and K, and relatively high Nb/U and Ce/Pb. However, the Itasy volcanic rocks show enrichment relative to those of Ankaratra in most incompatible elements, indicative of a more enriched source and/or lower degrees of partial melting. Significant inter- and intra-volcanic field heterogeneity is also observed in Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope signatures. The Itasy volcanic rocks generally have less radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic ratios but more radiogenic Pb isotopic signatures than the Ankaratra volcanic field. Together, the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic rocks form a well-defined negative correlation in Sr vs. Pb isotopes that could be attributed to lithospheric contamination or variable degrees of mixing between distinct mantle sources. However, the lack of correlation between isotopes and indices of crustal contamination (e.g. MgO and Nb/U) are inconsistent with shallow lithospheric contamination, and instead suggest mixing between compositionally distinct mantle sources. Furthermore, although Sr-Pb isotope systematics are apparently consistent with mixing between two different sources, distinct trends in Sr vs. Nd isotopes displayed by samples from Itasy and Ankaratra, respectively, argue for more complex source mixing involving three or more sources. The current data demonstrate that although the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic

  19. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  20. Fluids in volcanic and geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvaldason, Gudmundur E.

    Mineral buffers control the composition of most volatile components of magmas and dissolved species in geothermal fluids. The only element which occurs in significant quantities in volcanic and geothermal fluids and is not controlled by mineral buffers is chlorine. It is argued that in absence of marine influence, geothermal fluids reflect the chlorine content of associated magmatic fluids. The chlorine content of oceanic volcanic rocks has a positive correlation with elements, which are believed to indicate a heterogenous source region. Since the source is generally believed to be the Earth's mantle, the implication is that the mantle is heterogenous with regard to chlorine and other volatiles. Such heterogeneities would have important consequences for genesis and distribution of ore. All major magma types of the oceanic environment occur in Iceland. Their spatial distribution is closely related to a volcanotectonic pattern, suggesting crustal control. A geophysical model of crustal accretion in a rift zone is used in conjunction with classical petrology to predict geochemical processes in a rift zone crust. The model has two kinematic parameters-drift rate and subsidence rate-which combined describe trajectories of mass particles deposited on the surface. When considering in conjunction with thermal gradients of the rift zone a series of metamorphic reactions and chemical fractionation processes are bound to occur, eventually resulting in a layering of the oceanic crust. The physical parameters result in a derived variable, rift zone residence time, which depends on the width of a rift zone. Long residence times in a wide rift zone lead to multistage recycling of material. Other properties of the model, based on geometric arrangement of productive fissure swarms within a rift zone, explain off-rift volcanism as directly related to rift zone processes, either as plate trapped magmatic domains or a transgressive thermal anomaly into an older crust. Off

  1. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN: Bedrock Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows bedrock aquifer systems of the State of Indiana. The source scale of the map depicting the aquifers...

  2. Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy, is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the time and spatial analysis of water table elevation, temperature and electric conductivity data, acquired during the last 20 years in 33 wells located at Vulcano Island, with the aim of developing a groundwater circulation scheme able to fit the field observations. We retrieved a circulation scheme characterized by an intricate geometry of flow paths driven by horizontal and vertical permeability variations, accounting for the strong variability of geochemical data evidenced in this area by the related scientific literature. Extending these results to a general context, particular care must be taken in approaching the study of aquifers in volcanic islands, because a strong, small spatial scale variability of the hydrogeochemical parameters is expected, and a reliable knowledge of the local conditions is required for developing successful groundwater circulation schemes.

  3. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  4. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  5. Using stable isotopes to characterize groundwater recharge sources in the volcanic island of Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Susana; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Figueira, Celso

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogeology of volcanic islands remains poorly understood, despite the fact that populations that live on them rely on groundwater as a primary water source. This situation is exacerbated by their complex structure, geological heterogeneity, and sometimes active volcanic processes that hamper easy analysis of their hydrogeological dynamics. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool that has been used to assess groundwater dynamics in complex terrains. In this work, stable isotopes are used to better understand the hydrogeology of Madeira Island and provide a case-study that can serve as a basis for groundwater studies in other similar settings. The stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δ2H) of rain at the main recharge areas of the island is determined, as well as the sources and altitudes of recharge of several springs, groundwater in tunnels and wells. The water in tunnels was found to be recharged almost exclusively by rain in the deforested high plateaus, whilst several springs associated with shallow perched aquifers are recharged from rain and cloud water interception by the vegetated slopes. Nevertheless some springs thought to be sourced from deep perched aquifers, recharge in the central plateaus, and their isotopic composition is similar to the water in the tunnels. Recharge occurs primarily during autumn and winter, as evidenced by the springs and tunnels Water Lines (WL). The groundwater in wells appears to originate from runoff from rain that falls along the slopes that infiltrates near the streams' mouths, where the wells are located. This is evident by the evaporation line along which the wells plot. Irrigation water is also a possible source of recharge. The data is compatible with the hydrogeological conceptual model of Madeira. This work also shows the importance of cloud water interception as a net contributor to groundwater recharge, at least in the perched aquifers that feed numerous springs. As the amount of rainfall is expected to

  6. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of unconfined aquifer located in the alteration mantle of the Serra Geral Formation, in the Taquari-Antas river basin, northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cemin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of the unconfined aquifer located in the alteration mantle in the volcanic rocks from Serra Geral Formation, in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. This aquifer is conditioned by the soil, topography, lithology and climate, being characterized by a saturated layer thinner than 1,7 m, static levels between 0 and 1 m and low flow (<0,5 m3/h. These waters are of calcium or magnesium bicarbonate type, and low alkalinity and electrical conductivity, low calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations, and high iron and manganese concentrations. Additionally, these waters have high concentration of nitrates (mean above 10 mg/L and the presence of total coliforms. These characteristics evidence a quick circulation between the recharging and discharge zones in the aquifer.

  7. Pacific seamount volcanism in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    Seamounts constitute some of the most direct evidence about intraplate volcanism. As such, when seamounts formed and into which tectonic setting they erupted (i.e. on-ridge or off-ridge) are a useful reflection of how the properties of the lithosphere interact with magma generation in the fluid mantle beneath. Proportionately few seamounts are radiometrically dated however, and these tend to be recently active. In order to more representatively sample and better understand Pacific seamount volcanism this paper estimates the eruption ages (tvolc) of 2706 volcanoes via automated estimates of lithospheric strength. Lithospheric strength (GTRrel) is deduced from the ratio of gravity to topography above the summits of volcanoes, and is shown to correlate with seafloor age at the time of volcanic loading (Δt) at 61 sites where radiometric constraints upon Δt exist. A trend of fits data for these 61, and with seafloor age (tsf) known, can date the 2706 volcanoes; tvolc = tsf - Δt. Widespread recurrences of volcanism proximal to older features (e.g. the Cook-Austral alignment in French Polynesia) suggest that the lithosphere exerts a significant element of control upon the location of volcanism, and that magmatic throughput leaves the lithosphere more susceptible to the passage of future melts. Observations also prompt speculation that: the Tavara seamounts share morphological characteristics and isostatic compensation state with the Musicians, and probably formed similarly; the Easter Island chain may be a modern analogy to the Cross-Lines; a Musicians - South Hawaiian seamounts alignment may be deflecting the Hawaiian hotspot trace.

  8. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  9. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  10. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  11. San Pedro River Aquifer Binational Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James B.; Minjárez Sosa, Ismael; Tapia Villaseñor, Elia María; dos Santos, Placido; Monreal Saavedra, Rogelio; Grijalva Noriega, Franciso Javier; Huth, A. K.; Gray, Floyd; Scott, C. A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz Ramos, L. A.; Rangel Medina, Miguel; Leenhouts, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States and Mexico share waters in a number of hydrological basins and aquifers that cross the international boundary. Both countries recognize that, in a region of scarce water resources and expanding populations, a greater scientific understanding of these aquifer systems would be beneficial. In light of this, the Mexican and U.S. Principal Engineers of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) signed the “Joint Report of the Principal Engineers Regarding the Joint Cooperative Process United States-Mexico for the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program" on August 19, 2009 (IBWC-CILA, 2009). This IBWC “Joint Report” serves as the framework for U.S.-Mexico coordination and dialogue to implement transboundary aquifer studies. The document clarifies several details about the program such as background, roles, responsibilities, funding, relevance of the international water treaties, and the use of information collected or compiled as part of the program. In the document, it was agreed by the parties involved, which included the IBWC, the Mexican National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora, to study two priority binational aquifers, one in the San Pedro River basin and the other in the Santa Cruz River basin. This report focuses on the Binational San Pedro Basin (BSPB). Reasons for the focus on and interest in this aquifer include the fact that it is shared by the two countries, that the San Pedro River has an elevated ecological value because of the riparian ecosystem that it sustains, and that water resources are needed to sustain the river, existing communities, and continued development. This study describes the aquifer’s characteristics in its binational context; however, most of the scientific work has been undertaken for many years by each country without full knowledge of the conditions on the other side of the border. The general objective of this study is to

  12. Local soil classification and crop suitability: Implications for the historical land use and soil management in Monti di Trapani (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Corselli, Rocco; Bonet, María Teresa; Lopapa, Giuseppe; Pillitteri, Valentina; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    In the past, the lack of technologies (e.g. synthetic fertilizers) to overcome biophysical limitations has played a central role in land use planning. Thus, landscape management and agronomic practices are reactions to local knowledge and perceptions on natural resources, particularly soil. In the framework of the European research project MEMOLA (FP7), the role of local farmers knowledge and perceptions on soil for the historical land use through the spatial distribution of crops and the various management practices have been assessed in three different areas of Monti di Trapani region (Sicily). The identification of the soil classification systems of farmers and the criteria on which it is based, linked to the evaluation of the farmers' ability to identify and map the different soil types, was a key step. Nevertheless, beyond the comparison of the ethnopedological classification approach versus standard soil classification systems, the study also aims at understanding local soil management and land use decisions. The applied methodology was based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining soil science methods and participatory appraisal tools, particularly: i) semi-structured interviews; ii) soil sampling and analysis; iii) discussion groups; and iv) a workshop with local edafologists and agronomists. A rich local glossary of terms associated with the soil conditions and an own soil classification system have been identified in the region. Also, a detailed soil map, including process of soil degradation and soil capability, has been generated. This traditional soil knowledge has conditioned the management and the spatial distribution of the crops, and therefore the configuration of the landscape, until the 1990s. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union project MEMOLA (Grant agreement no: 613265).

  13. High-Frequency Ground-Motion Parameters from Weak-Motion Data in the Sicily Channel and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Akinci, Aybige; Pischiutta, Marta

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we characterize the high frequency (1.0 - 10 Hz) seismic wave crustal attenuation and the source excitation in the Sicily Channel and surrounding regions using background seismicity from weak-motion database. The data set includes 15995 waveforms related to earthquakes having local magnitude ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 recorded between 2006 and 2012. The observed and predicted ground motions form the weak-motion data are evaluated in several narrow frequency bands from 0.25 to 20.0 Hz. The filtered observed peaks are regressed to specify a proper functional form for the regional attenuation, excitation and site specific term separately. The results are then used to calibrate effective theoretical attenuation and source excitation models using the Random Vibration Theory (RVT). In the log-log domain, the regional seismic wave attenuation and the geometrical spreading coefficient are modeled together. The geometrical spreading coefficient, g (r), modeled with a bilinear piecewise functional form and given as g (r) ∝ r-1.0 for the short distances (r selected reference distance with a magnitude independent roll-off spectral parameter, κ 0.04 s and with a Brune stress drop parameter increasing with moment magnitude, from Δσ = 2 MPa for Mw = 2.0 to Δσ = 13 MPa for Mw = 4.5. For events M≤4.5 (being Mwmax = 4.5 available in the dataset) the stress parameters are obtained by correlating the empirical/excitation source spectra with the Brune spectral model as function of magnitude. For the larger magnitudes (Mw>4.5) outside the range available in the calibration dataset where we do not have recorded data, we extrapolate our results through the calibration of the stress parameters of the Brune source spectrum over the Bindi et al. (2011) ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) selected as a reference model (hereafter also ITA10).

  14. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  15. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Favara, Rocco; Valenza, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line (δD = 6.50 δ 18 O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average 2 H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the δ 18 O vs δD relationship for Hyblean groundwater is δD = 4.85 δ 18 O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes

  16. Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Trafficking: The case of Romanian women in the agricultural sector in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on labour and sexual exploitation faced by Romanian female workers employed in the agricultural sector in Ragusa, Sicily, Italy. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in 2013 and 2014 with Romanian female farm workers in Ragusa, the paper identifies factors that contribute towards their vulnerability to exploitation. By paying specific attention to the experiences of women who are mothers with dependent children, we look at structural factors that increase their vulnerability and consider how this vulnerability ‘forces’ women into situations whereby they effectively accept and/or submit to abuse. We also highlight how European Union (EU citizenship does not automatically protect migrants from such abuse. This is important because, as we argue, the mistreatment experienced by participants in this study can be regarded as cases of forced labour and trafficking, based on International Labour Organization (ILO indicators[1] and the definition of trafficking provided by the Directive 2011/36/EU. For a long time, these cases have mostly been neglected by incompetent authorities or addressed using only repressive and assistentialist approaches. Thus, this paper also investigates the limits and potentialities of the Italian legal framework on trafficking, and the ways local institutions and organisations confront the rights violations occurring in the agricultural sector. We contend that in order to effectively counter these phenomena, labour rights measures and anti-trafficking interventions have to be combined based on a comprehensive approach aimed not only at assisting victims, but also at tackling the structural factors that create their vulnerability. [1] ILO, ‘ILO Indicators of Forced Labour’, International Labour Office, 2012, retrieved 11 August 2015, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_203832.pdf

  17. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

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    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards patients with HIV/AIDS in staff nurses in one university hospital in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marranzano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards patients with HIV/AIDS are of ongoing interest, especially in developing countries. Nothing or very little is known about Italian nurses.Methods: HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the nurses (n=107 from one university hospital inCatania,Sicily, were documented. Comparisons among nurses belonging to different Operative Units (O.U. were conducted by the chi-square test (P<0.05.Results: although HIV was nurses’ main concern in regard to contracting infections in the workplace (54%, the vast majority of them (98% had never refused an HIV/AIDS patient care assignment. Moreover, despite their concern of being more at risk of contracting HIV than the general population (41%, a not negligible percentage of nurses did not use gloves routinely (21% and only a few treated all patients as potentially HIV-positive (9%. The vast majority of the respondents knew the meaning of AIDS (87% and of a positive serological test (78%. On the contrary, a relatively low percentage of them knew what is the ‘window period’ (62% and were acquainted with HIV pathophysiology (65%. No statistically significant differences in terms of risk perception were found between nurses who had previously attended an HIV/AIDS workshop, lecture or specific course (43% and nurses who did not (57%. Level of knowledge was positively associated to age (P=0.000 and to education (P=0.016, and it was found higher in nurses working in a O.U. of Infectious Diseases.Conclusions: data from our study show that also in developed countries, such as Italy, nurses could have some misconceptions and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The importance of examining the impact of continuing education on nurses’ preparedness to care for patients with HIV/AIDS and to prevent the risks of occupational HIV transmission is discussed. 

  19. New Metacentric Populations and Phylogenetic Hypotheses Involving Whole-Arm Reciprocal Translocation in Mus musculus domesticus from Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Capanna, Ernesto; Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Bizzoco, Domenico; Zambigli, Emanuela; Solano, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is characterized by more than 100 metacentric populations, due to the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, together with the standard all-telocentric karyotype (2n = 40). We examined G-banded karyotypes of 18 mice from 10 localities in Sicily and describe 3 new metacentric populations: 'Ragusa Ibla' (IRAG), 2n = 33-36, Rb(2.4), Rb(5.6), Rb(9.16), Rb(13.17); 'Piana degli Albanesi' (IPIA), 2n = 23, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.5), Rb(4.12), Rb(6.11), Rb(7.8), Rb(9.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17); 'Trapani' (ITRA), 2n = 22, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.7), Rb(4.12), Rb(5.9), Rb(6.11), Rb(8.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17). Three mice belonged to the previously reported 'Castelbuono' race (ICAS), 2n = 24, which is very similar to the nearby 'Palermo' (IPAL) race, 2n = 26. Three Rb fusions not yet observed in wild mouse populations were identified: Rb(3.5), Rb(3.7) and Rb(5.9). Rb fusions shared among 4 races (IPIA, IRAG, ICAS, and IPAL) allowed us to describe their potential phylogenetic relationships. We obtained 2 alternative phylogenetic trees. The differences between them are mainly due to various modes of formation of IPIA and ITRA. In the first hypothesis, the specific Rb fusions occurred independently. In the second, those of IRAG originated from those of IPIA via whole-arm reciprocal translocations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The «Consuetudines terre Platee»:an example of the culture of writing in late medieval Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Titone

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analises the Consuetudines terre Platee, a collection of public written records registered in a single volume by the community of Piazza. The collection starts around the 1390, and continues in the following centuries, maintaining a central role in the documentary landscape of the city. The Consuetudines, as a monument to the collective memory of the town, are a key-element in the making of the urban identity and in defining the role of the universitas in the kingdom of Sicily. In this sense, the collection allows the historian both to find out the social changes and the institutional experiments in the local society, and to analyse the city’s political struggles and confrontations with the central government. In the first half of the 14th century, the community of Piazza is recognised as an autonomous juridical entity (a universitas thanks to some important royal concessions. In the second half of 14th century, the increasing complexity of the dynamics between the town and the central governement reveals the growing articulation of the urban institutions. During the 15th century, many elements in the volume reveal more and more clearly the growing conscience of one of the main purposes of writing and preserving public acts: to organise the memory and the transmission of the written texts on which is based the urban authonomy seems in fact to be the best way to guarantee that these same royal concessions would be respected. In the same period, the collection shows also a growing attention to the different political factions in the city, becoming even more eloquent about the social and political framework of the urban society.

  1. Study of capillary absorption kinetics by X-ray CT imaging techniques: a survey on sedimentary rocks of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Schillaci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary rocks are natural porous materials with a great percent of microscopic interconnected pores: they contain fluids, permitting their movement on macroscopic scale. Generally, these rocks present porosity higher then metamorphic rocks. Under certain points of view, this feature represents an advantage; on the other hand, this can constitute an obstacle for cultural heritage applications, because the porosity grade can lead to a deterioration of the lapideous monument for water capillary absorption. In this paper, CT (Computerized Tomography image techniques are applied to capillary absorption kinetics in sedimentary rocks utilized for the Greek temples as well as baroc monuments, respectively located in western and southeastern Sicily. Rocks were sampled near the archaeological areas of Agrigento, Segesta, Selinunte and Val di Noto. CT images were acquired at different times, before and after the water contact, using image elaboration techniques during the acquisition as well as the post-processing phases. Water distribution into porous spaces has been evaluated on the basis of the Hounsfield number, estimated for the 3-D voxel structure of samples. For most of the considered samples, assumptions based on Handy model permit to correlate the average height of the wetting front to the square root of time. Stochastic equations were introduced in order to describe the percolative water behavior in heterogeneous samples, as the Agrigento one. Before the CT acquisition, an estimate of the capillary absorption kinetics has been carried out by the gravimetric method. A petrographical characterization of samples has been performed by stereomicroscope observations, while porosity and morphology of porous have been surveyed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope images. Furthermore, the proposed methods have also permitted to define penetration depth as well as distribution uniformity of materials used for restoration and conservation of historical

  2. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material.

  3. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of Hydro

  5. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime

    2015-04-01

    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  6. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  7. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  8. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  9. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  10. Aquifer thermal energy storage in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iihola, H; Ala-Peijari, T; Seppaenen, H

    1988-01-01

    The rapid changes and crises in the field of energy during the 1970s and 1980s have forced us to examine the use of energy more critically and to look for new ideas. Seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (T < 100/sup 0/C) on a large scale is one of the grey areas which have not yet been extensively explored. However, projects are currently underway in a dozen countries. In Finland there have been three demonstration projects from 1974 to 1987. International co-operation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, Annex VI, 'Environmental and Chemical Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers and Research and Development of Water Treatment Methods' started in 1987. The research being undertaken in 8 countries includes several elements fundamental to hydrochemistry and biochemistry.

  11. Study of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masaaki; Umemiya, Hiromichi; Shibuya, Ikuko; Haga, Eiji

    Yamagata University 'Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES)' is the experimental system which has been running since 1982. From the results for along terms of experiments, we obtain many important knowledge. This paper presents the accomplishments for 16 years and the characteristics of thermal energy storage in thermal energy storage well. The conclusions show as follows. 1)In recent years, the thermal recovery factor of warm energy storage well becomes almost constant at about 60%. 2) The thermal recovery factor of cool energy storage well increases gradually and becomes at about 15%. 3) Since the ferric colloidal dam is formed in aquifer, thermal recovery factor increase year after year. 4) Back wash can remove clogging for ferric colloidal dam. 5) The apparent thermal diffusivity decrease gradually due to ferric colloidal dam.

  12. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  13. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  14. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  15. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  16. The scaling of experiments on volcanic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eMERLE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the basic principles of the scaling procedure are first reviewed by a presentation of scale factors. Then, taking an idealized example of a brittle volcanic cone intruded by a viscous magma, the way to choose appropriate analogue materials for both the brittle and ductile parts of the cone is explained by the use of model ratios. Lines of similarity are described to show that an experiment simulates a range of physical processes instead of a unique natural case. The pi theorem is presented as an alternative scaling procedure and discussed through the same idealized example to make the comparison with the model ratio procedure. The appropriateness of the use of gelatin as analogue material for simulating dyke formation is investigated. Finally, the scaling of some particular experiments such as pyroclastic flows or volcanic explosions is briefly presented to show the diversity of scaling procedures in volcanology.

  17. Volcanic emission of radionuclides and magma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Ardouin, B.; Le Roulley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po, the last decay products of the 238 U series, are highly enriched in volcanic plumes, relative to the magma composition. Moreover this enrichment varies over time and from volcano to volcano. A model is proposed to describe 8 years of measurements of Mt. Etna gaseous emissions. The lead and bismuth coefficients of partition between gaseous and condensated phases in the magma are determined by comparing their concentrations in lava flows and condensated volatiles. In the case of volatile radionuclides, an escaping time is calculated which appears to be related to the volcanic activity. Finally, it is shown that that magma which is degassing can already be partly degassed; it should be considered as a mixture of a few to 50% of deep non-degassed magma with a well degassed superficial magma cell. (orig.)

  18. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  19. Increasing freshwater recovery upon aquifer storage : A field and modelling study of dedicated aquifer storage and recovery configurations in brackish-saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface may provide opportunities for robust, effective, sustainable, and cost-efficient freshwater management solutions. For instance, via aquifer storage and recovery (ASR; Pyne, 2005): “the storage of water in a suitable aquifer through a well during times when water is available, and the

  20. Coping with volcanic hazards; a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to some other natural hazards-such as floods, storms, earthquakes, landslides- volcanic hazards strike infrequently. However, in populated areas , even very small eruptions can wreak havoc and cause widespread devastation. For example, the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia ejected only about 3 percent of the volume of ash produced during the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Yet, the mudflows triggered by this tiny eruption killed more than 25,000 people.

  1. Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.

  2. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  3. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  4. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution. Chemical extractions of the reduced sediments have also been performed, to determine the rate of Fe(II) and U(IV) accumulation.

  5. Carbon-14 measurements in aquifers with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.F.; Fritz, P.; Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 )>-45 per mille and microbially produced or biogenic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 ) 13 C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14 C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14 C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14 C activity. The adjusted groundwater ages can be explained in terms of the complex hydrogeology of this aquifer, but also indicate that these conceptual models must be more rigorously tested to evaluate their appropriateness. (author)

  6. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  7. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  8. Geoethics implications in volcanic hazards in Argentina: 24 years of uninterrupted ash-fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.; Uber, Silvia M.; Vázquez Herrera, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of falling ash reaches all human activities, has effects on human and animal health and is subject to climate and ecosystem of the affected regions. From 1991 until 2015 (24 years), more than 5 eruptions with VEI ≥ 4 in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes occurred; pyroclastic, dust and volcanic ash were deposited (mostly) in Argentina. A recurring situation during eruptions of Hudson (1991), Chaiten (2008), Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (2011) and Calbuco (2015) volcanoes was the accumulation, storage and dump of volcanic ash in depressed areas, beaches, lakes, ditches, storm drains, areas of landfills and transfer stations. The issues that this practice has taken are varied: pollution of aquifers, changes in geomorphology and water courses, usually in "inconspicuous" zones, often in places where there are precarious population or high poverty settlements. The consequences are not immediate but the effects in the mid and long term bring serious drawbacks. On the contrary, a good example of intelligent management of the volcanic impact occurred many years before, during the eruption of Descabezado Grande (Quizapu) volcano in 1932. In that case, and as an example, the city of Trenque Lauquen, located nearly 770 km east of the volcano, decided a communitarian task of collection and burial of the ashfall in small areas, this was a very successful performance. The Quizapu ash plumes transported by the Westerlies (winds) covered with a blanket of volcanic ash the city, ashfall also reached the capital cities of Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay (Montevideo). Also, the bagging process of volcanic ash with reinforced plastics was an example of Good Practice in the management of the emergency. This allowed the entire affected community to take advantage of this "mineral resource" and contributes to achieving collective and participatory work leading to commercialization and sustainability of these products availed as fertilizers, granular base for ceramics and

  9. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  10. Hydrology of the shallow aquifer and uppermost semiconfined aquifer near El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.E.; Baker, E.T.; Sperka, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The availability of fresh ground water in El Paso and adjacent areas that is needed to meet increased demand for water supply concerns local, State, and Federal agencies. The Hueco bolson is the principal aquifer in the El Paso area. Starting in the early 1900s and continuing to the 1950s, most of the municipal and industrial water supply in El Paso was pumped from the Hueco bolson aquifer from wells in and near the Rio Grande Valley and the international border. The Rio Grande is the principal surface-water feature in the El Paso area, and a major source of recharge to the shallow aquifer (Rio Grande alluvium) within the study area is leakage of flow from the Rio Grande.

  11. Archaeometric investigation of red-figured pottery fragments from Gioiosa Guardia (Messina, Sicily) by INAA, FT-IR and TOF-ND techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilaro, D.; Crupi, V.; Interdonato, S.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is addressed to the study of some precious ancient pottery fragments, coming from the archaeological site of Gioiosa Guardia, in the Tirrenean Coast of Sicily. On the basis of historical and aesthetic considerations, the findings are dated back to 6.-5. Century b.C. and show a surface entirely decorated by red-figured technique, typical of Attic production. Many doubts arise about the real provenance of the artefacts. On one side, they could come directly from Greece, as attested by trading patterns between Greece and Southern Italy, on the other side, they could be produced in Sicily under the Greek artistic influence. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the samples, a microdistruttive investigation was performed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) and a non-invasive analysis by time-of-flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Starting from the identification of the mineralogical and geochemical composition, a correct classification of the shards can be achieved.

  12. Historical analysis of rainfall-triggered rockfalls: the case study of the disaster of the ancient hydrothermal Sclafani Spa (Madonie Mts, northern-central Sicily, Italy) in 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Antonio; Bova, Patrizia; Esposito, Giuseppe; Giuffré, Ignazio; Monteleone, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    In 1851, the region of Sicily experienced many rainstorm-induced landslides. On 13 March 1851, a rainstorm brought about a severe rockfall disaster near the small town of Sclafani (Madonie Mountains, northern-central Sicily, Italy). Rocks detached from the carbonate crest of Mt Sclafani (813 m above sea level) and fell downslope, causing the collapse of the ancient hydrothermal spa (about 430 m above sea level) and burying it. Fortunately, there were no injuries or victims. Given its geological, geomorphological and tectonic features, the calcareous-dolomitic and carbonate-siliciclastic relief of Mt Sclafani is extremely prone to landsliding. This study combines the findings of detailed geological and geomorphological field surveys and of a critical review of documentary data. A thorough analysis of documentary sources and historical maps made it possible to identify the location (previously unknown) of the ancient spa. The rockfall dynamics was reconstructed by comparing field reconnaissance data and documentary sources. The 1851 event reconstruction is an example of the application of an integrated methodological approach, which can yield a propaedeutic, yet meaningful picture of a natural disaster, paving the way for further research (e.g. slope failure susceptibility, future land-use planning, protection of thermal springs and mitigation of the impact of similar disasters in this area). Indeed, the intensification of extreme weather events, caused by global warming induced by climate change, has increased the risk of recurrence of a catastrophic event, like that of the ancient Sclafani spa, which is always a potential threat.

  13. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  14. Neogene volcanism in Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Kovacs

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of volcanism developed in Gutâi Mts. (inner volcanic chain of Eastern Carpathians: a felsic, extensional/“back-arc” type and an intermediate, arc type. The felsic volcanism of explosive origin, consisting of caldera-related rhyolitic ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics, had taken place during Early-Middle Badenian and Early Sarmatian. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The geochemical study on the volcanic rocks shows the calc-alkaline character of both felsic and intermediate volcanism and typical subduction zones geochemical signatures for the intermediate one. The felsic volcanism shows affinities with subduction-related rocks as well. The main petrogenetic process in Gutâi Mts. was crustal assimilation, strongly constrained by trace element and isotope geochemistry.

  15. Recharge and Aquifer Response: Manukan Island’s Aquifer, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarva Mangala Praveena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Manukan Island is a small island located in North-West of Sabah, Malaysia was used as a case study area for numerical modeling of an aquifer response to recharge and pumping rates. The results in this study present the variations of recharge into the aquifer under the prediction simulations. The recharge rate increases the water level as indicated by hydraulic heads. This shows that it can alter groundwater of Manukan Island which has been suffering from an overexploration in its unconfined the aquifer. The increase in recharge rate (from 600 mm/year to 750 mm/year increases the water level indicated by hydraulic heads. A reduction in pumping rate (from 0.072 m3/day to 0.058 m3/day not only increases the amount of water levels in aquifer but also reduces the supply hence a deficit in supply. The increase in hydraulic heads depends on the percentage reduction of pumping and recharges rates. The well water has 1978.3 mg/L chloride with current pumping (0.072 m3/day and recharge rates (600 mm/year. However, with an increased of recharge rate and current pumping rate it has decreased about 1.13%. In addition, reduction in pumping rate made the chloride concentration decreased about 2.8%. In general, a reduction in pumping with an increase in recharge rate leads to a decreased in chloride concentrations within the vicinity of cone of depression. Next, to further develop the numerical model, the model should focus on climate change variables such as consequences of climate change are increase in air temperature, increase in sea surface temperature, and more extreme weather conditions. These parameters are considered critical parameters for climate change impact modeling in aquifers. The behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable pumping rate can be done by applying a computer modeling component.

  16. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeberger, D.M.; Pieri, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process

  17. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Rock, Lake Owyhee, and McDermitt volcanic fields, consisting of regionally extensive ash flow tuffs and associated calderas, developed in NW Nevada and SE Oregon following eruption of the ca. 16.7 Ma Steens flood basalt. The first ash flow, the Tuff of Oregon Canyon, erupted from the McDermitt volcanic field at 16.5Ma. It is chemically zoned from peralkaline rhyolite to dacite with trace element ratios that distinguish it from other ash flow tuffs. The source caldera, based on tuff distribution, thickness, and size of lithic fragments, is in the area in which the McDermitt caldera (16.3 Ma) subsequently formed. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with some but not all of the calderas. The White Horse caldera (15.6 Ma), the youngest caldera in the McDermitt volcanic field has the best geophysical expression, with both aeromagnetic and gravity lows coinciding with the caldera. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity surveys of the McDermitt caldera, combined with geology and radiometric surveys, provides insight into the complexities of caldera collapse, resurgence, post collapse volcanism, and hydrothermal mineralization. The McDermitt caldera is among the most mineralized calderas in the world, whereas other calderas in these three Mid Miocene volcanic fields do not contain important hydrothermal ore deposits, despite having similar age and chemistry. The McDermitt caldera is host to Hg, U, and Li deposits and potentially significant resources of Ga, Sb, and REE. The geophysical data indicate that post-caldera collapse intrusions were important in formation of the hydrothermal systems. An aeromagnetic low along the E caldera margin reflects an intrusion at a depth of 2 km associated with the near-surface McDermitt-hot-spring-type Hg-Sb deposit, and the deeper level, high-sulfidation Ga-REE occurrence. The Li deposits on the W side of the caldera are associated with a series of low amplitude, small diameter aeromagnetic anomalies that form a continuous

  18. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  19. Microbiological risks of recycling urban stormwater via aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Gonzalez, D; Dillon, P

    2012-01-01

    With the release of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), aquifers are now being included as a treatment barrier when assessing risk of recycled water systems. A MAR research site recharging urban stormwater in a confined aquifer was used in conjunction with a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to assess the microbial pathogen risk in the recovered water for different end uses. The assessment involved undertaking a detailed assessment of the treatment steps and exposure controls, including the aquifer, to achieve the microbial health-based targets.

  20. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  1. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Drewes, Jö rg E.; Amy, Gary L.; Maliva,, Robert G.; Keller, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    , such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge

  2. Reconstructing historical trends in metal input in heavily-disturbed, contaminated estuaries: studies from Bilbao, Southampton Water and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, A.B.; Croudace, I.W.; Cearreta, A.; Irabien, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estuaries may be important reservoirs for contaminants as they tend to act as sinks for fine, contaminant-reactive sediments, and, historically, they have acted as centres for industrial and urban development. Analysis of dated sediment cores from these areas may allow historical trends in heavy metal input to be reconstructed, and recent and historical inputs of metal contaminants to be compared. Undisturbed saltmarsh settings have been used widely in the reconstruction of historical trends in metal input as saltmarshes provide a stable, vegetated substrate of dominantly fine sediments, and are less prone to erosion and reworking than adjacent mudflat areas. In comparison, much less research on historical pollution trends has been undertaken at estuarine sites which are prone to severe local disturbance, such as intertidal areas which are routinely dredged or where sedimentary processes have been modified by human activities such as shipping, salt working, port activities, land claim etc. This paper assesses the usefulness of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, combined with geochemical studies, in reconstructing historical trends in heavy metal input and sediment accretion in 3 heavily-modified, industrialised estuarine areas in Europe: the Bilbao estuary (Spain), Southampton Water (UK), and the Mulinello estuary (Sicily). Of these sites, only a salt marsh core from the Mulinello estuary provides a high-resolution record of recent heavy metal inputs. In Southampton Water only a partial record of changing metal inputs over time is retained due to land-claim and possible early-diagenetic remobilisation, while at Bilbao the vertical distribution of heavy metals in intertidal flats is mainly controlled by input on reworked sediment particles and variations in sediment composition. Where 137 Cs and 210 Pb distributions with depth allow a chronology of sediment deposition to be established, and early-diagenetic remobilisation has been minimal, mudflat and saltmarsh cores from

  3. Mental health and trauma in asylum seekers landing in Sicily in 2015: a descriptive study of neglected invisible wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepet, Anna; Rita, Francesco; Reid, Anthony; Van den Boogaard, Wilma; Deiana, Pina; Quaranta, Gaia; Barbieri, Aurelia; Bongiorno, Francesco; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014-15. All asylum seekers transiting the 15 MSF-supported centres were invited to a psycho-educational session. A team of psychologists and cultural mediators then provided assessment and care for those identified with MH conditions. Potentially traumatic events experienced before and during the journey, as well as post-migratory living difficulties, were recorded. All those diagnosed with MH conditions from October 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study. Among 385 individuals who presented themselves for a MH screening during the study period, 193 (50%) were identified and diagnosed with MH conditions. Most were young, West African males who had left their home-countries more than a year prior to arrival. The most common MH conditions were post traumatic stress disorder (31%) and depression (20%). Potentially traumatic events were experienced frequently in the home country (60%) and during migration (89%). Being in a combat situation or at risk of death, having witnessed violence or death and having been in detention were the main traumas. Lack of activities, worries about home, loneliness and fear of being sent home were the main difficulties at the AS centres. MH conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties are

  4. Water erosion susceptibility mapping by applying Stochastic Gradient Treeboost to the Imera Meridionale River Basin (Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora; Conoscenti, Christian; Hochschild, Volker; Märker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water constitutes a serious problem affecting various countries. In the last few years, a number of studies have adopted statistical approaches for erosion susceptibility zonation. In this study, the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) was tested as a multivariate statistical tool for exploring, analyzing and predicting the spatial occurrence of rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion. This technique implements the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm with a tree-based method. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment located in central-northern Sicily (Italy), where water erosion processes are prevalent, and affect the agricultural productivity of local communities. In order to model soil erosion by water, the spatial distribution of landforms due to rill-interrill and gully erosion was mapped and 12 environmental variables were selected as predictors. Four calibration and four validation subsets were obtained by randomly extracting sets of negative cases, both for rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion models. The results of validation, based on receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed excellent to outstanding accuracies of the models, and thus a high prediction skill. Moreover, SGT allowed us to explore the relationships between erosion landforms and predictors. A different suite of predictor variables was found to be important for the two models. Elevation, aspect, landform classification and land-use are the main controlling factors for rill-interrill erosion, whilst the stream power index, plan curvature and the topographic wetness index were the most important independent variables for gullies. Finally, an ROC plot analysis made it possible to define a threshold value to classify cells according to the presence/absence of the two erosion processes. Hence, by heuristically combining the resulting rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion susceptibility maps, an integrated water erosion susceptibility map was created. The

  5. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania, dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71 of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use, such as rings, fibulae, belt hooks, belt decorations, and small tools, such as the knives used by women, reels, needles and razors, but also small functional parts, such as rivets and nails, repairs and even a kind of musical instrument, such as the tintinnabula. The methods employed were AAS and SEM, where possible, and XRF in all cases. The aim of the research was that of evaluating the skill of the local artisans, of determining the most common copper-based alloys in use in Sicily in this period and comparing the data with the analysis results of contemporary groups of finds from other areas of the Italian peninsula and from other European regions.

    El artículo presenta el resultado de los análisis realizados a los metales de base cobre de la importante necrópolis siciliana de Madonna del Piano, próxima a Grammichele (Catania, fechada entre el Bronce Final 2 y la Primera Edad del Hierro IA. Se han estudiado un total de 122 objetos de base cobre procedentes de 273 tumbas excavadas entre 1970 y 1971. Los objetos muestreados pertenecen a diferentes tipos, armas ofensivas y defensivas tales como espadas y grebas, pequeños objetos de uso personal como anillos, fíbulas, broches de cinturón y pequeñas herramientas como cuchillos usados por las mujeres, carretes, agujas, navajas, pero también elementos funcionales como remaches, clavos y un tipo de instrumento como el tintinábulo. Los métodos de análisis utilizados fueron AAS y SEM, cuando fue

  6. Analysis of a herpetofaunal community from an altered marshy area in Sicily; with special remarks on habitat use (niche breadth and overlap), relative abundance of lizards and snakes, and the correlation between predator abundance and tail loss in lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, L.; Angelici, F.M.; Di Vittorio, M.; Spinnato, A.; Politano, E.

    2005-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in a highly degraded barren environment in Sicily in order to investigate herpetofaunal community composition and structure, habitat use (niche breadth and overlap) and relative abundance of a snake predator and two species of lizard prey. The site was chosen because it

  7. Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity

  8. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  11. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Perry, Frank V.; Valentine, Greg A.; Bowker, Lynn M.

    1998-01-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( than about 7 x 10 -8 events yr -1 . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption probability to the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain sit

  12. Sr isotopes at Copahue Volcanic Center, Neuquen, Argentina: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, E.; Ostera, H.A.; Cagnoni, M.C

    2001-01-01

    The Copahue Volcanic Center is located in the Cordillera Principal, at 38 L.S., in the Argentina- Chilean border. Detailed geological, geochronological and structural studies were carried out during the last decade (Pesce, 1989; Delpino y Bermudez, 1993; Linares et al., 1995, 1999; Folguera y Ramos, 2000; among others). We present Sr isotopes data on the main units of the Volcanic Center, coupled with a major element geochemistry, to constrain the evolution of the volcanic center (au)

  13. Eocene volcanism and the origin of horizon A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Towe, K.M.

    1971-01-01

    A series of closely time-equivalent deposits that correlate with seismic reflector horizon A exists along the coast of eastern North America. These sediments of Late-Early to Early-Middle Eocene age contain an authigenic mineral suite indicative of the alteration of volcanic glass. A volcanic origin for these siliceous deposits onshore is consistent with a volcanic origin for the cherts of horizon A offshore.

  14. Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This publication provides comprehensive and updated guidance for site evaluation in relation to volcanic hazards. It includes recommendations on assessing the volcanic hazards at a nuclear installation site, in order to identify and characterize, in a comprehensive manner, all potentially hazardous phenomena that may be associated with future volcanic events. It describes how some of these volcanic phenomena may affect the acceptability of the selected site, resulting in exclusion of a site or determining the corresponding design basis parameters for the installation. This Safety Guide is applicable to both existing and new sites, and a graded approach is recommended to cater for all types of nuclear installations. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Overview of volcanic hazard assessment; 3. General recommendations; 4. Necessary information and investigations (database); 5. Screening of volcanic hazards; 6. Site specific volcanic hazard assessment; 7. Nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants; 8. Monitoring and preparation for response; 9. Management system for volcanic hazard assessment; Annex I: Volcanic hazard scenarios; Annex II: Worldwide sources of information.

  15. Constructional Volcanic Edifices on Mercury: Candidates and Hypotheses of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jack; Rothery, David A.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury, a planet with a predominantly volcanic crust, has perplexingly few, if any, constructional volcanic edifices, despite their common occurrence on other solar system bodies with volcanic histories. Using image and topographical data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, we describe two small (Earth and the Moon. Though we cannot definitively conclude that these landforms are volcanic, the paucity of constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury is intriguing in itself. We suggest that this lack is because volcanic eruptions with sufficiently low eruption volumes, rates, and flow lengths, suitable for edifice construction, were highly spatiotemporally restricted during Mercury's geological history. We suggest that volcanic edifices may preferentially occur in association with late-stage, postimpact effusive volcanic deposits. The European Space Agency/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury will be able to investigate further our candidate volcanic edifices; search for other, as-yet unrecognized edifices beneath the detection limits of MESSENGER data; and test our hypothesis that edifice construction is favored by late-stage, low-volume effusive eruptions.

  16. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  17. WTAQ - A computer program for aquifer-test analysis of confined and unconfined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, P.M.; Moench, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Computer program WTAQ was developed to implement a Laplace-transform analytical solution for axial-symmetric flow to a partially penetrating, finite-diameter well in a homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined (water-table) aquifer. The solution accounts for wellbore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, delayed response at an observation well, and delayed or instantaneous drainage from the unsaturated zone. For the particular case of zero drainage from the unsaturated zone, the solution simplifies to that of axial-symmetric flow in a confined aquifer. WTAQ calculates theoretical time-drawdown curves for the pumped well and observation wells and piezometers. The theoretical curves are used with measured time-drawdown data to estimate hydraulic parameters of confined or unconfined aquifers by graphical type-curve methods or by automatic parameter-estimation methods. Parameters that can be estimated are horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield. A sample application illustrates use of WTAQ for estimating hydraulic parameters of a hypothetical, unconfined aquifer by type-curve methods. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  18. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  19. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  20. Volcanism/tectonics working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Young, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the impacts of earthquakes, fault rupture, and volcanic eruption on the underground repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The tectonics and seismic history of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is discussed and geologic analogs to that site are described

  1. VOLCANIC RISK ASSESSMENT - PROBABILITY AND CONSEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Valentine; F.V. Perry; S. Dartevelle

    2005-01-01

    Risk is the product of the probability and consequences of an event. Both of these must be based upon sound science that integrates field data, experiments, and modeling, but must also be useful to decision makers who likely do not understand all aspects of the underlying science. We review a decision framework used in many fields such as performance assessment for hazardous and/or radioactive waste disposal sites that can serve to guide the volcanological community towards integrated risk assessment. In this framework the underlying scientific understanding of processes that affect probability and consequences drive the decision-level results, but in turn these results can drive focused research in areas that cause the greatest level of uncertainty at the decision level. We review two examples of the determination of volcanic event probability: (1) probability of a new volcano forming at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and (2) probability that a subsurface repository in Japan would be affected by the nearby formation of a new stratovolcano. We also provide examples of work on consequences of explosive eruptions, within the framework mentioned above. These include field-based studies aimed at providing data for ''closure'' of wall rock erosion terms in a conduit flow model, predictions of dynamic pressure and other variables related to damage by pyroclastic flow into underground structures, and vulnerability criteria for structures subjected to conditions of explosive eruption. Process models (e.g., multiphase flow) are important for testing the validity or relative importance of possible scenarios in a volcanic risk assessment. We show how time-dependent multiphase modeling of explosive ''eruption'' of basaltic magma into an open tunnel (drift) at the Yucca Mountain repository provides insight into proposed scenarios that include the development of secondary pathways to the Earth's surface. Addressing volcanic risk within a decision

  2. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is

  3. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  4. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  5. The detection of boundaries in leaky aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological faults in sedimentary basins can affect the regional and local groundwater flow patterns by virtue of their enhanced permeability properties. Faults can be regarded as vertical flow boundaries and potentially important routes for radionuclide migration from a theoretical radioactive waste repository. This report investigates the hydraulic testing methods currently available which may be used to locate vertical hydraulic discontinuities (boundaries) within an aquifer. It aims to define the theoretical limitations to boundary detection by a single pumping test, to determine the optimum design of a pumping test for locating boundaries, and to define the practical limitations to boundary detection by a pumping test. (author)

  6. Geopressured-geothermal aquifers. Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Task 1 is to provide petrophysical and reservoir analysis of wells drilled into geopressured-geothermal aquifers containing dissolved methane. The list of Design Wells and Wells of Opportunity analyzed: Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 (WOO), Pleasant Bayou No. 2 (Design), Amoco Fee No. 1 (Design), G.M. Koelemay No. 1 (WOO), Gladys McCall No. 1 (Design), P.R. Girouard No. 1 (WOO), and Crown Zellerbach No. 2 (WOO). Petrophysical and reservoir analysis of the above wells were performed based on availability of data. The analysis performed on each well, the assumptions made during simulation, and conclusions reached.

  7. Denitrification in the karstic Floridan Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, M.; Albertin, A. R.; Heffernan, J. B.; Katz, B. G.; Cohen, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrate concentrations in the karstic Floridan Aquifer have increased dramatically over the past 50 years, owing to agricultural intensification and urbanization. Due to low concentrations of organic matter and moderately oxic conditions in the Floridan Aquifer, groundwater denitrification has been assumed to be negligible. In this study, we evaluate that assumption using both existing and new data describing dissolved gases (Ne, N2, O2, Ar) and NO3- concentration and isotopic composition (δ18O- and δ15N-NO3) in the aquifer’s artesian springs. For new data, we collected samples from 33 spring vents representing a gradient of both DO and NO3- concentrations in northern Florida and used Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) to directly measure dissolved N2 and Ar. We modeled the physical processes (recharge temperature, dissolution of excess air) driving super-saturation of N2 gas using Ne and Ar where data describing Ne were available. Ar concentrations were correlated closely with recharge temperature, which ranged from 15.7 - 22.2°C, while Ne was closely correlated with excess air, which ranged from 1.05 to 2.66 mg L-1 and averaged 1.83 mg L-1. Estimates of physical mechanisms allowed calculation of expected N2 concentrations that were compared to observed N2 concentrations. Where Ne data were unavailable, we assumed excess air equal to the empirical average. Overall, observed N2 exceeded expectations based on physical processes in 33 of 47 cases; average excess N2 was 0.48 mg L-1 across all sites. In addition, excess N2 was negatively correlated with DO (r2 = 0.46); springs with low DO (Aquifer. Low DOC concentrations indicate that alternative electron donors may fuel nitrate reduction. Scaling to regional estimates of N2 production based on springs discharge and DO concentrations indicates that subsurface denitrification may account for some of the imbalance in springshed nutrient budgets. In addition, we conclude that use of δ15N-NO3- to diagnose

  8. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  9. The usefulness of multi-well aquifer tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.C.; Benton, D.J.; Herweijer, J.C.; Sims, P.

    1990-01-01

    Three large-scale (100 m) and seven small-scale (3-7 m) multi-well aquifer tests were conducted in a heterogeneous aquifer to determine the transmissivity distribution across a one-hectare test site. Two of the large-scale tests had constant but different rates of discharge; the remaining large-scale test had a discharge that was pulsed at regulated intervals. The small-scale tests were conducted at two well clusters 20 m apart. The program WELTEST was written to analyze the data. By using the methods of non-linear least squares regression analysis and Broyden's method to solve for non-linear extrema, WELTEST automatically determines the best values of transmissivity and the storage coefficient. The test results show that order of magnitude differences in the calculated transmissivities at a well location can be realized by varying the discharge rate at the pumping well, the duration of the aquifer test, and/or the location of the pumping well. The calculated storage coefficients for the tests cover a five-order magnitude range. The data show a definite trend for the storage coefficient to increase with the distance between the pumping and the observation wells. This trend is shown to be related to the orientation of high hydraulic conductivity zones between the pumping and the observation wells. A comparison among single-well aquifer tests, geological investigations and multi-well aquifer tests indicate that the multi-well tests are poorly suited for characterizing a transmissivity field. (Author) (11 refs., 14 figs.)

  10. Bioremediation of a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer: simulation studies in laboratory aquifer columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Höhener, P.; Hunkeler, D.; Zeyer, J.

    1996-08-01

    The in situ bioremediation of aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is commonly based on the infiltration of groundwater supplemented with oxidants (e.g., O 2, NO 3-) and nutrients (e.g., NH 4+, PO 43-). These additions stimulate the microbial activity in the aquifer and several field studies describing the resulting processes have been published. However, due to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and due to the limited number of observation wells usually available, these field data do not offer a sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, flow-through columns of 47-cm length equipped with 17 sampling ports were filled with homogeneously contaminated aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated in situ bioremediation site. The columns were operated over 96 days at 12°C with artificial groundwater supplemented with O 2, NO 3- and PO 43-. Concentration profiles of O 2, NO 3-, NO 2-, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC, respectively), protein, microbial cells and total residual hydrocarbons were measured. Within the first 12 cm, corresponding to a mean groundwater residence time of < 3.6 h, a steep O 2 decrease from 4.6 to < 0.3 mg l -1, denitrification, a production of DIC and DOC, high microbial cell numbers and a high removal of hydrocarbons were observed. Within a distance of 24 to 40.5 cm from the infiltration, O 2 was below 0.1 mg l -1 and a denitrifying activity was found. In the presence and in the absence of O 2, n-alkanes were preferentially degraded compared to branched alkanes. The results demonstrate that: (1) infiltration of aerobic groundwater into columns filled with aquifer material contaminated with hydrocarbons leads to a rapid depletion of O 2; (2) O 2 and NO 3- can serve as oxidants for the mineralization of hydrocarbons; and (3) the modelling of redox processes in aquifers has to consider denitrifying activity in presence of O 2.

  11. Modelling ground deformation patterns associated with volcanic processes at the Okataina Volcanic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.

    2017-09-01

    The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the

  12. Slab dehydration in Cascadia and its relationship to volcanism, seismicity, and non-volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of subduction beneath the Pacific Northwest (Cascadia) are variable along strike, leading to the segmentation of Cascadia into 3 general zones: Klamath, Siletzia, and Wrangelia. These zones show marked differences in tremor density, earthquake density, seismicity rates, and the locus and amount of volcanism in the subduction-related volcanic arc. To better understand what controls these variations, we have constructed a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the upper 80 km along the Cascadia margin from the joint inversion of CCP-derived receiver functions and ambient noise surface wave data using 900 temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. With this model, we can investigate variations in the seismic structure of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and overlying mantle wedge, the character of the crust-mantle transition beneath the volcanic arc, and local to regional variations in crustal structure. From these results, we infer the presence and distribution of fluids released from the subducting slab and how they affect the seismic structure of the overriding lithosphere. In the Klamath and Wrangelia zones, high seismicity rates in the subducting plate and high tremor density correlate with low shear velocities in the overriding plate's forearc and relatively little arc volcanism. While the cause of tremor is debated, intermediate depth earthquakes are generally thought to be due to metamorphic dehydration reactions resulting from the dewatering of the downgoing slab. Thus, the seismic characteristics of these zones combined with rather sparse arc volcanism may indicate that the slab has largely dewatered by the time it reaches sub-arc depths. Some of the water released during earthquakes (and possibly tremor) may percolate into the overriding plate, leading to slow seismic velocities in the forearc. In contrast, Siletzia shows relatively low seismicity rates and tremor density, with relatively higher shear velocities in the forearc

  13. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  14. Aquifers in coastal reclaimed lands - real world assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bironne, A.; Vonhögen-Peeters, L.; Lee, W. K.; Babovic, V. M.; Vermeulen, P.; van Baaren, E.; Karaoulis, M.; Blanchais, F.; Nguyen, M.; Pauw, P.; Doornenbal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and population growth are significant concerns in coastal regions around the world, where more than 30% of the world's population reside. The numbers continue to rise as coastal areas are increasingly urbanized. Urbanization creates land shortages along the coasts, which has spurred coastal reclamation activities as a viable solution. In this study, we focus on these reclamation areas; reclaimed areas in Singapore, and in the Netherlands, and investigate the potential of these reclaimed bodies as artificial aquifers that could attenuate water shortage problems in addition to their original purpose. We compare how the reclamation methods determine the hydrogeological characteristics of these manmade aquifers. We highlight similarities in freshwater lens development in the artificial shallow aquifers under natural recharge under diverse conditions, i.e. tropical and temperate zones, using numerical models. The characteristics and responses of these aquifers with dynamic freshwater-saltwater interface are contrasted against naturally occurring coastal aquifers where equilibrium was disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Finally, we assess the risks associated with subsidence and saltwater intrusion, combining measurements and numerical models, in case these aquifers are planned for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) or Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies. Relative performances of some ASR schemes are simulated and compared in the reclaimed lands.

  15. Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium

  16. Hydraulic properties from pumping tests data of aquifers in Azare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pumping test data from twelve boreholes in Azare area were analysed to determine the hydraulic properties of the aquifers, and the availability of water to meet the conjugate demands of the increasing population. The values of the aquifer constants obtained from the Cooper-Jacob's non-equilibrium graphical method were ...

  17. Estimating aquifer transmissivity from geo-electrical sounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquifer resistivity range from 4.26 ohm-m to 755.3 ohm-m with maximum thickness of 52.25m. A maximum 55.52m depth- tobasement was obtained in the study area. Based on the model obtained, aquifer Transmissivity was calculated and was used to delineate the study area into prospective low and high groundwater ...

  18. Hydrologic and isotopic study of the Quito aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Fabio; Benalcazar, Julio; Garcia, Marco; Altamirano, Cesar; Altamirano, Homero; Sarasti, Santiago; Mancero, Maria; Leiva, Eduardo; Pino, Jose; Alulema, Rafael; Cedeno, Alberto; Burbano, Napoleon; Paquel, Efren; Becerra, Simon; Andrade, Graciela

    2000-10-01

    The dynamics of the Quito basin and surrounding area aquifers were determined through the use of stable and radioactive isotopes, and the monitoring of the freatic levels and of the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of the water. A conceptual hydrodynamic model of the Quito aquifer was also proposed in order to establish in the future a sustainable management system

  19. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow aquifer vulnerability has been assessed using GIS-based DRASTIC model by incorporating the major geological and hydrogeological factors that affect and control the groundwater contamination in a granitic terrain. It provides a relative indication of aquifer vulnerability to the contamination. Further, it has been ...

  20. Aquifer overexploitation: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio

    2002-02-01

    Groundwater overexploitation and aquifer overexploitation are terms that are becoming common in water-resources management. Hydrologists, managers and journalists use them when talking about stressed aquifers or some groundwater conflict. Overexploitation may be defined as the situation in which, for some years, average aquifer ion rate is greater than, or close to the average recharge rate. But rate and extent of recharge areas are often very uncertain. Besides, they may be modified by human activities and aquifer development. In practice, however, an aquifer is often considered as overexploited when some persistent negative results of aquifer development are felt or perceived, such as a continuous water-level drawdown, progressive water-quality deterioration, increase of ion cost, or ecological damage. But negative results do not necessarily imply that ion is greater than recharge. They may be simply due to well interferences and the long transient period that follow changes in the aquifer water balance. Groundwater storage is depleted to some extent during the transient period after ion is increased. Its duration depends on aquifer size, specific storage and permeability. Which level of "aquifer overexploitation" is advisable or bearable, depends on the detailed and updated consideration of aquifer-development effects and the measures implemented for correction. This should not be the result of applying general rules based on some indirect data. Monitoring, sound aquifer knowledge, and calculation or modelling of behaviour are needed in the framework of a set of objectives and policies. They should be established by a management institution, with the involvement of groundwater stakeholders, and take into account the environmental and social constraints. Aquifer overexploitation, which often is perceived to be associated with something ethically bad, is not necessarily detrimental if it is not permanent. It may be a step towards sustainable development. Actually