WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcanic aerosol layer

  1. Characteristics of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Observed by CALIOP and Ground Based Lidar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the relation between major tropical volcanic eruptions in the equatorial region and the stratospheric aerosol data, which have been collected by the ground based lidar observations at at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar site between 2004 and 2015 and the CALIOP observations in low latitude between 2006 and 2015. We found characteristic dynamic behavior of volcanic stratospheric aerosol layers over equatorial region.

  2. Lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol layer after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser

  3. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  4. Major Influence of Tropical Volcanic Eruptions on the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer During the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Jean-Paul; Thomason, Larry W.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Bourassa, Adam; Pelon, Jacques; Garnier, Anne; Hauchecorne, A.; Blanot, L.; Trepte, Charles R.; Degenstein, Doug; hide

    2011-01-01

    The variability of stratospheric aerosol loading between 1985 and 2010 is explored with measurements from SAGE II, CALIPSO, GOMOS/ENVISAT, and OSIRIS/Odin space-based instruments. We find that, following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, stratospheric aerosol levels increased by as much as two orders of magnitude and only reached background levels between 1998 and 2002. From 2002 onwards, a systematic increase has been reported by a number of investigators. Recently, the trend, based on ground-based lidar measurements, has been tentatively attributed to an increase of SO2 entering the stratosphere associated with coal burning in Southeast Asia. However, we demonstrate with these satellite measurements that the observed trend is mainly driven by a series of moderate but increasingly intense volcanic eruptions primarily at tropical latitudes. These events injected sulfur directly to altitudes between 18 and 20 km. The resulting aerosol particles are slowly lofted into the middle stratosphere by the Brewer-Dobson circulation and are eventually transported to higher latitudes.

  5. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Schmidt, Anja [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Easter, Richard [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Solomon, Susan [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kinnison, Douglas E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Neely, Ryan R. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Marsh, Daniel R. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Conley, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Bardeen, Charles G. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Gettelman, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  6. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    (Rampino and Self 1984, Pyle et al 1996, Self and Rampino 2012). But as yet, there is little evidence for the consequences of this scale of eruption for the climate system (Miles et al 2004), and few data against which to test simulations of stratospheric sulfur-injection 'geoengineering' scenarios of a similar scale and frequency (e.g. English et al 2012). A hint of the new volcano-observing capability came during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. For a few days in April 2010 meteorological conditions, coupled with a dramatic increase in volcanic ash production, led to the wide dispersal of fine volcanic particles across northern Europe; an event which was widely tracked by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments, augmented by in situ measurements from balloons and aircraft (Bennett et al 2010, Flentje et al 2010, Harrison et al 2010, Stohl et al 2011). Despite the interest in Eyjafjallajökull at the time, this was, geologically, only a very modest eruption with limited sulfur emissions and an impact restricted mainly to the regional troposphere (e.g. Thomas and Prata 2011, Walker et al 2012). Then, in June 2011, a previously dormant volcano in north-east Africa began to erupt violently. Little is known about Nabro, which is a partially collapsed volcano that straddles the Eritrea-Ethiopia border, and has had no known historical activity (Wiart and Oppenheimer 2005). Despite the remote location, and lack of prior warning, the event and its aftermath were remarkably well captured by remote-sensing instruments, as demonstrated in the new letter by Sawamura et al (2012). Using both ground-based and satellite-borne laser-ranging (lidar) data, Sawamura et al (2012) were able to extract detailed information about the nature of the volcanic aerosol layer, and its spread around the globe. The eruption started strongly, with substantial ash plumes for the first 48 h, rising to 9-14 km altitude (Smithsonian Institution 2011, Bourassa et al 2012), that carried at

  7. A sensitivity analysis of volcanic aerosol dispersion in the stratosphere. [Mt. Fuego, Guatemala eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A computer sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the uncertainties involved in the calculation of volcanic aerosol dispersion in the stratosphere using a 2 dimensional model. The Fuego volcanic event of 1974 was used. Aerosol dispersion processes that were included are: transport, sedimentation, gas phase sulfur chemistry, and aerosol growth. Calculated uncertainties are established from variations in the stratospheric aerosol layer decay times at 37 latitude for each dispersion process. Model profiles are also compared with lidar measurements. Results of the computer study are quite sensitive (factor of 2) to the assumed volcanic aerosol source function and the large variations in the parameterized transport between 15 and 20 km at subtropical latitudes. Sedimentation effects are uncertain by up to a factor of 1.5 because of the lack of aerosol size distribution data. The aerosol chemistry and growth, assuming that the stated mechanisms are correct, are essentially complete in several months after the eruption and cannot explain the differences between measured and modeled results.

  8. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  9. Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, M. R.; Self, S.

    1984-01-01

    Data from direct measurements of stratospheric optical depth, Greenland ice-core acidity, and volcanological studies are compared, and it is shown that relatively small but sulfur-rich volcanic eruptions can have atmospheric effects equal to or even greater than much larger sulfur-poor eruptions. These small eruptions are probably the most frequent cause of increased stratospheric aerosols. The possible sources of the excess sulfur released in these eruptions are discussed.

  10. Volcanic eruptions and the increases in the stratospheric aerosol content: Lidar measurements from 1982 to 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, S.; Iikura, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Sasano, Y.; Nakane, H.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Takeuchi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the observation for stratospheric aerosols which were carried out since the autumn of 1982 by using the NIES large lidar are described. Specifications of the lidar system are shown. The lidar has two wavelenghts of 1.06 and 0.53 micrometers. The 0.53 micrometer is mainly used for the stratospheric aerosols, because the PMT for 0.53 micrometers has higher sensitivity that that for 1.06 micrometers and the total efficiency is higher in the former. A switching circuit is used to control the PMT gain for avoiding signal induced noise in PMT. For the last four years, the stratospheric aerosol layer which was significantly perturbed by the El Chichon volcanic eruption was observed. The scattering ratio profiles observed from 1982 through 1983 are given.

  11. Distribution of sulfur aerosol precursors in the SPCZ released by continuous volcanic degassing at Ambrym, Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Jérôme; Menkes, Christophe; Bani, Philipson; Marchesiello, Patrick; Curci, Gabriele; Grell, Georg A.; Frouin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    volcanic species across the South Pacific atmosphere. For example, in the tropical cloudy air, the sulfate production in the aqueous phase is very efficient, resulting in the formation of a large cloud of highly scattering sulfate aerosols advected horizontally to Eastern Indonesia, in agreement with the AOD feature captured by MODIS/Aqua, but missed in CALIOP/CALIPSO (lidar) products. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that aerosol re-suspension due to evaporating droplets is a significant pathway for the supply of volcanic sulfur species in the remote marine boundary layer. By strongly modulating the irreversible loss due to wet scavenging, this aerosol process has a similar influence on the sulfur burden as natural emission from volcanoes or biogenic sources like dimethyl sulfate (DMS). The results emphasize the importance of MVA passive degassing and SPCZ dynamics on the aerosol background, and raise questions about potential impacts on the local climate and marine ecosystems.

  12. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  13. Lidar data assimilation for improved analyses of volcanic aerosol events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Observations of hazardous events with release of aerosols are hardly analyzable by today's data assimilation algorithms, without producing an attenuating bias. Skillful forecasts of unexpected aerosol events are essential for human health and to prevent an exposure of infirm persons and aircraft with possibly catastrophic outcome. Typical cases include mineral dust outbreaks, mostly from large desert regions, wild fires, and sea salt uplifts, while the focus aims for volcanic eruptions. In general, numerical chemistry and aerosol transport models cannot simulate such events without manual adjustments. The concept of data assimilation is able to correct the analysis, as long it is operationally implemented in the model system. Though, the tangent-linear approximation, which describes a substantial precondition for today's cutting edge data assimilation algorithms, is not valid during unexpected aerosol events. As part of the European COPERNICUS (earth observation) project MACC II and the national ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) initiative, we developed a module that enables the assimilation of aerosol lidar observations, even during unforeseeable incidences of extreme emissions of particulate matter. Thereby, the influence of the background information has to be reduced adequately. Advanced lidar instruments comprise on the one hand the aspect of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and on the other hand they can deliver a detailed quantification of the detected aerosols. For the assimilation of maximal exploited lidar data, an appropriate lidar observation operator is constructed, compatible with the EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) system. The observation operator is able to map the modeled chemical and physical state on lidar attenuated backscatter, transmission, aerosol optical depth, as well as on the extinction and backscatter coefficients. Further, it has the ability to process the observed discrepancies with lidar

  14. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  15. Investigating the influence of volcanic sulfate aerosol on cloud properties Along A-Train tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are central actors in the climate system given their extensive coverage on the Earth's surface, their 1-way influence on the radiative balance (cooling), and their intimate coupling between air motions, anthropogenic and natural aerosol sources, and processes within the upper ocean mixed layer. Knowledge of how MBL shallow cumulus clouds respond to changes in aerosol is central to understanding how MBL clouds modulate the climate system. A frequent approach to investigating how sulfate aerosol influences MBL clouds has been to examine sulfate plumes extending downstream of active island volcanoes. This approach is challenging due to modification of the air motions in the plumes downstream of islands and due to the tendency of most researchers to examine only level-2 retrievals ignoring the actual data collected by sensors such as MODIS. Past studies have concluded that sulfate aerosols have large effects consistent with the 1st aerosol indirect effect (AIE). We reason that if such effects are as large as suggested in level-2 retrievals then evidence should also be present in the raw MODIS reflectance data as well as other data sources. In this paper we will build on our recently published work where we tested that hypothesis from data collected near Mount Kilauea during a 3-year period. Separating data into aerosol optical depth (A) quartiles, we found little support for a large 1st AIE response. We did find an unambiguous increase in sub 1km-scale cloud fraction with A. This increase in sub 1 km cloud fraction was entirely consistent with increased reflectance with increasing A that is used, via the level 2 retrievals, to argue for a large AIE response of MBL clouds. While the 1-km pixels became unambiguously brighter, that brightening was due to increased sub 1 km cloud fraction and not necessarily due to changes in pixel-level cloud microphysics. We also found that MBL cloud top heights increase as do surface wind speeds as

  16. PSC and volcanic aerosol routine observations in Antarctica by UV-visible ground-based spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1994-01-01

    Polar statospheric clouds (PSC) and stratospheric aerosol can be observed by ground-based UV-visible spectrometry by looking at the variation of the color of the sky during twilight. A radiative transfer model shows that reddenings are caused by high altitude (22-28 km) thin layers of scatterers, while low altitude (12-20 km) thick ones result in blueings. The color index method applied on 4 years of observations at Dumont d'Urville (67 deg S), from 1988 to 1991, shows that probably because the station is located at the edge of the vortex, dense PSC are uncommon. More unexpected is the existence of a systematic seasonal variation of the color of the twilight sky - bluer at spring - which reveals the formation of a dense scattering layer at or just above the tropopause at the end of the winter. Large scattering layers are reported above the station in 1991, first in August around 12-14 km, later in September at 22-24 km. They are attributed to volcanic aerosol from Mt Hudson and Mt Pinatubo respectively, which erupted in 1991. Inspection of the data shows that the lowest entered rapidly into the polar vortex but not the highest which remained outside, demonstrating that the vortex was isolated at 22-26 km.

  17. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  18. Extended observations of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol in the stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Hoff, R.M.; Prata, A.J.; Krueger, A.J.; Loughlin, S.C.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfate aerosol produced after injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions can trigger climate change. We present new satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) missions

  19. Effect of volcanic aerosol on stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 from 2002–2014 as measured by Odin-OSIRIS and Envisat-MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the large volcanic eruptions of Pinatubo in 1991 and El Chichón in 1982, decreases in stratospheric NO2 associated with enhanced aerosol were observed. The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (OSIRIS measured the widespread enhancements of stratospheric aerosol following seven volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2014, although the magnitudes of these eruptions were all much smaller than the Pinatubo and El Chichón eruptions. In order to isolate and quantify the relationship between volcanic aerosol and NO2, NO2 anomalies were calculated using measurements from OSIRIS and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. In the tropics, variability due to the quasi-biennial oscillation was subtracted from the time series. OSIRIS profile measurements indicate that the strongest anticorrelations between NO2 and volcanic aerosol extinction were for the 5 km layer starting  ∼  3 km above the climatological mean tropopause at the given latitude. OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 partial columns in this layer were found to be smaller than background NO2 levels during these aerosol enhancements by up to  ∼  60 % with typical Pearson correlation coefficients of R ∼ −0. 7. MIPAS also observed decreases in NO2 partial columns during periods affected by volcanic aerosol, with percent differences of up to  ∼  25 % relative to background levels. An even stronger anticorrelation was observed between OSIRIS aerosol optical depth and MIPAS N2O5 partial columns, with R ∼ −0. 9, although no link with MIPAS HNO3 was observed. The variation in OSIRIS NO2 with increasing aerosol was found to be consistent with simulations from a photochemical box model within the estimated model uncertainty.

  20. Improved SAGE II cloud/aerosol categorization and observations of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer: 1989–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the challenges associated with the interpretation of extinction coefficient measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II in the presence of clouds. In particular, we have found that tropospheric aerosol analyses are highly dependent on a robust method for identifying when clouds affect the measured extinction coefficient. Herein, we describe an improved cloud identification method that appears to capture cloud/aerosol events more effectively than early methods. In addition, we summarize additional challenges to observing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL using SAGE II observations. Using this new approach, we perform analyses of the upper troposphere, focusing on periods in which the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is relatively free of volcanic material (1989–1990 and after 1996. Of particular interest is the Asian monsoon anticyclone where CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observations has observed an aerosol enhancement. This enhancement, called the ATAL, has a similar morphology to observed enhancements in long-lived trace gas species like CO. Since the CALIPSO record begins in 2006, the question of how long this aerosol feature has been present requires a new look at the long-lived SAGE II data sets despite significant hurdles to its use in the subtropical upper troposphere. We find that there is no evidence of ATAL in the SAGE II data prior to 1998. After 1998, it is clear that aerosol in the upper troposphere in the ATAL region is substantially enhanced relative to the period before that time. In addition, the data generally supports the presence of the ATAL beginning in 1999 and continuing through the end of the mission, though some years (e.g., 2003 are complicated by the presence of episodic enhancements most likely of volcanic origin.

  1. On numerical simulation of the global distribution of sulfate aerosol produced by a large volcanic eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudykiewicz, J.A.; Dastoor, A.P. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Volcanic eruptions play an important role in the global sulfur cycle of the Earth`s atmosphere and can significantly perturb the global atmospheric chemistry. The large amount of sulfate aerosol produced by the oxidation of SO{sub 2} injected into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions also has a relatively big influence on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s climatic system. The submicron particles of the sulfate aerosol reflect solar radiation more effectively than they trap radiation in the infrared range. The effect of this is observed as cooling of the Earth`s surface. The modification of the global radiation budget following volcanic eruption can subsequently cause significant fluctuations of atmospheric variables on a subclimatic scale. The resulting perturbation of weather patterns has been observed and well documented since the eruptions of Mt. Krakatau and Mt. Tambora. The impact of the sulfate aerosol from volcanic eruptions on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s atmosphere was also confirmed by the studies done with Global Circulation Models designed to simulate climate. The objective of the present paper is to present a simple and effective method to estimate the global distribution of the sulfate aerosol produced as a consequence of volcanic eruptions. In this study we will present results of the simulation of global distribution of sulfate aerosol from the eruption of Mt Pinatubo.

  2. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  3. Evidence of transport, sedimentation and coagulation mechanisms in the relaxation of post-volcanic stratospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fussen

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal distributions of stratospheric aerosols, measured by the ORA instrument from August 1992 until May 1993, are presented in the latitude range (40° S–40° N. Particle total number density, mode radius and distribution width are derived and interpreted. The respective roles of advection, sedimentation and coagulation are discussed. We also identify clear transport/sedimentation patterns and we show the enhancement of coagulation in stagnation regions. Efficient transport of aerosol particles up to 50 km is suggested.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; middle atmosphere-composition and chemistry; volcanic effects

  4. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  5. Aerosol layer height from synergistic use of VIIRS and OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Kim, W.; Seftor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents an Aerosol Single-scattering albedo and Height Estimation (ASHE) algorithm, which retrieves the height of UV-absorbing aerosols by synergistically using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). ASHE provides height information over a much broader area than ground-based or spaceborne lidar measurements by benefitting from the wide swaths of the two instruments used. As determination of single-scattering albedo (SSA) of the aerosol layer is the most critical part for the performance and coverage of ASHE, here we demonstrate three different strategies to constrain the SSA. First, ASHE is able to retrieve the SSA of UV-absorbing aerosols when Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) provides vertical profiles of the aerosol layer of interest. Second, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions can directly constrain the SSA of the aerosol layer when collocated with VIIRS or OMPS. Last, a SSA climatology from ASHE, AERONET, or other data sources can be used for large-scale, aged aerosol events, for which climatological SSA is well-known, at the cost of a slight decrease in retrieval accuracy. The same algorithm can be applied to measurements of similar type, such as those made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), for a long-term, consistent data record.

  6. The possible influence of volcanic emissions on atmospheric aerosols in the city of Colima, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Javier; Zepeda, Francisco; Galindo, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    An elemental composition study of atmospheric aerosols from the City of Colima, in the Western Coast of Mexico, is presented. Samples of PM 15 -PM 2.5 and PM 2.5 were collected with Stacked Filter Units (SFU) of the Davis design, in urban and rural sites, the latter located between the City of Colima and the Volcan de Colima, an active volcano. Elemental analyses were carried out using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The gravimetric mass concentrations for the fine fraction were slightly higher in the urban site, while the mean concentrations in the coarse fraction were equal within the uncertainties. High Cl contents were determined in the coarse fraction, a fact also observed in emissions from the Volcan de Colima by other authors. In addition to average elemental concentrations, cluster analysis based on elemental contents was performed, with wind speed and direction data, showing that there is an industrial contributor to aerosols North of the urban area. Moreover, a contribution from the volcanic emissions was identified from the grouping of S, Cl, Cu, and Zn, elements associated to particles emitted by the Volcan de Colima. - Elemental analyses of PM 15 in the City of Colima, Mexico, were done to identify possible contributions from the Volcan de Colima, an active volcano

  7. Radiative impact of Etna volcanic aerosols over south eastern Italy on 3 December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Burlizzi, P.; Kinne, S.; De Tomasi, F.; Hamann, U.; Perrone, M. R.

    2018-06-01

    Irradiance and LiDAR measurements at the surface combined with satellite products from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) were used to detect and characterize the Etna volcano (Italy) plume that crossed southeastern Italy on 3 December 2015, from about 10:00 up to 11:30 UTC, and estimate its radiative impact. The volcanic plume was delivered by a violent and short paroxysmal eruption that occurred from 02:30 to 03:10 UTC of 3 December 2015, about 400 km away from the monitoring site. Measurements from the LiDAR combined with model results showed that the aerosol optical depth of the volcanic plume, located from about 11 to 13 km above sea level (asl), was equal to 0.80 ± 0.07 at 532 nm. A low tropospheric aerosol load, located up to about 7 km asl, with optical depth equal to 0.19 ± 0.01 at 532 nm was also revealed by the LiDAR measurements. Short-Wave (SW) downward and upward irradiance measurements revealed that the instantaneous SW direct radiative forcing at the surface (DRFsurf) decreased to -146 ± 16 W m-2 at 10:50 UTC because of the volcanic plume passage. A Two-Stream radiative transfer model integrated with experimental measurements, which took into account the volcanic plume and the low tropospheric aerosol properties, was used to reproduce the SW radiative flux measurements at the surface and estimate the aerosol DRF both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface, in addition to the aerosol heating rate vertical profile. We found that the clear-sky, instantaneous, SW DRF at the TOA and the atmospheric forcing were equal to -112 and 33 W m-2, respectively, at 10:50 UTC that represented the time at which the volcanic plume radiative impact was the highest. The SW aerosol heating rate reached the peak value of 1.24 K day-1 at 12 km asl and decreased to -0.06 K day-1 at 11 km asl, at 10:50 UTC. The role of the aerosol load located up to about 7 km asl and the

  8. Volcanic Plume Impact on the Atmosphere and Climate: O- and S-Isotope Insight into Sulfate Aerosol Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate has been studied over the last decades and the role played by sulfate aerosols appears to be major. S-bearing volcanic gases are oxidized in the atmosphere into sulfate aerosols that disturb the radiative balance on earth at regional to global scales. This paper discusses the use of the oxygen and sulfur multi-isotope systematics on volcanic sulfates to understand their formation and fate in more or less diluted volcanic plumes. The study of volcanic aerosols collected from air sampling and ash deposits at different distances from the volcanic systems (from volcanic vents to the Earth poles is discussed. It appears possible to distinguish between the different S-bearing oxidation pathways to generate volcanic sulfate aerosols whether the oxidation occurs in magmatic, tropospheric, or stratospheric conditions. This multi-isotopic approach represents an additional constraint on atmospheric and climatic models and it shows how sulfates from volcanic deposits could represent a large and under-exploited archive that, over time, have recorded atmospheric conditions on human to geological timescales.

  9. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  10. Ruby lidar observations and trajectory analysis of stratospheric aerosols injected by the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, O.; Tabata, T.; Akita, I.; Okada, Y.; Naito, K.

    1985-01-01

    Large amounts of aerosol particles and gases were injected into the lower stratosphere by the violet volcanic eruptions of El Chichon on March 28, and April 3 and 4, 1982. Observational results obtained by a ruby lidar at Tsukuba (36.1 deg N, 140.1 deg E) are shown, and some points of latitude dispersion processes of aerosols are discussed.

  11. Developments in the Aerosol Layer Height Retrieval Algorithm for the Copernicus Sentinel-4/UVN Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; Sanders, Abram; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission is a part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme, the goal of which is to provide geo-information to manage environmental assets, and to observe, understand and mitigate the effects of the changing climate. The Sentinel-4/UVN instrument design is motivated by the need to monitor trace gas concentrations and aerosols in the atmosphere from a geostationary orbit. The on-board instrument is a high resolution UV-VIS-NIR (UVN) spectrometer system that provides hourly radiance measurements over Europe and northern Africa with a spatial sampling of 8 km. The main application area of Sentinel-4/UVN is air quality. One of the data products that is being developed for Sentinel-4/UVN is the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH). The goal is to determine the height of aerosol plumes with a resolution of better than 0.5 - 1 km. The ALH product thus targets aerosol layers in the free troposphere, such as desert dust, volcanic ash and biomass during plumes. KNMI is assigned with the development of the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH) algorithm. Its heritage is the ALH algorithm developed by Sanders and De Haan (ATBD, 2016) for the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission that is to be launched in June or July 2016 (tentative date). The retrieval algorithm designed so far for the aerosol height product is based on the absorption characteristics of the oxygen-A band (759-770 nm). The algorithm has heritage to the ALH algorithm developed for TROPOMI on the Sentinel 5 precursor satellite. New aspects for Sentinel-4/UVN include the higher resolution (0.116 nm compared to 0.4 for TROPOMI) and hourly observation from the geostationary orbit. The algorithm uses optimal estimation to obtain a spectral fit of the reflectance across absorption band, while assuming a single uniform layer with fixed width to represent the aerosol vertical distribution. The state vector includes amongst other elements the height of this layer and its aerosol optical

  12. Imaginary refractive index and other microphysical properties of volcanic ash, Sarahan dust, and other mineral aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Artaxo, P.; Todd, M.; Ben Ami, Y.; Dolgos, G.; Espinosa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol properties are essential to support remote sensing measurements, atmospheric circulation and climate models. This research aims to improve the understanding of the optical and microphysical properties of different types of aerosols particles. Samples of volcanic ash, Saharan dust and other mineral aerosols particles were analyzed by different techniques. Ground samples were sieved down to 45um, de-agglomerated and resuspended in the laboratory using a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength was derived empirically from the measurements of the spectral mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. Some selected samples were also analyzed with the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) instrument for the characterization of the aerosol polarized phase function. This work compares results of the spectral refractive index of different materials obtained by our methodology with those available in the literature. In some cases there are significant differences both in magnitude and spectral dependence of the imaginary refractive index. These differences are evaluated and discussed in this work.

  13. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  14. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, K.; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rogers, Ray; Russell, P.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Art; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which was conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique field study that was designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere at a number of altitudes, from near the surface to as high as 8 km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) that was located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods of the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from TCAP is the relatively common occurrence (on four of six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in the column. Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning aerosol and nitrate compared to the aerosol found near the surface.

  15. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere be tween and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2).These layer s contributed up to 60 of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  16. Role of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols in the recent global surface warming slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doug M.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Eade, Rosie; Hermanson, Leon; Jones, Gareth S.; Scaife, Adam A.; Sheen, Katy L.; Thompson, Vikki

    2016-10-01

    The rate of global mean surface temperature (GMST) warming has slowed this century despite the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Climate model experiments show that this slowdown was largely driven by a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), with a smaller external contribution from solar variability, and volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols. The prevailing view is that this negative PDO occurred through internal variability. However, here we show that coupled models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project robustly simulate a negative PDO in response to anthropogenic aerosols implying a potentially important role for external human influences. The recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 also contributed to the slowdown in GMST trends. Our results suggest that a slowdown in GMST trends could have been predicted in advance, and that future reduction of anthropogenic aerosol emissions, particularly from China, would promote a positive PDO and increased GMST trends over the coming years. Furthermore, the overestimation of the magnitude of recent warming by models is substantially reduced by using detection and attribution analysis to rescale their response to external factors, especially cooling following volcanic eruptions. Improved understanding of external influences on climate is therefore crucial to constrain near-term climate predictions.

  17. A simple method to compute the change in earth-atmosphere radiative balance due to a stratospheric aerosol layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, J.; Tanre, D.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Herman, M.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code was developed in terms of a three-layer model for the earth-atmosphere system, using a two-stream approximation for the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis was limited to variable atmosphere loading by solar radiation over an unperturbed section of the atmosphere. The scattering atmosphere above a Lambertian ground layer was considered in order to derive the planar albedo and the spherical albedo. Attention was given to the influence of the aerosol optical thickness in the stratosphere, the single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor, and the sublayer albedo. Calculations were performed of the zonal albedo and the planetary radiation balance, taking into account a stratospheric aerosol layer containing H2SO4 droplets and volcanic ash. The resulting ground temperature disturbance was computed using a Budyko (1969) climate model. Local decreases in the albedo in the summer were observed in high latitudes, implying a heating effect of the aerosol. An accompanying energy loss of 23-27 W/sq m was projected, which translates to surface temperature decreases of either 1.1 and 0.45 C, respectively, for background and volcanic aerosols.

  18. The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Krüger, K.; Bittner, M.; Timmreck, C.; Schmidt, H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and simple theoretical arguments suggest that the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar vortex is stronger in winters following major volcanic eruptions. However, recent studies show that climate models forced by prescribed volcanic aerosol fields fail to reproduce this effect. We investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, including the strength of the NH polar vortex, in ensemble simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The model is forced by four different prescribed forcing sets representing the radiative properties of stratospheric aerosol following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo: two forcing sets are based on observations, and are commonly used in climate model simulations, and two forcing sets are constructed based on coupled aerosol-climate model simulations. For all forcings, we find that simulated temperature and zonal wind anomalies in the NH high latitudes are not directly impacted by anomalous volcanic aerosol heating. Instead, high-latitude effects result from enhancements in stratospheric residual circulation, which in turn result, at least in part, from enhanced stratospheric wave activity. High-latitude effects are therefore much less robust than would be expected if they were the direct result of aerosol heating. Both observation-based forcing sets result in insignificant changes in vortex strength. For the model-based forcing sets, the vortex response is found to be sensitive to the structure of the forcing, with one forcing set leading to significant strengthening of the polar vortex in rough agreement with observation-based expectations. Differences in the dynamical response to the forcing sets imply that reproducing the polar vortex responses to past eruptions, or predicting the response to future eruptions, depends on accurate representation of the space-time structure of the volcanic aerosol forcing.

  19. Stratospheric sulfate from the Gareloi eruption, 1980: Contribution to the ''ambient'' aerosol by a poorly documented volcanic eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Heiken, G.

    1981-01-01

    While sampling stratospheric aerosols during July--August 1980 a plume of ''fresh'' volcanic debris was observed in the Northern hemisphere. The origin of this material seems to be a poorly documented explosive eruption of Gareloi valcano in the Aleutian Islands. The debris was sampled at an altitude of 19.2 km: almost twice the height of observed eruption clouds. Such remote, unobserved or poorly documented eruptions may be a source that helps maintain the ''ambient'' stratospheric aerosol background

  20. Some aspects of volcanic ash layers in the Central Indian Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, N.P.; Banerjee, R.; Borole, D.V.; Gupta, S.M.

    Intercalated volcanic ash layers in two deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Basin (CIB) are examined for the possibility of an in situ source of suboceanic volcanism. An in situ source has been predicated based on the bottom...

  1. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008–2010 based on CARIBIC observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Andersson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions impact significantly on climate and lead to ozone depletion due to injection of particles and gases into the stratosphere where their residence times are long. In this the composition of volcanic aerosol is an important but inadequately studied factor. Samples of volcanically influenced aerosol were collected following the Kasatochi (Alaska, Sarychev (Russia and also during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland eruptions in the period 2008–2010. Sampling was conducted by the CARIBIC platform during regular flights at an altitude of 10–12 km as well as during dedicated flights through the volcanic clouds from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. Elemental concentrations of the collected aerosol were obtained by accelerator-based analysis. Aerosol from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic clouds was identified by high concentrations of sulphur and elements pointing to crustal origin, and confirmed by trajectory analysis. Signatures of volcanic influence were also used to detect volcanic aerosol in stratospheric samples collected following the Sarychev and Kasatochi eruptions. In total it was possible to identify 17 relevant samples collected between 1 and more than 100 days following the eruptions studied. The volcanically influenced aerosol mainly consisted of ash, sulphate and included a carbonaceous component. Samples collected in the volcanic cloud from Eyjafjallajökull were dominated by the ash and sulphate component (∼45% each while samples collected in the tropopause region and LMS mainly consisted of sulphate (50–77% and carbon (21–43%. These fractions were increasing/decreasing with the age of the aerosol. Because of the long observation period, it was possible to analyze the evolution of the relationship between the ash and sulphate components of the volcanic aerosol. From this analysis the residence time (1/e of sulphur dioxide in the studied volcanic cloud was estimated to be 45 ± 22 days.

  2. SAGE II observations of a previously unreported stratospheric volcanic aerosol cloud in the northern polar summer of 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Veiga, Robert E.; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of aerosol extinction profiles obtained by the spaceborne SAGE II sensor reveals that there was an anomalous increase of aerosol extinction below 18.5 km at latitudes poleward of 50 deg N from July 28 to September 9, 1990. This widespread increase of aerosol extinction in the lower stratosphere was apparently due to a remote high-latitude volcanic eruption that has not been reported to date. The increase in stratospheric optical depth in the northern polar region was about 50% in August and had diminished by October 1990. This eruption caused an increase in stratospheric aerosol mass of about 0.33 x 10(exp 5) tons, assuming the aerosol was composed of sulfuric acid and water.

  3. Observation of an unusual mid-stratospheric aerosol layer in the Arctic: possible sources and implications for polar vortex dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    Full Text Available By the beginning of winter 2000/2001, a mysterious stratospheric aerosol layer had been detected by four different Arctic lidar stations. The aerosol layer was observed first on 16 November 2000, at an altitude of about 38 km near Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland (67° N, 51° W and on 19 November 2000, near Andenes, Norway (69°  N, 16°  E. Subsequently, in early December 2000, the aerosol layer was observed near Kiruna, Sweden (68°  N, 21°  E and Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79°  N, 12°  E. No mid-latitude lidar station observed the presence of aerosols in this altitude region. The layer persisted throughout the winter 2000/2001, at least up to 12 February 2001. In November 2000, the backscatter ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm was up to 1.1, with a FWHM of about 2.5 km. By early February 2001, the layer had sedimented from an altitude of 38 km to about 26 km. Measurements at several wavelengths by the ALOMAR and Koldewey lidars indicate the particle size was between 30 and 50 nm. Depolarisation measurements reveal that the particles in the layer are aspherical, hence solid. In the mid-stratosphere, the ambient atmospheric temperature was too high to support in situ formation or existence of cloud particles consisting of ice or an acid-water solution. Furthermore, in the year 2000 there was no volcanic eruption, which could have injected aerosols into the upper stratosphere. Therefore, other origins of the aerosol, such as meteoroid debris, condensed rocket fuel, or aerosols produced under the influence of charged solar particles, will be discussed in the paper. Trajectory calculations illustrate the path of the aerosol cloud within the polar vortex and are used to link the observations at the different lidar sites. From the descent rate of  the layer and particle sedimentation rates, the mean down-ward motion of air within the polar vortex was estimated to be about 124 m/d between 35 and 30 km, with higher values at the edge of the

  4. Observation of an unusual mid-stratospheric aerosol layer in the Arctic: possible sources and implications for polar vortex dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available By the beginning of winter 2000/2001, a mysterious stratospheric aerosol layer had been detected by four different Arctic lidar stations. The aerosol layer was observed first on 16 November 2000, at an altitude of about 38 km near Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland (67° N, 51° W and on 19 November 2000, near Andenes, Norway (69°  N, 16°  E. Subsequently, in early December 2000, the aerosol layer was observed near Kiruna, Sweden (68°  N, 21°  E and Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79°  N, 12°  E. No mid-latitude lidar station observed the presence of aerosols in this altitude region. The layer persisted throughout the winter 2000/2001, at least up to 12 February 2001. In November 2000, the backscatter ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm was up to 1.1, with a FWHM of about 2.5 km. By early February 2001, the layer had sedimented from an altitude of 38 km to about 26 km. Measurements at several wavelengths by the ALOMAR and Koldewey lidars indicate the particle size was between 30 and 50 nm. Depolarisation measurements reveal that the particles in the layer are aspherical, hence solid. In the mid-stratosphere, the ambient atmospheric temperature was too high to support in situ formation or existence of cloud particles consisting of ice or an acid-water solution. Furthermore, in the year 2000 there was no volcanic eruption, which could have injected aerosols into the upper stratosphere. Therefore, other origins of the aerosol, such as meteoroid debris, condensed rocket fuel, or aerosols produced under the influence of charged solar particles, will be discussed in the paper. Trajectory calculations illustrate the path of the aerosol cloud within the polar vortex and are used to link the observations at the different lidar sites. From the descent rate of  the layer and particle sedimentation rates, the mean down-ward motion of air within the polar vortex was estimated to be about 124 m/d between 35 and 30 km, with higher values at the edge of the

  5. Cluster analysis of elemental constituents of individual atmospheric aerosol particles from the volcanic plume of Lonquimay eruption in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltay, E.; Rajta, I.; Kertesz, Zs.; Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Z.A.; Morales, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol samples collected around the Chilean site Lonquimay during major volcanic activities in January 1989 have been subjected to microPIXE measurements of 1 μm lateral resolution in the Debrecen Institute. Elemental concentrations relative to calcium have been determined for Al, Si, P, S, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba in 187 individual aerosol particles with the particle sizes between 15 μm and 1 μm. On the basis of a cluster analysis performed on the data set we defined eight clusters. Scatter plots for selected pairs of elements as Si/Al, K/Si, S/Cl, and Al/S elemental ratios that are considered as signatures characterizing types and mechanisms in volcanic eruption - have been compared with published data available in the literature for various volcanic sites. (author)

  6. Observed perturbations of the Earth's Radiation Budget - A response to the El Chichon stratospheric aerosol layer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, P. E.; Kyle, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget experiment, launched aboard the Nimbus-7 polar-orbiting spacecraft in late 1978, has now taken over seven years of measurements. The dataset, which is global in coverage, consists of the individual components of the earth's radiation budget, including longwave emission, net radiation, and both total and near-infrared albedos. Starting some six months after the 1982 eruption of the El Chichon volcano, substantial long-lived positive shortwave irradiance anomalies were observed by the experiment in both the northern and southern polar regions. Analysis of the morphology of this phenomena indicates that the cause is the global stratospheric aerosol layer which formed from the cloud of volcanic effluents. There was little change in the emitted longwave in the polar regions. At the north pole the largest anomaly was in the near-infrared, but at the south pole the near UV-visible anomaly was larger. Assuming an exponential decay, the time constant for the north polar, near-infrared anomaly was 1.2 years. At mid- and low latitudes the effect of the El Chichon aerosol layer could not be separated from the strong reflected-shortwave and emitted-longwave perturbations issuing from the El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1982-83.

  7. Eulerian-Lagranigan simulation of aerosol evolution in turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun; Jiang, Xiao; Sun, Ke; He, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The formation and evolution of aerosol in turbulent flows are ubiquitous in both industrial processes and nature. The intricate interaction of turbulent mixing and aerosol evolution in a canonical turbulent mixing layer was investigated by a direct

  8. Size-specific composition of aerosols in the El Chichon volcanic cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. C.; Chuan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A NASA U-2 research aircraft flew sampling missions in April, May, July, November, and December 1982 aimed at obtaining in situ data in the stratospheric cloud produced from the March-April 1982 El Chichon eruptions. Post flight analyses provided information on the aerosol composition and morphology. The particles ranged in size from smaller than 0.05 m to larger than 20 m diameter and were quite complex in composition. In the April, May, and July samples the aerosol mass was dominated by magmatic and lithic particles larger than about 3 m. The submicron particles consisted largely of sulfuric acid. Halite particles, believed to be related to a salt dome beneath El Chichon, were collected in the stratosphere in April and May. On the July 23 flight, copper-zinc oxide particles were collected. In July, November, and December, in addition to the volcanic ash and acid particles, carbon-rich particles smaller than about 0.1 m aerodynamic diameter were abundant.

  9. Improved Near Real Time WRF-Chem Volcanic Emission Prediction and Impacts of Ash Aerosol on Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuefer, M.; Webley, P. W.; Hirtl, M.

    2017-12-01

    We use the numerical Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to investigate the regional effects of volcanic aerosol on weather. A lot of observational data have become available since the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. The observed plume characteristics and meteorological data have been exploited for volcanic WRF-Chem case studies. We concluded that the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume resulted in significant direct aerosol effects altering the state of the atmosphere over large parts of Europe. The WRF-Chem model runs show near surface temperature differences up to 3ºC, altered vertical stability, changed pressure- and wind fields within the atmosphere loaded with ash aerosol. The modeled results have been evaluated with lidar network data, and ground and balloon based observations all over Europe. Besides case studies, we use WRF-Chem to build an improved volcanic ash decision support system that NOAA can use within the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) system. Realistic eruption source parameter (ESP) estimates are a main challenge in predicting volcanic emission dispersion in near real time. We implemented historic ESP into the WRF-Chem preprocessing routine, which can be used as a first estimate to assess a volcanic plume once eruption activity is reported. In a second step, a range of varying plume heights has been associated with the different ash variables within WRF-Chem, resulting in an assembly of different plume scenarios within one WRF-Chem model run. Once there is plume information available from ground or satellite observations, the forecaster has the option to select the corresponding ash variable that best matches the observations. In addition we added an automatic domain generation tool to create near real time WRF-Chem model runs anywhere on the globe by reducing computing expenses at the same time.

  10. I. The effect of volcanic aerosols on ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica. II. A novel method for enhancing subsurface radar imaging using radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitas, Steven Ronald

    The theory of radiative transfer is used to explain how a stratospheric aerosol layer may, for large solar zenith angles, increase the flux of UV-B light at the ground. As previous explanations are heuristic and incomplete, I first provide a rigorous and complete explanation of how this occurs. I show that an aerosol layer lying above Antarctica during spring will decrease the integrated daily dose of biologically weighted irradiance, weighted by the erythema action spectrum, by only up to 5%. Thus after a volcanic eruption, life in Antarctica during spring will suffer the combined effects of the spring ozone hole and ozone destruction induced by volcanic aerosols, with the latter effect only slightly offset by aerosol scattering. I extend subsurface radar imaging by considering the additional information that may be derived from radar interferometry. I show that, under the conditions that temporal and spatial decorrelation between observations is small so that the effects of these decorrelations do not swamp the signature expected from a subsurface layer, the depth of burial of the lower surface may be derived. Also, the echoes from the lower and upper surfaces may be separated. The method is tested with images acquired by SIR-C of the area on the Egypt/Sudan border where buried river channels were first observed by SIR-A. Temporal decorrelation between the images, due to some combination of physical changes in the scene, changes in the spacecraft attitude and errors in the processing by NASA of the raw radar echoes into the synthetic aperture radar images, swamps the expected signature for a layer up to 40 meters thick. I propose a test to determine whether or not simultaneous observations are required, and then detail the radar system requirements for successful application of the method for both possible outcomes of the test. I also describe in detail the possible applications of the method. These include measuring the depth of burial of ice in the polar

  11. The Complex Refractive Index of Volcanic Ash Aerosol Retrieved From Spectral Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin E.; Peters, Daniel M.; McPheat, Robert; Grainger, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    The complex refractive indices of eight volcanic ash samples, chosen to have a representative range of SiO2 contents, were retrieved from simultaneous measurements of their spectral mass extinction coefficient and size distribution. The mass extinction coefficients, at 0.33-19 μm, were measured using two optical systems: a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared and two diffraction grating spectrometers covering visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. The particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter; values for the effective radius of ash particles measured in this study varied from 0.574 to 1.16 μm. Verification retrievals on high-purity silica aerosol demonstrated that the Rayleigh continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDEs) scattering model significantly outperformed Mie theory in retrieving the complex refractive index, when compared to literature values. Assuming the silica particles provided a good analogue of volcanic ash, the CDE scattering model was applied to retrieve the complex refractive index of the eight ash samples. The Lorentz formulation of the complex refractive index was used within the retrievals as a convenient way to ensure consistency with the Kramers-Kronig relation. The short-wavelength limit of the electric susceptibility was constrained by using independently measured reference values of the complex refractive index of the ash samples at a visible wavelength. The retrieved values of the complex refractive indices of the ash samples showed considerable variation, highlighting the importance of using accurate refractive index data in ash cloud radiative transfer models.

  12. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hervo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010, the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD. In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m−3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm−3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98, showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m−2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m−2. Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23

  13. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  14. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Art; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and two days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  15. First results of the Piton de la Fournaise STRAP 2015 experiment: multidisciplinary tracking of a volcanic gas and aerosol plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulet, Pierre; Di Muro, Andréa; Colomb, Aurélie; Denjean, Cyrielle; Duflot, Valentin; Arellano, Santiago; Foucart, Brice; Brioude, Jérome; Sellegri, Karine; Peltier, Aline; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Barthe, Christelle; Bhugwant, Chatrapatty; Bielli, Soline; Boissier, Patrice; Boudoire, Guillaume; Bourrianne, Thierry; Brunet, Christophe; Burnet, Fréderic; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Gabarrot, Franck; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Guadagno, Christian; Jeamblu, Fréderic; Kowalski, Philippe; Leclair de Bellevue, Jimmy; Marquestaut, Nicolas; Mékies, Dominique; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Pianezze, Joris; Portafaix, Thierry; Sciare, Jean; Tournigand, Arnaud; Villeneuve, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The STRAP (Synergie Transdisciplinaire pour Répondre aux Aléas liés aux Panaches volcaniques) campaign was conducted over the entire year of 2015 to investigate the volcanic plumes of Piton de La Fournaise (La Réunion, France). For the first time, measurements at the local (near the vent) and at the regional scales were conducted around the island. The STRAP 2015 campaign has become possible thanks to strong cross-disciplinary collaboration between volcanologists and meteorologists. The main observations during four eruptive periods (85 days) are summarised. They include the estimates of SO2, CO2 and H2O emissions, the altitude of the plume at the vent and over different areas of La Réunion Island, the evolution of the SO2 concentration, the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol extinction profile. A climatology of the volcanic plume dispersion is also reported. Simulations and measurements show that the plumes formed by weak eruptions have a stronger interaction with the surface of the island. Strong SO2 mixing ratio and particle concentrations above 1000 ppb and 50 000 cm-3 respectively are frequently measured over a distance of 20 km from Piton de la Fournaise. The measured aerosol size distribution shows the predominance of small particles in the volcanic plume. Several cases of strong nucleation of sulfuric acid have been observed within the plume and at the distal site of the Maïdo observatory. The STRAP 2015 campaign provides a unique set of multi-disciplinary data that can now be used by modellers to improve the numerical parameterisations of the physical and chemical evolution of the volcanic plumes.

  16. Aerosol characteristics in the entrainment interface layer in relation to the marine boundary layer and free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashazar, Hossein; Braun, Rachel A.; Crosbie, Ewan; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Woods, Roy K.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-02-01

    This study uses airborne data from two field campaigns off the California coast to characterize aerosol size distribution characteristics in the entrainment interface layer (EIL), a thin and turbulent layer above marine stratocumulus cloud tops, which separates the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL) from the free troposphere (FT). The vertical bounds of the EIL are defined in this work based on considerations of buoyancy and turbulence using thermodynamic and dynamic data. Aerosol number concentrations are examined from three different probes with varying particle diameter (Dp) ranges: > 3 nm, > 10 nm, and 0.11-3.4 µm. Relative to the EIL and FT layers, the sub-cloud (SUB) layer exhibited lower aerosol number concentrations and higher surface area concentrations. High particle number concentrations between 3 and 10 nm in the EIL are indicative of enhanced nucleation, assisted by high actinic fluxes, cool and moist air, and much lower surface area concentrations than the STBL. Slopes of number concentration versus altitude in the EIL were correlated with the particle number concentration difference between the SUB and lower FT layers. The EIL aerosol size distribution was influenced by varying degrees from STBL aerosol versus subsiding FT aerosol depending on the case examined. These results emphasize the important role of the EIL in influencing nucleation and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions.

  17. Grain size and shape analysis of the AD 1226 tephra layer, Reykjanes volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Guðrún; Tumi Guðmunsson, Magnús; Sigurgeirsson, Magnús Á.

    2014-05-01

    Recent explosive eruptions in Iceland have drawn attention to long range tephra transport in the atmosphere. In Iceland tephra forming explosion eruptions are frequent, due to abundance of water. However, the volcanism on the island is principally basaltic. Volcanism along the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into five distinct volcanic systems. Volcano-tectonic activity within these systems is periodic, with recurrence intervals in the range of 1 ka. Last volcano-tectonic sequence began around AD 940, shortly after settlement of Iceland, and lasted through AD 1340. During this period activity was characterized by basaltic fissure eruptions. Furthermore, this activity period on the Reykjanes peninsula began within the eastern most volcanic system and gradually moved towards the west across the peninsula. The 1226 eruption was a basaltic fissure eruption with in the Reykjanes volcanic system. The eruption began on land and gradually progressed towards the SW until the volcanic fissure extended into the sea. Water-magma interaction changed the eruption from effusive into explosive forming the largest tephra layer on the peninsula. Due to its close proximity to the Keflavik international airport and that of the capital of Iceland it is important to get an insight into, the characteristics, generation and distribution of such tephra deposits. In this eruption the tephra produced had an approximate volume of 0.1 km3 and covered an area of some 3500 km2 within the 0.5 cm isopach. Total grain size distribution of this tephra layer will be presented along with analysis of principal grain shapes of the finer portion of the tephra layer as a function of distance from the source. The tephra grain size is dominated by particles finer than 1 millimeter with an almost complete absence of large grains independent of distance from the source. Comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of tephra generated in this eruption can help us to understand hazards posed by future

  18. Lidar Observations of Aerosol Disturbances of the Stratosphere over Tomsk (56.5∘N; 85.0∘E in Volcanic Activity Period 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E. Bazhenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lidar measurements (Tomsk: 56.5∘N; 85.0∘E of the optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL in the volcanic activity period 2006–2011 are summarized and analyzed. The background SAL state with minimum aerosol content, observed since 1997 under the conditions of long-term volcanically quiet period, was interrupted in October 2006 by series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire: Rabaul (October 2006, New Guinea; Okmok and Kasatochi (July-August 2008, Aleutian Islands; Redoubt (March-April 2009, Alaska; Sarychev Peak (June 2009, Kuril Islands; Grimsvötn (May 2011, Iceland. A short-term and minor disturbance of the lower stratosphere was also observed in April 2010 after eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull. The developed regional empirical model of the vertical distribution of background SAL optical characteristics was used to identify the periods of elevated stratospheric aerosol content after each of the volcanic eruptions. Trends of variations in the total ozone content are also considered.

  19. Aerosol characteristics in the entrainment interface layer in relation to the marine boundary layer and free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dadashazar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses airborne data from two field campaigns off the California coast to characterize aerosol size distribution characteristics in the entrainment interface layer (EIL, a thin and turbulent layer above marine stratocumulus cloud tops, which separates the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL from the free troposphere (FT. The vertical bounds of the EIL are defined in this work based on considerations of buoyancy and turbulence using thermodynamic and dynamic data. Aerosol number concentrations are examined from three different probes with varying particle diameter (Dp ranges: > 3 nm, > 10 nm, and 0.11–3.4 µm. Relative to the EIL and FT layers, the sub-cloud (SUB layer exhibited lower aerosol number concentrations and higher surface area concentrations. High particle number concentrations between 3 and 10 nm in the EIL are indicative of enhanced nucleation, assisted by high actinic fluxes, cool and moist air, and much lower surface area concentrations than the STBL. Slopes of number concentration versus altitude in the EIL were correlated with the particle number concentration difference between the SUB and lower FT layers. The EIL aerosol size distribution was influenced by varying degrees from STBL aerosol versus subsiding FT aerosol depending on the case examined. These results emphasize the important role of the EIL in influencing nucleation and aerosol–cloud–climate interactions.

  20. Optimal estimation retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from SAGE II satellite observations in the volcanically unperturbed lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric aerosol particles under non-volcanic conditions are typically smaller than 0.1 μm. Due to fundamental limitations of the scattering theory in the Rayleigh limit, these tiny particles are hard to measure by satellite instruments. As a consequence, current estimates of global aerosol properties retrieved from spectral aerosol extinction measurements tend to be strongly biased. Aerosol surface area densities, for instance, are observed to be about 40% smaller than those derived from correlative in situ measurements (Deshler et al., 2003. An accurate knowledge of the global distribution of aerosol properties is, however, essential to better understand and quantify the role they play in atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, radiation and climate. To address this need a new retrieval algorithm was developed, which employs a nonlinear Optimal Estimation (OE method to iteratively solve for the monomodal size distribution parameters which are statistically most consistent with both the satellite-measured multi-wavelength aerosol extinction data and a priori information. By thus combining spectral extinction measurements (at visible to near infrared wavelengths with prior knowledge of aerosol properties at background level, even the smallest particles are taken into account which are practically invisible to optical remote sensing instruments. The performance of the OE retrieval algorithm was assessed based on synthetic spectral extinction data generated from both monomodal and small-mode-dominant bimodal sulphuric acid aerosol size distributions. For monomodal background aerosol, the new algorithm was shown to fairly accurately retrieve the particle sizes and associated integrated properties (surface area and volume densities, even in the presence of large extinction uncertainty. The associated retrieved uncertainties are a good estimate of the true errors. In the case of bimodal background aerosol, where the retrieved (monomodal size

  1. Optimal estimation retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from SAGE~II satellite observations in the volcanically unperturbed lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, D.; Grainger, R. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Deshler, T.

    2010-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol particles under non-volcanic conditions are typically smaller than 0.1 μm. Due to fundamental limitations of the scattering theory in the Rayleigh limit, these tiny particles are hard to measure by satellite instruments. As a consequence, current estimates of global aerosol properties retrieved from spectral aerosol extinction measurements tend to be strongly biased. Aerosol surface area densities, for instance, are observed to be about 40% smaller than those derived from correlative in situ measurements (Deshler et al., 2003). An accurate knowledge of the global distribution of aerosol properties is, however, essential to better understand and quantify the role they play in atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, radiation and climate. To address this need a new retrieval algorithm was developed, which employs a nonlinear Optimal Estimation (OE) method to iteratively solve for the monomodal size distribution parameters which are statistically most consistent with both the satellite-measured multi-wavelength aerosol extinction data and a priori information. By thus combining spectral extinction measurements (at visible to near infrared wavelengths) with prior knowledge of aerosol properties at background level, even the smallest particles are taken into account which are practically invisible to optical remote sensing instruments. The performance of the OE retrieval algorithm was assessed based on synthetic spectral extinction data generated from both monomodal and small-mode-dominant bimodal sulphuric acid aerosol size distributions. For monomodal background aerosol, the new algorithm was shown to fairly accurately retrieve the particle sizes and associated integrated properties (surface area and volume densities), even in the presence of large extinction uncertainty. The associated retrieved uncertainties are a good estimate of the true errors. In the case of bimodal background aerosol, where the retrieved (monomodal) size distributions naturally

  2. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer Through Satellite and Balloon-Borne Measurements Combined With Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, J.-P.; Fairlie, T. D.; Natarajan, M.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Crawford, J.; Moore, J.; Deshler, T.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer-ATAL is a confined area of enhanced aerosol associated Summer Asia Monsoon spanning from the E. Med Sea to W. China. It essentially extends from top of convective outflow over much of SE Asia Existence recognize through CALIPSO observations.

  3. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process—Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Panzer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the successful fabrication of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM. The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  4. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  5. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year. Sensitivity to eruption season of aerosol optical depth (AOD, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux is quantified by first integrating each field for four years after the eruption, then calculating for each cumulative field the absolute or percent difference between the maximum and minimum response from the four eruption seasons. Eruption season has a significant influence on AOD and clear-sky SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~75 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for Pinatubo-magnitude eruption, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to

  6. Use of statistical methods for determining homogeneous layers of volcanic soils at a site in the slopes of Volcan Irazu, Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    A Statistical method was used to delineate homogeneous layers of volcanic soils in two sites where dynamic penetration soundings have been implemented. The study includes two perforations (DPL 1A and DPL 1B) with dynamic penetrometer light (DPL), carried out in the canton de La Union, Cartago. The data of the number of blows as a function od the depth of the DPL perforations depth were used to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (IR) and clearly determine the limits of homogeneous layers in volcanic soils. The physical and mechanical properties of each determined layer were established with the help of computers programs, as well as the variation according to depth of its allowable bearing capacity. With the obtained results is has been possible to determine the most suitable site to establish the foundation of a potable water storage tank [es

  7. Photo-polarimetric sensitivities to layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalashnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate to what extent multi-angle polarimetric measurements are sensitive to vertical mixing/layering of absorbing aerosols, adopting calibration uncertainty of 1.5% in intensity and 0.5% in the degree of linear polarization of Multiangle Spectro-Polarimetric Imager (MSPI. Employing both deterministic and Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes with polarization, we conduct modeling experiments to determine how the measured Stokes vector elements are affected at UV and short visible wavelengths by the vertical distribution, mixing and layering of smoke and dust aerosols for variety of microphysical parameters. We find that multi-angular polarimetry holds the potential to infer dust-layer heights and thicknesses at blue visible channel due to its lesser sensitivity to changes in dust coarse mode optical properties, but higher sensitivity to the dust vertical profiles. Our studies quantify requirements for obtaining simultaneous information on aerosol layer height and absorption under MSPI measurement uncertainties.

  8. Radiative Impact of Observed and Simulated Aerosol Layers Over the East Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Burton, S. P.; Chand, D.; Comstock, J. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hubbe, J. M.; Kassianov, E.; Rogers, R. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Shilling, J. E.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distribution of particles in the atmospheric column can have a large impact on the radiative forcing and cloud microphysics. A recent climatology constructed using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) suggests elevated layers of aerosol are quite common near the North American east coast during both winter and summer. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study utilizing both in situ and remotely sensed measurements designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate science questions related to aerosol radiative forcing and the vertical distribution of aerosol. The study sampled the atmosphere at a number of altitudes within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs) using the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from the TCAP summer IOP is the relatively common occurrence (during four of the six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA Langley Research Center High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). These elevated layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. Both the in situ and remote sensing observations have been compared to

  9. Sources and Transport of Aerosol above the Boundary Layer over the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Veronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Dulac, François; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  10. Dry Deposition, Surface Production and Dynamics of Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1984-01-01

    A model of downward aerosol panicle flux characterized by dry deposition velocity, Vd, due to Slinn and Slinn (1980) is generalized to the case of nonzero surface concentration (absorbing surface with a surface source). A more general expression for the flux at some reference height is developed ...... produced as droplets at the surface and ‘continental’ background aerosols brought into the boundary layer at the top by entrainment and gravitational settling. Estimates of Si are provided....

  11. Volcanic-aerosol-induced changes in stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.; Browell, E. V.; Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fenn, M. A.; Butler, C. F.; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.; Cros, B.; Mayor, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of lower stratospheric ozone in the Tropics using electrochemical concentrations cell (ECC) sondes and the airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo are compared with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and ECC sonde measurements from below the eruption to determine what changes have occurred as a result. Aerosol data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible and IR wavelengths of the lidar system are used to examine the relationship between aerosols and ozone changes. Ozone decreases of 30 percent at altitudes between 19 and 26 km, partial column (16-28 km) decreases of about 27 D.U., and slight increases (5.4 D.U.) between 28 and 31 km are found in comparison with SAGE 2 climatological values.

  12. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  13. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  14. The primary volcanic aerosol emission from Mt Etna: Size-resolved particles with SO2 and role in plume reactive halogen chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. J.; Vignelles, D.; Liuzzo, M.; Giudice, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Coltelli, M.; Salerno, G.; Chartier, M.; Couté, B.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Dulac, F.; Renard, J.-B.

    2018-02-01

    Volcanoes are an important source of aerosols to the troposphere. Within minutes after emission, volcanic plume aerosol catalyses conversion of co-emitted HBr, HCl into highly reactive halogens (e.g. BrO, OClO) through chemical cycles that cause substantial ozone depletion in the dispersing downwind plume. This study quantifies the sub-to-supramicron primary volcanic aerosol emission (0.2-5 μm diameter) and its role in this process. An in-situ ground-based study at Mt Etna (Italy) during passive degassing co-deployed an optical particle counter and Multi-Gas SO2 sensors at high time resolution (0.1 Hz) enabling to characterise the aerosol number, size-distribution and emission flux. A tri-modal volcanic aerosol size distribution was found, to which lognormal distributions are fitted. Total particle volume correlates to SO2 (as a plume tracer). The measured particle volume:SO2 ratio equates to a sulfate:SO2 ratio of 1-2% at the observed meteorological conditions (40% Relative Humidity). A particle mass flux of 0.7 kg s-1 is calculated for the measured Mt Etna SO2 flux of 1950 tonnes/day. A numerical plume atmospheric chemistry model is used to simulate the role of the hygroscopic primary aerosol surface area and its humidity dependence on volcanic plume BrO and OClO chemistry. As well as predicting volcanic BrO formation and O3 depletion, the model achieves OClO/SO2 in broad quantitative agreement with recently reported Mt Etna observations, with a predicted maximum a few minutes downwind. In addition to humidity - that enhances aerosols surface area for halogen cycling - background ozone is predicted to be an important control on OClO/SO2. Dependence of BrO/SO2 on ambient humidity is rather low near-to-source but increases further downwind. The model plume chemistry also exhibits strong across-plume spatial variations between plume edge and centre.

  15. Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2014-06-25

    A large-scale simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer is performed and analyzed with the aim of elucidating the key processes involved. A cold gaseous stream is mixed with a hot stream of vapor, nanometer sized droplets nucleate as the vapor becomes supersaturated, and subsequently grow as more vapor condenses on their surface. All length and time scales of fluid motion and mixing are resolved and the quadrature method of moments is used to describe the dynamics of the condensing, non-inertial droplets. The results show that a region of high nucleation rate is located near the cold, dry stream, while particles undergo intense growth via condensation on the hot, humid vapor side. Supersaturation and residence times are such that number densities are low and neither coagulation nor vapor scavenging due to condensation are significant. The difference in Schmidt numbers of aerosol particles (approximated as infinity) and temperature and vapor (near unity) causes a drift of the aerosol particles in scalar space and contributes to a large scatter in the conditional statistics of aerosol quantities. The spatial distribution of the aerosol reveals high volume fraction on the hot side of the mixing layer. This distribution is due to drift against the mean and is related to turbulent mixing, which displaces particles from the nucleation region (cold side) into the growth region (hot side). Such a mechanism is absent in laminar flows and is a distinct feature of turbulent condensing aerosols.

  16. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer: Balloon-Borne Measurements, Satellite Observations and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Natarajan, M.; Deshler, Terry; Liu, H.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Pandit, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) can provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols associated with ASM anticyclone, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instrumentation, aircraft and satellite observations, combined with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-based observations from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, including in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and some of the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous contributions to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that 80-90% of ATAL aerosols originate from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  17. Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun; Attili, Antonio; Alshaarawi, Amjad; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer is performed and analyzed with the aim of elucidating the key processes involved. A cold gaseous stream is mixed with a hot stream of vapor, nanometer sized droplets nucleate as the vapor becomes supersaturated, and subsequently grow as more vapor condenses on their surface. All length and time scales of fluid motion and mixing are resolved and the quadrature method of moments is used to describe the dynamics of the condensing, non-inertial droplets. The results show that a region of high nucleation rate is located near the cold, dry stream, while particles undergo intense growth via condensation on the hot, humid vapor side. Supersaturation and residence times are such that number densities are low and neither coagulation nor vapor scavenging due to condensation are significant. The difference in Schmidt numbers of aerosol particles (approximated as infinity) and temperature and vapor (near unity) causes a drift of the aerosol particles in scalar space and contributes to a large scatter in the conditional statistics of aerosol quantities. The spatial distribution of the aerosol reveals high volume fraction on the hot side of the mixing layer. This distribution is due to drift against the mean and is related to turbulent mixing, which displaces particles from the nucleation region (cold side) into the growth region (hot side). Such a mechanism is absent in laminar flows and is a distinct feature of turbulent condensing aerosols.

  18. Eulerian-Lagranigan simulation of aerosol evolution in turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2016-09-23

    The formation and evolution of aerosol in turbulent flows are ubiquitous in both industrial processes and nature. The intricate interaction of turbulent mixing and aerosol evolution in a canonical turbulent mixing layer was investigated by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a recent study (Zhou, K., Attili, A., Alshaarawi, A., and Bisetti, F. Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer. Physics of Fluids, 26, 065106 (2014)). In this work, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of aerosol evolution is carried out along Lagrangian trajectories obtained in the previous simulation, in order to quantify the error of the moment method used in the previous simulation. Moreover, the particle size distribution (PSD), not available in the previous works, is also investigated. Along a fluid parcel moving through the turbulent flow, temperature and vapor concentration exhibit complex fluctuations, triggering complicate aerosol processes and rendering complex PSD. However, the mean PSD is found to be bi-modal in most of the mixing layer except that a tri-modal distribution is found in the turbulent transition region. The simulated PSDs agree with the experiment observations available in the literature. A different explanation on the formation of such PSDs is provided.

  19. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; hide

    2015-01-01

    Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a

  20. Observation-based estimation of aerosol-induced reduction of planetary boundary layer height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Sun, Jianning; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Minghuai; Guo, Weidong; Fu, Congbin

    2017-09-01

    Radiative aerosols are known to influence the surface energy budget and hence the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, we develop a method to estimate the aerosol-induced reduction in the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) based on two years of ground-based measurements at a site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), at Nanjing University, China, and radiosonde data from the meteorological station of Nanjing. The observations show that increased aerosol loads lead to a mean decrease of 67.1 W m-2 for downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and a mean increase of 19.2 W m-2 for downward longwave radiation (DLR), as well as a mean decrease of 9.6 Wm-2 for the surface sensible heat flux (SHF) in the daytime. The relative variations of DSR, DLR and SHF are shown as a function of the increment of column mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5). High aerosol loading can significantly increase the atmospheric stability in the planetary boundary layer during both daytime and nighttime. Based on the statistical relationship between SHF and PM2.5 column mass concentrations, the SHF under clean atmospheric conditions (same as the background days) is derived. In this case, the derived SHF, together with observed SHF, are then used to estimate changes in the PBLH related to aerosols. Our results suggest that the PBLH decreases more rapidly with increasing aerosol loading at high aerosol loading. When the daytime mean column mass concentration of PM2.5 reaches 200 mg m-2, the decrease in the PBLH at 1600 LST (local standard time) is about 450 m.

  1. The Effect of Aerosol on Gravity Wave Characteristics above the Boundary Layer over a Tropical Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, G.; Jana, S.; Maitra, A.

    2017-12-01

    The perturbations of temperature profile over a location give an estimate of the potential energy of gravity waves propagating through the atmosphere. Disturbances in the lower atmosphere due to tropical deep convection, orographic effects and various atmospheric disturbances generates of gravity waves. The present study investigates the gravity wave energy estimated from fluctuations in temperature profiles over the tropical location Kolkata (22°34' N, 88°22' E). Gravity waves are most intense during the pre-monsoon period (March-June) at the present location, the potential energy having high values above the boundary layer (2-4 km) as observed from radiosonde profiles. An increase in temperature perturbation, due to high ambient temperature in the presence of heat absorbing aerosols, causes an enhancement in potential energy. As the present study location is an urban metropolitan city experiencing high level of pollution, pollutant aerosols can go much above the normal boundary layer during daytime due to convection causing an extended boundary layer. The Aerosol Index (AAI) obtained from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on MetOp-A platform at 340 nm and 380 nm confirms the presence of absorbing aerosol particles over the present location. The Hysplit back trajectory analysis shows that the aerosol particles at those heights are of local origin and are responsible for depleting liquid water content due to cloud burning. The aerosol extinction coefficient obtained from CALIPSO data exhibits an increasing trend during 2006-2016 accompanied by a similar pattern of gravity wave energy. Thus the absorbing aerosols have a significant role in increasing the potential energy of gravity wave at an urban location in the tropical region.

  2. Elevated Aerosol Layers and Their Radiative Impact over Kanpur During Monsoon Onset Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, S. N.; Mishra, A. K.; Welton, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information about aerosol vertical distribution is needed to reduce uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on atmospheric dynamics. The present study deals with synergistic analyses of aerosol vertical distribution and aerosol optical depth (AOD) with meteorological variables using multisatellite and ground-based remote sensors over Kanpur in central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Micro-Pulse Lidar Network-derived aerosol vertical extinction (sigma) profiles are analyzed to quantify the interannual and daytime variations during monsoon onset period (May-June) for 2009-2011. The mean aerosol profile is broadly categorized into two layers viz., a surface layer (SL) extending up to 1.5 km (where sigma decreased exponentially with height) and an elevated aerosol layer (EAL) extending between 1.5 and 5.5 km. The increase in total columnar aerosol loading is associated with relatively higher increase in contribution from EAL loading than that from SL. The mean contributions of EALs are about 60%, 51%, and 50% to total columnar AOD during 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. We observe distinct parabolic EALs during early morning and late evening but uniformly mixed EALs during midday. The interannual and daytime variations of EALs are mainly influenced by long-range transport and convective capacity of the local emissions, respectively. Radiative flux analysis shows that clear-sky incoming solar radiation at surface is reduced with increase in AOD, which indicates significant cooling at surface. Collocated analysis of atmospheric temperature and aerosol loading reveals that increase in AOD not only resulted in surface dimming but also reduced the temperature (approximately 2-3 C) of lower troposphere (below 3 km altitude). Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the reduction of incoming solar radiation at surface is mainly due to increased absorption by EALs (with increase in total AOD). The observed cooling in lower troposphere in high

  3. Speciation of organic aerosols in the Saharan Air Layer and in the free troposphere westerlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We focused this research on the composition of the organic aerosols transported in the two main airflows of the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere: (i the Saharan Air Layer – the warm, dry and dusty airstream that expands from North Africa to the Americas at subtropical and tropical latitudes – and (ii the westerlies, which flow from North America over the North Atlantic at mid- and subtropical latitudes. We determined the inorganic compounds (secondary inorganic species and elemental composition, elemental carbon and the organic fraction (bulk organic carbon and organic speciation present in the aerosol collected at Izaña Observatory,  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. on the island of Tenerife. The concentrations of all inorganic and almost all organic compounds were higher in the Saharan Air Layer than in the westerlies, with bulk organic matter concentrations within the range 0.02–4.0 µg m−3. In the Saharan Air Layer, the total aerosol population was by far dominated by dust (93 % of bulk mass, which was mixed with secondary inorganic pollutants ( <  5 % and organic matter ( ∼  1.5 %. The chemical speciation of the organic aerosols (levoglucosan, dicarboxylic acids, saccharides, n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and those formed after oxidation of α-pinene and isoprene, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry accounted for 15 % of the bulk organic matter (determined by the thermo-optical transmission technique; the most abundant organic compounds were saccharides (associated with surface soils, secondary organic aerosols linked to oxidation of biogenic isoprene (SOA ISO and dicarboxylic acids (linked to several primary sources and SOA. When the Saharan Air Layer shifted southward, Izaña was within the westerlies stream and organic matter accounted for  ∼  28 % of the bulk mass of aerosols. In the westerlies, the organic aerosol species determined

  4. Real-Time Characterization of Aerosol Particle Composition above the Urban Canopy in Beijing: Insights into the Interactions between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Aerosol Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zhenyi; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Gao, Zhiqiu; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2015-10-06

    Despite extensive efforts into the characterization of air pollution during the past decade, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition above the urban canopy in the megacity Beijing has never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous real-time measurements of aerosol composition at two different heights at the same location in urban Beijing from December 19, 2013 to January 2, 2014. The nonrefractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured in situ by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer at near-ground level and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor at 260 m on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing. Secondary aerosol showed similar temporal variations between ground level and 260 m, whereas much weaker correlations were found for the primary aerosol. The diurnal evolution of the ratios and correlations of aerosol species between 260 m and the ground level further illustrated a complex interaction between vertical mixing processes and local source emissions on aerosol chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer. As a result, the aerosol compositions at the two heights were substantially different. Organic aerosol (OA), mainly composed of primary OA (62%), at the ground level showed a higher contribution to NR-PM1 (65%) than at 260 m (54%), whereas a higher concentration and contribution (15%) of nitrate was observed at 260 m, probably due to the favorable gas-particle partitioning under lower temperature conditions. In addition, two different boundary layer structures were observed, each interacting differently with the evolution processes of aerosol chemistry.

  5. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-03-01

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  6. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; hide

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  7. Nature, Origin, Potential Composition, and Climate Impact of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, origin, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.

  8. Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development has led to frequent haze in Beijing. With mountains and sea surrounding Beijing, the pollution is found to be influenced by the mountain-plain breeze and sea-land breeze in complex ways. Meanwhile, the presence of aerosols may affect the surface energy balance and impact these boundary layer (BL) processes. The effects of BL processes on aerosol pollution and the feedback between aerosol and BL processes are not yet clearly understood. Thus, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the possible effects and feedbacks during a haze episode on 23 September 2011. Influenced by the onshore prevailing wind, sea-breeze, and upslope breeze, about 45% of surface particulate matter (PM)2.5 in Beijing are found to be contributed by its neighbor cities through regional transport. In the afternoon, the development of upslope breeze suppresses the growth of BL in Beijing by imposing a relatively low thermal stable layer above the BL, which exacerbates the pollution. Two kinds of feedback during the daytime are revealed as follows: (1) as the aerosols absorb and scatter the solar radiation, the surface net radiation and sensible heat flux are decreased, while BL temperature is increased, resulting in a more stable and shallower BL, which leads to a higher surface PM2.5 concentration in the morning and (2) in the afternoon, as the presence of aerosols increases the BL temperature over plains, the upslope breeze is weakened, and the boundary layer height (BLH) over Beijing is heightened, resulting in the decrease of the surface PM2.5 concentration there.

  9. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nc induced by entrained aerosol. The increased Nc slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets, such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.

  10. Delay in convection in nocturnal boundary layer due to aerosol-induced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Ponnulakshmi, V. K.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2012-11-01

    Heat transfer processes in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) influence the surface energy budget, and play an important role in many micro-meteorological processes including the formation of inversion layers, radiation fog, and in the control of air-quality near the ground. Under calm clear-sky conditions, radiation dominates over other transport processes, and as a result, the air layers just above ground cool the fastest after sunset. This leads to an anomalous post-sunset temperature profile characterized by a minimum a few decimeters above ground (Lifted temperature minimum). We have designed a laboratory experimental setup to simulate LTM, involving an enclosed layer of ambient air, and wherein the boundary condition for radiation is decoupled from those for conduction and convection. The results from experiments involving both ambient and filtered air indicate that the high cooling rates observed are due to the presence of aerosols. Calculated Rayleigh number of LTM-type profiles is of the order 105-107 in the field and of order 103-105 in the laboratory. In the LTM region, there is convective motion when the Rayleigh number is greater than 104 rather than the critical Rayleigh number (Rac = 1709). The diameter of convection rolls is a function of height of minimum of LTM-type profiles. The results obtained should help in the parameterization of transport process in the nocturnal boundary layer, and highlight the need to accounting the effects of aerosols and ground emissivity in climate models.

  11. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  12. Assessment of Aerosol Optical Property and Radiative Effect for the Layer Decoupling Cases over the Northern South China Sea During the 7-SEAS Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantau Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (omega) approx. = 0.92 at 440nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the omega (approx. = 0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6W/sq m2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  13. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  14. Chemical composition of aerosol in the atmospheric surface layer of the East Antarctica coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of aerosol in the ground layer of the coastal zone in East Antarctica is analyzed in the article. The aerosol samples were taken in 2006–2015 during seasonal works of the Russian Antarctic Expeditions (RAE, namely, these were 52nd–53rd, 55th, and 58th–60th expeditions. Samples were taken in the 200‑km band of the sea-shore zone along routes of the research vessels (REV «Akademik Fedorov» and «Akademik Treshnikov» as well as on territories of the Russian stations Molodezhnaya and Mirny. Although the results obtained did show the wide range of the aerosol concentrations and a certain variability of their chemical composition, some common features of the variability were revealed. Thus, during the period from 2006 to 2014 a decrease of average values of the sums were noted. Spatially, a tendency of decreasing of the ion concentrations was found in the direction from the station Novolazarevskaya to the Molodezhnaya one, but the concentrations increased from the Molodezhnaya to the station Mirny. The sum of ions of the aerosol in the above mentioned coastal zone was, on the average, equal to 2.44 μg/m3, and it was larger than that on the territory of the Antarctic stations Molodezhnaya (0,29 μg/m3 and Mirny (0,50 ág / m3. The main part to the sum of the aerosol ions on the Antarctic stations was contributed by Na+, Ca2+, Cl−, SO4 2−. The main ions in aerosol composition in the coastal zone are ions Na+ and Cl−. The dominant contribution of the sea salt and SO4 2− can be traced in not only the composition of atmospheric aerosols, but also in the chemical composition of the fresh snow in the coastal areas of East Antarctica: at the Indian station Maitri, on the Larsemann Hills, and in a boring located in 55.3 km from the station Progress (K = 1.4÷6.1. It was noted that values of the coefficient of enrichment K of these ions decreases as someone moves from a shore to inland. Estimation of

  15. Radiation forcing by the atmospheric aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. K.; Ponnulakshami, V. K.; Mukund, V.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have conducted experimental and theoretical studies on the radiation forcing due to suspended aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer. We present radiative, conductive and convective equilibrium profile for different bottom boundaries where calculated Rayleigh number is higher than the critical Rayleigh number in laboratory conditions. The temperature profile can be fitted using an exponential distribution of aerosols concentration field. We also present the vertical temperature profiles in a nocturnal boundary in the presence of fog in the field. Our results show that during the presence of fog in the atmosphere, the ground temperature is greater than the dew-point temperature. The temperature profiles before and after the formation of fog are also observed to be different.

  16. Airborne observations of newly formed boundary layer aerosol particles under cloudy conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the appearance of ultrafine boundary layer aerosol particles under classical non-favourable conditions at the research site of TROPOS (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. Airborne measurements of meteorological and aerosol properties of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL were repeatedly performed with the unmanned aerial system ALADINA (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol during three seasons between October 2013 and July 2015. More than 100 measurement flights were conducted on 23 different days with a total flight duration of 53 h. In 26 % of the cases, maxima of ultrafine particles were observed close to the inversion layer at altitudes between 400 and 600 m and the particles were rapidly mixed vertically and mainly transported downwards during short time intervals of cloud gaps. This study focuses on two measurement days affected by low-level stratocumulus clouds, but different wind directions (NE, SW and minimal concentrations (< 4.6 µg m−3 of SO2, as a common indicator for precursor gases at ground. Taken from vertical profiles, the onset of clouds led to a non-linearity of humidity that resulted in an increased turbulence at the local-scale and caused fast nucleation e.g., but in relation to rapid dilution of surrounding air, seen in sporadic clusters of ground data, so that ultrafine particles disappeared in the verticality. The typical banana shape of new particle formation (NPF and growth was not seen at ground and thus these days might not have been classified as NPF event days by pure surface studies.

  17. A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the Twentieth Century as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the twentieth century, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.

  18. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  19. Response of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Soil Layer to a High Altitude, Dense Aerosol Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pittock, A. B.; Walsh, K.

    1990-01-01

    The response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the appearance of a high-altitude smoke layer has been investigated in a mesoscale numerical model of the atmosphere. Emphasis is placed on the changes in mean boundary-layer structure and near-surface temperatures when smoke of absorption optical depth (AOD) in the, range 0 to 1 is introduced. Calculations have been made at 30°S, for different soil thermal properties and degrees of surface wetness, over a time period of several days during which major smoke-induced cooling occurs. The presence of smoke reduces the daytime mixed-layer depth and, for large enough values of AOD, results in a daytime surface inversion with large cooling confined to heights of less than a few hundred meters. Smoke-induced reductions in daytime soil and air temperatures of several degrees are typical, dependent critically upon soil wetness and smoke AOD. Locations near the coast experience reduced cooling whenever there is a significant onshore flow related to a sea breeze (this would also be the case with a large-scale onshore flow). The sea breeze itself disappears for large enough smoke AOD and, over sloping coastal terrain, a smoke-induced, offshore drainage flow may exist throughout the diurnal cycle.

  20. Drivers of Seasonal Variability in Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Number Concentration Investigated Using a Steady State Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, Johannes; Wood, Robert; McGibbon, Jeremy; Eastman, Ryan; Luke, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol particles affect the climate through their interaction with MBL clouds. Although both MBL clouds and aerosol particles have pronounced seasonal cycles, the factors controlling seasonal variability of MBL aerosol particle concentration are not well constrained. In this paper an aerosol budget is constructed representing the effects of wet deposition, free-tropospheric entrainment, primary surface sources, and advection on the MBL accumulation mode aerosol number concentration (Na). These terms are then parameterized, and by assuming that on seasonal time scales Na is in steady state, the budget equation is rearranged to form a diagnostic equation for Na based on observable variables. Using data primarily collected in the subtropical northeast Pacific during the MAGIC campaign (Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) GPCI (GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison) Investigation of Clouds), estimates of both mean summer and winter Na concentrations are made using the simplified steady state model and seasonal mean observed variables. These are found to match well with the observed Na. To attribute the modeled difference between summer and winter aerosol concentrations to individual observed variables (e.g., precipitation rate and free-tropospheric aerosol number concentration), a local sensitivity analysis is combined with the seasonal difference in observed variables. This analysis shows that despite wintertime precipitation frequency being lower than summer, the higher winter precipitation rate accounted for approximately 60% of the modeled seasonal difference in Na, which emphasizes the importance of marine stratocumulus precipitation in determining MBL aerosol concentrations on longer time scales.

  1. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  2. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Experiments on aerosol-induced cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, K.; Singh, D. K.; Vk, P.; Mukund, V.; Subramanian, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), under calm & clear-sky conditions, radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer & it determines the temperature distribution close to the ground. Radiative processes thus influence the surface energy budget, & play a decisive role in many micro-meteorological processes including the formation of radiation-fog & inversion layer. Here, we report hyper-cooling of air layers close to the ground that has a radiative origin. Resulting vertical temperature distribution has an anomalous profile with an elevated minimum few decimetres above the ground (known as Lifted Temperature Minimum; LTM). Even though the first observation of this type of profile dates back to 1930s, its origin has not been explained till recently. We report field experiments to elucidate effects of emissivity and other physical properties of the ground on the LTM profile. Field observations clearly indicate that LTM-profiles are observed as a rule in the lowest meter of the NBL. We also demonstrate that the air-layer near the ground, rather than the ground itself, leads the post sunset cooling. This fact changes the very nature of the sensible heat-flux boundary condition. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed that can reproduce LTM. Lab-experiments demonstrate that the high cooling rates observed in the field experiments arise from the presence of aerosols & the intensity of cooling is proportional to aerosol concentration (Fig-1). We have also captured penetrative convection cells in the field experiments (Fig-2). Results presented here thus help in parameterizing transport processes in the NBL.

  4. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  5. Spatial distribution analysis of the OMI aerosol layer height: a pixel-by-pixel comparison to CALIOP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimot, Julien; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Vlemmix, Tim; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-04-01

    A global picture of atmospheric aerosol vertical distribution with a high temporal resolution is of key importance not only for climate, cloud formation, and air quality research studies but also for correcting scattered radiation induced by aerosols in absorbing trace gas retrievals from passive satellite sensors. Aerosol layer height (ALH) was retrieved from the OMI 477 nm O2 - O2 band and its spatial pattern evaluated over selected cloud-free scenes. Such retrievals benefit from a synergy with MODIS data to provide complementary information on aerosols and cloudy pixels. We used a neural network approach previously trained and developed. Comparison with CALIOP aerosol level 2 products over urban and industrial pollution in eastern China shows consistent spatial patterns with an uncertainty in the range of 462-648 m. In addition, we show the possibility to determine the height of thick aerosol layers released by intensive biomass burning events in South America and Russia from OMI visible measurements. A Saharan dust outbreak over sea is finally discussed. Complementary detailed analyses show that the assumed aerosol properties in the forward modelling are the key factors affecting the accuracy of the results, together with potential cloud residuals in the observation pixels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the physical meaning of the retrieved ALH scalar corresponds to the weighted average of the vertical aerosol extinction profile. These encouraging findings strongly suggest the potential of the OMI ALH product, and in more general the use of the 477 nm O2 - O2 band from present and future similar satellite sensors, for climate studies as well as for future aerosol correction in air quality trace gas retrievals.

  6. Spatial distribution analysis of the OMI aerosol layer height: a pixel-by-pixel comparison to CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chimot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A global picture of atmospheric aerosol vertical distribution with a high temporal resolution is of key importance not only for climate, cloud formation, and air quality research studies but also for correcting scattered radiation induced by aerosols in absorbing trace gas retrievals from passive satellite sensors. Aerosol layer height (ALH was retrieved from the OMI 477 nm O2 − O2 band and its spatial pattern evaluated over selected cloud-free scenes. Such retrievals benefit from a synergy with MODIS data to provide complementary information on aerosols and cloudy pixels. We used a neural network approach previously trained and developed. Comparison with CALIOP aerosol level 2 products over urban and industrial pollution in eastern China shows consistent spatial patterns with an uncertainty in the range of 462–648 m. In addition, we show the possibility to determine the height of thick aerosol layers released by intensive biomass burning events in South America and Russia from OMI visible measurements. A Saharan dust outbreak over sea is finally discussed. Complementary detailed analyses show that the assumed aerosol properties in the forward modelling are the key factors affecting the accuracy of the results, together with potential cloud residuals in the observation pixels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the physical meaning of the retrieved ALH scalar corresponds to the weighted average of the vertical aerosol extinction profile. These encouraging findings strongly suggest the potential of the OMI ALH product, and in more general the use of the 477 nm O2 − O2 band from present and future similar satellite sensors, for climate studies as well as for future aerosol correction in air quality trace gas retrievals.

  7. Origin of leucite-rich and sanidine-rich flow layers in the Leucite Hills Volcanic Field, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. D.; Hoinkes, Georg; Ogden, Palmer; Pajari, G. E.

    1990-09-01

    Two types of orendite (sanidine-phlogopite lamproite) and wyomingite (leucite-phlogopite lamproite) intraflow layering are present in the ultrapotassic Leucite Hills Volcanic Field, Wyoming. In large-scale layering, wyomingites are confined to the base of the flow, while in centimeter-scale layering, orendite and wyomingite alternate throughout the flow. The mineralogy of the orendites and wyomingites are the same; only the relative amount of each mineral vary substantially. The chemical compositions of adjacent layers of wyomingite and orendite are almost identical except for water. The centimeter-scale flow layering probably represents fossil streamlines of the lava and therefore defines the path of circulation of the viscous melt. Toward the front of the flow, the layers are commonly folded. Structures present which are indicative that the flows may have possessed a yield strength are limb shears, boudinage, and slumping. Phlogopite phenocrysts are poorly aligned in the orendite layers, while they are often in subparallel alignment in the wyomingite layers; and they are used as a measure of shearing intensity during emplacement of the flow. Vesicle volumes are concentrated in the orendite layers. In the large-scale layering, a discontinuous base rubble zone of autobreccia is overlain by a thin platy zone followed by a massive zone which composes more than the upper 75% of the flow. Consequently, we feel that the origin of the layering may be related to shearing. Two extremes in the geometry of shearing are proposed: closely spaced, thin, densely sheared layers separated by discrete intervals throughout a lava flow as in the centimeter-scale layering and classical plug flow where all the shearing is confined to the base as in the large-scale layering. A mechanism is proposed which causes thixotropic behavior and localizes shearing: the driving force is the breakdown of molecular water to form T-OH bonds which establishes a chemical potential gradient for water in

  8. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) Using Satellite Observations, Balloon Measurements and a Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Liu, H.; Deshler, T.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Ratnam, M. V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with the ASM anticyclone. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instruments, aircraft, and satellite observations, together with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical, and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-data from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, which includes in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous components to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that ATAL aerosols originate primary from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  9. Exchanges in boundary layer and low troposphere and consequences on pollution of Fos-Berre-Marseille area (ESCOMPTE experiment); Les aerosols: emissions, formation d'aerosols organiques secondaires, transport longue distance. Zoom sur les aerosols carbones en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, B

    2006-01-15

    formation, involving enlarged set of volatile organic compounds, (precursors of the SOA) and more elaborated modelling of SOA hygroscopic properties (hydrophilic/hydrophobic SOA); - first estimations of aerosol complex radiative properties on the basis of ORISAM-TM4 aerosol concentrations and assuming a 3 layer internally-mixed aerosol (RAD module). (author)

  10. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  11. Elevated aerosol layers modify the O2–O2 absorption measured by ground-based MAX-DOAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Ivan; Berg, Larry K.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen collisional complex (O2-O2, or O4) is a greenhouse gas, and a calibration trace gas used to infer aerosol and cloud properties by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Recent reports suggest the need for an O4 correction factor (CFO4) when comparing simulated and measured O4 differential slant column densities (dSCD) by passive DOAS. We investigate the sensitivity of O4 dSCD simulations at ultraviolet (360 nm) and visible (477 nm) wavelengths towards separately measured aerosol extinction profiles. Measurements were conducted by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS instrument and NASA’s multispectral High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA in July 2012. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, AOD ~ 0.35 at 477 nm), and (2) near molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD < 0.10 at 477 nm) the measured and calculated O4 dSCDs agreed within 6.4±0.4% (360 nm) and 4.7±0.6% (477 nm) if the HSRL-2 profiles were used as input to the calculations. However, if in the calculations the aerosol is confined to the surface layer (while keeping AOD constant) we find 0.53aerosol layers, unless accounted for, can cause negative bias in the simulated O4 dSCDs that can explain CFO4. The air density and aerosol profile aloft needs to be taken into account when interpreting the O4 from ground-based MAX-DOAS. Opportunities to identify and better characterize these layers are also discussed.

  12. Aerosol-cloud feedbacks in a turbulent environment: Laboratory measurements representative of conditions in boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Karki, S.; Kinney, G.; Shaw, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the climate impacts of boundary layer clouds are modulated by aerosol particles. As two examples, their interactions with incoming solar and upwelling terrestrial radiation and their propensity for precipitation are both governed by the population of aerosol particles upon which the cloud droplets formed. In turn, clouds are the primary removal mechanism for aerosol particles smaller than a few micrometers and larger than a few nanometers. Aspects of these interconnected phenomena are known in exquisite detail (e.g. Köhler theory), but other parts have not been as amenable to study in the laboratory (e.g. scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets). As a complicating factor, boundary layer clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, which introduces fluctuations in the water vapor concentration and temperature, which govern the saturation ratio which mediates aerosol-cloud interactions. We have performed laboratory measurements of aerosol-cloud coupling and feedbacks, using Michigan Tech's Pi Chamber (Chang et al., 2016). In conditions representative of boundary layer clouds, our data suggest that the lifetime of most interstitial particles in the accumulation mode is governed by cloud activation - particles are removed from the Pi Chamber when they activate and settle out of the chamber as cloud droplets. As cloud droplets are removed, these interstitial particles activate until the initially polluted cloud cleans itself and all particulates are removed from the chamber. At that point, the cloud collapses. Our data also indicate that smaller particles, Dp defined through the use of the Dämkohler number, the ratio of the characteristic turbulence timescale to the cloud's microphysical response time. Chang, K., et al., 2016. A laboratory facility to study gas-aerosol-cloud interactions in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00203.1

  13. Volcanic source inversion using a genetic algorithm and an elastic-gravitational layered earth model for magmatic intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Fernández, J.; Jentzsch, G.; Charco, M.; Rundle, J. B.

    2004-11-01

    Here we present an inversion methodology using the combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) inversion program, and an elastic-gravitational earth model to determine the parameters of a volcanic intrusion. Results from the integration of the elastic-gravitational model, a suite of FORTRAN 77 programs developed to compute the displacements due to volcanic loading, with the GA inversion code, written in the C programming language, are presented. These codes allow for the calculation of displacements (horizontal and vertical), tilt, vertical strain and potential and gravity changes on the surface of an elastic-gravitational layered Earth model due to the magmatic intrusion. We detail the appropriate methodology for examining the sensitivity of the model to variation in the constituent parameters using the GA, and present, for the first time, a Monte Carlo technique for evaluating the propagation of error through the GA inversion process. One application example is given at Mayon volcano, Philippines, for the inversion program, the sensitivity analysis, and the error evaluation. The integration of the GA with the complex elastic-gravitational model is a blueprint for an efficient nonlinear inversion methodology and its implementation into an effective tool for the evaluation of parameter sensitivity. Finally, the extension of this inversion algorithm and the error assessment methodology has important implications to the modeling and data assimilation of a number of other nonlinear applications in the field of geosciences.

  14. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  15. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Space-Borne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  16. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Spaceborne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(exp 40) sq molecules cm(exp -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nm, the O4 absorption band at 477 nm is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nm is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 m for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80% of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 km compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  17. Aerosol Activation Properties within and above Mixing Layer in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Ran, L.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles, serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may modify the properties of clouds and have an impact on climate. The vertical distribution of aerosols and their activation properties is critical to quantify the effect of aerosols on clouds. An intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP 2013), was conducted in the North China Plain during the late July and early August 2013 to measure the vertical profiles of atmospheric components in this polluted region and estimate their effects on atmospheric environment and climate. Aerosols were measured with in-situ instruments and Lidar. Particularly, the aerosols were collected at 1000 m height with a 1 m3 bag sampler attached to a tethered balloon, and subsequently measured with combined scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and CCN counter. Comparisons of size-resolved activation ratios at ground level and 1000 m height showed that aerosols in upper atmosphere were not only less concentrated, but also less CCN-active than those at the surface. The difference in aerosol properties between upper atmosphere and the ground indicates that the analysis of impacts of aerosols on cloud might be misleading in heavily polluted region based on the relationship of cloud properties and surface aerosols or column without considering the vertical distribution of aerosol activation abilities.

  18. Review of recent research on the climatic effect of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlock, T.P.; Kondratyev, K.; Prokofyev, M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of relatively recent research on the climatic effects of aerosols is presented. Most of the inferences of the climatic effects of aerosols have been obtained through assuming a certain aerosol model in conjunction with a particular climate model. The following radiative effects of aerosols are identified: The planetary albedo is generally increased due to the backscatter of solar radiation by aerosols, with the exception of aerosols situated above a highly reflecting surface. Solar radiation absorption by some aerosols can offset the cooling due to aerosol backscatter. Although aerosol effects dominate for short-wave radiation, absorption and emission of terrestrial radiation by aerosols produces a warming effect. Various climate models are used to assess the impact of aerosols on climate. A two-stream approximation to the radiation transfer equation is adequate for optically thin layers where single scattering is applicable. Improved models to include aerosol terrestrial radiation effects, important feedback mechanisms, and the prediction of globally and seasonally averaged surface and atmospheric temperatures are provided by the so-called radiative-convective models (RCM's). The basic structure of the RCM's, which is regarded as adequate for many aerosol climate applications, is described. The general circulation model (GCM) is also described briefly. A full-scale GCM incorporating realistic aerosol inputs is yet to be formulated to include regional variability of the aerosol. Moreover, detailed computer modeling associated with GCM climate models can often confuse the basic physics. Because volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere have long residence times, they provide a good case study of the climate response to a change in the atmospheric aerosol. The chapter gives a critique of modeling work done to establish climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols

  19. Observations of the vertical concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer by means of tethered balloon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Futoshi; Lee, D.I; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kikuchi,Katsuhiro

    1988-09-30

    In general, it is difficult to accurately understand the behavior of aerosol particles in the boundary layer above urban areas because aerosol sources are influenced by time-dependent factors and local climate. To overcome this difficulty, a particle counter which can count Mie particles with diameters of 0.3 /mu/m or more in five diameter ranges was installed on a large tehered balloon. With this method, the vertical distribution of aerosol concentration was measured in several areas different in meteorological condition, and the dependence of the particle behavior on particle diameter was studied. As a result, it has been revealed that the results of the observations explained above agree with the results of studies conducted in the past, but that dependence on particle diameter is not significant. 37 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

  20. Ceilometer observations of aerosol layer structure above the Petit Lubéron during ESCOMPTE's IOP 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zéphoris, Marcel; Holin, Hubert; Lavie, Franck; Cenac, Nadine; Cluzeau, Michel; Delas, Olivier; Eideliman, Françoise; Gagneux, Jacqueline; Gander, Alain; Thibord, Corinne

    2005-03-01

    A modified ceilometer has been used during the second Intensive Observation Period (IOP) of the "Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transport d'Émission" (ESCOMPTE) to perform continuous remote observations of aerosol accumulations in the first 3 km of the atmosphere. These observations encompassed an episode of intense particulate and photochemical pollution. The submicronic particles density, measured at an altitude of 600 m, went from a very low point of a few tens of particles per cubic centimeter (at the end of a Mistral episode in the free atmosphere) to a high point of more than 4500 particles per cubic centimeter (when pollutants were trapped by thermal inversions). The main result is that this instrument enables a fine documentation of the mixing layer height and of aerosol particles stratifications and circulation. Airborne aerosol measurements have been made above the mountainous region of Mérindol in order to validate in situ the remote sensing measurements. Ozone measurements near the summit of the mountains as well as in the valley were performed in order to correlate aerosol accumulation and ozone concentration. As a notable example, the two-layer aerosol stratification seen in the first 2 days of IOP 2b in that part of the ESCOMPTE domain confirms the results of another team which used backtrajectories. The low-altitude pollution for this timeframe had a local origin (the Fos industrial area), whereas above 500 m, the air masses had undergone regional-scale transport (from north-eastern Spain). The second major result is the highlighting of a pattern, in sea breeze conditions and in this part of the ESCOMPTE experiment zone, of nocturnal aerosol accumulation at an altitude of between 500 and 2000 m, followed by high ozone concentration the next day.

  1. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer using in situ balloon measurements: the BATAL campaigns of 2014-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J. P.; Deshler, T.; Pandit, A. K.; Ratnam, M. V.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Liu, H.; Natarajan, M.; Jayaraman, A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Wienhold, F.; Vignelles, D.; Bedka, K. M.; Avery, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present in situ balloon observations of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM). The ATAL was first revealed by CALIPSO satellite data, and has been linked with deep convection of boundary layer pollution into the UTLS. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, radiative transfer, and chemical processes in the UTLS. The "Balloon measurements of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL)" field campaigns to India and Saudi Arabia in were designed to characterize the physical and optical properties of the ATAL, to explore its composition, and its relationship with clouds in the UTLS. We launched 55 balloon flights from 4 locations, in summers 2014-2016. We return to India to make more balloon flights in summer 2017. Balloon payloads range from 500g to 50 kg, making measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone, water vapor, aerosol optical properties, concentration, volatility, and composition in the UTLS region. This project represents the most important effort to date to study UTLS aerosols during the ASM, given few in situ observations. We complement the in situ data presented with 3-d chemical transport simulations, designed to further explore the ATAL's chemical composition, the sensitivity of such to scavenging in parameterized deep convection, and the relative contribution of regional vs. rest-of-the-world pollution sources. The BATAL project has been a successful partnership between institutes in the US, India, Saudi Arabia, and Europe, and continues for the next 3-4 years, sponsored by the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research program. This partnership may provide a foundation for potential high-altitude airborne measurement studies during the ASM in the future.

  2. Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tsaknakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer to determine the mixing layer height and structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL and to retrieve tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol loads/types (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event, implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm. Spectral conversions of the ceilometer's data were performed using the Ångström exponent estimated by ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR measurements. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the attenuated backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general, a good agreement was found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.

  3. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  4. Characteristics of aerosol vertical profiles in Tsukuba, Japan, and their impacts on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoaki

    2018-05-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol physical and optical properties, with a focus on seasonal means and on transport events, were investigated in Tsukuba, Japan, by a synergistic remote sensing method that uses lidar and sky radiometer data. The retrieved aerosol vertical profiles of the springtime mean and five transport events were input to our developed one-dimensional atmospheric model, and the impacts of the aerosol vertical profiles on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were studied by numerical sensitivity experiments. The characteristics of the aerosol vertical profiles in Tsukuba are as follows: (1) the retrieval results in the spring showed that aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm in the free atmosphere (FA) was 0.13, greater than 0.08 in the ABL owing to the frequent occurrence of transported aerosols in the FA. In other seasons, optical thickness in the FA was almost the same as that in the ABL. (2) The aerosol optical and physical properties in the ABL showed a dependency on the extinction coefficient. With an increase in the extinction coefficient from 0.00 to 0.24 km-1, the Ångström exponent increased from 0.0 to 2.0, the single-scattering albedo increased from 0.87 to 0.99, and the asymmetry factor decreased from 0.75 to 0.50. (3) The large variability in the physical and optical properties of aerosols in the FA were attributed to transport events, during which the transported aerosols consisted of varying amounts of dust and smoke particles depending on where they originated (China, Mongolia, or Russia). The results of the numerical sensitivity experiments using the aerosol vertical profiles of the springtime mean and five transport events in the FA are as follows: (1) numerical sensitivity experiments based on simulations conducted with and without aerosols showed that aerosols caused the net downward radiation and the sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface to decrease. The decrease in temperature in the ABL (-0.2 to -0

  5. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-09-23

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  6. Reduced cooling following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kandlbauer, Jessy; Valdes, Paul J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    2017-11-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an important influence on decadal to centennial climate variability. Large eruptions lead to the formation of a stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer which can cause short-term global cooling. This response is modulated by feedback processes in the earth system, but the influence from future warming has not been assessed before. Using earth system model simulations we find that the eruption-induced cooling is significantly weaker in the future state. This is predominantly due to an increase in planetary albedo caused by increased tropospheric aerosol loading with a contribution from associated changes in cloud properties. The increased albedo of the troposphere reduces the effective volcanic aerosol radiative forcing. Reduced sea-ice coverage and hence feedbacks also contribute over high-latitudes, and an enhanced winter warming signal emerges in the future eruption ensemble. These findings show that the eruption response is a complex function of the environmental conditions, which has implications for the role of eruptions in climate variability in the future and potentially in the past.

  7. Modulations of stratospheric ozone by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christian; Mcconnell, John C.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a time series of aerosol surface based on the measurements of Hofmann to investigate the modulation of total column ozone caused by the perturbation to gas phase chemistry by the reaction N2O5(gas) + H2O(aero) yields 2HNO3(gas) on the surface of stratospheric aerosols. We have tested a range of values for its reaction probability, gamma = 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 which we compared to unperturbed homogeneous chemistry. Our analysis spans a period from Jan. 1974 to Oct. 1994. The results suggest that if lower values of gamma are the norm then we would expect larger ozone losses for highly enhanced aerosol content that for larger values of gamma. The ozone layer is more sensitive to the magnitude of the reaction probability under background conditions than during volcanically active periods. For most conditions, the conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is saturated for reaction probability in the range of laboratory measurements, but is only absolutely saturated following major volcanic eruptions when the heterogeneous loss dominates the losses of N2O5. The ozone loss due to this heterogeneous reaction increases with the increasing chlorine load. Total ozone losses calculated are comparable to ozone losses reported from TOMS and Dobson data.

  8. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    OpenAIRE

    X. Zheng; B. Albrecht; H. H. Jonsson; D. Khelif; G. Feingold; P. Minnis; K. Ayers; P. Chuang; S. Donaher; D. Rossiter; V. Ghate; J. Ruiz-Plancarte; S. Sun-Mack

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-t...

  9. Impacts of synoptic condition and planetary boundary layer structure on the trans-boundary aerosol transport from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Zhao, Chun; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Gen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Yanjun

    2018-05-01

    The northeastern China frequently experiences severe aerosol pollution in winter under unfavorable meteorological conditions. How and to what extent the meteorological factors affect the air quality there are not yet clearly understood. Thus, this study investigated the impacts of synoptic patterns on the aerosol transport and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure in Shenyang from 1 to 3 December 2016, using surface observations, sounding measurements, satellite data, and three-dimensional simulations. Results showed that the aerosol pollution occurred in Shenyang was not only related to the local emissions, but also contributed by trans-boundary transport of aerosols from the Beiijng-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. In the presence of the westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds, the aerosols emitted from BTH could be brought to Shenyang. From December 2 to 3, the aerosols emitted from BTH accounted for ∼20% of near-surface PM2.5 in Shenyang. In addition, the large-scale synoptic forcings could affect the vertical mixing of pollutants through modulating the PBL structure in Shenyang. The westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds not only brought the aerosols but also the warmer air masses from the southwest regions to Shenyang. The strong warm advections above PBL could enhance the already existing thermal inversion layers capping over PBL in Shenyang, leading to the suppressions of PBL. Both the trans-boundary transport of aerosols and the suppressions of PBL caused by the large-scale synoptic forcings should be partly responsible for the poor air quality in Shenyang, in addition to the high pollutant emissions. The present study revealed the physical mechanisms underlying the aerosol pollution in Shenyang, which has important implications for better forecasting and controlling the aerosols pollution.

  10. Aerosol concentrations and composition in the North Pacific marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjoo; Rhee, Tae Siek; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Park, Taehyun; Park, Seung-Myung; Seo, Beom-Keun; Park, Gyutae; Park, Keyhong; Lee, Taehyoung

    2017-12-01

    Ship-borne measurements of inorganic and organic aerosols, including methanesulfonic acid (MSA), were conducted over the Northern Pacific using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This study, conducted aboard the Korean ice breaker R/V Araon, was part of the SHIP-borne Pole-to-Pole Observations (SHIPPO) project. Based on air mass source region, the cruise track could be divided into five sections. Overall, the South Asia and Northern Japan ship transects showed higher aerosol concentrations due to continental pollution and biomass burning sources, respectively. In all five regions, the average mass concentrations of sulfate and organic aerosols (OA) were much higher than concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis distinguished two organic aerosol factors as hydrocarbon-like and oxidized OA (HOA and OOA). HOA peaked in South Asia under the influence of anthropogenic pollution source areas, such as China and Korea, and generally decreased with increasing latitude across the full study region. OOA concentrations peaked in Northern Japan near the Tsugaru Strait and appear to reflect fine particle contributions from biomass burning. The mean HOA concentration in the clean marine area (Aleutian Island to Siberia) was 0.06 μg/m3 and comprised approximately 8% of the OA mass fraction. The highest MSA concentrations peaked in the Aleutian Islands at nearly 15 μg/m3, suggesting influence from higher dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions resulting from biological nutrient uptake during summer. The MSA/sulfate ratio, an indicator of the relative fine particle contributions of DMS and anthropogenic sources, revealed a sharp gradient as the ship approached the clean marine areas where the dominance of DMS increased. The patterns in OOA, HOA, and MSA concentrations found in this study provide a better understanding of the characteristics of inorganic and organic aerosols in the Northern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Characterizing dust aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts in Northwest China: monitoring network and field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Matimin, A.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    TheTaklimakan, Gurbantunggut and BadainJaran Deserts with the total area of 43.8×104 km2 in Northwest China are the major dust emission sources in Central Asia. Understanding Central Asian dust emissions and the interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer has an important implication for regional and global climate and environment changes. In order to explore these scientific issues, a monitoring network of 63 sites was established over the vast deserts (Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert) in Northwest China for the comprehensive measurements of dust aerosol emission, transport and deposition as well as the atmospheric boundary layer including the meteorological parameters of boundary layer, surface radiation, surface heat fluxes, soil parameters, dust aerosol properties, water vapor profiles, and dust emission. Based on the monitoring network, the field experiments have been conducted to characterize dust aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts. The experiment observation indicated that depth of the convective boundary layer can reach 5000m on summer afternoons. In desert regions, the diurnal mean net radiation was effected significantly by dust weather, and sensible heat was much greater than latent heat accounting about 40-50% in the heat balance of desert. The surface soil and dust size distributions of Northwest China Deserts were obtained through widely collecting samples, results showed that the dominant dust particle size was PM100within 80m height, on average accounting for 60-80% of the samples, with 0.9-2.5% for PM0-2.5, 3.5-7.0% for PM0-10 and 5.0-14.0% for PM0-20. The time dust emission of Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert accounted for 0.48%, 7.3%×10-5and 1.9% of the total time within a year, and the threshold friction velocity for dust emission were 0.22-1.06m/s, 0.29-1.5m/s and 0.21-0.59m/s, respectively.

  12. Interactions Between Atmospheric Aerosols and Marine Boundary Layer Clouds on Regional and Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    Airborne aerosols are crucial atmospheric constituents that are involved in global climate change and human life qualities. Understanding the nature and magnitude of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions is critical in model predictions for atmospheric radiation budget and the water cycle. The interactions depend on a variety of factors including aerosol physicochemical complexity, cloud types, meteorological and thermodynamic regimes and data processing techniques. This PhD work is an effort to quantify the relationships among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation on both global and regional scales by using satellite retrievals and aircraft measurements. The first study examines spatial distributions of conversion rate of cloud water to rainwater in warm maritime clouds over the globe by using NASA A-Train satellite data. This study compares the time scale of the onset of precipitation with different aerosol categories defined by values of aerosol optical depth, fine mode fraction, and Angstrom Exponent. The results indicate that conversion time scales are actually quite sensitive to lower tropospheric static stability (LTSS) and cloud liquid water path (LWP), in addition to aerosol type. Analysis shows that tropical Pacific Ocean is dominated by the highest average conversion rate while subtropical warm cloud regions (far northeastern Pacific Ocean, far southeastern Pacific Ocean, Western Africa coastal area) exhibit the opposite result. Conversion times are mostly shorter for lower LTSS regimes. When LTSS condition is fixed, higher conversion rates coincide with higher LWP and lower aerosol index categories. After a general global view of physical property quantifications, the rest of the presented PhD studies is focused on regional airborne observations, especially bulk cloud water chemistry and aerosol aqueous-phase reactions during the summertime off the California coast. Local air mass origins are categorized into three distinct types (ocean, ships, and land

  13. Impact of aerosol intrusions on sea-ice melting rates and the structure Arctic boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W.; Carrio, G.; Jiang, H.

    2003-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory sea-ice model (LANL CICE) was implemented into the real-time and research versions of the Colorado State University-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS@CSU). The original version of CICE was modified in its structure to allow module communication in an interactive multigrid framework. In addition, some improvements have been made in the routines involved in the coupling, among them, the inclusion of iterative methods that consider variable roughness lengths for snow-covered ice thickness categories. This version of the model also includes more complex microphysics that considers the nucleation of cloud droplets, allowing the prediction of mixing ratios and number concentrations for all condensed water species. The real-time version of RAMS@CSU automatically processes the NASA Team SSMI F13 25km sea-ice coverage data; the data are objectively analyzed and mapped to the model grid configuration. We performed two types of cloud resolving simulations to assess the impact of the entrainment of aerosols from above the inversion on Arctic boundary layer clouds. The first series of numerical experiments corresponds to a case observed on May 4 1998 during the FIRE-ACE/SHEBA field experiment. Results indicate a significant impact on the microstructure of the simulated clouds. When assuming polluted initial profiles above the inversion, the liquid water fraction of the cloud monotonically decreases, the total condensate paths increases and downward IR tends to increase due to a significant increase in the ice water path. The second set of cloud resolving simulations focused on the evaluation of the potential effect of aerosol concentration above the inversion on melting rates during spring-summer period. For these multi-month simulations, the IFN and CCN profiles were also initialized assuming the 4 May profiles as benchmarks. Results suggest that increasing the aerosol concentrations above the boundary layer increases sea-ice melting

  14. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  15. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  16. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H.; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-05-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL on days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) varied between 15 g m-2 and 160 g m-2. From 29 October to 4 November, when a synoptic system affected conditions at Point Alpha, the cloud LWP was higher than on the other days by around 40 g m-2. On 1 and 2 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha. The total-water specific humidity above the inversion was larger than that within the BL during these days. Entrainment rates (average of 1.5 ± 0.6 mm s-1) calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence (vertical velocity variance) in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm-3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm-3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm-3, which was consistent with the satellite-derived values. The relationship of cloud droplet number concentration and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation from 18 flights is Nd =4.6 × CCN0.71. While the mean LWP

  17. Inferring the effects of compositional boundary layers on crystal nucleation, growth textures, and mineral chemistry in natural volcanic tephras through submicron-resolution imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Zellmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal nucleation and growth are first order processes captured in volcanic rocks and record important information about the rates of magmatic processes and chemical evolution of magmas during their ascent and eruption. We have studied glass-rich andesitic tephras from the Central Plateau of the Southern Taupo Volcanic Zone by electron- and ion-microbeam imaging techniques to investigate down to sub-micrometre scale the potential effects of compositional boundary layers (CBLs of melt around crystals on the nucleation and growth of mineral phases and the chemistry of crystal growth zones. We find that CBLs may influence the types of mineral phases nucleating and growing, and growth textures such as the development of swallowtails. The chemistry of the CBLs also has the capacity to trigger intermittent overgrowths of nanometre-scale bands of different phases in rapidly growing crystals, resulting in what we refer to as cryptic phase zoning. The existence of cryptic phase zoning has implications for the interpretation of microprobe compositional data, and the resulting inferences made on the conditions of magmatic evolution. Identification of cryptic phase zoning may in future lead to more accurate thermobarometric estimates and thus geospeedometric constraints. In future, a more quantitative characterization of CBL formation and its effects on crystal nucleation and growth may contribute to a better understanding of melt rheology and magma ascent processes at the onset of explosive volcanic eruptions, and will likely be of benefit to hazard mitigation efforts.

  18. Development of a double-layered ceramic filter for aerosol filtration at high-temperatures: the filter collection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Normanda L; Gonçalves, José A S; Innocentini, Murilo D M; Coury, José R

    2006-08-25

    The performance of double-layered ceramic filters for aerosol filtration at high temperatures was evaluated in this work. The filtering structure was composed of two layers: a thin granular membrane deposited on a reticulate ceramic support of high porosity. The goal was to minimize the high pressure drop inherent of granular structures, without decreasing their high collection efficiency for small particles. The reticulate support was developed using the technique of ceramic replication of polyurethane foam substrates of 45 and 75 pores per inch (ppi). The filtering membrane was prepared by depositing a thin layer of granular alumina-clay paste on one face of the support. Filters had their permeability and fractional collection efficiency analyzed for filtration of an airborne suspension of phosphatic rock in temperatures ranging from ambient to 700 degrees C. Results revealed that collection efficiency decreased with gas temperature and was enhanced with filtration time. Also, the support layer influenced the collection efficiency: the 75 ppi support was more effective than the 45 ppi. Particle collection efficiency dropped considerably for particles below 2 microm in diameter. The maximum collection occurred for particle diameters of approximately 3 microm, and decreased again for diameters between 4 and 8 microm. Such trend was successfully represented by the proposed correlation, which is based on the classical mechanisms acting on particle collection. Inertial impaction seems to be the predominant collection mechanism, with particle bouncing/re-entrainment acting as detachment mechanisms.

  19. Comparison of the impact of volcanic eruptions and aircraft emissions on the aerosol mass loading and sulfur budget in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Poole, Lamont R.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 1 and 2 were used to study the temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and to assess the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols from the eruption of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut. It was found that the yearly global average of optical depth at 1.0 micron for stratospheric background aerosols in 1979 was 1.16 x 10(exp -3) and in 1989 was 1.66 x 10(exp -3). The eruptions of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut ejected at least 5.6 x 10(exp 5) and 1.8 x 10(exp 5) tons of materials into the stratosphere, respectively. The amount of sulfur emitted per year from the projected subsonic and supersonic fleet is comparable to that contained in the background aerosol particles in midlatitudes from 35 deg N to 55 deg N.

  20. The Variable Climate Impact of Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.

    2011-12-01

    The main effect of big volcanic eruptions in the climate system is due to their efficient transport of condensable gases and their precursors into the stratosphere. There the formation of aerosols leads to effects on atmospheric radiation transfer inducing a reduction of incoming solar radiation by reflection (i.e. cooling of the Earth surface) and absorption of near infrared radiation (i.e. heating) in the aerosol laden layers. In the talk processes determining the climate effect of an eruption will be illustrated by examples, mainly from numerical modelling. The amount of gases released from a magma during an eruption and the efficiency of their transport into very high altitudes depends on the geological setting (magma type) and eruption style. While mid-sized eruption plumes of Plinian style quickly can develop buoyancy by entrainment of ambient air, very large eruptions with high magma flux rates often tend to collapsing plumes and co-ignimbrite style. These cover much bigger areas and are less efficient in entraining ambient air. Vertical transport in these plumes is chaotic and less efficient, leading to lower neutral buoyancy height and less gas and particles reaching high stratospheric altitudes. Explosive energy and amount of released condensable gases are not the only determinants for the climatic effect of an eruption. The effect on shortwave radiation is not linear with the amount of aerosols formed since according to the Lambert-Beer Law atmospheric optical depth reaches a saturation limit with increased absorber concentration. In addition, if more condensable gas is available for aerosol growth, particles become larger and this affects their optical properties to less reflection and more absorption. Larger particles settle out faster, thus reducing the life time of the aerosol disturbance. Especially for big tropical eruptions the strong heating of the stratosphere in low latitudes leads to changes in atmospheric wave propagation by strengthened

  1. Application of Convolution Perfectly Matched Layer in MRTD scattering model for non-spherical aerosol particles and its performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Li, Hao; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Zidong; Liu, Lei; Chen, Ming

    2017-10-01

    The performance of absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is an important factor influencing the simulation accuracy of MRTD (Multi-Resolution Time-Domain) scattering model for non-spherical aerosol particles. To this end, the Convolution Perfectly Matched Layer (CPML), an excellent ABC in FDTD scheme, is generalized and applied to the MRTD scattering model developed by our team. In this model, the time domain is discretized by exponential differential scheme, and the discretization of space domain is implemented by Galerkin principle. To evaluate the performance of CPML, its simulation results are compared with those of BPML (Berenger's Perfectly Matched Layer) and ADE-PML (Perfectly Matched Layer with Auxiliary Differential Equation) for spherical and non-spherical particles, and their simulation errors are analyzed as well. The simulation results show that, for scattering phase matrices, the performance of CPML is better than that of BPML; the computational accuracy of CPML is comparable to that of ADE-PML on the whole, but at scattering angles where phase matrix elements fluctuate sharply, the performance of CPML is slightly better than that of ADE-PML. After orientation averaging process, the differences among the results of different ABCs are reduced to some extent. It also can be found that ABCs have a much weaker influence on integral scattering parameters (such as extinction and absorption efficiencies) than scattering phase matrices, this phenomenon can be explained by the error averaging process in the numerical volume integration.

  2. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011 affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously identify

  3. The Interaction of Water and Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Study of Selected Processes Impacting Radiative Transfer and Cloudiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    profound effect of aerosol-water interaction both on radiation propagation in, and the thermodynamic structure of, the marine boundary layer. Specific... beer when we next meet. Regards, Dean lofl 1/24/2013 4:38 PM w DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES UNIVERSITY of WASHINGTON January 25, 2013

  4. The Role of Cloud Contamination, Aerosol Layer Height and Aerosol Model in the Assessment of the OMI Near-UV Retrievals Over the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Torres, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 388 nm over the ocean from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) two-channel near-UV algorithm (OMAERUV) have been compared with independent AOD measurements. The analysis was carried out over the open ocean (OMI and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) AOD comparisons) and over coastal and island sites (OMI and AERONET, the AErosol RObotic NETwork). Additionally, a research version of the retrieval algorithm (using MODIS and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) information as constraints) was utilized to evaluate the sensitivity of the retrieval to different assumed aerosol properties. Overall, the comparison resulted in differences (OMI minus independent measurements) within the expected levels of uncertainty for the OMI AOD retrievals (0.1 for AOD less than 0.3, 30% for AOD greater than 0.3). Using examples from case studies with outliers, the reasons that led to the observed differences were examined with specific purpose to determine whether they are related to instrument limitations (i.e., pixel size, calibration) or algorithm assumptions (such as aerosol shape, aerosol height). The analysis confirms that OMAERUV does an adequate job at rejecting cloudy scenes within the instrument's capabilities. There is a residual cloud contamination in OMI pixels with quality flag 0 (the best conditions for aerosol retrieval according to the algorithm), resulting in a bias towards high AODs in OMAERUV. This bias is more pronounced at low concentrations of absorbing aerosols (AOD 388 nm approximately less than 0.5). For higher aerosol loadings, the bias remains within OMI's AOD uncertainties. In pixels where OMAERUV assigned a dust aerosol model, a fraction of them (less than 20 %) had retrieved AODs significantly lower than AERONET and MODIS AODs. In a case study, a detailed examination of the aerosol height from CALIOP and the AODs from MODIS, along with sensitivity tests, was carried out by

  5. Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Stratospheric Ozone Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer associated with the Mt. Pinatubo volcano and future volcanic eruptions on the recovery of the ozone layer is studied with an interactive two-dimensional photochemical model. The time varying chlorine loading and the stratospheric cooling due to increasing carbon dioxide have been taken into account. The computed ozone and temperature changes associated with the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 agree well with observations. Long model runs out to the year 2050 have been carried out, in which volcanoes having the characteristics of the Mount Pinatubo volcano were erupted in the model at 10-year intervals starting in the year 2010. Compared to a non-volcanic run using background aerosol loading, transient reductions of globally averaged column ozone of 2-3 percent were computed as a result of each of these eruptions, with the ozone recovering to that computed for the non-volcanic case in about 5 years after the eruption. Computed springtime Arctic column ozone losses of from 10 to 18 percent also recovered to the non-volcanic case within 5 years. These results suggest that the long-term recovery of ozone would not be strongly affected by infrequent volcanic eruptions with a sulfur loading approximating Mt. Pinatubo. Sensitivity studies in which the Arctic lower stratosphere was forced to be 4 K and 10 K colder resulted in transient ozone losses of which also recovered to the non-volcanic case in 5 years. A case in which a volcano five times Mt. Pinatubo was erupted in the year 2010 led to maximum springtime column ozone losses of 45 percent which took 10 years to recover to the background case. Finally, in order to simulate a situation in which frequent smaller volcanic eruptions result in increasing the background sulfate loading, a simulation was made in which the background aerosol was increased by 10 percent per year. This resulted in a delay of the recovery of column ozone to 1980 values of more than 10 years.

  6. The OMI Aerosol Absorption Product: An A-train application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Ahn, C.

    2017-12-01

    Because of the uniquely large sensitivity of satellite-measured near-UV radiances to absorption by desert dust, carbonaceous and volcanic ash aerosols, observations by a variety of UV-capable sensors have been routinely used over the last forty years in both qualitative and quantitative applications for estimating the absorption properties of these aerosol types. In this presentation we will discuss a multi-sensor application involving observations from A-train sensors OMI, AIRS and CALIOP for the creation of a 13-year record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Determination of aerosol type, in terms of particle size distribution and refractive index, is an important algorithmic step that requires using external information. AIRS CO measurements are used as carbonaceous aerosols tracer to differentiate this aerosol type from desert dust. On the other hand, the height of the absorbing aerosol layer, an important parameter in UV aerosol retrievals, is prescribed using a CALIOP-based climatology. The combined use of these observations in the developments of the OMI long-term AOD/SSA record will be discussed along with an evaluation of retrieval results using independent observations.

  7. Evolution of trace elements in the planetary boundary layer in southern China: Effects of dust storms and aerosol-cloud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Tao; Ding, Aijun; Nie, Wei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-03-01

    Aerosols and cloud water were analyzed at a mountaintop in the planetary boundary layer in southern China during March-May 2009, when two Asian dust storms occurred, to investigate the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs) on chemical evolution of atmospheric trace elements. Fe, Al, and Zn predominated in both coarse and fine aerosols, followed by high concentrations of toxic Pb, As, and Cd. Most of these aerosol trace elements, which were affected by dust storms, exhibited various increases in concentrations but consistent decreases in solubility. Zn, Fe, Al, and Pb were the most abundant trace elements in cloud water. The trace element concentrations exhibited logarithmic inverse relationships with the cloud liquid water content and were found highly pH dependent with minimum concentrations at the threshold of pH 5.0. The calculation of Visual MINTEQ model showed that 80.7-96.3% of Fe(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) existed in divalent free ions, while 71.7% of Fe(III) and 71.5% of Al(III) were complexed by oxalate and fluoride, respectively. ACIs could markedly change the speciation distributions of trace elements in cloud water by pH modification. The in-cloud scavenging of aerosol trace elements likely reached a peak after the first 2-3 h of cloud processing, with scavenging ratios between 0.12 for Cr and 0.57 for Pb. The increases of the trace element solubility (4-33%) were determined in both in-cloud aerosols and postcloud aerosols. These results indicated the significant importance of aerosol-cloud interactions to the evolution of trace elements during the first several cloud condensation/evaporation cycles.

  8. A case study of the impact of boundary layer aerosol size distribution on the surface UV irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikas, U.; Reinhart, A. [University of Tartu (Estonia). Institute of Environmental Physics; Vaht, M. [Parnu Institute of Health Resort Treatment and Medical Rehabilitation (Estonia); Veismann, U. [Tartu Observatory (Estonia)

    2001-07-01

    The relationship between scattering characteristics of surface aerosol and surface UV irradiance was examined on the basis of the measurements carried out in June-August 1999 in Parnu, Estonia on the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea (58{sup o}22'27 ''N, 24{sup o}30'43 ''E) The UV radiation spectra (300-34Onm) were measured with the Ocean Optics Inc. UV spectrometer PC 1000, the aerosol size distributions (3-1000nm) were measured with the electric aerosol spectrometer EAS. A case study was conducted for six sequential cloudless days, when the decrease of the surface UV irradiance was seemingly influenced by atmospheric aerosol. Aerosol radiative properties were calculated from the measured size distributions that represented the maritime polar (North Atlantic) and mixed maritime-continental air. The aerosol optical depths at 500nm for the North Atlantic air were estimated to be from 0.08 to 0. 13. The spectral aerosol optical depth agreed well with the Angstrom law, the Angstrom exponent ({alpha} varied from day to day between values of 0.52-0.90. Aerosol asymmetry factor at 300nm changed between values of 0.76 and 0.80, and was highly correlated with the mean radius of aerosol number distribution. The total aerosol UV scattering was mostly influenced by changes in aerosol with a diameter of 100-560nm. The aerosol scattering coefficients were positively correlated with the relative humidity of air. The ground aerosol properties were used for calculating the surface UV irradiance from the radiative transfer model of Bird and Riordan (J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 25 (1986)). The calculated UV irradiances correlated quite well with the measured ones, showing that the use of ground aerosol data for radiative transfer calculations turned out reasonable results. However, ignoring the changes in the aerosol vertical distribution resulted in overestimation of aerosol optical depth on hazy days. (author)

  9. Equatorward dispersion of a high-latitude volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon: a case study of the Sarychev eruption in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars

    2017-11-01

    Tropical volcanic eruptions have been widely studied for their significant contribution to stratospheric aerosol loading and global climate impacts, but the impact of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer is not clear and the pathway of transporting aerosol from high latitudes to the tropical stratosphere is not well understood. In this work, we focus on the high-latitude volcano Sarychev (48.1° N, 153.2° E), which erupted in June 2009, and the influence of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) on the equatorward dispersion of the volcanic plume. First, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission time series and plume height of the Sarychev eruption are estimated with SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and a backward trajectory approach using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC). Then, the transport and dispersion of the plume are simulated using the derived SO2 emission time series. The transport simulations are compared with SO2 observations from AIRS and validated with aerosol observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The MPTRAC simulations show that about 4 % of the sulfur emissions were transported to the tropical stratosphere within 50 days after the beginning of the eruption, and the plume dispersed towards the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through isentropic transport above the subtropical jet. The MPTRAC simulations and MIPAS aerosol data both show that between the potential temperature levels of 360 and 400 K, the equatorward transport was primarily driven by anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking enhanced by the ASM in boreal summer. The volcanic plume was entrained along the anticyclone flows and reached the TTL as it was transported southwestwards into the deep tropics downstream of the anticyclone. Further, the ASM anticyclone influenced the pathway of aerosols by isolating an aerosol hole inside of the ASM, which

  10. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S., E-mail: sp5hd@Virginia.EDU; Lee, T.R.; Phelps, S.; De Wekker, S.F.J.

    2014-10-15

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in affecting the variability of atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, greenhouse gases, water vapor, and ozone. In general, the concentration of any tracers within the ABL varies due to the changes in the mixing volume (i.e. ABL depth). In this study, we investigate the impact on the near-surface aerosol concentration in a valley site of 1) the boundary layer dilution due to vertical mixing and 2) changes in the wind patterns. We use a data set obtained during a 10-day field campaign in which a number of remote sensing and in-situ instruments were deployed, including a ground-based aerosol lidar system for monitoring of the ABL top height (z{sub i}), a particle counter to determine the number concentration of aerosol particles at eight different size ranges, and tower-based standard meteorological instruments. Results show a clearly visible decreasing trend of the mean daytime z{sub i} from 2900 m AGL (above ground level) to 2200 m AGL during a three-day period which resulted in increased near-surface pollutant concentrations. An inverse relationship exists between the z{sub i} and the fine fraction (0.3–0.7 μm) accumulation mode particles (AMP) on some days due to the dilution effect in a well-mixed ABL. These days are characterized by the absence of daytime upvalley winds and the presence of northwesterly synoptic-driven winds. In contrast, on the days with an onset of an upvalley wind circulation after the morning transition, the wind-driven local transport mechanism outweighs the ABL-dilution effect in determining the variability of AMP concentration. The interplay between the ABL depth evolution and the onset of the upvalley wind during the morning transition period significantly governs the air quality in a valley and could be an important component in the studies of mountain meteorology and air quality. - Highlights: • Role of atmospheric boundary layer depth on particle

  11. Enhanced air pollution via aerosol-boundary layer feedback in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T; Järvi, L; Kerminen, V-M; Ding, A J; Sun, J N; Nie, W; Kujansuu, J; Virkkula, A; Yang, X-Q; Fu, C B; Zilitinkevich, S; Kulmala, M

    2016-01-12

    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 μg m(-3), but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant.

  12. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  13. Seasonal variations of aerosol residence time in the lower atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.; Mohamed, A.; Ali, A.E.; Barakat, A.; Abd El-Hady, M.; El-Hussein, A.

    2004-01-01

    During a one year period, from Jan. 2002 up to Dec. 2002, approximately 130 air samples were analyzed to determine the atmospheric air activity concentrations of short- and long-lived ( 222 Rn) decay products 214 Pb and 210 Pb. The samples were taken by using a single-filter technique and γ-spectrometry was applied to determine the activity concentrations. A seasonal fluctuation in the concentration of 214 Pb and 210 Pb in surface air was observed. The activity concentrations of both radionuclides were observed to be relatively higher during the winter/autumn season than in spring/summer season. The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 210 Pb within the whole year was found to be 1.4±0.27 Bq m -3 and 1.2±0.15 mBq m -3 , respectively. Different 210 Pb: 214 Pb activity ratios during the year varied between 1.78x10 -4 and 1.6x10 -3 with a mean value of 8.9x10 -4 ±7.6x10 -5 . From the ratio between the activity concentrations of the radon decay products 214 Pb and 210 Pb a mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmosphere of about 10.5±0.91 d could be estimated. The seasonal variation pattern shows relatively higher values of MRT in spring/summer season than in winter/autumn season. The MRT data together with relative humidity (RH), air temperature (T) and wind speed (WS), were used for a comprehensive regression analysis of its seasonal variation in the atmospheric air

  14. Detection and characterization of volcanic ash plumes over Lille during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mortier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Routine sun-photometer and micro-lidar measurements were performed in Lille, northern France, in April and May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. The impact of such an eruption emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observations of the volcanic aerosol particles. This paper presents the main results of a joint micro-lidar/sun-photometer analysis performed in Lille, where volcanic ash plumes were observed during at least 22 days, whenever weather conditions permitted. Aerosol properties retrieved from automatic sun-photometer measurements (AERONET were strongly changed during the volcanic aerosol plumes transport over Lille. In most cases, the aerosol optical depth (AOD increased, whereas Ångström exponent decreased, thus indicating coarse-mode dominance in the volume size distribution. Moreover, the non-spherical fraction retrieved by AERONET significantly increased. The real part of the complex refractive index was up to 1.55 at 440 nm during the eruption, compared to background data of about 1.46 before the eruption. Collocated lidar data revealed that several aerosol layers were present between 2 and 5 km, all originating from the Iceland region as confirmed by backward trajectories. The volcanic ash AOD was derived from lidar extinction profiles and sun-photometer AOD, and its maximum was estimated around 0.37 at 532 nm on 18 April 2010. This value was observed at an altitude of 1700 m and corresponds to an ash mass concentration (AMC slightly higher than 1000 μg m−3 (±50%. An effective lidar ratio of ash particles of 48 sr was retrieved at 532 nm for 17 April during the early stages of the eruption, a value which agrees with several other studies carried out on this topic. Even though the accuracy of the retrievals is not as high as that obtained from reference multiwavelength lidar systems, this study demonstrates the opportunity of micro-lidar and sun-photometer joint data

  15. Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pappalardo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April–May 2010 represents a "natural experiment" to study the impact of volcanic emissions on a continental scale. For the first time, quantitative data about the presence, altitude, and layering of the volcanic cloud, in conjunction with optical information, are available for most parts of Europe derived from the observations by the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork (EARLINET. Based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, EARLINET is the only instrument worldwide that is able to provide dense time series of high-quality optical data to be used for aerosol typing and for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties as a function of altitude. In this work we show the four-dimensional (4-D distribution of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud in the troposphere over Europe as observed by EARLINET during the entire volcanic event (15 April–26 May 2010. All optical properties directly measured (backscatter, extinction, and particle linear depolarization ratio are stored in the EARLINET database available at http://www.earlinet.org. A specific relational database providing the volcanic mask over Europe, realized ad hoc for this specific event, has been developed and is available on request at http://www.earlinet.org. During the first days after the eruption, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe within a wide range of altitudes, from the upper troposphere down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL. After 19 April 2010, volcanic particles were detected over southern and south-eastern Europe. During the first half of May (5–15 May, material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was detected over Spain and Portugal and then over the Mediterranean and the Balkans. The last observations of the event were recorded until 25 May in Central Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area. The 4-D distribution of volcanic aerosol layering and optical properties on

  16. Mean residence times of atmospheric aerosols in the boundary layer as determined from 210Bi/210Pb activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of radioactive 210 Pb and 210 Bi were measured in surface air after chemical separation and radiochemical analysis in an annual cycle and were used to determine aerosol residence times in the lower atmosphere. It was concluded that residence times of 8 days would apply to aerosols of 0.3 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). Cascade impactor data are also presented in relating the residence times and the AMAD of atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  17. A Comprehensive Training Data Set for the Development of Satellite-Based Volcanic Ash Detection Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Marius

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive training data set covering a large range of atmospheric conditions, including disperse volcanic ash and desert dust layers. These data sets contain all information required for the development of volcanic ash detection algorithms based on artificial neural networks, urgently needed since volcanic ash in the airspace is a major concern of aviation safety authorities. Selected parts of the data are used to train the volcanic ash detection algorithm VADUGS. They contain atmospheric and surface-related quantities as well as the corresponding simulated satellite data for the channels in the infrared spectral range of the SEVIRI instrument on board MSG-2. To get realistic results, ECMWF, IASI-based, and GEOS-Chem data are used to calculate all parameters describing the environment, whereas the software package libRadtran is used to perform radiative transfer simulations returning the brightness temperatures for each atmospheric state. As optical properties are a prerequisite for radiative simulations accounting for aerosol layers, the development also included the computation of optical properties for a set of different aerosol types from different sources. A description of the developed software and the used methods is given, besides an overview of the resulting data sets.

  18. Chemical composition and optical properties of aerosols in the lower mixed layer and the free troposphere. Final report of the AFS project; Chemische Zusammensetzung und optische Eigenschaften des Aerosols in der freien Troposphaere. Abschlussbericht zum AFS-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asseng, H. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany). Abt. Biogeochemie; Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Helas, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany). Abt. Biogeochemie; Weller, M. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    2001-08-02

    Aerosol radiative forcing is the largest unknown in current climate models and, as a result, in predicting future climate. Accurate vertically-resolved measurements of aerosol optical properties are an important element of improved climate prediction (IPCC). The present project has contributed to this objective. Jets of directly and remotely determined radiation data have been provided suitable to cut down the uncertainty of column- or layer related optical aerosol parameters. In the present case mean values and profiles of spectral scattering - and absorption coefficients have been retrieved from ground based and airborne sky-radiance/solar irradiance measurements. Available analyses of size and chemical composition of sampled particles (adjoined projects) have been also taken into consideration. The retrieved parameters have served as an input for modelling the radiative transfer exactly for the real time of measurements. Closure procedures yielded finally realistic spectral scattering - and absorption coefficients typically for the lower troposphere in a mostly rural Central European region. (orig.) [German] Die ungenuegende Kenntnis strahlungswirksamer, optischer Aerosolparameter ist laut IPCC die groesste Unbekannte bei der Modellierung des Klimas und seiner Veraenderung. Wissenschaft und Technik bemuehen sich in sog. Schliessungsexperimenten aus der Ueberbestimmung direkt und indirekt gemessener Aerosolparameter genaue(re) Kenntnis (Mittelwert/Variation) ueber deren Klimawirksamkeit zu erlangen. Im vorliegenden Projekt wurden aus verschiedenen passiven, spektralen Messungen von Streulicht und Transmission der Atmosphaere in verschiedenen Hoehen sowie aus der Beruecksichtigung von Partikelanalysen Dritter, Streu- und Absorptionskoeffizienten des Aerosols der gesamten Luftsaeule und in vertikaler Aufloesung abgeleitet. Strahlungstransportmodellierungen mit den gewonnenen Aerosolparametern als input engten ueber den Vergleich mit den Messungen deren Grad an

  19. New positive feedback mechanism between boundary layer meteorology and secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jia, Xingcan; Quan, Jiannong; Li, Jiayun; Li, Xia; Wu, Yongxue; Chen, Dan; Wang, Zifa; Liu, Yangang

    2018-04-17

    Severe haze events during which particulate matter (PM) increases quickly from tens to hundreds of microgram per cubic meter in 1-2 days frequently occur in China. Although it has been known that PM is influenced by complex interplays among emissions, meteorology, and physical and chemical processes, specific mechanisms remain elusive. Here, a new positive feedback mechanism between planetary boundary layer (PBL), relative humidity (RH), and secondary PM (SPM) formation is proposed based on a comprehensive field experiment and model simulation. The decreased PBL associated with increased PM increases RH by weakening the vertical transport of water vapor; the increased RH in turn enhances the SPM formation through heterogeneous aqueous reactions, which further enhances PM, weakens solar radiation, and decreases PBL height. This positive feedback, together with the PM-Radiation-PBL feedback, constitutes a key mechanism that links PM, radiation, PBL properties (e.g. PBL height and RH), and SPM formation, This mechanism is self-amplifying, leading to faster PM production, accumulation, and more severe haze pollution.

  20. Ground level and Lidar monitoring of volcanic dust and dust from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. A.; Losno, R.; Salvador, J. O.; Journet, E.; Qu, Z.; Triquet, S.; Monna, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Bulnes, D.; Ristori, P. R.; Quel, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    A combined approach including ground level aerosol sampling, lidar and sunphotometer measurements is used to monitor suspended particles in the atmosphere at several sites in Patagonia. Motivated by the Puyehue volcanic eruption in June 2011 two aerosol monitoring stations with several passive and active instruments were installed in Bariloche and Comodoro Rivadavia. The main goal which is to monitor ground lifted and transported ashes and dust involving danger to civil aviation, is achieved by measuring continuously aerosol concentration at ground level and aerosol vertical distribution using lidar. In addition, starting from December 2011, continuous series of weekly accumulated aerosol concentrations at Rio Gallegos are being measured to study the impact of Patagonian dust over the open ocean on phytoplankton primary productivity and CO2 removal. These measurements are going to be coupled with LIDAR monitoring and a dust optical response models to test if aerosol extrapolation can be done from the ground to the top of the layer. Laboratory chemical analysis of the aerosols will include elemental composition, solubilisation kinetic and mineralogical determination. Expected deliverables for this study is the estimation of the amount of dust exported from Patagonia towards the South Atlantic, its chemical properties, including bioavailability simulation, from model and comparison to experimental measurements.

  1. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  2. Long-range transport of stratospheric aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere following the 2015 Calbuco eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bègue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After 43 years of inactivity, the Calbuco volcano, which is located in the southern part of Chile, erupted on 22 April 2015. The space–time evolutions (distribution and transport of its aerosol plume are investigated by combining satellite (CALIOP, IASI, OMPS, in situ aerosol counting (LOAC OPC and lidar observations, and the MIMOSA advection model. The Calbuco aerosol plume reached the Indian Ocean 1 week after the eruption. Over the Reunion Island site (21° S, 55.5° E, the aerosol signal was unambiguously enhanced in comparison with background conditions, with a volcanic aerosol layer extending from 18 to 21 km during the May–July period. All the data reveal an increase by a factor of  ∼  2 in the SAOD (stratospheric aerosol optical depth with respect to values observed before the eruption. The aerosol mass e-folding time is approximately 90 days, which is rather close to the value ( ∼  80 days reported for the Sarychev eruption. Microphysical measurements obtained before, during, and after the eruption reflecting the impact of the Calbuco eruption on the lower stratospheric aerosol content have been analyzed over the Reunion Island site. During the passage of the plume, the volcanic aerosol was characterized by an effective radius of 0.16 ± 0.02 µm with a unimodal size distribution for particles above 0.2 µm in diameter. Particle concentrations for sizes larger than 1 µm are too low to be properly detected by the LOAC OPC. The aerosol number concentration was  ∼  20 times higher that observed before and 1 year after the eruption. According to OMPS and lidar observations, a tendency toward conditions before the eruption was observed by April 2016. The volcanic aerosol plume is advected eastward in the Southern Hemisphere and its latitudinal extent is clearly bounded by the subtropical barrier and the polar vortex. The transient behavior of the aerosol layers observed above Reunion Island

  3. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  4. Seasonal variation of aerosol size distributions in the free troposphere and residual layer at the puy de Dôme station, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Venzac

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle number concentration and size distribution are important variables needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. They are also linked to regulated variables such as particle mass (PM and therefore of interest to air quality studies. However, data on their long-term variability are scarce, in particular at high altitudes. In this paper, we investigate the diurnal and seasonal variability of the aerosol total number concentration and size distribution at the puy de Dôme research station (France, 1465 m a.s.l.. We report a variability of aerosol particle total number concentration measured over a five-year (2003–2007 period for particles larger than 10 nm and aerosol size distributions between 10 and 500 nm over a two-year period (January 2006 to December 2007. Concentrations show a strong seasonality with maxima during summer and minima during winter. A diurnal variation is also observed with maxima between 12:00 and 18:00 UTC. At night (00:00–06:00 UTC, the median hourly total concentration varies from 600 to 800 cm−3 during winter and from 1700 to 2200 cm−3 during summer. During the day (08:00–18:00 UTC, the concentration is in the range of 700 to 1400 cm−3 during winter and of 2500 to 3500 cm−3 during summer. An averaged size distribution of particles (10–500 nm was calculated for each season. The total aerosol number concentrations are dominated by the Aitken mode integral concentrations, which drive most of the winter to summer total concentrations increase. The night to day increase in dominated by the nucleation mode integral number concentration. Because the site is located in the free troposphere only a fraction of the time, in particular at night and during the winter season, we have subsequently analyzed the variability for nighttime and free tropospheric (FT/residual layer (RL

  5. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  6. Efficient transport of tropospheric aerosol into the stratosphere via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengfei; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Liu, Shang; Telg, Hagen; Thornberry, Troy D.; Rollins, Andrew W.; Portmann, Robert W.; Bai, Zhixuan; Ray, Eric A.; Duan, Yunjun; Pan, Laura L.; Toon, Owen B.; Bian, Jianchun; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2017-07-01

    An enhanced aerosol layer near the tropopause over Asia during the June-September period of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) was recently identified using satellite observations. Its sources and climate impact are presently not well-characterized. To improve understanding of this phenomenon, we made in situ aerosol measurements during summer 2015 from Kunming, China, then followed with a modeling study to assess the global significance. The in situ measurements revealed a robust enhancement in aerosol concentration that extended up to 2 km above the tropopause. A climate model simulation demonstrates that the abundant anthropogenic aerosol precursor emissions from Asia coupled with rapid vertical transport associated with monsoon convection leads to significant particle formation in the upper troposphere within the ASM anticyclone. These particles subsequently spread throughout the entire Northern Hemispheric (NH) lower stratosphere and contribute significantly (˜15%) to the NH stratospheric column aerosol surface area on an annual basis. This contribution is comparable to that from the sum of small volcanic eruptions in the period between 2000 and 2015. Although the ASM contribution is smaller than that from tropical upwelling (˜35%), we find that this region is about three times as efficient per unit area and time in populating the NH stratosphere with aerosol. With a substantial amount of organic and sulfur emissions in Asia, the ASM anticyclone serves as an efficient smokestack venting aerosols to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. As economic growth continues in Asia, the relative importance of Asian emissions to stratospheric aerosol is likely to increase.

  7. Chemical composition of aerosol, sea fog, and rainwater in the marine boundary layer of the northwestern North Pacific and its marginal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Motoki; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2002-12-01

    Samples of aerosol, sea fog, and rainwater were collected during a research cruise in the northwestern North Pacific, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan in the summer of 1998. High concentrations of NO3-, nss-SO42- and NH4+ in aerosol over the Sea of Japan suggest that anthropogenic substances were transported to this region. Although the Sea of Okhotsk was covered with a clean marine air mass, the concentration of nss-SO42- was comparatively high in the aerosol samples. This nss-SO42- is probably of marine biogenic origin. The pH values of fogwater samples were measured to be fogwater collected over the Sea of Japan were higher than those in the other regions, suggesting that the sea fog scavenged anthropogenic substances. The concentration of nss-SO42- in fogwater over the Sea of Okhotsk was equivalent to that over the Sea of Japan, probably because nss-SO42- and SO2 of marine biogenic origin were scavenged by the sea fog over the Sea of Okhotsk. The pH values of rainwater samples ranged from 6.1 to 7.2 during the cruise, and acidification of the rain was not significant. The concentrations of nss-Ca2+ in the rainwater were higher than those of the fogwater. This suggests that the rain-scavenged continental CaCO3 may have existed above the lower marine boundary layer, where sea fog appeared. Comparisons of the composition of aerosol and fogwater indicated that coarse particles, such as sea salts predominantly act as condensation nuclei of sea fog droplets rather than fine particles such as (NH4)2SO4.

  8. An analytical solution to calculate bulk mole fractions for any number of components in aerosol droplets after considering partitioning to a surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Topping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calculating the equilibrium composition of atmospheric aerosol particles, using all variations of Köhler theory, has largely assumed that the total solute concentrations define both the water activity and surface tension. Recently however, bulk to surface phase partitioning has been postulated as a process which significantly alters the predicted point of activation. In this paper, an analytical solution to calculate the removal of material from a bulk to a surface layer in aerosol particles has been derived using a well established and validated surface tension framework. The applicability to an unlimited number of components is possible via reliance on data from each binary system. Whilst assumptions regarding behaviour at the surface layer have been made to facilitate derivation, it is proposed that the framework presented can capture the overall impact of bulk-surface partitioning. Demonstrations of the equations for two and five component mixtures are given while comparisons are made with more detailed frameworks capable at modelling ternary systems at higher levels of complexity. Predictions made by the model across a range of surface active properties should be tested against measurements. Indeed, reccomendations are given for experimental validation and to assess sensitivities to accuracy and required level of complexity within large scale frameworks. Importantly, the computational efficiency of using the solution presented in this paper is roughly a factor of 20 less than a similar iterative approach, a comparison with highly coupled approaches not available beyond a 3 component system.

  9. Volcanic Ash Cloud Observations with the DLR-Falcon over Europe during Airspace Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Reitebuch, Oliver; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Rahm, Stephan; Scheibe, Monika; Lichtenstern, Michael; Forster, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    At the time of the EGU conference, the volcano ash plume originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in Iceland was probed during 9 flights with the DLR Falcon research aircraft in the region between Germany and Iceland at 1-11 km altitudes between April 19 and May 3, 2010. The Falcon was instrumented with a downward looking, scanning 2-µm-Wind-Lidar (aerosol backscattering and horizontal wind, 100 m vertical resolution), and several in-situ instruments. The particle instrumentation, including wing station probes (PCASP, FSSP-300) cover particle number and size from 5 nm to some tens of µm. Further in-situ instruments measured O3, CO, SO2, H2O, and standard meteorological parameters. Flight planning was based on numerical weather forecasts, trajectory-based particle-dispersion models, satellite observations and ground based Lidar observations, from many sources. During the flight on April 19, 2010, layers of volcanic ash were detected first by Lidar and then probed in-situ. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the volcanic ash layers over Eastern Germany was highly variable at that time. Calculations with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART indicate that the volcanic ash plumes measured by the Falcon had an age of 4-5 days. The concentrations of large particles measured in the volcanic aerosol layers are comparable to concentrations measured typically in fresh (age 3000 kg/s, strong chemistry - Lidar signal and FSSP-300 signal strongly dependent on refractive index, ash density, particle size spectrum 1- 50 µm - Mid-European airspace closure was justified until Sat. April 17; thereafter ageing ash clouds dominated. - Keflavik/Iceland was found to be free of ash as predicted on April 29 - May 2 - The Quality of forecasts was found to be quite reliable for aviation planning - For the future we recommend combinations of models + lidar + satellite + in-situ - We suggest an improved linking between operations and academia - The DLR Falcon will

  10. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  11. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-08-03

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  12. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-09-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties as well as the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the period 21-24 April 2010. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements along with inversion schemes were initialized together with lidar observations to deliver the aforementioned products. The well-known FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) model used for volcanic dispersion simulations is initiated as well in order to estimate the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic particles. Compared with the lidar measurements within the planetary boundary layer over Athens, FLEXPART proved to be a useful tool for determining the state of mixing of ash with other, locally emitted aerosol types. The major findings presented in our work concern the identification of volcanic particles layers in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the volcanic source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) from the surface and up to 10 km according to the lidar measurements. Mean hourly averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth was found to vary from 0.01 to 0.18 at 355 nm and from 0.02 up to 0.17 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (S) ranged between 60 and 80 sr at 355 nm and 44 and 88 sr at 532 nm. The mean effective radius of the volcanic particles estimated by applying inversion scheme to the lidar data found to vary within the range 0.13-0.38 μm and the refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. This high variability is most probably attributed to the

  13. A study on the use of radar and lidar for characterizing ultragiant aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pappalardo, G.

    2013-09-01

    19 April to 19 May 2010, volcanic aerosol layers originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano were observed at the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the National Research Council of Italy Atmospheric Observatory, named CIAO (40.60°N, 15.72°E, 760 m above sea level), in Southern Italy with a multiwavelength Raman lidar. During this period, ultragiant aerosols were also observed at CIAO using a colocated 8.45 mm wavelength Doppler radar. The Ka-band radar signatures observed in four separate days (19 April and 7, 10, and 13 May) are consistent with the observation of nonspherical ultragiant aerosols characterized by values of linear depolarization ratio (LDR) higher than -4 dB. Air mass back trajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosols observed by the radar. The observed values of the radar reflectivity (Ze) are consistent with a particle effective radius (r) larger than 50-75 µm. Scattering simulations based on the T-matrix approach show that the high LDR values can be explained if the observed particles have an absolute aspect ratio larger than 3.0 and consist of an internal aerosol core and external ice shell, with a variable radius ratio ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 depending on the shape and aspect ratio. Comparisons between daytime vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient (β) as measured by lidar and radar LDR reveal a decrease of β where ultragiant particles are observed. Scattering simulations based on Mie theory show how the lidar capability in typing ultragiant aerosols could be limited by low number concentrations or by the presence of an external ice shell covering the aerosol particles. Preferential vertical alignment of the particles is discussed as another possible reason for the decrease of β.

  14. The impact of monthly variation of the Pacific–North America (PNA teleconnection pattern on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific–North America teleconnection (PNA is the leading general circulation pattern in the troposphere over the region of North Pacific to North America during wintertime. This study examined the impacts of monthly variations of the PNA phase (positive or negative phase on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States (US by analyzing observations during 1999–2013 from the Air Quality System of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-AQS and the model results for 1986–2006 from the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. The composite analyses on the EPA-AQS observations over 1999–2013 showed that the average concentrations of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols over the US were higher in the PNA positive phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest positive PNA index values than in the PNA negative phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest negative PNA index values by 1.0 µg m−3 (8.7 %, 0.01 µg m−3 (0.5 %, 0.3 µg m−3 (29.1 %, 0.1 µg m−3 (11.9 %, 0.6 µg m−3 (13.5 %, and 0.2 µg m−3 (27.8 %, respectively. The simulated geographical patterns of the differences in concentrations of all aerosol species between the PNA positive and negative phases were similar to observations. Based on the GEOS-Chem simulation, the pattern correlation coefficients were calculated to show the impacts of PNA-induced variations in meteorological fields on aerosol concentrations. The PNA phase was found (i to influence sulfate concentrations mainly through changes in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, precipitation (PR, and temperature; (ii to influence nitrate concentrations mainly through changes in temperature; and (iii to influence concentrations of ammonium, organic carbon, and black

  15. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H.; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-09-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. On days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences, the BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL. Entrainment rates calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) varied between 15 g m-2 and 160 g m-2. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was generally well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. On days when a synoptic system and related mesoscale costal circulations affected conditions at Point Alpha (29 October-4 November), a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha, and the total-water mixing ratio above the inversion was larger than that within the BL. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm-3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm-3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm-3. While the mean LWP retrieved from GOES was in good agreement with the in situ measurements, the GOES-derived cloud droplet effective radius tended to be larger than that from the aircraft in situ observations near cloud top. The aerosol and cloud LWP

  16. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx, combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. On days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences, the BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL. Entrainment rates calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The cloud liquid water path (LWP varied between 15 g m−2 and 160 g m−2. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was generally well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. On days when a synoptic system and related mesoscale costal circulations affected conditions at Point Alpha (29 October–4 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha, and the total-water mixing ratio above the inversion was larger than that within the BL. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm−3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm−3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm−3. While the mean LWP retrieved from GOES was in good agreement with the in situ measurements, the GOES-derived cloud droplet effective radius tended to be larger than that from the

  17. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S; Lee, T R; Phelps, S; De Wekker, S F J

    2014-10-15

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in affecting the variability of atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, greenhouse gases, water vapor, and ozone. In general, the concentration of any tracers within the ABL varies due to the changes in the mixing volume (i.e. ABL depth). In this study, we investigate the impact on the near-surface aerosol concentration in a valley site of 1) the boundary layer dilution due to vertical mixing and 2) changes in the wind patterns. We use a data set obtained during a 10-day field campaign in which a number of remote sensing and in-situ instruments were deployed, including a ground-based aerosol lidar system for monitoring of the ABL top height (zi), a particle counter to determine the number concentration of aerosol particles at eight different size ranges, and tower-based standard meteorological instruments. Results show a clearly visible decreasing trend of the mean daytime zi from 2900 m AGL (above ground level) to 2200 m AGL during a three-day period which resulted in increased near-surface pollutant concentrations. An inverse relationship exists between the zi and the fine fraction (0.3-0.7 μm) accumulation mode particles (AMP) on some days due to the dilution effect in a well-mixed ABL. These days are characterized by the absence of daytime upvalley winds and the presence of northwesterly synoptic-driven winds. In contrast, on the days with an onset of an upvalley wind circulation after the morning transition, the wind-driven local transport mechanism outweighs the ABL-dilution effect in determining the variability of AMP concentration. The interplay between the ABL depth evolution and the onset of the upvalley wind during the morning transition period significantly governs the air quality in a valley and could be an important component in the studies of mountain meteorology and air quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long Term Stratospheric Aerosol Lidar Measurements in Kyushu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Motowo

    1992-01-01

    Lidar soundings of the stratospheric aerosols have been made since 1972 at Fukuoka, Kyushu Island of Japan. Volcanic clouds from eruptions of La Soufriere, Sierra Negra, St. Helens, Uluwan, Alaid, unknown volcano, and El Chichon were detected one after another in only three years from 1979 to 1982. In july 1991 strong scattering layers which were originated from the serious eruptions of Pinatubo in June and were almost comparable to the El Chichon clouds were detected. Volcanic clouds from pinatubo and other volcanos mentioned are examined and carefully compared to each other and to the wind and temperature which was measured by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory almost at the same time as the lidar observation was made.

  19. The effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S

    2006-08-15

    Every now and again Earth experiences tremendous explosive volcanic eruptions, considerably bigger than the largest witnessed in historic times. Those yielding more than 450km3 of magma have been called super-eruptions. The record of such eruptions is incomplete; the most recent known example occurred 26000 years ago. It is more likely that the Earth will next experience a super-eruption than an impact from a large meteorite greater than 1km in diameter. Depending on where the volcano is located, the effects will be felt globally or at least by a whole hemisphere. Large areas will be devastated by pyroclastic flow deposits, and the more widely dispersed ash falls will be laid down over continent-sized areas. The most widespread effects will be derived from volcanic gases, sulphur gases being particularly important. This gas is converted into sulphuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere and layers of aerosol can cover the global atmosphere within a few weeks to months. These remain for several years and affect atmospheric circulation causing surface temperature to fall in many regions. Effects include temporary reductions in light levels and severe and unseasonable weather (including cool summers and colder-than-normal winters). Some aspects of the understanding and prediction of super-eruptions are problematic because they are well outside modern experience. Our global society is now very different to that affected by past, modest-sized volcanic activity and is highly vulnerable to catastrophic damage of infrastructure by natural disasters. Major disruption of services that society depends upon can be expected for periods of months to, perhaps, years after the next very large explosive eruption and the cost to global financial markets will be high and sustained.

  20. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  1. Lidar- and balloon-borne particle counter comparisons following recent volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Reiter, R.; Jager, H.

    1983-01-01

    Balloon-borne particle counter measurements at Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N) are used to calculate the expected lidar backscatter at 0.694 micron wavelength from July 1979 to February 1982, a period which included at least four detectable perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer due to volcanic eruptions. These calculations are compared with lidar measurements conducted at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (47.5 deg N) during the same period. While the agreement is generally good using only the main mode in the particle size distribution (radius about 0.07 micron) during approximately the first 6 months following a major volcanic eruption, a measured secondary mode near 1 micron radius, when included, improves the agreement. Calculations of the expected backscatter at 25-30 km reveal that substantial number of particles diffuse into this high altitude region about 7 months after a major eruption, and these particles should be taken into account when normalizing lidar at these altitudes.

  2. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  3. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble

  4. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  5. SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    SAGE II satellite measurements of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption cloud in the stratosphere during June, July, and early August 1991 show that aerosols in the tropics reached as high as 29 km altitude with most of the cloud between 20 and 25 km. The most optically thick portions of the cloud covered latitudes from 10 deg S to 30 deg N during the early part of this period. By late July, high stratospheric optical depths were observed to at least 70 deg N, with the high values north of about 30 deg N from layers below 20 km. High pressure systems in both hemispheres were observed to be correlated with the movement of volcanic material at 21 km into the westerly jet stream at high southern latitudes and similarly to high northern latitudes at 16 km. By August, the entire Southern Hemisphere had experienced a 10-fold increase in optical depth relative to early July due to layers above 20 km. Initial mass calculations using SAGE II data place the aerosol produced from this eruption at 20 to 30 megatons, well above the 12 megatons produced by El Chichon.

  6. Stratospheric aerosols and precursor gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the aerosol size, height and geographical distribution, their composition and optical properties, and their temporal variation with season and following large volcanic eruptions. Sulfur-bearing gases were measured in situ in the stratosphere, and studied of the chemical and physical processes which control gas-to-particle conversion were carried out in the laboratory.

  7. Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par

  8. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shell materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In addition

  9. Formation and evolution of mesozoic volcanic basins in Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingpu

    1999-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the principle model for the formation and the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic Belt, and describes the distinct evolution features between the internal and external sites of volcanic basins, the natural relation between the down-warped, down-faulted, collapse volcanic basins and volcanic domes, the relationship between the formation of inter layered fractured zones of the volcanic cover and the evolution of volcanic basins

  10. Volcanic Tephra ejected in south eastern Asia is the sole cause of all historic ENSO events. This natural aerosol plume has been intensified by an anthropogenic plume in the same region in recent decades which has intensified some ENSO events and altered the Southern Oscillation Index characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    ENSO events are the most significant perturbation of the climate system. Previous attempts to link ENSO with volcanic eruptions typically failed because only large eruptions across the globe which eject tephra into the stratosphere were considered. I analyse all volcanic eruptions in South Eastern (SE) Asia (10ºS to 10ºN and from 90ºE to 160ºE) the most volcanically active area in the world with over 23% of all eruptions in the Global Volcanism Program database occurring here and with 5 volcanoes stated to have erupted nearly continuously for 30 years. SE Asia is also the region where the convective arm of the thermally direct Walker Circulation occurs driven by the intense equatorial solar radiation which creates the high surface temperature. The volcanic tephra plume intercepts some of the solar radiation by absorption/reflection which cools the surface and heats the atmosphere creating a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume. This reduces convection and causes the Walker Cell and Trade Winds to weaken. This reduced wind speed causes the central Pacific Ocean to warm which creates convection there which further weakens the Walker Cell. With the reduced wind stress the western Pacific warm pool migrates east. This creates an ENSO event which continues until the tephra plume reduces, typically when the SE Asian monsoon commences, and convection is re-established over SE Asia and the Pacific warm pool migrates back to the west. Correlations of SE Asian tephra and the ENSO indices are typically over 0.80 at p indices. If two events A and B correlate 5 options are available: 1. A causes B; 2. B causes A; 3. C, another event, causes A &B simultaneously; 4. It's a coincidence; and 5. The relationship is complex with feedback. The volcanic correlations only allow options 1 or 4 as ENSO cannot cause volcanoes to erupt and are backed up by several independent satellite datasets. I conclude volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols over SE Asia are the

  11. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  12. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  13. Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB: oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfrang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007. K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations.

    From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an approximate upper limit of ~10−11 cm2 s−1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.

  14. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  15. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  16. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  17. Hybrid TiO2 Solar Cells Produced from Aerosolized Nanoparticles of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Electron Donor Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall L. Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid solar cells (HSCs with water soluble polythiophene sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethyloxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS thin films produced using electrospray deposition (ESD were fabricated, tested, and modeled and compared to devices produced using conventional spin coating. A single device structure of FTO/TiO2/PTEBS/Au was used to study the effects of ESD of the PTEBS layer on device performance. ESD was found to increase the short circuit current density (Jsc by a factor of 2 while decreasing the open circuit voltage (Voc by half compared to spin coated PTEBS films. Comparable efficiencies of 0.009% were achieved from both device construction types. Current-voltage curves were modeled using the characteristic solar cell equation and showed a similar increase in generated photocurrent with an increase by two orders of magnitude in the saturation current in devices from ESD films. Increases in Jsc are attributed to an increase in the interfacial contact area between the TiO2 and PTEBS layers, while decreases in Voc are attributed to incomplete film formation from ESD.

  18. An investigation of processes controlling the evolution of the boundary layer aerosol size distribution properties at the Swedish background station Aspvreten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distributions have been measured at the Swedish background station Aspvreten (58.8° N, 17.4° E. Different states of the aerosol were determined using a novel application of cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in eight different clusters capturing different stages of the aerosol lifecycle. The atmospheric aerosol size distributions were interpreted as belonging to fresh, intermediate and aged types of size distribution. With aid of back trajectory analysis we present statistics concerning the relation of source area and different meteorological parameters using a non-Lagrangian approach. Source area is argued to be important although not sufficient to describe the observed aerosol properties. Especially processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be crucial for the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. As much as 60% of the observed size distributions present features that are likely to be related to cloud processes or wet deposition. The lifetime properties of different sized aerosols are discussed by means of measured variability of the aerosol size distribution. Processing by clouds and precipitation is shown to be especially crucial in the size range 100 nm and larger. This indicates an approximate limit for activation in clouds to 100 nm in this type of environment. The aerosol lifecycle is discussed. Size distributions indicating signs of recent new particle formation (~30% of the observed size distributions represent the first stage in the lifecycle. Aging of the aerosol size distribution may follow two branches: either growth by condensation and coagulation or processing by non-precipitating clouds. In both cases mass is accumulated. Wet removal is the main process capable of removing aerosol mass. Wet deposition is argued to be an important mechanism in reaching a state where nucleation may occur (i.e. sufficiently low aerosol surface area in environments similar to the one studied.

  19. Atomic layer epitaxy of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO(SrTiO3)n films by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungbauer, M.; Hühn, S.; Moshnyaga, V.; Egoavil, R.; Tan, H.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2014-01-01

    We report an atomic layer epitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) thin films of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n (n = ∞, 2, 3, 4) by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition (MAD). The films are grown on SrTiO 3 (001) substrates by means of a sequential deposition of Sr-O/Ti-O 2 atomic monolayers, monitored in-situ by optical ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the RP structure with n = 2–4 in accordance with the growth recipe. RP defects, observed by TEM in a good correlation with the in-situ ellipsometry, mainly result from the excess of SrO. Being maximal at the film/substrate interface, the SrO excess rapidly decreases and saturates after 5–6 repetitions of the SrO(SrTiO 3 ) 4 block at the level of 2.4%. This identifies the SrTiO 3 substrate surface as a source of RP defects under oxidizing conditions within MAD. Advantages and limitations of MAD as a solution-based and vacuum-free chemical deposition route were discussed in comparison with molecular beam epitaxy

  20. Atomic layer epitaxy of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} films by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbauer, M.; Hühn, S.; Moshnyaga, V. [Erstes Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Egoavil, R.; Tan, H.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-12-22

    We report an atomic layer epitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) thin films of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} (n = ∞, 2, 3, 4) by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition (MAD). The films are grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by means of a sequential deposition of Sr-O/Ti-O{sub 2} atomic monolayers, monitored in-situ by optical ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the RP structure with n = 2–4 in accordance with the growth recipe. RP defects, observed by TEM in a good correlation with the in-situ ellipsometry, mainly result from the excess of SrO. Being maximal at the film/substrate interface, the SrO excess rapidly decreases and saturates after 5–6 repetitions of the SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub 4} block at the level of 2.4%. This identifies the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate surface as a source of RP defects under oxidizing conditions within MAD. Advantages and limitations of MAD as a solution-based and vacuum-free chemical deposition route were discussed in comparison with molecular beam epitaxy.

  1. A novel approach to Lagrangian sampling of marine boundary layer cloud and aerosol in the northeast Pacific: case studies from CSET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Ghate, V. P.; Zuidema, P.; Wood, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign took place during July/August 2015 with the purpose of characterizing the cloud, aerosol and thermodynamic properties of the northeast Pacific marine boundary layer. One major science goal of the campaign was to observe a Lagrangian transition from thin stratocumulus (Sc) upwind near California to trade cumulus (Cu) nearer to Hawaii. Cloud properties were observed from the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research plane (GV) using the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) and the HIAPER Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), among other instrumentation. Aircraft observations were complemented by a suite of satellite-derived products. To observe a the evolution of airmasses over the course of two days, upwind regions were sampled on an outbound flight to from Sacramento, CA, to Kona, HI. The sampled airmasses were then tracked using HYSPLIT trajectories based on GFS model forecasts, and the return flight to California was planned to intercept those airmasses, using satellite observation to track cloud evolution in the interim. This approach required that trajectories were reasonably stable up to 3 days prior to final sampling, and also that forecast trajectories were in agreement with post-flight analysis and visual cloud feature tracking. The extent to which this was realised, and hence the validity of this new approach to Lagrangian airmass observation, is assessed here. We also present results showing that a Sc-Cu airmass transition was consistently observed during the CSET study using measurements from research flights and satellite.

  2. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  3. Balloon-borne aerosol measurements in the planetary boundary layer: particle production associated with a continental stratiform cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuetz, S. [Inst. for Tropospheric Res., Leipzig (Germany); Dubois, R. [Inst. for Tropospheric Res., Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    Vertical profiles of submicrometer Aitken nuclei (AN), temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction have been measured using a tethered balloon as a platform for the instrumentation. Daytime soundings up to 700 m above ground were done over Eastern Germany during a strong and persistent wintertime temperature inversion on 18th January 1996. The inversion at 650 m above ground topped a closed stratus deck with a diffuse cloud base at 250 m. The profiles of temperature, humidity and AN concentrations indicate that the layer below the inversion was well mixed. An upper limit to cloud droplet number concentration of 700 p/cm{sup 3} was inferred from the AN measurements. At the top of the cloud distinct AN concentration maxima were observed. Their evolution as a function of time and space with respect to the profiles of temperature, humidity and wind indicated new particle production. Concurrent with the balloon soundings, continuous ground based measurements of wind by SODAR and of SO{sub 2} were also performed. (orig.)

  4. Influence of the voltage waveform during nanocomposite layer deposition by aerosol-assisted atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profili, J. [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Levasseur, O.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Naudé, N.; Gherardi, N., E-mail: nicolas.gherardi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Chaneac, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Collège de France, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (CMCP), 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-08-07

    This work examines the growth dynamics of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in plane-to-plane Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) at atmospheric pressure operated in a Townsend regime using nebulized TiO{sub 2} colloidal suspension in hexamethyldisiloxane as the growth precursors. For low-frequency (LF) sinusoidal voltages applied to the DBD cell, with voltage amplitudes lower than the one required for discharge breakdown, Scanning Electron Microscopy of silicon substrates placed on the bottom DBD electrode reveals significant deposition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) close to the discharge entrance. On the other hand, at higher frequencies (HF), the number of TiO{sub 2} NPs deposited strongly decreases due to their “trapping” in the oscillating voltage and their transport along the gas flow lines. Based on these findings, a combined LF-HF voltage waveform is proposed and used to achieve significant and spatially uniform deposition of TiO{sub 2} NPs across the whole substrate surface. For higher voltage amplitudes, in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane and nitrous oxide for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic layers, it is found that TiO{sub 2} NPs become fully embedded into a silica-like matrix. Similar Raman spectra are obtained for as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs and for nanocomposite TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} coating, suggesting that plasma exposure does not significantly alter the crystalline structure of the TiO{sub 2} NPs injected into the discharge.

  5. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  6. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  7. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  8. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  9. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.

  10. The influence of background aerosol on spectral transparency of urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismayilov, F.I.

    2009-01-01

    The relations between distribution of city aerosol particles on dimensions and spectral transparency of aerosol layer of atmospheric air pollution in Baku city conditions. The power and logarithmically normal functions are used for city aerosol modeling

  11. Northern hemispheric response to large volcanic eruptions in relation to El Nino - winter case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, I.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the global climate variability is attributed to variations of the Indian Monsoon and of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Facing the recent violent volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991, and searching for the climate signal of the increased greenhouse effect, the climate impact of volcanic aerosols becomes more and more interesting

  12. The Determination of the Aerosol Microphysical Characteristics in the Lower Part of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer from Lidar Data and Accompanying Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolotov, Ilia G

    2005-01-01

    Successful inversions of nephelometer data into the aerosol particle size distributions by the method of mean ordinates 1 encouraged us to apply this method to the data on the oceanic volume scattering function (VSF...

  13. Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) 2007 intensive sampling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, R.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Crete, E.; Deegan, B.; Long, M. S.; Maben, J. R.; Young, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*). Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br) and ion chromatography (SO42-, Cl-, Br-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

  14. Gas phase acid, ammonia and aerosol ionic and trace element concentrations at Cape Verde during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe 2007 intensive sampling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO on São Vicente island in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. The gas-phase data include HCl, HNO3, HONO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, NH3, and volatile reactive chlorine other than HCl (Cl*. Aerosol samples were analyzed by neutron activation (Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, and Br and ion chromatography (SO42−, Cl−, Br−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. Content and quality of the data, which are available under doi:10.5281/zenodo.6956, are presented and discussed.

  15. Volcanic Characteristics of Kueishantao in Northeast Taiwan and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kueishantao (KST is a small offshore volcanic island located at the southernmost part of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we conducted a detailed mapping incorporating the new high resolution LiDAR DTM laser scanning device to accurately construct a volcanic sequence. A new 1/5000 geological map was established. One primary volcanic cone, composed of layers of both lava flows and pyroclastic rocks constituted the major edifice of KST. The other minor volcanic cone, which consists of volcanic lapillis and blocks, is seated to the east of the main cone. The escarped and nearly straight coast in the southern part of the KST indicates that the volcano suffered a large post-volcanic edifice collapse erasing nearly one half of the volume of both volcanic cones. The increase in the abundance of the xenoliths of sedimentary rocks from the lower to the upper part of the volcanic sequence indicates that the formation of volcanic rocks of the KST involved an intensification of crustal contamination. The possibility of volcanic eruption can not be excluded in the future based on the present thermolu¬minescene age data of 7 ka. The associated eruptive ash fall and tsunami induced by the further collapse of the KST volcanic edifice might have great influence to the adjacent inland. Thus, long-term monitoring of volcanic activities around KST should be required for future hazard assessments.

  16. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  17. AEROSOL VARIABILITY OBSERVED WITH RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  18. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  19. Probability Density Functions for the CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Kar, J.; Zeng, S.; Tackett, J. L.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Omar, A. H.; Hu, Y.; Winker, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the CALIPSO retrieval algorithm, detection layers in the lidar measurements is followed by their classification as a "cloud" or "aerosol" using 5-dimensional probability density functions (PDFs). The five dimensions are the mean attenuated backscatter at 532 nm, the layer integrated total attenuated color ratio, the mid-layer altitude, integrated volume depolarization ratio and latitude. The new version 4 (V4) level 2 (L2) data products, released in November 2016, are the first major revision to the L2 product suite since May 2010. Significant calibration changes in the V4 level 1 data necessitated substantial revisions to the V4 L2 CAD algorithm. Accordingly, a new set of PDFs was generated to derive the V4 L2 data products. The V4 CAD algorithm is now applied to layers detected in the stratosphere, where volcanic layers and occasional cloud and smoke layers are observed. Previously, these layers were designated as `stratospheric', and not further classified. The V4 CAD algorithm is also applied to all layers detected at single shot (333 m) resolution. In prior data releases, single shot detections were uniformly classified as clouds. The CAD PDFs used in the earlier releases were generated using a full year (2008) of CALIPSO measurements. Because the CAD algorithm was not applied to stratospheric features, the properties of these layers were not incorporated into the PDFs. When building the V4 PDFs, the 2008 data were augmented with additional data from June 2011, and all stratospheric features were included. The Nabro and Puyehue-Cordon volcanos erupted in June 2011, and volcanic aerosol layers were observed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The June 2011 data thus provides the stratospheric aerosol properties needed for comprehensive PDF generation. In contrast to earlier versions of the PDFs, which were generated based solely on observed distributions, construction of the V4 PDFs considered the

  20. Observations of the loss of stratospheric NO2 following volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of stratospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) have been made following major eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pintatubo volcanoes. Midlatitude abundances of NO2 and NO were reduced by as much as 70% in the months following the appearance of the volcanic aerosols as compared to volcanically quite periods. There are heterogeneous reactions which could occur on the volcanic aerosols to convert NO2 into HNO3 but no commensurate increase in HNO3 column amounts was observed at the times of NO2 decrease.

  1. Impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segschneider, Joachim; Ulrike, Niemeier; Martin, Wiesner; Claudia, Timmreck

    2010-05-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle is investigated for the example of the Pinatubo eruption with model simulations of the distribution of the ash cloud and deposition on the ocean surface and the impact of the nutrient addition from ash leachates on the oceanic biological production and hence biological carbon pump. Natural variations of aerosols, especially due to large-magnitude volcanic eruptions, are recognized as a significant climate forcing, altering the Earth's radiation balance and thus tending to cause global temperature changes. While the impact of such events on climate and the terrestrial biosphere is relatively well documented, scientific knowledge of their effects on marine ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere is still very limited. In the deep sea, subaerial eruptive events of global significance are commonly recorded as widespread ash layers, which were often found to be associated with increased abundances of planktic organisms. This has led to the hypothesis that the influx of volcanic ash may provide an external nutrient source for primary production (in particular through iron fertilization) in ocean surface waters. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that pristine volcanic ash indeed releases significant amounts of macronutrients and bioactive trace metals (including phosphate, iron and silica) adsorbed to the surface of the ash particles. The release of these components most likely has its largest impact in ocean regions where their availability is crucial for the growth of oceanic biomass, which are the high-nutrient but low-productivity (low-iron) areas in the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. These in turn are neighbored by most of those subaerially active volcanoes that are capable of ejecting huge amounts of aerosols into the high-velocity stratospheric wind fields. The dispersal and fallout of ash thus has a high potential to induce globally significant, transient net CO2 removal from

  2. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  3. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  4. Aerosol vertical distribution characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols

  5. The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the quantitative analysis of elements in thin samples, in surface layers of thick samples, and in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, U.

    1983-01-01

    The PIXE analysis method for the determination of elements in thick samples was investigated. The text of the present thesis is arranged under the following headings: physical fundamentals and measuring equipment, quantitative analysis of thin samples, matrix effects at the PIXE analysis of thick samples, matrix correction methods, analysis of 'infinite thick' model substances, PIXE analysis of aerosol filters. (GSCH)

  6. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  7. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  8. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  9. Release of Volatiles During North Atlantic Flood Basalt Volcanism and Correlation to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J. M.; Tegner, C.; Kent, A. J.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway during the lower Tertiary led to intense flood basalt volcanism and the emplacement of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). The volcanism is temporally overlapping with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but ash stratigraphy and geochronology suggests that the main flood basalt sequence in East Greenland postdates the PETM. Significant environmental changes during the PETM have been attributed to the release of CO2 or methane gas due to either extensive melting of hydrates at the ocean floor or as a consequence of the interaction of mantle derived magmas with carbon rich sediments.Estimates suggest that a minimum of 1.8x106 km3 of basaltic lava erupted during North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism. Based on measurements of melt inclusions from the flood basalts our preliminary calculations suggest that approximately 2300 Gt of SO2 and 600 Gt of HCl were released into the atmosphere. Calculated yearly fluxes approach 23 Mt/y SO2 and 6 Mt/y HCl. These estimates are regarded as conservative.The S released into to the atmosphere during flood basalt volcanism can form acid aerosols that absorb and reflect solar radiation, causing an effective cooling effect. The climatic effects of the release of Cl into the atmosphere are not well constrained, but may be an important factor for extinction scenarios due to destruction of the ozone layer.The climatic changes due to the release of S and Cl in these amounts, and for periods extending for hundred thousand of years, although not yet fully constrained are likely to be significant. One consequence of the North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism may have been the initiation of global cooling to end the PETM.

  10. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  11. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g. However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g → multiple steps → SOOCl2−. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32− by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C. Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways – oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2 – which favour the heavy isotope, and

  12. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate - which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g) → multiple steps → SOOCl2-. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32- by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C). Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV) oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways - oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2) - which favour the heavy isotope, and the alkalinity non

  13. The operational eEMEP model version 10.4 for volcanic SO2 and ash forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Birthe M.; Schulz, Michael; Wind, Peter; Valdebenito, Álvaro M.; Fagerli, Hilde

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a new version of the EMEP MSC-W model called eEMEP developed for transportation and dispersion of volcanic emissions, both gases and ash. EMEP MSC-W is usually applied to study problems with air pollution and aerosol transport and requires some adaptation to treat volcanic eruption sources and effluent dispersion. The operational set-up of model simulations in case of a volcanic eruption is described. Important choices have to be made to achieve CPU efficiency so that emergency situations can be tackled in time, answering relevant questions of ash advisory authorities. An efficient model needs to balance the complexity of the model and resolution. We have investigated here a meteorological uncertainty component of the volcanic cloud forecast by using a consistent ensemble meteorological dataset (GLAMEPS forecast) at three resolutions for the case of SO2 emissions from the 2014 Barðarbunga eruption. The low resolution (40 × 40 km) ensemble members show larger agreement in plume position and intensity, suggesting that the ensemble here does not give much added value. To compare the dispersion at different resolutions, we compute the area where the column load of the volcanic tracer, here SO2, is above a certain threshold, varied for testing purposes between 0.25 and 50 Dobson units. The increased numerical diffusion causes a larger area (+34 %) to be covered by the volcanic tracer in the low resolution simulations than in the high resolution ones. The higher resolution (10 × 10 km) ensemble members show higher column loads farther away from the volcanic eruption site in narrower clouds. Cloud positions are more varied between the high resolution members, and the cloud forms resemble the observed clouds more than the low resolution ones. For a volcanic emergency case this means that to obtain quickly results of the transport of volcanic emissions, an individual simulation with our low resolution is sufficient; however, to forecast peak

  14. Investigation of the seasonal variations of aerosol physicochemical properties and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei number concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy S.

    strongly absorbing carbonaceous particles generated from the flaming combustion mode. The cases represented complex mixtures of the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Lastly, SQ3 is addressed by using a multi-platform dataset from the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Graciosa, Azores, 2009-2010 field campaign. The seasonal aerosol particle volume and number size distributions, AOD, and AEAOD during the CAP-MBL campaign have shown that a low overall mean AOD440 of 0.12 denoted a clean environment over this region that typically contains MBL sea salt. In terms of aerosol volume, a bimodal signal was prominent where the coarse mode influence (r ≥ 1 μm) dominated that of the fine mode (r < 1 μm) throughout the year. However, there are considerable continental fine mode aerosols advected to the Azores region during summer months, including Saharan mineral dust, volcanic ash, biomass smoke, and pollution from North American as identified by HYSPLIT backward trajectories. These aerosol types have been shown to have impacts on MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that are likely different from coarse mode marine aerosols (e.g., sea salt) (Remillard et al. 2014; Wood et al. 2014). The alternating presence of dominant clean air masses with periodic episodes of polluted air masses will provide a substantial variety in aerosol properties during the summer. This will provide a great opportunity to investigate the interactions between aerosol and cloud properties in terms of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE).

  15. Volcanism on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  16. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  17. Boundary layer aerosol size distribution, mass concentration and mineralogical composition in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. Two major field experiments were performed: A first joint field campaign took place at Ouarzazate and near Zagora, southern Morocco, from May 13 to June 7, 2006. Aircraft and ground based measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out to collect a data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information within a major dust source. This data set combined with satellite data provides the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust. A second field experiment was conducted during January-February 2008, in the Cape Verde Islands region, where about 300 Tg of mineral dust are transported annually from Western Africa across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea and the Amazon basin. Along its transport path, the mineral dust is expected to influence significantly the radiation budget - by direct and indirect effects - of the subtropical North Atlantic. We are lacking a radiative closure in the Saharan air plume. One focus of the investigation within the trade wind region is the spatial distribution of mixed dust/biomass/sea salt aerosol and their physical and chemical properties, especially with regard to radiative effects. We report on measurements of size distributions, mass concentrations and mineralogical composition conducted at the Zagora (Morocco) and Praia (Cape Verde islands) ground stations. The aerosol size distribution was measured from 20 nm to 500

  18. Visualizing Volcanic Clouds in the Atmosphere and Their Impact on Air Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Tobias; Schulze, Maik; Friederici, Anke; Theisel, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are not only hazardous in the direct vicinity of a volcano, but they also affect the climate and air travel for great distances. This article sheds light on the Grímsvötn, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, and Nabro eruptions in 2011. The authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of Nabro's sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. The results here were developed for the 2014 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest, which centers around the fusion of multiple satellite data modalities to reconstruct and assess the movement of volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol emissions. Using data from three volcanic eruptions that occurred in the span of approximately three weeks, the authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. This video provides animations of the reconstructed ash clouds. https://youtu.be/D9DvJ5AvZAs.

  19. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  20. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  1. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Löffler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry–climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg – Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  2. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Tafuri, Victoria V.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  3. Dependence of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layer entrainment on cloud-water sedimentation: Impact on global aerosol indirect effect in GISS ModelE3 single column model and global simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kelley, M.; Cheng, Y.; Fridlind, A. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Bauer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in cloud-water sedimentation induced by increasing droplet concentrations has been shown in large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to enhance boundary-layer entrainment, thereby reducing cloud liquid water path and offsetting the Twomey effect when the overlying air is sufficiently dry, which is typical. Among recent upgrades to ModelE3, the latest version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), are a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics treatment with prognostic precipitation and a moist turbulence scheme that includes an option in its entrainment closure of a simple parameterization for the effect of cloud-water sedimentation. Single column model (SCM) simulations are compared to LES results for a stratocumulus case study and show that invoking the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization option indeed reduces the dependence of cloud liquid water path on increasing aerosol concentrations. Impacts of variations of the SCM configuration and the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization will be explored. Its impact on global aerosol indirect forcing in the framework of idealized atmospheric GCM simulations will also be assessed.

  4. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  5. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  6. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  7. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  8. Pathways, Impacts, and Policies on Severe Aerosol Injections into the Atmosphere: 2011 Severe Atmospheric Aerosols Events Conference

    KAUST Repository

    Weil, Martin; Grassl, Hartmut; Hoshyaripour, Gholamali; Kloster, Silvia; Kominek, Jasmin; Misios, Stergios; Scheffran, Juergen; Starr, Steven; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Timmreck, Claudia; Zhang, Dan; Kalinowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 severe atmospheric events conference, held on August 11-12, 2011, Hamburg, Germany, discussed climatic and environmental changes as a result of various kinds of huge injections of aerosols into the atmosphere and the possible consequences for the world population. Various sessions of the conference dealt with different aspects of large aerosol injections and severe atmospheric aerosol events along the geologic time scale. A presentation about radiative heating of aerosols as a self-lifting mechanism in the Australian forest fires discussed the question of how the impact of tropical volcanic eruptions depends on the eruption season. H.-F. Graf showed that cloud-resolving plume models are more suitable to predict the volcanic plume height and dispersion than one-dimensional models. G. Stenchikov pointed out that the absorbing smoke plumes in the upper troposphere can be partially mixed into the lower stratosphere because of the solar heating and lofting effect.

  9. Pathways, Impacts, and Policies on Severe Aerosol Injections into the Atmosphere: 2011 Severe Atmospheric Aerosols Events Conference

    KAUST Repository

    Weil, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The 2011 severe atmospheric events conference, held on August 11-12, 2011, Hamburg, Germany, discussed climatic and environmental changes as a result of various kinds of huge injections of aerosols into the atmosphere and the possible consequences for the world population. Various sessions of the conference dealt with different aspects of large aerosol injections and severe atmospheric aerosol events along the geologic time scale. A presentation about radiative heating of aerosols as a self-lifting mechanism in the Australian forest fires discussed the question of how the impact of tropical volcanic eruptions depends on the eruption season. H.-F. Graf showed that cloud-resolving plume models are more suitable to predict the volcanic plume height and dispersion than one-dimensional models. G. Stenchikov pointed out that the absorbing smoke plumes in the upper troposphere can be partially mixed into the lower stratosphere because of the solar heating and lofting effect.

  10. Global two-channel AVHRR aerosol climatology: effects of stratospheric aerosols and preliminary comparisons with MODIS and MISR retrievals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Remer, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    We present an update on the status of the global climatology of the aerosol column optical thickness and Angstrom exponent derived from channel-1 and -2 radiances of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the framework of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). The latest version of the climatology covers the period from July 1983 to September 2001 and is based on an adjusted value of the diffuse component of the ocean reflectance as derived from extensive comparisons with ship sun-photometer data. We use the updated GACP climatology and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) data to analyze how stratospheric aerosols from major volcanic eruptions can affect the GACP aerosol product. One possible retrieval strategy based on the AVHRR channel-1 and -2 data alone is to infer both the stratospheric and the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness while assuming fixed microphysical models for both aerosol components. The second approach is to use the SAGE stratospheric aerosol data in order to constrain the AVHRR retrieval algorithm. We demonstrate that the second approach yields a consistent long-term record of the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent. Preliminary comparisons of the GACP aerosol product with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer aerosol retrievals show reasonable agreement, the GACP global monthly optical thickness being lower than the MODIS one by approximately 0.03. Larger differences are observed on a regional scale. Comparisons of the GACP and MODIS Angstrom exponent records are less conclusive and require further analysis

  11. Decade of stratospheric sulfate measurements compared with observations of volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Lazrus, A.L.; Gandrud, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    Sulfate aerosol concentrations in the stratosphere have been measured for 11 years (1971--1981) using portions of filters collected by the Department of Energy's High Altitude Sampling Program. Data collected seasonally at altitudes between 13 km and 20 km spanning latitudes from 75 0 N to 51 0 S are reported. These data are compared with the reported altitudes of volcanic eruption plumes during the same decade. From this comparison it is concluded that (1) several unreported volcanic eruptions or eruptions to altitudes higher than reported did occur during the decade, (2) the e-fold removal time for sulfate aerosol from the stratosphere following the eruption of Volcan Fuego in 1974 was 11.2 +- 1.2 months, (3) the volcanic contribution to the average stratospheric sulfate concentration over the decade was greater than 50%, and (4) there may be evidence for an anthropogenic contribution to stratospheric sulfate that increases at the rate of 6 to 8% per year

  12. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  13. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  14. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  15. Interfacing the NRL 1-D High Vertical Resolution Aerosol Model with COAMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    model integrated with mesoscale meterological data to study marine boundary layer aerosol dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2006. Hoppel, W. A...W.A. Hoppel, J.J. Shi: A one-dimensional sectional aerosol model integrated with mesoscale meterological data to study marine boundary layer aerosol

  16. Mantle updrafts and mechanisms of oceanic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Don L.; Natland, James H.

    2014-10-01

    Convection in an isolated planet is characterized by narrow downwellings and broad updrafts-consequences of Archimedes' principle, the cooling required by the second law of thermodynamics, and the effect of compression on material properties. A mature cooling planet with a conductive low-viscosity core develops a thick insulating surface boundary layer with a thermal maximum, a subadiabatic interior, and a cooling highly conductive but thin boundary layer above the core. Parts of the surface layer sink into the interior, displacing older, colder material, which is entrained by spreading ridges. Magma characteristics of intraplate volcanoes are derived from within the upper boundary layer. Upper mantle features revealed by seismic tomography and that are apparently related to surface volcanoes are intrinsically broad and are not due to unresolved narrow jets. Their morphology, aspect ratio, inferred ascent rate, and temperature show that they are passively responding to downward fluxes, as appropriate for a cooling planet that is losing more heat through its surface than is being provided from its core or from radioactive heating. Response to doward flux is the inverse of the heat-pipe/mantle-plume mode of planetary cooling. Shear-driven melt extraction from the surface boundary layer explains volcanic provinces such as Yellowstone, Hawaii, and Samoa. Passive upwellings from deeper in the upper mantle feed ridges and near-ridge hotspots, and others interact with the sheared and metasomatized surface layer. Normal plate tectonic processes are responsible both for plate boundary and intraplate swells and volcanism.

  17. Using Satellite Observations to Evaluate the AeroCOM Volcanic Emissions Inventory and the Dispersal of Volcanic SO2 Clouds in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Eric J.; Krotkov, Nickolay; da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of volcanic emissions in climate models requires information that describes the eruption of the emissions into the atmosphere. While the total amount of gases and aerosols released from a volcanic eruption can be readily estimated from satellite observations, information about the source parameters, like injection altitude, eruption time and duration, is often not directly known. The AeroCOM volcanic emissions inventory provides estimates of eruption source parameters and has been used to initialize volcanic emissions in reanalysis projects, like MERRA. The AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory provides an eruptions daily SO2 flux and plume top altitude, yet an eruption can be very short lived, lasting only a few hours, and emit clouds at multiple altitudes. Case studies comparing the satellite observed dispersal of volcanic SO2 clouds to simulations in MERRA have shown mixed results. Some cases show good agreement with observations Okmok (2008), while for other eruptions the observed initial SO2 mass is half of that in the simulations, Sierra Negra (2005). In other cases, the initial SO2 amount agrees with the observations but shows very different dispersal rates, Soufriere Hills (2006). In the aviation hazards community, deriving accurate source terms is crucial for monitoring and short-term forecasting (24-h) of volcanic clouds. Back trajectory methods have been developed which use satellite observations and transport models to estimate the injection altitude, eruption time, and eruption duration of observed volcanic clouds. These methods can provide eruption timing estimates on a 2-hour temporal resolution and estimate the altitude and depth of a volcanic cloud. To better understand the differences between MERRA simulations and volcanic SO2 observations, back trajectory methods are used to estimate the source term parameters for a few volcanic eruptions and compared to their corresponding entry in the AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory. The nature of

  18. Effects of tropospheric aerosols on radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-08-01

    The surface fluxes in the wavelength range 175 to 735nm have been calculated for an atmosphere which contains a uniformly mixed aerosol layer of thickness 1km at the earth's surface. Two different aerosol types were considered, a rural aerosol, and an urban aerosol. The visibility range for the aerosol layers was 95 to 15 km. Surface flux ratios (15km/95km) were in agreement with previously published results for the rural aerosol layer to within about 2%. The surface flux ratios vary from 7 to 14% for the rural aerosol layer and from 13 to 23% for the urban aerosol layer over the wavelength range. A tropospheric radiative forcing of about 1.3% of the total tropospheric flux was determined for the 95km to 15km visibility change in the rural aerosol layer, indicating the potential of tropospheric feedback effects on the surface flux changes. This effect was found to be negligible for the urban aerosol layer. Stratospheric layer heating rate changes due to visibility changes in either the rural or urban aerosol layer were found to be negligible

  19. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  20. Role of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Climate Impacts of Stratospheric Volcanic Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrande, Allegra N.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The climate impact of a volcanic eruption is known to be dependent on the size, location and timing of the eruption. However, the chemistry and composition of the volcanic plume also control its impact on climate. It is not just sulfur dioxide gas, but also the coincident emissions of water, halogens and ash that influence the radiative and climate forcing of an eruption. Improvements in the capability of models to capture aerosol microphysics, and the inclusion of chemistry and aerosol microphysics modules in Earth system models, allow us to evaluate the interaction of composition and chemistry within volcanic plumes in a new way. These modeling efforts also illustrate the role of water vapor in controlling the chemical evolution, and hence climate impacts, of the plume. A growing realization of the importance of the chemical composition of volcanic plumes is leading to a more sophisticated and realistic representation of volcanic forcing in climate simulations, which in turn aids in reconciling simulations and proxy reconstructions of the climate impacts of past volcanic eruptions. More sophisticated simulations are expected to help, eventually, with predictions of the impact on the Earth system of any future large volcanic eruptions.

  1. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  2. Enhanced ice sheet melting driven by volcanic eruptions during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; Pausata, Francesco S R; Lea, James M; Mair, Douglas W F; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2017-10-24

    Volcanic eruptions can impact the mass balance of ice sheets through changes in climate and the radiative properties of the ice. Yet, empirical evidence highlighting the sensitivity of ancient ice sheets to volcanism is scarce. Here we present an exceptionally well-dated annual glacial varve chronology recording the melting history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at the end of the last deglaciation (∼13,200-12,000 years ago). Our data indicate that abrupt ice melting events coincide with volcanogenic aerosol emissions recorded in Greenland ice cores. We suggest that enhanced ice sheet runoff is primarily associated with albedo effects due to deposition of ash sourced from high-latitude volcanic eruptions. Climate and snowpack mass-balance simulations show evidence for enhanced ice sheet runoff under volcanically forced conditions despite atmospheric cooling. The sensitivity of past ice sheets to volcanic ashfall highlights the need for an accurate coupling between atmosphere and ice sheet components in climate models.

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  4. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  5. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  6. Progress in Near Real-Time Volcanic Cloud Observations Using Satellite UV Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Vicente, G.; Hughes, E. J.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions can wreak havoc in many parts of the world, as exemplified by the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland, which caused widespread disruption to air traffic and resulted in economic impacts across the globe. A suite of satellite-based systems offer the most effective means to monitor active volcanoes and to track the movement of volcanic clouds globally, providing critical information for aviation hazard mitigation. Satellite UV sensors, as part of this suite, have a long history of making unique near-real time (NRT) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash (aerosol Index) in volcanic clouds to supplement operational volcanic ash monitoring. Recently a NASA application project has shown that the use of near real-time (NRT,i.e., not older than 3 h) Aura/OMI satellite data produces a marked improvement in volcanic cloud detection using SO2 combined with Aerosol Index (AI) as a marker for ash. An operational online NRT OMI AI and SO2 image and data product distribution system was developed in collaboration with the NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution. Automated volcanic eruption alarms, and the production of volcanic cloud subsets for multiple regions are provided through the NOAA website. The data provide valuable information in support of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration goal of a safe and efficient National Air Space. In this presentation, we will highlight the advantages of UV techniques and describe the advances in volcanic SO2 plume height estimation and enhanced volcanic ash detection using hyper-spectral UV measurements, illustrated with Aura/OMI observations of recent eruptions. We will share our plan to provide near-real-time volcanic cloud monitoring service using the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS).

  7. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do. PMID:27063141

  8. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-11

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do.

  9. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  10. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9943-2011 Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study- Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) ...

  11. Sulfate Aerosols from Non-Explosive Volcanoes: Chemical-Radiative Effects in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SO2 and H2S are the two most important gas-phase sulfur species emitted by volcanoes, with a global amount from non-explosive emissions of the order 10 Tg-S/yr. These gases are readily oxidized forming SO42− aerosols, which effectively scatter the incoming solar radiation and cool the surface. They also perturb atmospheric chemistry by enhancing the NOx to HNO3 heterogeneous conversion via hydrolysis on the aerosol surface of N2O5 and Br-Cl nitrates. This reduces formation of tropospheric O3 and the OH to HO2 ratio, thus limiting the oxidation of CH4 and increasing its lifetime. In addition to this tropospheric chemistry perturbation, there is also an impact on the NOx heterogeneous chemistry in the lower stratosphere, due to vertical transport of volcanic SO2 up to the tropical tropopause layer. Furthermore, the stratospheric O3 formation and loss, as well as the NOx budget, may be slightly affected by the additional amount of upward diffused solar radiation and consequent increase of photolysis rates. Two multi-decadal time-slice runs of a climate-chemistry-aerosol model have been designed for studying these chemical-radiative effects. A tropopause mean global net radiative flux change (RF of −0.23 W·m−2 is calculated (including direct and indirect aerosol effects with a 14% increase of the global mean sulfate aerosol optical depth. A 5–15 ppt NOx decrease is found in the mid-troposphere subtropics and mid-latitudes and also from pole to pole in the lower stratosphere. The tropospheric NOx perturbation triggers a column O3 decrease of 0.5–1.5 DU and a 1.1% increase of the CH4 lifetime. The surface cooling induced by solar radiation scattering by the volcanic aerosols induces a tropospheric stabilization with reduced updraft velocities that produce ice supersaturation conditions in the upper troposphere. A global mean 0.9% decrease of the cirrus ice optical depth is calculated with an indirect RF of −0.08 W·m−2.

  12. Generalized radiative transfer theory for scattering by particles in an absorbing gas: Addressing both spatial and spectral integration in multi-angle remote sensing of optically thin aerosol layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Diner, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the computational advantage gained by introducing non-exponential transmission laws into radiative transfer theory for two specific situations. One is the problem of spatial integration over a large domain where the scattering particles cluster randomly in a medium uniformly filled with an absorbing gas, and only a probabilistic description of the variability is available. The increasingly important application here is passive atmospheric profiling using oxygen absorption in the visible/near-IR spectrum. The other scenario is spectral integration over a region where the absorption cross-section of a spatially uniform gas varies rapidly and widely and, moreover, there are scattering particles embedded in the gas that are distributed uniformly, or not. This comes up in many applications, O2 A-band profiling being just one instance. We bring a common framework to solve these problems both efficiently and accurately that is grounded in the recently developed theory of Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT). In GRT, the classic exponential law of transmission is replaced by one with a slower power-law decay that accounts for the unresolved spectral or spatial variability. Analytical results are derived in the single-scattering limit that applies to optically thin aerosol layers. In spectral integration, a modest gain in accuracy is obtained. As for spatial integration of near-monochromatic radiance, we find that, although both continuum and in-band radiances are affected by moderate levels of sub-pixel variability, only extreme variability will affect in-band/continuum ratios.

  13. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of

  14. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  15. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  16. Correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, R.; Brogniez, C.; Herman, M.; Diallo, S.; Ackerman, M.

    1992-12-01

    Joint experiments were organized or available during stratospheric flights of a photopolarimeter, referred to as RADIBAL (radiometer balloon). In May 1984, RADIBAL flew simultaneously with another balloonborne experiment conducted by the Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB), which provides multiwavelength vertical profiles of the aerosol scattering coefficient. At this time, the El Chichon layer was observable quite directly from mountain sites. A ground-based station set up at Pic du Midi allowed an extensive description of the aerosol optical properties. The IASB and the Pic du Midi observations are consistent with the aerosol properties derived from the RADIBAL measurement analysis.

  17. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  18. Backprojection of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  19. Robust satellite techniques for monitoring volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pergola, N.; Pietrapertosa, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Lacava, T.; Tramutoli, V. [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente

    2001-04-01

    Through this paper the robust approach to monitoring volcanic aerosols by satellite is applied to an extended set of events affecting Stromboli and Etna volcanoes to assess its performance in automated detection of eruptive clouds and in monitoring pre-eruptive emission activities. Using only NOAA/AVHRR data at hand (without any specific atmospheric model or ancillary ground-based measurements) the proposed method automatically discriminates meteorological from eruptive volcanic clouds and, in several cases, identified pre-eruptive anomalies in the emission rates not identified by traditional methods. The main merit of this approach is its effectiveness in recognising field anomalies also in the presence of a highly variable surface background as well as its intrinsic exportability not only on different geographic areas but also on different satellite instrumental packages. In particular, the possibility to extend the proposed method to the incoming new MSG/SEVIRI satellite package (which is going to fly next year) with its improved spectral (specific bands for SO{sub 2}) and temporal (up to 15 min) resolutions has been evaluated representing the natural continuation of this work.

  20. Fluids in volcanic and geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvaldason, Gudmundur E.

    Mineral buffers control the composition of most volatile components of magmas and dissolved species in geothermal fluids. The only element which occurs in significant quantities in volcanic and geothermal fluids and is not controlled by mineral buffers is chlorine. It is argued that in absence of marine influence, geothermal fluids reflect the chlorine content of associated magmatic fluids. The chlorine content of oceanic volcanic rocks has a positive correlation with elements, which are believed to indicate a heterogenous source region. Since the source is generally believed to be the Earth's mantle, the implication is that the mantle is heterogenous with regard to chlorine and other volatiles. Such heterogeneities would have important consequences for genesis and distribution of ore. All major magma types of the oceanic environment occur in Iceland. Their spatial distribution is closely related to a volcanotectonic pattern, suggesting crustal control. A geophysical model of crustal accretion in a rift zone is used in conjunction with classical petrology to predict geochemical processes in a rift zone crust. The model has two kinematic parameters-drift rate and subsidence rate-which combined describe trajectories of mass particles deposited on the surface. When considering in conjunction with thermal gradients of the rift zone a series of metamorphic reactions and chemical fractionation processes are bound to occur, eventually resulting in a layering of the oceanic crust. The physical parameters result in a derived variable, rift zone residence time, which depends on the width of a rift zone. Long residence times in a wide rift zone lead to multistage recycling of material. Other properties of the model, based on geometric arrangement of productive fissure swarms within a rift zone, explain off-rift volcanism as directly related to rift zone processes, either as plate trapped magmatic domains or a transgressive thermal anomaly into an older crust. Off

  1. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  2. Aerosols and the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The lectures of the colloquium are discussed in summary form. There were 5 lectures on aerosol deposition, 5 on aerosol elimination, 7 on toxicology, and 7 on the uses of aerosols in medical therapy. In some cases aerosols with radioactive labels were used. Several lectures reviewed the kinetics and toxicology of airborne environmental pollutants. (MG) [de

  3. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  4. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C.

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  5. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  6. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  7. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  8. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Limit the Climate Response to Extremely Large Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, D. C.; Vidal, C. M.; Keeble, J. M.; Griffiths, P. T.; Archibald, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are a major cause of chemical and climatic perturbations to the atmosphere, injecting chemically and radiatively active species such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere. The rate determining step for sulfate aerosol production is SO2 + OH +M → HSO3 +M. This means that chemical feedbacks on the hydroxyl radical, OH, can modulate the production rate of sulfate aerosol and hence the climate effects of large volcanic eruptions. Radiative feedbacks due to aerosols, ozone and sulfur dioxide and subsequent dynamical changes also affect the evolution of the aerosol cloud. Here we assess the role of radiative and chemical feedbacks on sulfate aerosol production using UM-UKCA, a chemistry-climate model coupled to GLOMAP, a prognostic modal aerosol model. A 200 Tg (10x Pinatubo) emission scenario is investigated. Accounting for radiative feedbacks, the SO2 lifetime is 55 days compared to 26 days in the baseline 20 Tg (1x Pinatubo) simulation. By contrast, if all radiative feedbacks are neglected the lifetime is 73 days. Including radiative feedbacks reduces the SO2 lifetime: heating of the lower stratosphere by aerosol increases upwelling and increases transport of water vapour across the tropopause, increasing OH concentrations. The maximum effective radius of the aerosol particles increases from 1.09 µm to 1.34 µm as the production of aerosol is quicker. Larger and fewer aerosol particles are produced which are less effective at scattering shortwave radiation and will more quickly sediment from the stratosphere. As a result, the resulting climate cooling by the eruption will be less strong when accounting for these radiative feedbacks. We illustrate the consequences of these effects for the 1257 Samalas eruption, the largest common era volcanic eruption, using UM-UKCA in a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration. As a potentially halogen rich eruption, we investigate the differing ozone response to halogen-rich and halogen

  9. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  10. Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par-ticles are nucleated in a thin layer region corresponding to a specific narrow temperature range near the cool stream side. However, particles undergo high growth rate on the hot stream side due to condensation. Coagulation decreases the total particle number density at a rate which is highly correlated to the in-stantaneous number density.

  11. International Workshop on Stratospheric Aerosols: Measurements, Properties, and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Following a mandate by the International Aerosol Climatology Program under the auspices of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Radiation Commission, 45 scientists from five nations convened to discuss relevant issues associated with the measurement, properties, and effects of stratospheric aerosols. A summary is presented of the discussions on formation and evolution, transport and fate, effects on climate, role in heterogeneous chemistry, and validation of lidar and satellite remote sensing of stratospheric aerosols. Measurements are recommended of the natural (background) and the volcanically enhanced aerosol (sulfuric acid and silica particles), the exhaust of shuttle, civil aviation and supersonic aircraft operations (alumina, soot, and ice particles), and polar stratospheric clouds (ice, condensed nitric and hydrochloric acids).

  12. Long-term Aerosol Lidar Measurements At CNR-IMAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2006-12-01

    Actual estimations of the aerosol effect on the radiation budget are affected by a large uncertainties mainly due to the high inhomogeneity and variability of atmospheric aerosol, in terms of concentration, shape, size distribution, refractive index and vertical distribution. Long-term measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties are needed to reduce these uncertainties. At CNR-IMAA (40° 36'N, 15° 44' E, 760 m above sea level), a lidar system for aerosol study is operative since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Until August 2005, it provided independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter at 355 nm and aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm. After an upgrade of the system, it provides independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, and of aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm and depolarization ratio at 532 nm. For these measurements, lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm and Angstrom exponent profiles at 355/532 nm are also obtained. Starting on May 2000, systematic measurements are performed three times per week according to the EARLINET schedule and further measurements are performed in order to investigate particular events, like dust intrusions, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. A climatological study has been carried out in terms of the seasonal behavior of the PBL height and of the aerosol optical properties calculated inside the PBL itself. In the free troposphere, an high occurrences of Saharan dust intrusions (about 1 day of Saharan dust intrusion every 10 days) has been observed at CNR-IMAA because of the short distance from the Sahara region. During 6 years of observations, very peculiar cases of volcanic aerosol emitted by Etna volcano and aerosol released by large forest fires burning occurred in Alaska and Canada have been observed in the free troposphere at our site. Particular attention is devoted to lidar ratio both for the

  13. The background aerosol in the lower stratosphere and the tropospheric aerosol in the Alps. Final report; Das Hintergrundaerosol der unteren Stratosphaere und das troposphaerische Aerosol der Alpen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Trickl, T.

    2001-06-04

    As a contribution to the German Aerosol-Lidar Network lidar backscatter measurements have been carried out at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in a wide range of the atmosphere from next to the ground to altitudes beyond 30 km. The investigations, on one hand, were devoted to establishing a climatology of the aerosol extinction coefficient for the northern Alps and to prolonging the long-term measurement series of the stratospheric aerosol. On the other hand, aerosol was used as a tracer of polluted air masses in atmospheric transport studies (orographically induced vertical transport, advection of Saharan dust, as well as aerosol advection from the North american boundary layer and from large-scale wild fire in the United States and Canada). These transport processes given the seasonal cycle of the aerosol throughout the troposphere. In the free troposphere a pronounced spring-time aerosol maximum was found. The stratospheric aerosol concentration had decayed to a background-type level during the reporting period. As a consequence, the influence of smaller aerosol contributions could be distinguished such as the eruption of the volcano Shishaldin (Alaska) and aircraft emissions. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des deutschen Aerosollidarnetzes wurden in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Lidar-Rueckstreumessungen in einem weiten Bereich der Atmosphaere von Bodennaehe bis in ueber 30 km Hoehe durchgefuehrt. Die Arbeiten dienten zum einen der Erstellung einer Klimatologie des Aerosol-Extinktionskoeffizienten fuer die Nordalpen sowie der Verlaengerung der seit 1976 erstellten Langzeitmessreihe des stratosphaerischen Aerosols. Zum anderen fanden atmosphaerische Transportstudien statt, bei denen das Aerosol als 'Tracer' fuer Luftverschmutzung verwendet wurde (orographisch induzierter Vertikaltransport, Advektion von Saharastaub und Aerosoladvektion aus der nordamerikanischen Genzschicht und von grossflaechigen Waldbraenden in den U.S.A. und Kanada). Diese Transportprozesse bestimmen den

  14. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  15. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-10-07

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  16. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Pseudotachylyte formation in volcanic conduits: Montserrat vs. Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Petrakova, L.; Ferk, A.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Ferri, F.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seismogenic fracture and faulting may result in non-equilibrium frictional melting of rock, which upon cooling and recrystallisation forms pseudotachylyte. In volcanic environments, the transition from endogenous to exogenous growth can be attributed to a shift in magma rheology into the brittle regime, and thus the ascent of high-viscosity magma can form discrete shear zones, comparable to tectonic faults, along conduit margins. Pseudotachylytes have, until now, rarely been noted in exogenous volcanic materials and seldom in active volcanic environments. This is despite the simultaneous occurrence of high pressures and differential stresses, which make high-viscosity magmas ideal candidates for the occurrence of frictional melting. Here, we compare the chemical, thermal, magnetic and structural properties of two candidate volcanic pseudotachylytes; one from Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and one from Mount St. Helens (USA). Additionally, we present data from a set of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on the host materials of these natural pseudotachylytes in which melting was induced after just 10's of centimeters of slip at realistic extrusion velocities (0.4 - 1.6 ms-1) and low normal stresses (0.5-2 MPa). After 1-2 meters of slip a continuous melt layer formed, at which point friction decreased and the fault zone displayed slip-weakening behaviour. For volcanic conduits, this would facilitate temporarily elevated slip rates, or an increase in extrusion rate, and could cause transitions in dome morphology and eruption style. This study demonstrates that shear fracturing in magma or sliding along conduit margins can readily result in frictional melting. The conspicuous absence of pseudotachylytes in active volcanic environments is likely the result of exceptionally high background temperatures which precipitate near-equilibrium melting, thereby obviating one of the characteristic signatures of pseudotachylyte - glassy protomelts formed by selective melting of

  20. Do volcanic eruptions affect climate? Sulfur gases may cause cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Stephen; Rampino, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between volcanic eruptions on earth and the observed climatic changes is investigated. The results of the comparison and analyses of volcanologic and climatologic data sets for the years between 1880 and 1980 indicate that changes in temperature caused by even of the largest eruptions recorded during this time were about the same as normal variations in temperature. However, when temperature records for several months or years preceding and following a given eruption were analyzed, a statistically significant temperature decrease of 0.2-0.5 C was found for the periods of one to two years immediately following some of the 19th and 20th century explosive events that prodiced large aerosol clouds (e.g., Krakatau and Agung eruptions). It is suggested that the content of sulfur in the erupted magma determines the size of aerosol cloud producing the cooling effect.

  1. Importance of Raman Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements for Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a UV Raman Lidar for aerosol extinction, and combining Microwave Radiometer derived Liquid Water Path (LWP with Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer derived Cloud Optical depth, to get cloud effective radius (Reff, we observe under certain specialized conditions, clear signatures of the Twomey Aerosol Indirect effect on cloud droplet properties which are consistent with the theoretical bounds. We also show that the measurement is very sensitive to how far the aerosol layer is from the cloud base and demonstrate that surface PM25 is far less useful. Measurements from both the DOE ARM site and new results at CCNY are presented.

  2. Interaction of Microphysical Aerosol Processes with Hydrodynamics Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Alshaarawi, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    ) streams owing from opposite nozzles. A mixing layer is established across a stagnation plane in the center where nucleation and other aerosol dynamics are triggered. The second is homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a three-dimensional periodic domain

  3. Comparison of aerosol extinction between lidar and SAGE II over Gadanki, a tropical station in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulkarni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive comparison of aerosol extinction has been performed using lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II data over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, following coincident criteria during volcanically quiescent conditions from 1998 to 2005. The aerosol extinctions derived from lidar are higher than SAGE II during all seasons in the upper troposphere (UT, while in the lower-stratosphere (LS values are closer. The seasonal mean percent differences between lidar and SAGE II aerosol extinctions are > 100% in the UT and Ba (sr−1, the ratio between aerosol backscattering and extinction, are needed for the tropics for a more accurate derivation of aerosol extinction.

  4. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  5. Medieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431–1649 CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Stine, Alexander R; Leahy, Paul; Kiely, Gerard; Murphy, Enda; Mayewski, Paul A; Taylor, David; Killen, James; Hennessy, Mark; Baillie, Michael G L

    2013-01-01

    Explosive volcanism resulting in stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol is a major driver of regional to global climatic variability on interannual and longer timescales. However, much of our knowledge of the climatic impact of volcanism derives from the limited number of eruptions that have occurred in the modern period during which meteorological instrumental records are available. We present a uniquely long historical record of severe short-term cold events from Irish chronicles, 431–1649 CE, and test the association between cold event occurrence and explosive volcanism. Thirty eight (79%) of 48 volcanic events identified in the sulfate deposition record of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-core correspond to 37 (54%) of 69 cold events in this 1219 year period. We show this association to be statistically significant at the 99.7% confidence level, revealing both the consistency of response to explosive volcanism for Ireland’s climatically sensitive Northeast Atlantic location and the large proportional contribution of volcanism to historic cold event frequencies here. Our results expose, moreover, the extent to which volcanism has impacted winter-season climate for the region, and can help to further resolve the complex spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere winter-season cooling versus warming after major eruptions. (letter)

  6. Historical evidence for a connection between volcanic eruptions and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    The times of historical volcanic aerosol clouds were compared with changes in atmospheric temperatures on regional, hemispheric, and global scales. These involve either a direct comparison of individual significant eruption years with temperature records, or a comparison of eruption years with composited temperature records for several years before and after chosen sets of eruptions. Some studies have challenged the connection between individual eruptions and climate change. Mass and Portman (1989) recently suggested that the volcanic signal was present, but smaller than previously thought. In a study designed to test the idea that eruptions could cause small changes in climate, Hansen and other (1978) chose one of the best monitored eruptions at the time, the 1963 eruption of Agung volcano on the island of Bali. Using a simple radiation-balance model, in which an aerosol cloud in the tropics was simulated, this basic pattern of temperature change in the tropics and subtropics was reproduced. There may be natural limits to the atmospheric effects of any volcanic eruption. Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in eruption clouds were proposed. Model results suggest that aerosol microphysical processes of condensation and coagulation produce larger aerosols as the SO2 injection rate is increased. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on regional temperatures where the effects of volcanic aerosol clouds can be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns, especially changes in mid-latitudes where meridional circulation patterns may develop. Such climatic perturbations can be detected in proxy evidence such as decreases in tree-ring widths and frost damage rings in climatically sensitive parts of the world, changes in treelines, weather anomalies such as unusually cold summers, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures.

  7. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  8. Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, M; Winstrup, M; McConnell, J R; Welten, K C; Plunkett, G; Ludlow, F; Büntgen, U; Caffee, M; Chellman, N; Dahl-Jensen, D; Fischer, H; Kipfstuhl, S; Kostick, C; Maselli, O J; Mekhaldi, F; Mulvaney, R; Muscheler, R; Pasteris, D R; Pilcher, J R; Salzer, M; Schüpbach, S; Steffensen, J P; Vinther, B M; Woodruff, T E

    2015-07-30

    Volcanic eruptions contribute to climate variability, but quantifying these contributions has been limited by inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings. Here we resolve these inconsistencies and show that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. Our results are based on new records of atmospheric aerosol loading developed from high-resolution, multi-parameter measurements from an array of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores as well as distinctive age markers to constrain chronologies. Overall, cooling was proportional to the magnitude of volcanic forcing and persisted for up to ten years after some of the largest eruptive episodes. Our revised timescale more firmly implicates volcanic eruptions as catalysts in the major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions in Eurasia and Mesoamerica while allowing multi-millennium quantification of climate response to volcanic forcing.

  9. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  10. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  11. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  12. Measurements of stratospheric Pinatubo aerosol extinction profiles by a Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. The authors estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here the authors used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. The authors think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored

  13. Volcanism on differentiated asteroids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    after passing through optically dense fire fountains. At low eruption rates and high volatile contents many clasts cooled to form spatter or cinder deposits, but at high eruption rates and low volatile contents most clasts landed hot and coalesced into lava ponds to feed lava flows. Lava flow thickness varies with surface slope, acceleration due to gravity, and lava yield strength induced by cooling. Low gravity on asteroids caused flows to be relatively thick which reduced the effects of cooling, and many flows probably attained lengths of tens of km and stopped as a result of cessation of magma supply from the reservoir rather than cooling. On most asteroids larger than 100 km radius experiencing more than ~30% mantle melting, the erupted volcanic deposits will have buried the original chondritic surface layers of the asteroid to such great depths that they were melted, or at least heavily thermally metamorphosed, leaving no present-day meteoritical evidence of their prior existence. Tidal stresses from close encounters between asteroids and proto-planets may have very briefly increased melting and melt migration speeds in asteroid interiors but only gross structural disruption would have greatly have changed volcanic histories.

  14. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  15. Properties of volcanic soils in cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Layers of volcanic ash and the Andosol soils derived from them may play an important role in preserving snow and ice as well as developing permafrost conditions in the immediate vicinity of volcanoes of high elevation or those situated at high latitudes, and land areas, often distant from volcanic activity that are either prone to permafrost or covered by snow and ice, but are affected by the deposition of subaerial ash. The special properties of volcanic ash that are responsible are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place. Volcanic glass is the most easily weathered component of volcanic ejecta (Shoji et al., 1993; Kimble et al., 2000). There are many specific environmental conditions, including paleoclimate and present-day climate, the composition of volcanic tephra and glaciation history, which cause the differences in weathering and development of volcanic ash soils (Zehetner et al., 2003). The preservation of in situ, unweathered, and unaltered surficial ash-fall deposits in the cold regions has important implications for paleoclimate and glacial history. Ash-fall deposits, which trap and preserve the soils, sediments, and landforms on which they fall, can be used to resolve local climate conditions (temperature and moisture) at the ash site during ash-fall deposition. The preservation of detailed sedimentary features (e.g. bedding in the ash, sharpness of stratigraphic contacts) can tell us about their post-depositional history, whether they have been redeposited by wind or water, or overridden by glaciers (Marchant et al., 1996). Weathering of volcanic glass results in the development of amorphous clay minerals (e.g. allophane, opal, palagonite) but this takes place much slower in cold than under warmer climate conditions. Only few

  16. Critical review of a new volcanic eruption chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Sigl. et al. (2015, Nature) present historical evidence for 32 volcanic eruptions to evaluate their new polar ice core 10-Be chronology - 24 are dated within three years of sulfur layers in polar ice. Most of them can be interpreted as weather phenomena (Babylonia: disk of sun like moon, reported for only one day, e.g. extinction due to clouds), Chinese sunspot reports (pellet, black vapor, etc.), solar eclipses, normal ice-halos and coronae (ring, bow, etc.), one aurora (redness), red suns due to mist drops in wet fog or fire-smoke, etc. Volcanic dust may facilitate detections of sunspots and formation of Bishop's ring, but tend to inhibit ice-halos, which are otherwise often reported in chronicles. We are left with three reports possibly indicating volcanic eruptions, namely fulfilling genuine criteria for atmospheric disturbances due to volcanic dust, e.g. bluish or faint sun, orange sky, or fainting of stars for months (BCE 208, 44-42, and 32). Among the volcanic eruptions used to fix the chronology (CE 536, 626, 939, 1257), the reports cited for the 930s deal only with 1-2 days, at least one reports an eclipse. In the new chronology, there is a sulfur detection eight years after the Vesuvius eruption, but none in CE 79. It may appear surprising that, from BCE 500 to 1, all five northern sulfur peaks labeled in figure 2 in Sigl et al. are systematically later by 2-4 years than the (corresponding?) southern peaks, while all five southern peaks from CE 100 to 600 labeled in figure 2 are systematically later by 1-4 years than the (corresponding?) northern peaks. Furthermore, in most of their six strongest volcanic eruptions, temperatures decreased years before their sulfur dating - correlated with weak solar activity as seen in radiocarbon, so that volcanic climate forcing appears dubious here. Also, their 10-Be peaks at CE 775 and 994 are neither significant nor certain in dating.

  17. NO2 column changes induced by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul V.; Keys, J. Gordon; Mckenzie, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide slant column amounts measured by ground-based remote sensing from Lauder, New Zealand (45 deg S) and Campbell Island (53 deg S) during the second half of 1991 and early 1992 show anomalously low values that are attributed to the effects of volcanic eruptions. It is believed that the eruptions of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 and possibly Mount Hudson in Chile in August 1991 are responsible for the stratospheric changes, which first became apparent in July 1991. The effects in the spring of 1991 are manifested as a reduction in the retrieved NO2 column amounts from normal levels by 35 to 45 percent, and an accompanying increase in the overnight decay of NO2. The existence of an accurate long-term record of column NO2 from the Lauder site enables us to quantify departures from the normal seasonal behavior with some confidence. Simultaneous retrievals of column ozone agree well with Dobson measurements, confirming that only part of the NO2 changes can be attributed to a modification of the scattering geometry by volcanic aerosols. Other reasons for the observed behavior are explored, including the effects of stratospheric temperature increases resulting from the aerosol loading and the possible involvement of heterogeneous chemical processes.

  18. Impact of solar versus volcanic activity variations on tropospheric temperatures and precipitation during the Dalton Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anet, J. G.; Muthers, S.; Rozanov, E. V.; Raible, C. C.; Stenke, A.; Shapiro, A. I.; Brönnimann, S.; Arfeuille, F.; Brugnara, Y.; Beer, J.; Steinhilber, F.; Schmutz, W.; Peter, T.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the impact of changes in solar irradiance and energetic particles versus volcanic eruptions on tropospheric global climate during the Dalton Minimum (DM, AD 1780-1840). Separate variations in the (i) solar irradiance in the UV-C with wavelengths λ 250 nm, (iii) in energetic particle spectrum, and (iv) volcanic aerosol forcing were analyzed separately, and (v) in combination, by means of small ensemble calculations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model. Global and hemispheric mean surface temperatures show a significant dependence on solar irradiance at λ > 250 nm. Also, powerful volcanic eruptions in 1809, 1815, 1831 and 1835 significantly decreased global mean temperature by up to 0.5 K for 2-3 years after the eruption. However, while the volcanic effect is clearly discernible in the Southern Hemispheric mean temperature, it is less significant in the Northern Hemisphere, partly because the two largest volcanic eruptions occurred in the SH tropics and during seasons when the aerosols were mainly transported southward, partly because of the higher northern internal variability. In the simulation including all forcings, temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the tree ring-based temperature anomalies of the Northern Hemisphere. Interestingly, the model suggests that solar irradiance changes at λ Dalton Minimum. This downscales the importance of top-down processes (stemming from changes at λ 250 nm). Reduction of irradiance at λ > 250 nm leads to a significant (up to 2%) decrease in the ocean heat content (OHC) between 0 and 300 m in depth, whereas the changes in irradiance at λ < 250 nm or in energetic particles have virtually no effect. Also, volcanic aerosol yields a very strong response, reducing the OHC of the upper ocean by up to 1.5%. In the simulation with all forcings, the OHC of the uppermost levels recovers after 8-15 years after volcanic eruption, while the solar signal and the different

  19. Impact of solar vs. volcanic activity variations on tropospheric temperatures and precipitation during the Dalton Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anet, J. G.; Muthers, S.; Rozanov, E. V.; Raible, C. C.; Stenke, A.; Shapiro, A. I.; Brönnimann, S.; Arfeuille, F.; Brugnara, Y.; Beer, J.; Steinhilber, F.; Schmutz, W.; Peter, T.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the impact of changes in solar irradiance and energetic particles vs. volcanic eruptions on tropospheric global climate during the Dalton Minimum (DM, 1780-1840 AD). Separate variations in the (i) solar irradiance in the UV-C with wavelengths λ 250 nm, (iii) in energetic particle spectrum, and (iv) volcanic aerosol forcing were analyzed separately, and (v) in combination, by means of small ensemble calculations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate-model. Global and hemispheric mean surface temperatures show a significant dependence on solar irradiance at λ > 250 nm. Also, powerful volcanic eruptions in 1809, 1815, 1831 and 1835 significantly decrease global mean temperature by up to 0.5 K for 2-3 yr after the eruption. However, while the volcanic effect is clearly discernible in the southern hemispheric mean temperature, it is less significant in the Northern Hemisphere, partly because the two largest volcanic eruptions occurred in the SH tropics and during seasons when the aerosols were mainly transported southward, partly because of the higher northern internal variability. In the simulation including all forcings, temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the tree-ring-based temperature anomalies of the Northern Hemisphere. Interestingly, the model suggests that solar irradiance changes at λ Dalton Minimum. This downscales the importance of top-down processes (stemming from changes at λ 250 nm). Reduction of irradiance at λ > 250 nm leads to a significant (up to 2%) decrease of the ocean heat content (OHC) between the 0 and 300 m of depth, whereas the changes in irradiance at λ < 250 nm or in energetic particle have virtually no effect. Also, volcanic aerosol yields a very strong response, reducing the OHC of the upper ocean by up to 1.5%. In the simulation with all forcings, the OHC of the uppermost levels recovers after 8-15 yr after volcanic eruption, while the solar signal and the different

  20. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  1. Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, M.P.; Hamill, P.; Pepin, T.J.; Chu, W.P.; Swissler, T.J.; McMaster, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential climatological and environmental importance of the stratospheric aerosol layer has prompted great interest in measuring the properties of this aerosol. In this paper we report on two recently deployed NASA satellite systems (SAM II and SAGE) that are monitoring the stratospheric aerosol. The satellite orbits are such that nearly global coverage is obtained. The instruments mounted in the spacecraft are sun photometers that measure solar intensity at specific wavelengths as it is moderated by atmospheric particulates and gases during each sunrise and sunset encountered by the satellites. The data obtained are ''inverted'' to yield vertical aerosol and gaseous (primarily ozone) extinction profiles with 1 km vertical resolution. Thus, latitudinal, longitudinal, and temporal variations in the aerosol layer can be evaluated. The satellite systems are being validated by a series of ground truth experiments using airborne and ground lidar, balloon-borne dustsondes, aircraft-mounted impactors, and other correlative sensors. We describe the SAM II and SAGE satellite systems, instrument characteristics, and mode of operation; outline the methodology of the experiments; and describe the ground truth experiments. We present preliminary results from these measurements

  2. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  3. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  4. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  5. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  6. Volcanic crisis in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Víctor Manuel Pérez Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of an investigation which is focussed on some deontological aspects of the scientificjournalism. In the first place it gives a theoretical vision about science, journalism, internet and including some reflectionsabout the deontological principles in handling the information about science and technology. This focus is useful as it formsthe base of an investigation where we deal with the information about a possible ”volcanic crisis” in El Teide during the years2004-2005 done by the digital newspaper” El Dïa” a canarian newspaper from Tenerife. The work required the revision of theinformation which was published and a followed analysis of its context. It was used the digital version with the purpose ofvisualizing the news which was published. It was also compared with a printed version, with local cover but divulged theinformation to the public who was most affected by this particular news. The results give rise to some questions regardinghow the information is given to a topic which is of local interest as well as national and international interest due to therepercussions in the social, economical and tourist field (the tourist field is the main industrial sector in Tenerife by receivingthis type of news.

  7. Metallogenetic regularity exploration model and prospecting potential of the mesocenozoic volcanic type uranium deposit in the east of south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng; Li Wenjun

    1995-01-01

    During the Meso-Cenozoic era, the crust in the east of South China experienced an evolutional process of compression-relaxed extension-local disintegration, correspondingly, three periods of volcanic activity were developed, forming initial volcanic cycle, principal volcanic cycle and caldera volcanic cycle. The caldera volcanic cycle was expressed as a 'bimodal type' rock suite, indicating the entering of the region into an evolutional stage of new embryonic refitting. The volcanic type uranium deposit is characterized by ore-formation during caldera volcanic cycle, ore control by the mobile belt of caldera volcanic cycle and double superposition and concentration, and it can be summarized as a new unconformity-related type uranium deposit of caldera volcanic series, which is divided into three morphological types: body type, layer type and vein type and relevant exploration models are proposed. The new unconformity-related type uranium deposits of the caldera volcanic series in the east of South China have a great prospecting potential. The tectonomagmatic complex area of the caldera volcanic cycle developed on the granite basement is the favourable target area in searching for large uranium deposits from now on

  8. The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes : Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes occurred within the Okataina Volcanic Centre at c. 21 000 and 18 000 yr B.P., respectively. The widespread rhyolitic pumice fall deposits of Te Rere Ash (volume 5 km 3 ) and Okareka Ash (6 km 3 ) are only rarely exposed in near-source areas, and locations of their vent areas have been uncertain. New exposures and petrographic and chemical analyses show that the Te Rere episode eruptions occurred from multiple vents, up to 20 km apart, on the Haroharo linear vent zone. The Okareka episode eruptions occurred from vents since buried beneath the Tarawera volcanic massif. Eruption of the rhyolitic Okareka pumice fall was immediately preceded by a small basaltic scoria eruption, apparently from vents close to those for the following rhyolite eruptions. Dacitic mixed pumices scattered within the rhyolite pumice layers immediately overlying the scoria were formed by mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas. The Te Rere and Okareka pyroclastic eruptions were both followed by extrusion of voluminous rhyolite lavas. These eruptive episodes mark the commencement of growth of the present-day Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  10. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  11. Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Pumphrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is an important atmospheric constituent, particularly in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. These events can inject large amounts of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, where it is oxidised to form sulfate aerosols; these in turn have a significant effect on the climate. The MLS instrument on the Aura satellite has observed the SO2 mixing ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from August 2004 to the present, during which time a number of volcanic eruptions have significantly affected those regions of the atmosphere. We describe the MLS SO2 data and how various volcanic events appear in the data. As the MLS SO2 data are currently not validated we take some initial steps towards their validation. First we establish the level of internal consistency between the three spectral regions in which MLS is sensitive to SO2. We compare SO2 column values calculated from MLS data to total column values reported by the OMI instrument. The agreement is good (within about 1 DU in cases where the SO2 is clearly at altitudes above 147 hPa.

  12. The impact of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol optical depth retrieval using CALIPSO and MODIS data: Case study over dust and smoke regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yerong; de Graaf, Martin; Menenti, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Global quantitative aerosol information has been derived from MODerate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) observations for decades since early 2000 and widely used for air quality and climate change research. However, the operational MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products Collection 6 (C6) can still be biased, because of uncertainty in assumed aerosol optical properties and aerosol vertical distribution. This study investigates the impact of aerosol vertical distribution on the AOD retrieval. We developed a new algorithm by considering dynamic vertical profiles, which is an adaptation of MODIS C6 Dark Target (C6_DT) algorithm over land. The new algorithm makes use of the aerosol vertical profile extracted from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements to generate an accurate top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for the AOD retrieval, where the profile is assumed to be a single layer and represented as a Gaussian function with the mean height as single variable. To test the impact, a comparison was made between MODIS DT and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD, over dust and smoke regions. The results show that the aerosol vertical distribution has a strong impact on the AOD retrieval. The assumed aerosol layers close to the ground can negatively bias the retrievals in C6_DT. Regarding the evaluated smoke and dust layers, the new algorithm can improve the retrieval by reducing the negative biases by 3-5%.

  13. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  14. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  15. Experimental Characterization of Radiation Forcing due to Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, K. R.; Singh, D. K.; Ponnulakshmi, V. K.; Subramanian, G.

    2011-11-01

    Micro-meteorological processes in the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer (NBL) including the formation of radiation-fog and the development of inversion layers are controlled by heat transfer and the vertical temperature distribution close to the ground. In a recent study, it has been shown that the temperature profile close to the ground in stably-stratified, NBL is controlled by the radiative forcing due to suspended aerosols. Estimating aerosol forcing is also important in geo-engineering applications to evaluate the use of aerosols to mitigate greenhouse effects. Modeling capability in the above scenarios is limited by our knowledge of this forcing. Here, the design of an experimental setup is presented which can be used for evaluating the IR-radiation forcing on aerosols under either Rayleigh-Benard condition or under conditions corresponding to the NBL. We present results indicating the effect of surface emissivities of the top and bottom boundaries and the aerosol concentration on the temperature profiles. In order to understand the observed enhancement of the convection-threshold, we have determined the conduction-radiation time constant of an aerosol laden air layer. Our results help to explain observed temperature profiles in the NBL, the apparent stability of such profiles and indicate the need to account for the effect of aerosols in climatic/weather models.

  16. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shcherbakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300, respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75; the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5–2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  17. Supercomputer modeling of volcanic eruption dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, S.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Woo, Mahn-Ling [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Our specific goals are to: (1) provide a set of models based on well-defined assumptions about initial and boundary conditions to constrain interpretations of observations of active volcanic eruptions--including movies of flow front velocities, satellite observations of temperature in plumes vs. time, and still photographs of the dimensions of erupting plumes and flows on Earth and other planets; (2) to examine the influence of subsurface conditions on exit plane conditions and plume characteristics, and to compare the models of subsurface fluid flow with seismic constraints where possible; (3) to relate equations-of-state for magma-gas mixtures to flow dynamics; (4) to examine, in some detail, the interaction of the flowing fluid with the conduit walls and ground topography through boundary layer theory so that field observations of erosion and deposition can be related to fluid processes; and (5) to test the applicability of existing two-phase flow codes for problems related to the generation of volcanic long-period seismic signals; (6) to extend our understanding and simulation capability to problems associated with emplacement of fragmental ejecta from large meteorite impacts.

  18. Antarctic aerosols - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1988-02-01

    Tropospheric aerosols with the diameter range of half a micron reside in the atmosphere for tens of days and teleconnect Antarctica with other regions by transport that reaches planetary scales of distances; thus, the aerosol on the Antarctic ice represents 'memory modules' of events that took place at regions separated from Antarctica by tens of thousands of kilometers. In terms of aerosol mass, the aerosol species include insoluble crustal products (less than 5 percent), transported sea-salt residues (highly variable but averaging about 10 percent), Ni-rich meteoric material, and anomalously enriched material with an unknown origin. Most (70-90 percent by mass) of the aerosol over the Antarctic ice shield, however, is the 'natural acid sulfate aerosol', apparently deriving from biological processes taking place in the surrounding oceans.

  19. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  20. Aerosols CFA 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the thirteen congress on aerosols several papers were presented about the behaviour of radioactive aerosols and their impact on environment, or the exposure to radon and to its daughters, the measurement of the size of the particulates of the short-lived radon daughters and two papers about the behaviour of aerosols in containment during a fission products release in the primary circuit and susceptible to be released in atmosphere in the case of containment failure. (N.C.)

  1. The global precipitation response to volcanic eruptions in the CMIP5 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2014-01-01

    We examine the precipitation response to volcanic eruptions in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations compared to three observational datasets, including one with ocean coverage. Global precipitation decreases significantly following eruptions in CMIP5 models, with the largest decrease in wet tropical regions. This also occurs in observational land data, and ocean data in the boreal cold season. Monsoon rainfall decreases following eruptions in both models and observations. In response to individual eruptions, the ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with the greater concentration of aerosols in CMIP5. Models undergo a longer-lasting ocean precipitation response than over land, but the response in the short satellite record is too noisy to confirm this. We detect the influence of volcanism on precipitation in all three datasets in the cold season, although the models underestimate the size of the response. In the warm season the volcanic influence is only marginally detectable. (letter)

  2. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  3. Interaction between climate, volcanism, and isostatic rebound in Southeast Alaska during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Summer; Mix, Alan; Jensen, Britta; Froese, Duane; Milne, Glenn A.; Wolhowe, Matthew; Addison, Jason A.; Prahl, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Observations of enhanced volcanic frequency during the last deglaciation have led to the hypothesis that ice unloading in glaciated volcanic terrains can promote volcanism through decompression melting in the shallow mantle or a reduction in crustal magma storage time. However, a direct link between regional climate change, isostatic adjustment, and the initiation of volcanism remains to be demonstrated due to the difficulty of obtaining high-resolution well-dated records that capture short-term climate and volcanic variability traced to a particular source region. Here we present an exceptionally resolved record of 19 tephra layers paired with foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and alkenone paleotemperatures from marine sediment cores along the Southeast Alaska margin spanning the last deglacial transition. Major element compositions of the tephras indicate a predominant source from the nearby Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF). We constrain the timing of this regional eruptive sequence to 14.6–13.1 ka. The sudden increase in volcanic activity from the MEVF coincides with the onset of Bølling–Allerød interstadial warmth, the disappearance of ice-rafted detritus, and rapid vertical land motion associated with modeled regional isostatic rebound in response to glacier retreat. These data support the hypothesis that regional deglaciation can rapidly trigger volcanic activity. Rapid sea surface temperature fluctuations and an increase in local salinity (i.e., δ18Osw) variability are associated with the interval of intense volcanic activity, consistent with a two-way interaction between climate and volcanism in which rapid volcanic response to ice unloading may in turn enhance short-term melting of the glaciers, plausibly via albedo effects on glacier ablation zones.

  4. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  5. Seawater mesocosm experiments in the Arctic uncover differential transfer of marine bacteria to aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Camilla; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Zábori, Julia; Lindh, Markus V; Krejci, Radovan; Mårtensson, E Monica; Nilsson, Douglas; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic aerosols critically control atmospheric processes. However, although bacteria constitute major portions of living matter in seawater, bacterial aerosolization from oceanic surface layers remains poorly understood. We analysed bacterial diversity in seawater and experimentally generated aerosols from three Kongsfjorden sites, Svalbard. Construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from paired seawater and aerosol samples resulted in 1294 sequences clustering into 149 bacterial and 34 phytoplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial communities in aerosols differed greatly from corresponding seawater communities in three out of four experiments. Dominant populations of both seawater and aerosols were Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Across the entire dataset, most OTUs from seawater could also be found in aerosols; in each experiment, however, several OTUs were either selectively enriched in aerosols or little aerosolized. Notably, a SAR11 clade OTU was consistently abundant in the seawater, but was recorded in significantly lower proportions in aerosols. A strikingly high proportion of colony-forming bacteria were pigmented in aerosols compared with seawater, suggesting that selection during aerosolization contributes to explaining elevated proportions of pigmented bacteria frequently observed in atmospheric samples. Our findings imply that atmospheric processes could be considerably influenced by spatiotemporal variations in the aerosolization efficiency of different marine bacteria. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  7. Radiative and Thermal Impacts of Smoke Aerosol Longwave Absorption during Fires in the Moscow Region in Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakova, I. A.; Mokhov, I. I.; Anikin, P. P.; Emilenko, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The aerosol longwave radiative forcing of the atmosphere and heating rate of the near-surface aerosol layer are estimated for the extreme smoke conditions in the Moscow region in summer 2010. Thermal radiation fluxes in the atmosphere are determined using the integral transmission function and semiempirical aerosol model developed on the basis of standard aerosol models and measurements at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The aerosol radiative forcing reached 33 W/m2 at the lower atmospheric boundary and ranged between-1.0 and 1.0 W/m2 at the upper atmospheric boundary. The heating rate of the 10-m atmospheric layer near surface was up to 0.2 K/h during the maximum smoke conditions on August 7-9. The sensitivity of the aerosol longwave radiative forcing to the changes in the aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical thickness are estimated.

  8. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can

  9. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  10. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  11. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  12. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  13. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Triggered by Strong Aerosol Emissions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Previous process-oriented modeling studies have highlighted the dependence of effectiveness of cloud brightening by aerosols on cloud regimes in warm marine boundary layer. Cloud microphysical processes in clouds that contain ice, and hence the mechanisms that drive aerosol-cloud interactions, are more complicated than in warm clouds. Interactions between ice particles and liquid drops add additional levels of complexity to aerosol effects. A cloud-resolving model is used to study aerosol-cloud interactions in the Arctic triggered by strong aerosol emissions, through either geoengineering injection or concentrated sources such as shipping and fires. An updated cloud microphysical scheme with prognostic aerosol and cloud particle numbers is employed. Model simulations are performed in pure super-cooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds, separately, with or without an injection of aerosols into either a clean or a more polluted Arctic boundary layer. Vertical mixing and cloud scavenging of particles injected from the surface is still quite efficient in the less turbulent cold environment. Overall, the injection of aerosols into the Arctic boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. The pure liquid clouds are more susceptible to the increase in aerosol number concentration than the mixed-phase clouds. Rain production processes are more effectively suppressed by aerosol injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. Aerosol injection into a clean boundary layer results in a greater cloud albedo increase than injection into a polluted one, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, the impact of dynamical feedback due to precipitation changes is small. According to these results, which are dependent upon the representation of ice nucleation

  14. The Effect of Volcanic Ash Composition on Ice Nucleation Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cloer, S.; Primm, K.; Woods, T.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    2 wt%) in hydrometeors, and be compositionally enriched in K2O relative to MnO and TiO2, the nucleation of ice should efficiently occur. These chemical relationships are not only important for understanding ice nucleation in volcanic plumes, but also for constraining the effect of composition on the INA of other atmospheric aerosols.

  15. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given

  16. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  17. Seasonal dependence of aerosol processing in urban Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, A. M.; Waring, M. S.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban aerosols pose an important threat to human health due to the conflation of emissions and concentrated population exposed. Winter and summer aerosol and trace gas measurements were taken in downtown Philadelphia in 2016. Measurements included aerosol composition and size with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), particle size distributions with an SMPS, and an aethalometer. Trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CH4, CO, and CO2 were taken concurrently. Sampling in seasonal extremes provided contrast in aerosol and trace gas composition, aerosol processing, and emission factors. Inorganic aerosol components contributed approximately 60% of the submicron aerosol mass, while summertime aerosol composition was roughly 70% organic matter. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on the organic aerosol (OA) matrix revealed three factors in common in each season, including an oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factor with different temporal behavior in each season. In summertime, OOA varied diurnally with ozone and daytime temperature, but in the wintertime, it was anti-correlated with ozone and temperature, and instead trended with calculated liquid water, indicating a seasonally-dependent processing of organic aerosol in Philadelphia's urban environment. Due to the inorganic dominant winter aerosol, liquid water much higher (2.65 μg/m3) in winter than in summer (1.54 μg/m3). Diurnally varying concentrations of background gas phase species (CH4, CO2) were higher in winter and varied less as a result of boundary layer conditions; ozone was also higher in background in winter than summer. Winter stagnation events with low windspeed showed large buildup of trace gases CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Traffic related aerosol was also elevated with black carbon and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) plumes of each at 3-5 times higher than the winter the average value for each. Winter ratios of HOA to black carbon were significantly higher in the winter than the summer due to lower

  18. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  19. Modeling of 2008 Kasatochi Volcanic Sulfate Direct Radiative Forcing: Assimilation of OMI SO2 Plume Height Data and Comparison with MODIS and CALIOP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Park, S.; Zeng, J.; Ge, C.; Yang, K.; Carn, S.; Krotkov, N.; Omar, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic SO2 column amount and injection height retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with the Extended Iterative Spectral Fitting (EISF) technique are used to initialize a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate the atmospheric transport and lifecycle of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol from the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, and to subsequently estimate the direct shortwave, top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing of the volcanic sulfate aerosol. Analysis shows that the integrated use of OMI SO2 plume height in GEOS-Chem yields: (a) good agreement of the temporal evolution of 3-D volcanic sulfate distributions between model simulations and satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP), and (b) an e-folding time for volcanic SO2 that is consistent with OMI measurements, reflecting SO2 oxidation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is reliably represented in the model. However, a consistent (approx. 25 %) low bias is found in the GEOS-Chem simulated SO2 burden, and is likely due to a high (approx.20 %) bias of cloud liquid water amount (as compared to the MODIS cloud product) and the resultant stronger SO2 oxidation in the GEOS meteorological data during the first week after eruption when part of SO2 underwent aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds. Radiative transfer calculations show that the forcing by Kasatochi volcanic sulfate aerosol becomes negligible 6 months after the eruption, but its global average over the first month is -1.3W/sq m, with the majority of the forcing-influenced region located north of 20degN, and with daily peak values up to -2W/sq m on days 16-17. Sensitivity experiments show that every 2 km decrease of SO2 injection height in the GEOS-Chem simulations will result in a approx.25% decrease in volcanic sulfate forcing; similar sensitivity but opposite sign also holds for a 0.03 m increase of geometric radius of

  20. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  1. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  2. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  3. Crustal Structure of the Tengchong Intra-plate Volcanic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Rongyi; Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2015-09-01

    We here provide an overview of our current understanding of the crustal structure of Tengchong in southwest China, a key intra-plate volcanic area along the Himalayan geothermal belt. Given that there is hitherto a lack of information about the near-surface structure of intra-plate volcanic areas, we present the first seismic reflection and velocity constraints on the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanoes. Our near-surface seismic images reveal the existence of dome-shaped seismic reflectors (DSRs) in the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanic clusters in Tengchong. The two DSRs are both ~2 km wide, and the shallowest parts of the DSRs are found at the depth of 200-300 m. The velocity model shows that the shallow low-velocity layer (<4 km/s) is anomalously thick (~1 km) in the region where the DSRs are observed. The presence of DSRs indicates significant levels of intra-plate magmatism beneath the along-axis gap separating two volcano clusters. Along-axis gaps between volcano clusters are therefore not necessarily an indicator of lower levels of magmatism. The seismic images obtained in this technically challenging area for controlled-source seismology allow us to conclude that shallow crustal structures are crucial for understanding the along-axis variations of magmatism and hydrothermal activities in intra-plate volcanic areas.

  4. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  5. Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marshall

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the past 500 years. The eruption had significant climatic impacts, leading to the 1816 year without a summer, and remains a valuable event from which to understand the climatic effects of large stratospheric volcanic sulfur dioxide injections. The eruption also resulted in one of the strongest and most easily identifiable volcanic sulfate signals in polar ice cores, which are widely used to reconstruct the timing and atmospheric sulfate loading of past eruptions. As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP, five state-of-the-art global aerosol models simulated this eruption. We analyse both simulated background (no Tambora and volcanic (with Tambora sulfate deposition to polar regions and compare to ice core records. The models simulate overall similar patterns of background sulfate deposition, although there are differences in regional details and magnitude. However, the volcanic sulfate deposition varies considerably between the models with differences in timing, spatial pattern and magnitude. Mean simulated deposited sulfate on Antarctica ranges from 19 to 264 kg km−2 and on Greenland from 31 to 194 kg km−2, as compared to the mean ice-core-derived estimates of roughly 50 kg km−2 for both Greenland and Antarctica. The ratio of the hemispheric atmospheric sulfate aerosol burden after the eruption to the average ice sheet deposited sulfate varies between models by up to a factor of 15. Sources of this inter-model variability include differences in both the formation and the transport of sulfate aerosol. Our results suggest that deriving relationships between sulfate deposited on ice sheets and atmospheric sulfate burdens from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.

  6. Interpretation of DIAL Measurements of Lower Stratospheric Ozone in Regions with Pinatubo Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Veiga, Robert E.; Mayor, Shane D.; Fishman, Jack; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of volcanic aerosols on stratospheric ozone is a topic of current interest, especially with the June 15, 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. Lidar has been used in the past to provide aerosol profiles which could be compared with ozone profiles measured using ozonesondes to look for coincidences between volcanic aerosols and ozone decreases. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique has the advantages of being able to measure ozone and aerosol profiles simultaneously as well as being able to cover large geographical regions rapidly. While there are problems associated with correcting the ozone profiles for the presence of aerosols, the corrections can be made reliably when the wavelengths are closely spaced and the Bernoulli method is applied. The DIAL measurements considered in this paper are those obtained in the tropical stratosphere in January 1992 during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II). The determination of ozone profiles in the presence of Pinatubo aerosols is discussed in a companion paper.

  7. Aerosol comparisons between sunphotometry / sky radiometry and the GEOS-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, J. P.; Hesaraki, S.; O'Neill, N. T.; Saha, A.; Martin, R.; Lesins, G. B.; Abboud, I.

    2014-12-01

    Comparisons of aerosol optical depth (AOD), spectral AOD parameters and microphysical parameters derived from AEROCAN / AERONET sunphotometer / sky radiometer data acquired over Canada were compared with GEOS-Chem (Geos5,v9-01-03) estimations. The Canadian sites were selected so as to encompass a representative variety of different aerosol types ranging from fine mode (submicron) pollution and smoke aerosols, coarse mode (supermicron) dust, fine and coarse mode marine aerosols, volcanic (fine mode) sulfates and volcanic (coarse mode) ash, etc). A particular focus was placed on comparisons at remote Canadian sites with a further focus on Arctic sites. The analysis included meteorological-scale event comparisons as well as seasonal and yearly comparisons on a climatological scale. The investigations were given a further aerosol type context by comparing optical retrievals of fine and coarse mode AOD with the AODs of the different aerosol types predicted by GEOS-Chem. The effects of temporal and spectral cloud screening of the sunphotometer data on the quality and robustness of these comparisons was the object of an important supporting investigation. The results of this study will be presented for a 3 year period from 2009 to 2011.

  8. Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, K. S.; Lee, L. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Rap, A.; Forster, P. M.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Regayre, L. A.; Pierce, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud droplet concentrations and radiative properties is the source of one of the largest uncertainties in the radiative forcing of climate over the industrial period. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Here we perform a sensitivity analysis on a global model to quantify the uncertainty in cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period caused by uncertainties in aerosol emissions and processes. Our results show that 45 per cent of the variance of aerosol forcing since about 1750 arises from uncertainties in natural emissions of volcanic sulphur dioxide, marine dimethylsulphide, biogenic volatile organic carbon, biomass burning and sea spray. Only 34 per cent of the variance is associated with anthropogenic emissions. The results point to the importance of understanding pristine pre-industrial-like environments, with natural aerosols only, and suggest that improved measurements and evaluation of simulated aerosols in polluted present-day conditions will not necessarily result in commensurate reductions in the uncertainty of forcing estimates.

  9. Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, K S; Lee, L A; Reddington, C L; Pringle, K J; Rap, A; Forster, P M; Mann, G W; Spracklen, D V; Woodhouse, M T; Regayre, L A; Pierce, J R

    2013-11-07

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud droplet concentrations and radiative properties is the source of one of the largest uncertainties in the radiative forcing of climate over the industrial period. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Here we perform a sensitivity analysis on a global model to quantify the uncertainty in cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period caused by uncertainties in aerosol emissions and processes. Our results show that 45 per cent of the variance of aerosol forcing since about 1750 arises from uncertainties in natural emissions of volcanic sulphur dioxide, marine dimethylsulphide, biogenic volatile organic carbon, biomass burning and sea spray. Only 34 per cent of the variance is associated with anthropogenic emissions. The results point to the importance of understanding pristine pre-industrial-like environments, with natural aerosols only, and suggest that improved measurements and evaluation of simulated aerosols in polluted present-day conditions will not necessarily result in commensurate reductions in the uncertainty of forcing estimates.

  10. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  11. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  12. Trend of surface solar radiation over Asia simulated by aerosol transport-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term records of surface radiation measurements indicate a decrease in the solar radiation between the 1950s and 1980s (“global dimming”), then its recovery afterward (“global brightening”) at many locations all over the globe [Wild, 2009]. On the other hand, the global brightening is delayed over the Asian region [Ohmura, 2009]. It is suggested that these trends of the global dimming and brightening are strongly related with a change in aerosol loading in the atmosphere which affect the climate change through the direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects. In this study, causes of the trend of the surface solar radiation over Asia during last several decades are analyzed with an aerosol transport-climate model, SPRINTARS. SPRINTARS is coupled with MIROC which is a general circulation model (GCM) developed by Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)/University of Tokyo, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) [Takemura et al., 2000, 2002, 2005, 2009]. The horizontal and vertical resolutions are T106 (approximately 1.1° by 1.1°) and 56 layers, respectively. SPRINTARS includes the transport, radiation, cloud, and precipitation processes of all main tropospheric aerosols (black and organic carbons, sulfate, soil dust, and sea salt). The model treats not only the aerosol mass mixing ratios but also the cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentrations as prognostic variables, and the nucleation processes of cloud droplets and ice crystals depend on the number concentrations of each aerosol species. Changes in the cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentrations affect the cloud radiation and precipitation processes in the model. Historical emissions, that is consumption of fossil fuel and biofuel, biomass burning, aircraft emissions, and volcanic eruptions are prescribed from database provided by the Aerosol Model Intercomparison Project (AeroCom) and the latest IPCC inventories

  13. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol

  14. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  15. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Mangan

    Full Text Available Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  16. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T P; Atkinson, J D; Neuberg, J W; O'Sullivan, D; Wilson, T W; Whale, T F; Neve, L; Umo, N S; Malkin, T L; Murray, B J

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  17. A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2) and toxic trace metals (e.g., mercury). It is also a required input for atmospheric chemistry and climate models, since it impacts the tropospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, a major climate-forcing species. Despite its significance, an inventory of passive volcanic degassing is very difficult to produce, due largely to the patchy spatial and temporal coverage of ground-based SO2 measurements. We report here the first volcanic SO2 emissions inventory derived from global, coincident satellite measurements, made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite in 2005-2015. The OMI measurements permit estimation of SO2 emissions from over 90 volcanoes, including new constraints on fluxes from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. On average over the past decade, the volcanic SO2 sources consistently detected from space have discharged a total of ~63 kt/day SO2 during passive degassing, or ~23 ± 2 Tg/yr. We find that ~30% of the sources show significant decadal trends in SO2 emissions, with positive trends observed at multiple volcanoes in some regions including Vanuatu, southern Japan, Peru and Chile.

  18. Dispersion of the Volcanic Sulfate Cloud from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Colarco, Peter R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the transport of the volcanic cloud from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo with the GEOS-5 general circulation model. Our simulations are in good agreement with observational data. We tested the importance of initial condition corresponding to the specific meteorological situation at the time of the eruption by employing reanalysis from MERRA. We found no significant difference in the transport of the cloud. We show how the inclusion of the interaction between volcanic sulfate aerosol and radiation is essential for a reliable simulation of the transport of the volcanic cloud. The absorption of long wave radiation by the volcanic sulfate induces a rising of the volcanic cloud up to the middle stratosphere, combined with divergent motion from the latitude of the eruption to the tropics. Our simulations indicate that the cloud diffuses to the northern hemisphere through a lower stratospheric pathway, and to mid- and high latitudes of the southern hemisphere through a middle stratospheric pathway, centered at about 30 hPa. The direction of the middle stratospheric pathway depends on the season. We did not detect any significant change of the mixing between tropics and mid- and high latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  20. INDOOR-OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO PORTUGUESE CITIES AND THE GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio F. Miguel; A. Heitor Reis [Department of Physics, University of Evora (Portugal); Marta Melgao [Geophysics Centre of Evora (Portugal)

    2008-09-30

    Aerosols play a major role both in climate change and in air quality. They affect climate through interfering with radiative transfer and hence the atmospheric temperature, and also the air quality. Many epidemiological studies have confirmed that a relation exists between elevated aerosol particle concentration and adverse human health effects. Aerosol particle number and size distributions were measured both indoors and outdoors in the urban areas of Evora and Lisbon. We investigated the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles and the aerosol size distributions. The impact of the occurrence of a residential fire in the aerosol size distribution is also analyzed. Finally, we speculate of how global increase in temperature can affect concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere, via increased boundary layer convection.

  1. Comparisons of Airborne HSRL and Modeled Aerosol Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Ismail, S.; Rogers, R. R.; Notari, A.; Berkoff, T.; Butler, C. F.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Scarino, A. J.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Randles, C. A.; Colarco, P. R.; daSilva, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol profiles derived from a regional and a global model are compared with aerosol profiles acquired by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRLs) during recent field missions. We compare simulated aerosol profiles obtained from the WRF-Chem regional model with those measured by the airborne HSRL-2 instrument over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cape Cod in July 2012 during the Department of Energy Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). While deployed on the LaRC King Air during TCAP, HSRL-2 acquired profiles of aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include profiles of aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g. effective radius, concentration). The HSRL-2 and WRF-Chem aerosol profiles are compared along the aircraft flight tracks. HSRL-2 profiles acquired during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission over Houston during September 2013 are compared with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System global model, version 5 (GEOS-5) profiles. In addition to comparing backscatter and extinction profiles, the fraction of aerosol extinction and optical thickness from various aerosol species from GEOS-5 are compared with aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by aerosol types derived from HSRL-2 data. We also compare aerosol profiles modeled by GEOS-5 with those measured by the airborne LaRC DIAL/HSRL instrument during August and September 2013 when it was deployed on the NASA DC-8 for the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) mission. DIAL/HSRL measured extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization profiles (532 and 1064 nm) in both nadir and zenith directions during long transects over the

  2. Optimal likelihood-based matching of volcanic sources and deposits in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Emily; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In monogenetic volcanic fields, where each eruption forms a new volcano, focusing and migration of activity over time is a very real possibility. In order for hazard estimates to reflect future, rather than past, behavior, it is vital to assemble as much reliable age data as possible on past eruptions. Multiple swamp/lake records have been extracted from the Auckland Volcanic Field, underlying the 1.4 million-population city of Auckland. We examine here the problem of matching these dated deposits to the volcanoes that produced them. The simplest issue is separation in time, which is handled by simulating prior volcano age sequences from direct dates where known, thinned via ordering constraints between the volcanoes. The subproblem of varying deposition thicknesses (which may be zero) at five locations of known distance and azimuth is quantified using a statistical attenuation model for the volcanic ash thickness. These elements are combined with other constraints, from widespread fingerprinted ash layers that separate eruptions and time-censoring of the records, into a likelihood that was optimized via linear programming. A second linear program was used to optimize over the Monte-Carlo simulated set of prior age profiles to determine the best overall match and consequent volcano age assignments. Considering all 20 matches, and the multiple factors of age, direction, and size/distance simultaneously, results in some non-intuitive assignments which would not be produced by single factor analyses. Compared with earlier work, the results provide better age control on a number of smaller centers such as Little Rangitoto, Otuataua, Taylors Hill, Wiri Mountain, Green Hill, Otara Hill, Hampton Park and Mt Cambria. Spatio-temporal hazard estimates are updated on the basis of the new ordering, which suggest that the scale of the 'flare-up' around 30 ka, while still highly significant, was less than previously thought.

  3. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  4. Aerosol dynamics within and above forest in relation to turbulent transport and dry deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Rannik, Üllar; Zhou, Luxi; Zhou, Putian; Gierens, Rosa; Mammarella, Ivan; Sogachev, Andrey; Boy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A 1-D atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model coupled with a detailed atmospheric chemistry and aerosol dynamical model, the model SOSAA, was used to predict the ABL and detailed aerosol population (characterized by the number size distribution) time evolution. The model was applied over a period of 10 days in May 2013 to a pine forest site in southern Finland. The period was characterized by frequent new particle formation events and simultaneous intensive aerosol transforma...

  5. Divergent responses of tropical cyclone genesis factors to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    To understand the behaviors of tropical cyclones (TCs), it is very important to explore how TCs respond to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and natural forcings. Volcanic eruptions are a major natural forcing mechanism because they inject sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, which modulate the global climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. The number of Atlantic hurricanes is thought to be reduced following strong tropical eruptions, but whether the response of TCs varies with the locations of the volcanoes and the different ocean basins remains unknown. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model-Last Millennium Ensemble to investigate the response of the large-scale environmental factors that spawn TCs to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. A composite analysis indicates that tropical and northern hemisphere volcanic eruptions lead to significantly unfavorable conditions for TC genesis over the whole Pacific basin and the North Atlantic during the 3 years post-eruption, relative to the preceding 3 years. Southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions result in obviously unfavorable conditions for TC formation over the southwestern Pacific, but more favorable conditions over the North Atlantic. The mean response over the Indian Ocean is generally muted and insignificant. It should be noted that volcanic eruptions impact on environmental conditions through both the direct effect (i.e. on radiative forcing) and the indirect effect (i.e. on El Niño-Southern Oscillation), which is not differentiated in this study. In addition, the spread of the TC genesis response is considerably large for each category of eruptions over each ocean basin, which is also seen in the observational/proxy-based records. This large spread is attributed to the differences in stratospheric aerosol distributions, initial states and eruption intensities, and makes the short-term forecast of TC activity following the next large eruption challenging.

  6. Secondary Aerosol Formation over the ESCOMPTE Area: Results from airborne Aerosol and Trace Gas Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dingenen, R.; Martins-Dos Santos, S.; Putaud, J. P.; Allet, C.; Bretton, E.; Perros, P.

    2003-04-01

    From June 10th to July 14th 2001, the ESCOMPTE campaign took place in the Marseille-Berre area in Southern France. The goal of the campaign was to produce a high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale. The CAATER AEROPLUM project was embedded within this international field campaign. AEROPLUM aimed at mapping size distributions of aerosols and photo-oxidants in the mixed layer over the ESCOMPTE domain, using the ARAT Fokker 27 as measurement platform. Aircraft sub-micrometer aerosol measurements are validated during overpasses against ground-based measurements, carried out with similar instrumentation. We will present and discuss data during periods of seabreeze, transporting coastal industrial and urban pollution land-inwards. This leads to intense photochemical activity, evidenced by elevated O_3 concentrations and aerosol levels.

  7. Descartes region - Evidence for Copernican-age volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1972-01-01

    A model that suggests that the high-albedo central region of the Descartes Formation was formed by Copernican-age volcanism was developed from Orbiter photography, Apollo 12 multispectral photography, earth-based spectrophotometry, and thermal IR and radar data. The bright surface either is abundant in centimeter-sized rocks or is formed from an insulating debris layer overlying a surface with an abundance of rocks in the 1- to 20-cm size range. On the basis of these data, the bright unit is thought to be a young pyroclastic deposit mantling older volcanic units of the Descartes Formation. Since the Apollo 16 target point is only 50 km NW of the central part of this unit, evidence for material associated with this unique highland formation should be searched for in returned soil and rock samples.

  8. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  9. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  10. Aerosol chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A classification of the research fields in the chemical physics of aerosol microparticles is given. The emphasis lies on the microphysics of isolated particles and clusters and on physical transformations and thermodynamics. (LDN)

  11. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  12. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aerosols, clouds, radiation and climate. ... the solar radiation to pass through but absorb most of infrared radiation emitted .... Fine soil and sand particles become airborne due to wind. Over ..... its sampling is difficult compared to other species.

  13. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  14. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  15. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  17. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  18. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  19. MISR Aerosol Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  20. Estimates of the Spectral Aerosol Single Sea Scattering Albedo and Aerosol Radiative Effects during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Pilewskie, Peter; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.

    2003-01-01

    Using measurements of the spectral solar radiative flux and optical depth for 2 days (24 August and 6 September 2000) during the SAFARI 2000 intensive field experiment and a detailed radiative transfer model, we estimate the spectral single scattering albedo of the aerosol layer. The single scattering albedo is similar on the 2 days even though the optical depth for the aerosol layer was quite different. The aerosol single scattering albedo was between 0.85 and 0.90 at 350 nm, decreasing to 0.6 in the near infrared. The magnitude and decrease with wavelength of the single scattering albedo are consistent with the absorption properties of small black carbon particles. We estimate the uncertainty in the single scattering albedo due to the uncertainty in the measured fractional absorption and optical depths. The uncertainty in the single scattering albedo is significantly less on the high-optical-depth day (6 September) than on the low-optical-depth day (24 August). On the high-optical-depth day, the uncertainty in the single scattering albedo is 0.02 in the midvisible whereas on the low-optical-depth day the uncertainty is 0.08 in the midvisible. On both days, the uncertainty becomes larger in the near infrared. We compute the radiative effect of the aerosol by comparing calculations with and without the aerosol. The effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is to cool the atmosphere by 13 W/sq m on 24 August and 17 W/sq m on 6 September. The effect on the downward flux at the surface is a reduction of 57 W/sq m on 24 August and 200 W/sq m on 6 September. The aerosol effect on the downward flux at the surface is in good agreement with the results reported from the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX).

  1. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  2. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  3. Enhancements to the CALIOP Aerosol Subtyping and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithms for Level II Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. H.; Tackett, J. L.; Vaughan, M. A.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation describes several enhancements planned for the version 4 aerosol subtyping and lidar ratio selection algorithms of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument. The CALIOP subtyping algorithm determines the most likely aerosol type from CALIOP measurements (attenuated backscatter, estimated particulate depolarization ratios δe, layer altitude), and surface type. The aerosol type, so determined, is associated with a lidar ratio (LR) from a discrete set of values. Some of these lidar ratios have been updated in the version 4 algorithms. In particular, the dust and polluted dust will be adjusted to reflect the latest measurements and model studies of these types. Version 4 eliminates the confusion between smoke and clean marine aerosols seen in version 3 by modifications to the elevated layer flag definitions used to identify smoke aerosols over the ocean. In the subtyping algorithms pure dust is determined by high estimated particulate depolarization ratios [δe > 0.20]. Mixtures of dust and other aerosol types are determined by intermediate values of the estimated depolarization ratio [0.075limited to mixtures of dust and smoke, the so called polluted dust aerosol type. To differentiate between mixtures of dust and smoke, and dust and marine aerosols, a new aerosol type will be added in the version 4 data products. In the revised classification algorithms, polluted dust will still defined as dust + smoke/pollution but in the marine boundary layer instances of moderate depolarization will be typed as dusty marine aerosols with a lower lidar ratio than polluted dust. The dusty marine type introduced in version 4 is modeled as a mixture of dust + marine aerosol. To account for fringes, the version 4 Level 2 algorithms implement Subtype Coalescence Algorithm for AeRosol Fringes (SCAARF) routine to detect and classify fringe of aerosol plumes that are detected at 20 km or 80 km horizontal resolution at the plume base. These

  4. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  5. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  6. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

    1982-10-10

    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  7. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  9. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  10. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  11. Impacts of aerosol lead to natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yoshida, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Impacts of aerosol lead have changed the concentration and isotopic ratios of the element circulating in remote ecosystems in the Hidaka and Tarumae mountains. Concentrations of lead in successive each 10 years ring veneer of Cercidiphyllum Japonica show that amount of the element residing on the bark and supwood layers has increased by a factor of 2 or more in comparison with that of the core part. The isotopic ratios of lead in the basement rocks and soils under the ecosystems converge to a certain narrow spot along the isochron Iine of the element, and distinguish their geochronogical characteristics from other leads of different sources. In these ecosystems, however, the lead isotopic ratios of materials exposed to the atmosphere are similar to those of foreign and anthropogenic aerosol lead but are evidently dissimilar to those of the rocks and soils. Furthermore, the lead isotopic ratios in yearly ring veneers of Ceridiphyllum Japonica and Ostrya Japonica show a certain differentiation towards the bark from the core, i.e., an approach to those of anthropogenic aerosol lead from those of the basement rocks and soils, as listed in Table 7. The lead burden per hectare in these remote ecosystems has increased to 4 g by the impact of 2 g of aerosol lead. (author)

  12. The Influence of Aerosol Hygroscopicity on Retrieving the Aerosol Extincting Coefficient from MPL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhao, C.

    2016-12-01

    Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements have been widely used to profile the ambient aerosol extincting coefficient(). Lidar Ratio (LR) ,which highly depends on the particle number size distribution (PNSD) and aerosol hygroscopicity, is the most important factor to retrieve the profile. A constant AOD constrained LR is usually used in current algorithms, which would lead to large bias when the relative humidity (RH) in the mixed layer is high. In this research, the influences of PNSD, aerosol hygroscopicity and RH profiles on the vertical variation of LR were investigated based on the datasets from field measurements in the North China Plain (NCP). Results show that LR can have an enhancement factor of more than 120% when the RH reaches to 92%. A new algorithm of retrieving the profile is proposed based on the variation of LR due to aerosol hygroscopicity. The magnitude and vertical structures of retrieved using this method can be significantly different to that of the fiexed LR method. The relative difference can reach up to 40% when the RH in the mixed layer is higher than 90% . Sensitivity studies show that RH profile and PNSD affect most on the retrieved by fiexed LR method. In view of this, a scheme of LR enhancement factor by RH is proposed in the NCP. The relative differnce of the calculated between using this scheme and the new algorithm with the variable LR can be less than 10%.

  13. Diurnal cycling of urban aerosols under different weather regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Asta; Drinovec, Luka; Močnik, Griša; Remškar, Maja; Vaupotič, Janja; Stanič, Samo

    2016-04-01

    A one month measurement campaign was performed in summer 2014 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia (population 280,000), aiming to study temporal and spatial distribution of urban aerosols and the mixing state of primary and secondary aerosols. Two background locations were chosen for this purpose, the first one in the city center (urban background - KIS) and the second one in the suburban background (Brezovica). Simultaneous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number size distribution of submicron aerosols (PM1) were conducted at both locations. In the summer season emission from traffic related sources is expected to be the main local contribution to BC concentration. Concentrations of aerosol species and gaseous pollutants within the planetary boundary layer are controlled by the balance between emission sources of primary aerosols and gases, production of secondary aerosols, chemical reactions of precursor gases under solar radiation and the rate of dilution by mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as well as with tropospheric air. Only local emission sources contribute to BC concentration during the stable PBL with low mixing layer height, whereas during the time of fully mixed PBL, regionally transported BC and other aerosols can contribute to the surface measurements. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol at the urban and suburban background location under different weather regimes. Particles in three size modes - nucleation (humidity, wind speed and direction), diurnal profile differs for sunny, cloudy and rainy days. Nucleation mode particles were found to be subjected to lower daily variation and only slightly influenced by weather, as opposed to Aitken and accumulation mode particles. The highest correlation between BC and particle number concentration is observed during stable atmospheric conditions in the night and morning hours and is attributed to different particle size modes, depending on the

  14. Chemical, optical and radiative characteristics of aerosols during haze episodes of winter in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Zhang, Yufen; Han, Suqin; Xiao, Zhimei; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Yinchang

    2018-05-01

    Aerosol and water vapor radiative forcings, shortwave atmospheric heating rates and longwave atmospheric cooling rates were determined based on in situ physical and chemical measurements of aerosol, associated with the Mie theory and a radiative transfer model, LOWTRAN7, during the two haze episodes in the winter of 2013 in Tianjin, China. The aerosol types considered in LOWTRAN7 included rural, urban, marine, desert and custom aerosols. The default ratio of the absorption coefficient to the extinction coefficient for urban aerosol in LOWTRAN7 was approximately double of those found in this work, implying the weaker absorption ability of aerosols in the North China Plain (NCP). Moreover, the aerosol is assumed to be evenly distributed below 1 km of planetary boundary layer (PBL) on hazy days in LOWTRAN7. If the default urban aerosol optical properties and extinction profile in LOWTRAN7 is employed directly, a larger energy imbalance between the atmosphere and surface is generated and the warming effect of the aerosol is magnified. Hence, modified urban aerosol optical properties were established to replace the corresponding parameters' database in LOWTRAN7. The aerosol extinction profiles were obtained based on a 255-m meteorological tower and observed results from the studies about Tianjin. In the NCP, the aerosol had little impact on atmospheric counter radiation. The water vapor is the crucial factor that affects atmospheric counter radiation. Both modified high shortwave heating rates and longwave cooling rates occur near the surface due to the abundance of aerosol and water vapor. The modified net atmospheric heating rate near the surface is 1.2 K d-1 on hazy days and 0.3 K d-1 on non-hazy days. Compared with the default urban aerosol optical properties and its vertical distribution in LOWTRAN7, the feedback effect of the modified urban aerosol on the boundary layer may not necessarily result in a stable lower atmosphere, but depends on the aerosol light

  15. Aerosol Study over the Gulf of Guinea Region during DACCIWA Using a Mini Lidar onboard the French Aircraft ATR42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Totems, J.; Denjean, C.; Meynadier, R.; Perrin, T.; Laurens, M.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) aims to investigate the relationship between weather, climate and air pollution in southern West Africa. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In this area aerosols, having a mixing of natural and anthropogenic sources, exert an important influence on the local weather and climate, mainly due to the aerosol-cloud interactions. A mini backscattered lidar system onboard one research aircraft (the French aircraft ATR42) performed aerosols measurements over the Gulf of Guinea region. The main objective was to study aerosol properties in different chemical landscapes: from the background state over the Gulf of Guinea (marine aerosols or mix between marine aerosols and biomass burning aerosols) to ship/flaring emissions to the coastal strip of polluted megacities to the agricultural areas and forest areas further north, and eventually dust from Sahel/Sahara. Different aerosol origins were identified by using the coupling between the lidar cross-polarized channels and a set of back trajectories analyses. The aircraft conducted flights at low ( 1 km above the mean sea level -amsl) and high altitudes ( 5 km amsl), allowing the coupling of in situ and remote sensing data to assess the properties of the aerosol layers. During several flights, depolarizing aerosol layers from the northeast were observed between 2.5 and 4 km amsl, which highlight the significant contribution of dust-like particles to the aerosol load in the coastal region. The air masses originating from the southeast were loaded with biomass burning aerosols from Central Africa, which seem to be mixed with other aerosol types. The flight sampling strategy and related lidar investigations will be presented. The retrieved aerosol distributions and properties, and the aerosol type identification will be discussed.

  16. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aerosols on clouds and their radiative properties is one of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. A recent study has concluded that better characterisation of pristine, natural aerosol processes leads to the largest reduction in these uncertainties. Antarctica, being far from anthropogenic activities, is an ideal location for the study of natural aerosol processes. Aerosol measurements in Antarctica are often limited to boundary layer air-masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the sea ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the ice-breaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the Polar Front, with mean Polar Cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air-masses quickly from the free-troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea ice boundary layer air-masses travelled equator-ward into the low albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei where, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and

  17. Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brock

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in southern Russia and southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion.

    Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day−1 between 3 and 7 km and a slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB

  18. Linking remotely sensed aerosol types to their chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Johnson, M. S.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Meskhidze, N.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% ± 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into `dark' and `light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  19. Characterization of individual aerosol particles from the eruption of Lonquimay volcano in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltay, E. E-mail: koltay@atomki.hu; Rajta, I.; Morales, J.R.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Kiss, A.Z

    1999-04-02

    A set of aerosol samples collected during major volcanic activities around the Chilean site Lonquimay in the years 1988-1990 has been subjected to measurements in conventional and microPIXE modes in the Debrecen institute. The aim of the study was the completion of the earlier results with comparative PIXE data and microPIXE measurements for the characterization of individual particles. Results have been obtained on separate particles in terms of their elemental composition, on separate particle groups of different composition by statistical dissimilarity analysis. Si/Al and K/Si elemental ratios have been used for a comparison with published data from other volcanic locations.

  20. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Interactions of Marine Aerosols and Clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreidenweis, Sonia

    1995-01-01

    The specific objectives of the modeling component are to develop models of the marine boundary layer, including models that predict cloud formation and evolution and the effects of such processes on the marine aerosol (and vice versa...

  1. Assessment of Aerosol Distributions from GEOS-5 Using the CALIPSO Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth

    2010-01-01

    A-train sensors such as MODIS, MISR, and CALIPSO are used to determine aerosol properties, and in the process a means of estimating aerosol type (e.g. smoke vs. dust). Correct classification of aerosol type is important for climate assessment, air quality applications, and for comparisons and analysis with aerosol transport models. The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission proposed in the NRC Decadal Survey describes a next generation aerosol and cloud suite similar to the current A-train, including a lidar. The future ACE lidar must be able to determine aerosol type effectively in conjunction with modeling activities to achieve ACE objectives. Here we examine the current capabilities of CALIPSO and the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System general circulation model and data assimilation system (GEOS-5), to place future ACE needs in context. The CALIPSO level 2 feature mask includes vertical profiles of aerosol layers classified by type. GEOS-5 provides global 3D aerosol mass for sulfate, sea salt, dust, and black and organic carbon. A GEOS aerosol scene classification algorithm has been developed to provide estimates of aerosol mixtures and extinction profiles along the CALIPSO orbit track. In previous work, initial comparisons between GEOS-5 derived aerosol mixtures and CALIPSO derived aerosol types were presented for July 2007. In general, the results showed that model and lidar derived aerosol types did not agree well in the boundary layer. Agreement was poor over Europe, where CALIPSO indicated the presence of dust and pollution mixtures yet GEOS-5 was dominated by pollution with little dust. Over the ocean in the tropics, the model appeared to contain less sea salt than detected by CALIPSO, yet at high latitudes the situation was reserved. Agreement between CALIPSO and GEOS-5, aerosol types improved above the boundary layer, primarily in dust and smoke dominated regions. At higher altitudes (> 5 km), the model contained aerosol layers not detected

  2. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  3. Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gerasopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth, scattering and backscattering coefficients have been conducted at two ground-based sites in Northern Greece, Ouranoupolis (40° 23' N, 23° 57' E, 170 m a.s.l. and Thessaloniki (40° 38' N, 22° 57' E, 80 m a.s.l., between 1999 and 2002. The frequency distributions of the observed parameters have revealed the presence of individual modes of high and low values, indicating the influence from different sources. At both sites, the mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm was 0.23. Values increase considerably during summer when they remain persistently between 0.3 and 0.5, going up to 0.7-0.8 during specific cases. The mean value of 65±40 Mm-1 of the particle scattering coefficient at 550 nm reflects the impact of continental pollution in the regional boundary layer. Trajectory analysis has shown that higher values of aerosol optical depth and the scattering coefficient are found in the east sector (former Soviet Union countries, eastern Balkan countries, whereas cleaner conditions are found for the NW direction. The influence of Sahara dust events is clearly reflected in the Ångström exponents. About 45-60% of the observed diurnal variation of the optical properties was attributed to the growth of aerosols with humidity, while the rest of the variability is in phase with the evolution of the sea-breeze cell. The contribution of local pollution is estimated to contribute 35±10% to the average aerosol optical depth at the Thessaloniki site during summer. Finally, the aerosol scale height (aerosol optical depth divided by scattering coefficient was found to be related to the height of the boundary layer with values between 0.5-1 km during winter and up to 2.5-3 km during summer.

  4. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  5. Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Suttles, J. T.; Lecroy, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Tabular values of phase function, Legendre polynominal coefficients, 180 deg backscatter, and extinction cross section are given for eight wavelengths in the atmospheric windows between 0.4 and 2.2 microns. Also included are single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and refractive indices. These values are based on Mie theory calculations for the standard rediation atmospheres (continental, maritime, urban, unperturbed stratospheric, volcanic, upper atmospheric, soot, oceanic, dust, and water-soluble) assest measured volcanic aerosols at several time intervals following the El Chichon eruption. Comparisons of extinction to 180 deg backscatter for different aerosol models are presented and related to lidar data.

  6. Aerosol particle size distribution in the stratosphere retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Liebing, Patricia; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    health, stratospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. In particular, information about the amount and distribution of stratospheric aerosols is required to initialize climate models, as well as validate aerosol microphysics models and investigate geoengineering. In addition, good knowledge of stratospheric aerosol loading is needed to increase the retrieval accuracy of key trace gases (e.g. ozone or water vapour) when interpreting remote sensing measurements of the scattered solar light. The most commonly used characteristics to describe stratospheric aerosols are the aerosol extinction coefficient and Ångström coefficient. However, the use of particle size distribution parameters along with the aerosol number density is a more optimal approach. In this paper we present a new retrieval algorithm to obtain the particle size distribution of stratospheric aerosol from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light in the limb-viewing geometry. While the mode radius and width of the aerosol particle size distribution are retrieved, the aerosol particle number density profile remains unchanged. The latter is justified by a lower sensitivity of the limb-scattering measurements to changes in this parameter. To our knowledge this is the first data set providing two parameters of the particle size distribution of stratospheric aerosol from space-borne measurements of scattered solar light. Typically, the mode radius and w can be retrieved with an uncertainty of less than 20 %. The algorithm was successfully applied to the tropical region (20° N-20° S) for 10 years (2002-2012) of SCIAMACHY observations in limb-viewing geometry, establishing a unique data set. Analysis of this new climatology for the particle size distribution parameters showed clear increases in the mode radius after the tropical volcanic eruptions, whereas no distinct behaviour of the absolute distribution width could be identified. A tape recorder

  7. The aerosols and the greenhouse effect; Aerosoler og klimaeffekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Trond; Kirkevaag, Alf; Seland, Oeyvind; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Storelvmo, Trude

    2008-07-01

    The article discussed the aerosol effects on the climatic changes and points out that the climate models do not incorporate these components satisfactorily mostly due to insufficient knowledge of the aerosol pollution sources. The direct and indirect effects of aerosols are mentioned as well as the climate response (tk)

  8. Filtração de aerossóis em altas temperaturas utilizando filtros cerâmicos de dupla camada: influência do diâmetro de partícula na eficiência de coleta Filtration of aerosols at high temperatures using a double layer ceramic filter: influence of the particle diameter in the collection efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram utilizados filtros cerâmicos para filtração de aerossóis, constituídos por dupla camada, onde a primeira camada é formada por um suporte celular de elevada porosidade com diâmetro de poro controlado e a segunda formada por uma película filtrante. A camada suporte foi obtida pela técnica de replicação cerâmica de espuma poliuretânica, por meio da impregnação de uma suspensão aquosa de Al2O3. Foram utilizados suportes de 45 e 75 poros/polegada. A membrana filtrante (Al2O3 e argila foi a mesma para ambos os suportes, sendo composta por uma massa granular cerâmica de baixa porosidade. Os experimentos de filtração foram realizados em temperaturas de 25 a 700 ºC onde mediu-se a capacidade dos filtros de limpar um aerossol de partículas finas polidispersas (diâmetro mediano de 4,6 µm e calculou-se a eficiência de coleta para diâmetros de partícula entre 0,4 e 8,5 µm. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e aumentou com o diâmetro da partícula.In this work, ceramic filters were used for aerosol filtration. The filters were constituted by two layers, where the first layer was formed by of a highly porous ceramic support with controlled pore size and the second layer constituted by a fine membrane. The ceramic support was obtained from polymeric foams utilizing a technique of alumina impregnation. The supports had 45 and 75 pores per inch (ppi. The membrane (a mixture of alumina and clay was the same for the two supports, with much smaller pore sizes. The filtration experiments were accomplished at temperatures varying from 25 to 700 ºC, where the ability of the filters for cleaning an aerosol constituted by fine particles (median diameter of 4.6 µm was measured. The collection efficiency was calculated for particle diameters between 0.4 and 8.5 µm. The results showed that the collection efficiency decreased with the increase of the temperature and increased

  9. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.R.; Briat, M.; Royer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The possible link between the aerosol content from the 905 deep Dome C ice core (East Antartica) which spans some 32,000 yr (Lorius et al. Nature; 280:644 (1979)) and climate, is considered. No evidence of major global or local volcanic activity was found though large marine and continental inputs (respectively 5 and 20 times higher than present) were observed at the end of the last Glacial stage. It is considered that they reflect glacial age climate with stronger atmospheric circulation, enhanced aridity and faster aerosol transport towards the Antarctic continent. (U.K.)

  10. Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1981-08-01

    The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10 1 g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10 -3 of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated

  11. Volcanic hazards and public response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1988-05-01

    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  12. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  13. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  14. The Detection, Characterization and Tracking of Recent Aleutian Island Volcanic Ash Plumes and the Assessment of Their Impact on Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John J.; Hudnall, L. A.; Matus, A.; Krueger, A. J.; Trepte, C. r.

    2010-01-01

    The Aleutian Islands of Alaska are home to a number of major volcanoes which periodically present a significant hazard to aviation. During summer of 2008, the Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes experienced moderate eruptive events. These were followed a dramatic, major eruption of Mount Redoubt in late March 2009. The Redoubt case is extensively covered in this paper. Volcanic ash and SO2 from each of these eruptions dispersed throughout the atmosphere. This created the potential for major problems for air traffic near the ash dispersions and at significant distances downwind. The NASA Applied Sciences Weather Program implements a wide variety of research projects to develop volcanic ash detection, characterization and tracking applications for NASA Earth Observing System and NOAA GOES and POES satellites. Chemistry applications using NASA AURA satellite Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) retrievals produced SO2 measurements to trace the dispersion of volcanic aerosol. This work was complimented by advanced multi-channel imager applications for the discrimination and height assignment of volcanic ash using NASA MODIS and NOAA GOES and POES imager data. Instruments similar to MODIS and OMI are scheduled for operational deployment on NPOESS. In addition, the NASA Calipso satellite provided highly accurate measurements of aerosol height and dispersion for the calibration and validation of these algorithms and for corroborative research studies. All of this work shortens the lead time for transition to operations and ensures that research satellite data and applications are operationally relevant and utilized quickly after the deployment of operational satellite systems. Introduction

  15. Aerosol effects on the photochemistry in Mexico City during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. An aerosol radiative module has been developed with detailed consideration of aerosol size, composition, and mixing. The module has been coupled into the WRF-CHEM model to calculate the aerosol optical properties, including optical depth, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Calculated aerosol optical properties are in good agreement with the surface observations and aircraft and satellite measurements during daytime. In general, the photolysis rates are reduced due to the absorption by carbonaceous aerosols, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon hours with a long aerosol optical path. However, with the growth of aerosol particles and the decrease of the solar zenith angle around noontime, aerosols can slightly enhance photolysis rates when ultraviolet (UV radiation scattering dominates UV absorption by aerosols at the lower-most model layer. The changes in photolysis rates due to aerosols lead to about 2–17 % surface ozone reduction during daytime in the urban area in Mexico City with generally larger reductions during early morning hours near the city center, resulting in a decrease of OH level by about 9 %, as well as a decrease in the daytime concentrations of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols by 5–6 % on average. In addition, the rapid aging of black carbon aerosols and the enhanced absorption of UV radiation by organic aerosols contribute substantially to the reduction of photolysis rates.

  16. Convective behaviour in vapour-gas-aerosol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Unusual convective behaviour can occur in mixtures of gases and heavy vapour, including stabilization of mixtures hot at the base and 'upside-down' convection in mixtures hot at the top. Previous work produced a criterion for this behaviour which ignored the necessary presence of an aerosol. Modification arising from aerosol condensation is derived and is shown to involve the Lewis and condensation numbers of the mixture, as well as a quantity involving the temperature drop across a boundary layer. It becomes negligible at high temperatures, but can crucially affect the temperature for the onset of unusual behaviour. Aerosol formation produces an asymmetry between the convective forces in boundary layers in which the mixture is being heated and cooled, respectively, for example at the base and roof of a cavity. The convective behaviour discussed could occur in situations relevant to nuclear safety. (author)

  17. Stable generator of polydisperse aerosol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2001), s. S823-S824 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2001. Leipzig, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : aerosol generator * fine aerosol * polydisperse aerosol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  18. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  19. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    of oxidized organic compounds contributed nearly an order of magnitude more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) than less oxidized particles formed under cloudy conditions. The processing time necessary for particles to become CCN active was short ( 4 hr). Laboratory chamber experiments were also conducted to evaluate particle-phase processes influencing aerosol phase and composition. In one study, ammonium sulfate seed was coated with a layer of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from toluene oxidation followed by a layer of SOA from α-pinene oxidation. The system exhibited different evaporative properties than ammonium sulfate seed initially coated with α-pinene SOA followed by a layer of toluene SOA. This behavior is consistent with a shell-and-core model and suggests limited mixing among different SOA types. Another study investigated the reactive uptake of isoprene epoxy diols (IEPOX) onto non-acidified aerosol. It was demonstrated that particle acidity has limited influence on organic aerosol formation onto ammonium sulfate seed, and that the chemical system is limited by the availability of nucleophiles such as sulfate. Flow tube experiments were conducted to examine the role of iron in the reactive uptake and chemical oxidation of glycolaldehyde. Aerosol particles doped with iron and hydrogen peroxide were mixed with gas-phase glycolaldehyde and photochemically aged in a custom-built flow reactor. Compared to particles free of iron, iron-doped aerosols significantly enhanced the oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratio of accumulated organic mass. The primary oxidation mechanism is suggested to be a combination of Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions which enhance particle-phase OH radical concentrations.

  20. Variability of aerosol vertical distribution in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cavalieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the aerosol vertical distribution over Sahelian Africa for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, characterizing the different kind of aerosols present in the atmosphere in terms of their optical properties observed by ground-based and satellite instruments, and their sources searched for by using trajectory analysis. This study combines data acquired by three ground-based micro lidar systems located in Banizoumbou (Niger, Cinzana (Mali and M'Bour (Senegal in the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA, by the AEROsol RObotic NETwork (AERONET sun-photometers and by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP onboard the CALIPSO satellite (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Observations.

    During winter, the lower levels air masses arriving in the Sahelian region come mainly from North, North-West and from the Atlantic area, while in the upper troposphere air flow generally originates from West Africa, crossing a region characterized by the presence of large biomass burning sources. The sites of Cinzana, Banizoumbou and M'Bour, along a transect of aerosol transport from East to West, are in fact under the influence of tropical biomass burning aerosol emission during the dry season, as revealed by the seasonal pattern of the aerosol optical properties, and by back-trajectory studies.

    Aerosol produced by biomass burning are observed mainly during the dry season and are confined in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This is particularly evident for 2006, which was characterized by a large presence of biomass burning aerosols in all the three sites.

    Biomass burning aerosol is also observed during spring when air masses originating from North and East Africa pass over sparse biomass burning sources, and during summer when biomass burning aerosol is transported from the southern part of the

  1. Tropical explosive volcanic eruptions can trigger El Niño by cooling tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, Myriam; Izumo, Takeshi; Vialard, Jérôme; Janicot, Serge; Cassou, Christophe; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Mignot, Juliette; Gastineau, Guillaume; Guilyardi, Eric; Lebas, Nicolas; Robock, Alan; McPhaden, Michael J

    2017-10-03

    Stratospheric aerosols from large tropical explosive volcanic eruptions backscatter shortwave radiation and reduce the global mean surface temperature. Observations suggest that they also favour an El Niño within 2 years following the eruption. Modelling studies have, however, so far reached no consensus on either the sign or physical mechanism of El Niño response to volcanism. Here we show that an El Niño tends to peak during the year following large eruptions in simulations of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Targeted climate model simulations further emphasize that Pinatubo-like eruptions tend to shorten La Niñas, lengthen El Niños and induce anomalous warming when occurring during neutral states. Volcanically induced cooling in tropical Africa weakens the West African monsoon, and the resulting atmospheric Kelvin wave drives equatorial westerly wind anomalies over the western Pacific. This wind anomaly is further amplified by air-sea interactions in the Pacific, favouring an El Niño-like response.El Niño tends to follow 2 years after volcanic eruptions, but the physical mechanism behind this phenomenon is unclear. Here the authors use model simulations to show that a Pinatubo-like eruption cools tropical Africa and drives westerly wind anomalies in the Pacific favouring an El Niño response.

  2. The climatic effect of explosive volcanic activity: Analysis of the historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, R. A.; Goodman, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    By using the most complete available records of direct beam radiation and volcanic eruptions, an historical analysis of the role of the latter in modulating the former was made. A very simple fallout and dispersion model was applied to the historical chronology of explosive eruptions. The resulting time series explains about 77 percent of the radiation variance, as well as suggests that tropical and subpolar eruptions are more important than mid-latitude eruptions in their impact on the stratospheric aerosol optical depth. The simpler climatic models indicate that past hemispheric temperature can be stimulated very well with volcanic and CO2 inputs and suggest that climate forecasting will also require volcano forecasting. There is some evidence that this is possible some years in advance.

  3. Radiative effects of the El Chichon volcanic eruption. Preliminary results concerning remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeen, W. R.; Fraser, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The aerosols and gases resulting from the El Chichon volcanic eruption had, and may still have, significant effects on satellite measurements of the properties of the Earth's atmosphere. The sea surface temperature measured by the AVHRR was biased up to -2.5 C for many months. The total amount of ozone derived from TOMS with a standard algorithm was greatly in excess of the possible value. This apparent excess can now be explained in terms of additional absorption by SO2. Infrared temperature sounders have observed both positive and negative anomalies. These effects and others on many satellite measurements are addressed following a discussion of the history and composition of the ejecta remaining in the stratosphere. Finally, recommendations are made for further study to account for the effects of volcanic eruptions on satellite observations and for use of such observations to measure the characteristics of the ejecta.

  4. Examining the Impact of Overlying Aerosols on the Retrieval of Cloud Opti