WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcanic aerosol forcing

  1. Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models have shown that continuously degassing volcanoes have a potentially large effect on the natural background aerosol loading and the radiative state of the atmosphere. Here, we use a global aerosol microphysics model to quantify the impact of these volcanic emissions on the cloud albedo radiative forcing under pre-industrial (PI and present-day (PD conditions. We find that volcanic degassing increases global annual mean cloud droplet number concentrations by 40% under PI conditions, but by only 10% under PD conditions. Consequently, volcanic degassing causes a global annual mean cloud albedo effect of −1.06 W m−2 in the PI era but only −0.56 W m−2 in the PD era. This non-equal effect is explained partly by the lower background aerosol concentrations in the PI era, but also because more aerosol particles are produced per unit of volcanic sulphur emission in the PI atmosphere. The higher sensitivity of the PI atmosphere to volcanic emissions has an important consequence for the anthropogenic cloud radiative forcing because the large uncertainty in volcanic emissions translates into an uncertainty in the PI baseline cloud radiative state. Assuming a −50/+100% uncertainty range in the volcanic sulphur flux, we estimate the annual mean anthropogenic cloud albedo forcing to lie between −1.16 W m−2 and −0.86 W m−2. Therefore, the volcanically induced uncertainty in the PI baseline cloud radiative state substantially adds to the already large uncertainty in the magnitude of the indirect radiative forcing of climate.

  2. The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations and simple theoretical arguments suggest that the Northern Hemisphere (NH stratospheric polar vortex is stronger in winters following major volcanic eruptions. However, recent studies show that climate models forced by prescribed volcanic aerosol fields fail to reproduce this effect. We investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, including the strength of the NH polar vortex, in ensemble simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The model is forced by four different prescribed forcing sets representing the radiative properties of stratospheric aerosol following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo: two forcing sets are based on observations, and are commonly used in climate model simulations, and two forcing sets are constructed based on coupled aerosol–climate model simulations. For all forcings, we find that temperature and zonal wind anomalies in the NH high latitudes are not directly impacted by anomalous volcanic aerosol heating. Instead, high latitude effects result from robust enhancements in stratospheric residual circulation, which in turn result, at least in part, from enhanced stratospheric wave activity. High latitude effects are therefore much less robust than would be expected if they were the direct result of aerosol heating. While there is significant ensemble variability in the high latitude response to each aerosol forcing set, the mean response is sensitive to the forcing set used. Significant differences, for example, are found in the NH polar stratosphere temperature and zonal wind response to two different forcing data sets constructed from different versions of SAGE II aerosol observations. Significant strengthening of the polar vortex, in rough agreement with the expected response, is achieved only using aerosol forcing extracted from prior coupled aerosol–climate model simulations. Differences in the dynamical response to the different forcing sets used

  3. Volcanic forcing in decadal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménégoz, Martin; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Guemas, Virginie; Asif, Muhammad; Prodhomme, chloe

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can significantly impact the climate system, by injecting large amounts of particles into the stratosphere. By reflecting backward the solar radiation, these particles cool the troposphere, and by absorbing the longwave radiation, they warm the stratosphere. As a consequence of this radiative forcing, the global mean surface temperature can decrease by several tenths of degrees. However, large eruptions are also associated to a complex dynamical response of the climate system that is particularly tricky do understand regarding the low number of available observations. Observations seem to show an increase of the positive phases of the Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) the two winters following large eruptions, associated to positive temperature anomalies over the Eurasian continent. The summers following large eruptions are generally particularly cold, especially over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. Overall, it is really challenging to forecast the climate response to large eruptions, as it is both modulated by, and superimposed to the climate background conditions, largely driven themselves by internal variability at seasonal to decadal scales. This work describes the additional skill of a forecast system used for seasonal and decadal predictions when it includes observed volcanic forcing over the last decades. An idealized volcanic forcing that could be used for real-time forecasts is also evaluated. This work consists in a base for forecasts that will be performed in the context of the next large volcanic eruption.

  4. Reconstructing Volcanic Forcing of Climate: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Sigl, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from major volcanic eruptions has been a dominant driver of climate variability during Earth's history. Including volcanic forcing in climate model simulations is therefore essential to recreate past climate variability, and provides the opportunity to test the ability of models to respond accurately to external forcing. Ice cores provide estimates of the volcanic sulfate loadings from past eruptions, from which radiative forcing can be reconstructed, with associated uncertainties. Using prior reconstructions, climate models have reproduced the gross features of global mean temperature variability reconstructed from climate proxies, although some significant differences between model results and reconstructions remain. There is much less confidence in the accuracy of the dynamical responses to volcanic forcing produced by climate models, and thus the regional aspects of post-volcanic climate anomalies are much more uncertain—a result which mirrors uncertainties in the dynamical responses to future climate change. Improvements in model's response to volcanic forcing may be possible through improving the accuracy of the forcing data. Recent advances on multiple fronts have motivated the development of a next-generation volcanic forcing timeseries for use in climate models, based on (1) improved dating and precision of ice core records, (2) better understanding of the atmospheric transport and microphysical evolution of volcanic aerosol, including its size distribution, and (3) improved representations of the spatiotemporal structure of volcanic radiative forcing. A new volcanic forcing data set, covering the past 2500 years, will be introduced and compared with prior reconstructions. Preliminary results of climate model simulations using the new forcing will also be shown, and current and future applications of the forcing set discussed.

  5. Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, evolution, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols have been the subject of scientific speculation since the 1880s, when the powerful eruption of Krakatoa attracted worldwide attention to the upper atmosphere through spectacular optical displays. The presence of a permanent tenuous dust layer in the lower stratosphere was postulated in the 1920s following studies of the twilight glow. Junge collected the first samples of these 'dust' particles and demonstrated that they were actually composed of sulfates, most likely concentrated sulfuric acid (Junge and Manson, 1961; Junge, 1963). Subsequent research has been spurred by the realization that stratospheric particles can influence the surface climate of earth through their effects on atmospheric radiation. Such aerosols can also influence, through chemical and physical effects, the trace composition of the atmosphere, ozone concentrations, and atmospheric electrical properties. The properties of stratospheric aerosols (both the background particles and those enhanced by volcanic eruptions) were measured in situ by balloon ascents and high altitude aircraft sorties. The aerosols were also observed remotely from the ground and from satellites using both active (lidar) and passive (solar occultation) techniques (remote sensing instruments were carried on aircraft and balloon platforms as well). In connection with the experimental work, models were developed to test theories of particle formation and evolution, to guide measurement strategies, to provide a means of connecting laboratory and field data, and to apply the knowledge gained to answer practical questions about global changes in climate, depletion of the ozone layer, and related environmental problems.

  6. The Influence of Volcanic Aerosols on Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Howard; Horton, Daniel Ethan

    2017-01-01

    On rocky planetary bodies such as Proxima Centuri b, the detection of sulphate aerosols may indicate volcanism and tectonic activity; ingredients hypothesized to be necessary for planetary habitability. However, due to the effect of atmospheric aerosols on a planet’s energy balance, coupled with eruption constituent and frequency uncertainties, the potential impact of volcanic activity on planetary habitability remains unresolved. Here, we employ multi-column climate models in conjunction with a parameter space approach to test the effect of volcanic aerosols on planetary climate with various climate sensitivities. Preliminary results indicate that volcanic activity could provide a means of extending the inner edge of the habitable zone (IHZ), depending on eruption constituents and frequency. Previous work using transit spectra simulations have demonstrated the possibility of detecting transient aerosols of volcanic origin. Our work investigates the range of habitability implications detection of such aerosols would imply.

  7. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from –0.79 to –0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from –0.47 to –0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  8. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  9. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; Ritter, C.; Sakai, T.; Santer, B. D.; Sato, M.; Schmidt, A.; Uchino, O.; Vernier, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  10. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Schmidt, Anja [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Easter, Richard [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Solomon, Susan [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kinnison, Douglas E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Neely, Ryan R. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Marsh, Daniel R. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Conley, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Bardeen, Charles G. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Gettelman, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  11. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  12. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  13. A Model Simulation of Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao , Jing-xia; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.

    1995-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent model is used to study the chemical, microphysical, and radiative properties of volcanic aerosols produced by the Mount Pinatubo eruption on June 15, 1991. Our model treats gas-phase sulfur photochemistry, gas-to-particle conversion of sulfur, and the microphysics of sulfate aerosols and ash particles under stratospheric conditions. The dilution and diffusion of the volcanic eruption clouds are also accounted for in these conditions. Heteromolecular homogeneous and heterogeneous binary H2SO4/H2O nucleation, acid and water condensational growth, coagulation, and gravitational sedimentation are treated in detail in the model. Simulations suggested that after several weeks, the volcanic cloud was composed mainly of sulfuric acid/water droplets produced in situ from the SO2 emissions. The large amounts of SO2 (around 20 Mt) injected into the stratosphere by the Pinatubo eruption initiated homogeneous nucleation which generated a high concentration of small H2SO4/H2O droplets. These newly formed particles grew rapidly by condensation and coagulation in the first few months and then reach their stabilized sizes with effective radii in a range between 0.3 and 0.5 micron approximately one-half year after the eruption. The predicted volcanic cloud parameters reasonably agree with measurements in term of the vertical distribution and lifetime of the volcanic aerosols, their basic microphysical structures (e.g., size distribution, concentration, mass ratio, and surface area) and radiative properties. The persistent volcanic aerosols can produce significant anomalies in the radiation field, which have important climatic consequences. The large enhancement in aerosol surface area can result in measurable global stratospheric ozone depletion.

  14. eVolv2k: A new ice core-based volcanic forcing reconstruction for the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from stratospheric aerosols produced by major volcanic eruptions is a dominant driver of climate variability in the Earth's past. The ability of climate model simulations to accurately recreate past climate is tied directly to the accuracy of the volcanic forcing timeseries used in the simulations. We present here a new volcanic forcing reconstruction, based on newly updated ice core composites from Antarctica and Greenland. Ice core records are translated into stratospheric aerosol properties for use in climate models through the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) module, which provides an analytic representation of volcanic stratospheric aerosol forcing based on available observations and aerosol model results, prescribing the aerosol's radiative properties and primary modes of spatial and temporal variability. The evolv2k volcanic forcing dataset covers the past 2000 years, and has been provided for use in the Paleo-Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), and VolMIP experiments within CMIP6. Here, we describe the construction of the eVolv2k data set, compare with prior forcing sets, and show initial simulation results.

  15. Volcanic forcing improves Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Circulation Model scaling performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vyushin, D; Havlin, S; Bunde, A; Brenner, S; Vyushin, Dmitry; Zhidkov, Igor; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Brenner, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Recent Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations of the twentieth century climate, which account for anthropogenic and natural forcings, make it possible to study the origin of long-term temperature correlations found in the observed records. We study ensemble experiments performed with the NCAR PCM for 10 different historical scenarios, including no forcings, greenhouse gas, sulfate aerosol, ozone, solar, volcanic forcing and various combinations, such as it natural, anthropogenic and all forcings. We compare the scaling exponents characterizing the long-term correlations of the observed and simulated model data for 16 representative land stations and 16 sites in the Atlantic Ocean for these scenarios. We find that inclusion of volcanic forcing in the AOGCM considerably improves the PCM scaling behavior. The scenarios containing volcanic forcing are able to reproduce quite well the observed scaling exponents for the land with exponents around 0.65 independent of the station dista...

  16. Transient Sulfate Aerosols as a Signature of Exoplanet Volcanism

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Amit; Koehler, Matthew C; Sholes, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Geological activity is thought to be important for the origin of life and for maintaining planetary habitability. We show that transient sulfate aerosols could be a signature of exoplanet volcanism, and therefore a geologically active world. A detection of transient aerosols, if linked to volcanism, could thus aid in habitability evaluations of the exoplanet. On Earth, subduction-induced explosive eruptions inject SO2 directly into the stratosphere, leading to the formation of sulfate aerosols with lifetimes of months to years. We demonstrate that the rapid increase and gradual decrease in sulfate aerosol loading associated with these eruptions may be detectable in transit transmission spectra with future large-aperture telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and European Extremely-Large Telescope (E-ELT) for a planetary system at a distance of 10 pc, assuming an Earth-like atmosphere, bulk composition, and size. Specifically, we find that a S/N of 12.1 and 7.1 could be achieved with E-ELT (...

  17. Volcanic forcing for climate modeling: a new microphysics-based dataset covering years 1600–present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Peter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the understanding and representation of the impacts of volcanic eruptions on climate have improved in the last decades, uncertainties in the stratospheric aerosol forcing from large eruptions are now not only linked to visible optical depth estimates on a global scale but also to details on the size, latitude and altitude distributions of the stratospheric aerosols. Based on our understanding of these uncertainties, we propose a new model-based approach to generating a volcanic forcing for General-Circulation-Model (GCM and Chemistry-Climate-Model (CCM simulations. This new volcanic forcing, covering the 1600–present period, uses an aerosol microphysical model to provide a realistic, physically consistent treatment of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols. Twenty-six eruptions were modeled individually using the latest available ice cores aerosol mass estimates and historical data on the latitude and date of eruptions. The evolution of aerosol spatial and size distribution after the sulfur dioxide discharge are hence characterized for each volcanic eruption. Large variations are seen in hemispheric partitioning and size distributions in relation to location/date of eruptions and injected SO2 masses. Results for recent eruptions are in good agreement with observations. By providing accurate amplitude and spatial distributions of shortwave and longwave radiative perturbations by volcanic sulfate aerosols, we argue that this volcanic forcing may help refine the climate model responses to the large volcanic eruptions since 1600. The final dataset consists of 3-D values (with constant longitude of spectrally resolved extinction coefficients, single scattering albedos and asymmetry factors calculated for different wavelength bands upon request. Surface area densities for heterogeneous chemistry are also provided.

  18. The Model Intercomparison Project on the Climatic Response to Volcanic Forcing (VolMIP): Experimental Design and Forcing Input Data for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Khodri, Myriam; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Gerber, Edwin P.; Hegerl, Gabriele; Robock, Alan; Pausata, Francesco; Ball, William T.; Bauer, Susanne E.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer by volcanic eruptions induces a complex set of responses causing global and regional climate effects on a broad range of timescales. Uncertainties exist regarding the climatic response to strong volcanic forcing identified in coupled climate simulations that contributed to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In order to better understand the sources of these model diversities, the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP) has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol. VolMIP provides a common stratospheric aerosol data set for each experiment to minimize differences in the applied volcanic forcing. It defines a set of initial conditions to assess how internal climate variability contributes to determining the response. VolMIP will assess to what extent volcanically forced responses of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system are robustly simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate models and identify the causes that limit robust simulated behavior, especially differences in the treatment of physical processes. This paper illustrates the design of the idealized volcanic perturbation experiments in the VolMIP protocol and describes the common aerosol forcing input data sets to be used.

  19. The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Khodri, Myriam; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Gerber, Edwin P.; Hegerl, Gabriele; Robock, Alan; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Ball, William T.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bekki, Slimane; Dhomse, Sandip S.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Mann, Graham W.; Marshall, Lauren; Mills, Michael; Marchand, Marion; Niemeier, Ulrike; Poulain, Virginie; Rozanov, Eugene; Rubino, Angelo; Stenke, Andrea; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tummon, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer by volcanic eruptions induces a complex set of responses causing global and regional climate effects on a broad range of timescales. Uncertainties exist regarding the climatic response to strong volcanic forcing identified in coupled climate simulations that contributed to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In order to better understand the sources of these model diversities, the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP) has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol. VolMIP provides a common stratospheric aerosol data set for each experiment to minimize differences in the applied volcanic forcing. It defines a set of initial conditions to assess how internal climate variability contributes to determining the response. VolMIP will assess to what extent volcanically forced responses of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system are robustly simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate models and identify the causes that limit robust simulated behavior, especially differences in the treatment of physical processes. This paper illustrates the design of the idealized volcanic perturbation experiments in the VolMIP protocol and describes the common aerosol forcing input data sets to be used.

  20. Distribution of sulfur aerosol precursors in the SPCZ released by continuous volcanic degassing at Ambrym, Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Jérôme; Menkes, Christophe; Bani, Philipson; Marchesiello, Patrick; Curci, Gabriele; Grell, Georg A.; Frouin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The Melanesian Volcanic Arc (MVA) emits about 12 kT d- 1 of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere from continuous passive (non-explosive) volcanic degassing, which contributes 20% of the global SO2 emission from volcanoes. Here we assess, from up-to-date and long-term observations, the SO2 emission of the Ambrym volcano, one of the dominant volcanoes in the MVA, and we investigate its role as sulfate precursor on the regional distribution of aerosols, using both satellite observations and model results at 1° × 1° spatial resolution from WRF-Chem/GOCART. Without considering aerosol forcing on clouds, our model parameterizations for convection, vertical mixing and cloud properties provide a reliable chemical weather representation, making possible a cross-examination of model solution and observations. This preliminary work enables the identification of biases and limitations affecting both the model (missing sources) and satellite sensors and algorithms (for aerosol detection and classification) and leads to the implementation of improved transport and aerosol processes in the modeling system. On the one hand, the model confirms a 50% underestimation of SO2 emissions due to satellite swath sampling of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), consistent with field studies. The OMI irregular sampling also produces a level of noise that impairs its monitoring capacity during short-term volcanic events. On the other hand, the model reveals a large sensitivity on aerosol composition and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) due to choices of both the source function in WRF-Chem and size parameters for sea-salt in FlexAOD, the post-processor used to compute offline the simulated AOD. We then proceed to diagnosing the role of SO2 volcanic emission in the regional aerosol composition. The model shows that both dynamics and cloud properties associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) have a large influence on the oxidation of SO2 and on the transport pathways of

  1. Climate impact of volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere and upper troposphere - CALIPSO observations from 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Johan; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Andersson, Sandra M.; Sandvik, Oscar S.; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the climate impact of volcanic eruptions in the period 2006-2015, and found that the volcanic perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol is stronger and lasts longer than previously thought. Recent studies (Ridley et al., 2014, Andersson et al., 2015) show that a large portion of volcanic climate impact stems from aerosol in the LMS (lowermost stratosphere). Although the LMS holds >40% of the stratospheric mass (Appenzeller et al., 1996) it is generally neglected in estimations of the stratospheric AOD (aerosol optical depth). In the past decade the stratospheric aerosol load was perturbed by a number of volcanic eruptions. We cover that period by using the CALIPSO level 1b night-time data to study the volcanic influence on the global and regional climate. CALIPSO data were averaged to a resolution of 180 m vertically and 1×1° horizontally, cleaned from ice clouds by means of the depolarization ratio (Vernier et al., 2009), and a method was developed to remove polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). This approach enables identification of aerosol also at low altitudes (currently using 4 km minimum altitude) and in the Antarctic region (60 to 90°S) where PSCs are frequent during winter. In the current study, we estimate the total stratospheric AOD and radiative forcing and find that significant fractions of volcanic aerosol were located below the static tropopause after volcanic eruptions. Volcanic aerosol was generally observed down to the dynamic tropopause, and detected down to potential vorticities of 1.5-2 PVU (almost 1 km below the static tropopause). Hence, the dynamic tropopause was found to better enclose the volcanic aerosol. Furthermore, large concentrations of aerosol from the Kasatochi eruption (Aug 2008) is found to linger in the extratropical UT (upper troposphere) for several months after the eruption. Sulphate-rich volcanic aerosol transported from the LMS may influence cirrus clouds in the extratropical UT, inducing an indirect

  2. Hemispherically asymmetric volcanic forcing of tropical hydroclimate during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing.Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (δ18Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in proxy records

  3. Reconstruction of the Tambora forcing with global aerosol models : Challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, Myriam; Zanchettin, Davide; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that volcanic eruptions have an important effect on climate variability from inter-annual to decadal timescales. For the largest tropical volcanic eruptions of the last millennium, simulated volcanic surface cooling derived from climate models often disagrees with the cooling seen in tree-ring-based proxies. Furthermore, cooling estimates from simulations show large uncertainties. Such disagreement can be related to several sources, including inconsistency of the currently available volcanic forcing datasets, unrealistic modelled volcanic forcing, insufficient representation of relevant climate processes, and different background climate states simulated at the time of the eruption. In particular, for eruptions that occurred before the observational period forcing characteristics related to the eruption magnitude and stratospheric aerosol properties are deduced from indirect evidences. So, while climatically relevant forcing properties for recent volcanic eruptions are relatively well constrained by direct observations, large uncertainties remain regarding processes of aerosol formation and evolution in the stratosphere after large tropical eruptions of the remote past. Several coordinated modelling assessments have been defined to frame future modeling activities and constrain the above-mentioned uncertainties. Among these, the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has endorsed a multi-model assessment focused on the climatic response to strong volcanic eruptions (VolMIP). VolMIP defines a protocol for idealized volcanic-perturbation experiments to improve comparability among climate model results. Identification of a consensual volcanic forcing dataset for the 1815 Tambora eruption is a key step of VolMIP, as it is the largest-magnitude volcanic eruption of the past five centuries and reference for the VolMIP core experiments. Therefore, as a first key step, five current/state-of-the-art global aerosol

  4. Observation and Model Comparison on Precipitation response to Volcanic Aerosols in the Asian Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Z.; Gao, C.

    2014-12-01

    Disagreement between observation and models were shown on the volcanic sulfate aerosols' effect on precipitation in Asia monsoon region. Here, we investigate it by classifying two groups of historical volcanism between AD 1300 and AD 1850 to 2, 1, and 0.5 times Pinatubo sulfate injection into the northern hemisphere (NH) stratosphere based on IVI2 and Crowley2013 volcanic reconstructions, then comparing precipitation response of BCC-CSM1 and CCSM4 model outputs under past1000 scenario to IVI2 volcanic group, and that of MIROC-ESM and MPI-ESM-P to Crowley2013 group with tree-ring reconstruction data MADA. In both groups, Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) of MADA and four model outputs show a drying trend over Asia monsoon regions after the NH injections and drier with larger sulfate magnitude, with a 1 or 2 year time lag in MADA comparing to the model outputs, this may result from the biological response of tree ring data that lag behind the meteorological forcing of model outputs. On the other hand, different responses to Southern Hemisphere (SH) only injections were found between the two groups as well as MADA and model outputs. Most of the results were found significant at 90% or even 95% significance level with a 10,000 Monte Carlo resampling procedure. Spatial variation of MADA show a significant drying effect in central Asia in year 1, and then move westward in year 2 and 3 after 2, 1×Pinatubo eruptions of IVI2, while a significant wetting effect in northwest Asia but drying effect in south Asia were shown in Crowley2013 group. However, model outputs did not show spatial variation, with a pattern drier in northwest than in southeast Asia along the years after the eruptions in both volcanic groups. Thus, observation and model outputs are well consistent on precipitation response to NH aerosol injections, but models may need large improvement on the response to SH aerosol injection as well as the spatial variation. Besides, opposite precipitation response to SH

  5. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Understanding of volcanic activity and its impacts on the atmosphere has evolved in discrete steps, associated with defining eruptions. The eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia, in August 1883 was the first whose global reach was recorded through observations of atmospheric phenomena around the world (Symons 1888). The rapid equatorial spread of Krakatau's ash cloud revealed new details of atmospheric circulation, while the vivid twilights and other optical phenomena were soon causally linked to the effects of particles and gases released from the volcano (e.g. Stothers 1996, Schroder 1999, Hamilton 2012). Later, eruptions of Agung, Bali (1963), El Chichón, Mexico (1982) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991) led to a fuller understanding of how volcanic SO2 is transformed to a long-lived stratospheric sulfate aerosol, and its consequences (e.g. Meinel and Meinel 1967, Rampino and Self 1982, Hoffman and Rosen 1983, Bekki and Pyle 1994, McCormick et al 1995). While our ability to track the dispersal of volcanic emissions has been transformed since Pinatubo, with the launch of fleets of Earth-observing satellites (e.g. NASA's A-Train; ESA's MetOp) and burgeoning networks of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (e.g. lidar and sun-photometers; infrasound and lightning detection systems), there have been relatively few significant eruptions. Thus, there have been limited opportunities to test emerging hypotheses including, for example, the vexed question of the role of 'smaller' explosive eruptions in perturbations of the atmosphere—those that may just be large enough to reach the stratosphere (of size 'VEI 3', Newhall and Self 1982, Pyle 2000). Geological evidence, from ice-cores and historical eruptions, suggests that small explosive volcanic eruptions with the potential to transport material into the stratosphere should be frequent (5-10 per decade), and responsible for a significant proportion of the long-term time-averaged flux of volcanic sulfur into the stratosphere

  6. Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, M; Winstrup, M; McConnell, J R; Welten, K C; Plunkett, G; Ludlow, F; Büntgen, U; Caffee, M; Chellman, N; Dahl-Jensen, D; Fischer, H; Kipfstuhl, S; Kostick, C; Maselli, O J; Mekhaldi, F; Mulvaney, R; Muscheler, R; Pasteris, D R; Pilcher, J R; Salzer, M; Schüpbach, S; Steffensen, J P; Vinther, B M; Woodruff, T E

    2015-07-30

    Volcanic eruptions contribute to climate variability, but quantifying these contributions has been limited by inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings. Here we resolve these inconsistencies and show that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. Our results are based on new records of atmospheric aerosol loading developed from high-resolution, multi-parameter measurements from an array of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores as well as distinctive age markers to constrain chronologies. Overall, cooling was proportional to the magnitude of volcanic forcing and persisted for up to ten years after some of the largest eruptive episodes. Our revised timescale more firmly implicates volcanic eruptions as catalysts in the major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions in Eurasia and Mesoamerica while allowing multi-millennium quantification of climate response to volcanic forcing.

  7. On the radiative forcing of volcanic plumes: modelling the impact of Mount Etna in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Sellitto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of small to moderate volcanic eruptions on the regional to global radiative forcing and climate is still largely unknown and thought to be presently underestimated. In this work, daily average shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies at the surface (RFEdSurf, at top of the atmosphere (RFEdTOA and their ratio (f, for upper tropospheric volcanic plumes with different optical characterization, are derived using the radiative transfer model UVSPEC and the LibRadtran suite. The optical parameters of the simulated aerosol layer, i.e., the Ångströem coefficient (alpha, the single scattering albedo (SSA and the asymmetry factor (g, have been varied to mimic volcanic ash (bigger and more absorbing particles, sulphate aerosols (smaller and more reflective particles and intermediate/mixed conditions. The characterization of the plume and its vertical distribution have been set-up to simulate Mount Etna, basing on previous studies. The radiative forcing and in particular the f ratio is strongly affected by the SSA and g, and to a smaller extent by alpha, especially for sulphates-dominated plumes. The impact of the altitude and thickness of the plume on the radiative forcing, for a fixed optical characterization of the aerosol layer, has been found negligible (less than 1% for RFEdSurf, RFEdTOA and f. The simultaneous presence of boundary layer/lower tropospheric marine or dust aerosols, like expected in the Mediterranean area, modulates only slightly (up to 12 and 14% for RFEdSurf and RFEdTOA, and 3 to 4% of the f ratio the radiative effects of the upper tropospheric volcanic layer.

  8. Microphysical, Macrophysical and Radiative Signatures of Volcanic Aerosols in Trade Wind Cumulus Observed by the A-Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Increased aerosol concentrations can raise planetary albedo not only by reflecting sunlight and increasing cloud albedo, but also by changing cloud amount. However, detecting aerosol effect on cloud amount has been elusive to both observations and modeling due to potential buffering mechanisms and convolution of meteorology. Here through a natural experiment provided by long-tem1 degassing of a low-lying volcano and use of A-Train satellite observations, we show modifications of trade cumulus cloud fields including decreased droplet size, decreased precipitation efficiency and increased cloud amount are associated with volcanic aerosols. In addition we find significantly higher cloud tops for polluted clouds. We demonstrate that the observed microphysical and macrophysical changes cannot be explained by synoptic meteorology or the orographic effect of the Hawaiian Islands. The "total shortwave aerosol forcin", resulting from direct and indirect forcings including both cloud albedo and cloud amount. is almost an order of magnitude higher than aerosol direct forcing alone. Furthermore, the precipitation reduction associated with enhanced aerosol leads to large changes in the energetics of air-sea exchange and trade wind boundary layer. Our results represent the first observational evidence of large-scale increase of cloud amount due to aerosols in a trade cumulus regime, which can be used to constrain the representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in climate models. The findings also have implications for volcano-climate interactions and climate mitigation research.

  9. Microphysical, macrophysical and radiative signatures of volcanic aerosols in trade wind cumulus observed by the A-Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased aerosol concentrations can raise planetary albedo not only by reflecting sunlight and increasing cloud albedo, but also by changing cloud amount. However, detecting aerosol effect on cloud amount has been elusive to both observations and modeling due to potential buffering mechanisms and convolution of meteorology. Here through a natural experiment provided by long-term degassing of a low-lying volcano and use of A-Train satellite observations, we show modifications of trade cumulus cloud fields including decreased droplet size, decreased precipitation efficiency and increased cloud amount are associated with volcanic aerosols. In addition we find significantly higher cloud tops for polluted clouds. We demonstrate that the observed microphysical and macrophysical changes cannot be explained by synoptic meteorology or the orographic effect of the Hawaiian Islands. The "total shortwave aerosol forcin", resulting from direct and indirect forcings including both cloud albedo and cloud amount, is almost an order of magnitude higher than aerosol direct forcing alone. Furthermore, the precipitation reduction associated with enhanced aerosol leads to large changes in the energetics of air-sea exchange and trade wind boundary layer. Our results represent the first observational evidence of large-scale increase of cloud amount due to aerosols in a trade cumulus regime, which can be used to constrain the representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in climate models. The findings also have implications for volcano-climate interactions and climate mitigation research.

  10. The impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosol on decadal-scale climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Pohlmann, Holger; Illing, Sebastian; Kadow, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of a large future volcanic eruption provides arguably the largest uncertainty concerning the evolution of the climate system on the time scale of a few years; but also the greatest opportunity to learn about the behavior of the climate system, and our models thereof. So the question emerges how large will the uncertainty be for future decadal climate predictions if no volcanic aerosol is taken into account? And how strong has volcanic aerosol affected decadal prediction skill on annual and multi-year seasonal scales over the CMIP5 hindcast period? To understand the impact of volcanic aerosol on multi-year seasonal and decadal climate predictions we performed CMIP5-type hindcasts without volcanic aerosol using the German MiKlip prediction system system baseline 1 from 1961 to 1991 and compared them to the corresponding simulations including aerosols. Our results show that volcanic aerosol significantly affects the prediction skill for global mean surface air temperature in the first five years after strong volcanic eruptions. Also on the regional scale a volcanic imprint on decadal-scale variability is detectable. Neglecting volcanic aerosol leads to a reduced prediction skill over the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indic and West Pacific but to an improvement over the tropical East-Pacific, where the model has in general no skill. Multi-seasonal differences in the skill for seasonal-mean temperatures are evident over Continental Europe with significant skill loss due to neglection of volcanic aerosol in boreal winter over central Europe, Scandinavia and over south-eastern Europe and the East-Mediterranean in boreal summer.

  11. Regional radiative impact of volcanic aerosol from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available High northern latitude eruptions have the potential to release volcanic aerosol into the Arctic environment, perturbing the Arctic's climate system. In this study, we present assessments of shortwave (SW, longwave (LW and net direct aerosol radiative forcings (DARFs and atmospheric heating/cooling rates caused by volcanic aerosol from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano by performing radiative transfer modeling constrained by NASA A-Train satellite data. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model for volcanic ash were used to characterize aerosol across the region. A representative range of aerosol optical depths (AODs at 550 nm were obtained from MODIS, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO was used to determine the altitude and thickness of the plumes. The optical properties of volcanic aerosol were calculated using a compositionally resolved microphysical model developed for both ash and sulfates. Two compositions of volcanic aerosol were considered in order to examine a fresh, ash rich plume and an older, ash poor plume. Optical models were incorporated into a modified version of the Santa Barbara Disort Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART model. Radiative transfer calculations were made for a range of surface albedos and solar zenith angles (SZA representative of the region. We find that the total DARF caused by a fresh, thin plume (~2.5–7 km at an AOD (550 nm range of 0.16–0.58 and SZA = 55° is –46 W m−2AOD−1 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA, 110 W m−2AOD−1 in the aerosol layer, and – 150 W m−2AOD−1 at the surface over seawater. However, the total DARF for the same plume over snow and at the same SZA at TOA, in the layer, and at the surface is 170, 170, and −2 W m−2

  12. Phosphorus-bearing Aerosol Particles From Volcanic Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Schroettner, H.; Poelt, P.; Delgado, H.; Caltabiano, T.

    2003-12-01

    Particles rich in P or bulk geochemical data of volcanic aerosol particles showing high P contents are known from many volcanic plumes (Stanton, 1994; Obenholzner et al., 2003). FESEM/EDS analysis of individual particles obtained from the passively degassing plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mx. (1997) and from the plume of Stromboli (May 2003) show P frequently. Even at the high resolution of the FESEM, euhedral apatite crystals could not be observed. At Popocatepetl (1997) spherical Ca-P-O particles are common. Fluffy, fractal or botryoidal particles also can contain EDS-detectable amounts of P. The EDS spectrum of such particles can comprise various elements. However most particles show P, S and Cl. P-S and P-S-metal species are known in chemistry but do they occur in volcanic plumes? Stoichiometric considerations had been made in the past suggesting the existence of P-S species in plumes (Stanton 1994), gas sampling and remote gas monitoring systems have not detected yet such molecules in plumes. The particle spectrum of the reawakened Popocateptel volcano might be related to accumulation of volatiles at the top of a magma chamber during the phase of dormancy. P-Fe rich, Ca-free aggregates are also known from the eruption of El Chichon 1982 (SEM/EDS by M. Sheridan, per. comm. 08-24-2003). Persistently active volcanoes (i.e. Stromboli) represent a different category according to continuous degassing and aerosol particle formation. A particle collector ( ca. 90 ml/min) accompanied a COSPEC helicopter flight at Stromboli (May 15, 2003) after one of the rare types of sub-plinian events on April 5 2003. P-bearing particles are very common. For instance, an Fe oxide grain (diam. = 2 æm) is partially covered by fluffy and euhedral P-bearing matter. The elements detected are P, Cl, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and (Fe). The fluffy and the euhedral (rhombohedral?) matter show in SE-BSE-mix image almost identical grey colors. At Stromboli and Popocatepetl particles on which

  13. Sensitivity of aerosol radiative forcing calculations to spectral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, K.E.

    1996-10-01

    Potential impacts of aerosol radiative forcing on climate have generated considerable recent interest. An important consideration in estimating the forcing from various aerosol components is the spectral resolution used for the solar radiative transfer calculations. This paper examines the spectral resolution required from the viewpoint of overlapping spectrally varying aerosol properties with other cross sections. A diagnostic is developed for comparing different band choices, and the impact of these choices on the radiative forcing calculated for typical sulfate and biomass aerosols was investigated.

  14. Glass shards, pumice fragments and volcanic aerosol particles - diagenesis a recorder of volcanic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Schroettner, H.; Poelt, P.; Delgado, H.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed SEM/EDS studies of Triassic (Southern Alps, A, I, Sl) and Miocene (Mixteca Alta, Mexico) tuffs revealed that volcanic glass shards can be replaced by zeolites (analcite), chlorites and smectites preserving the shape of primary shards (1). The Triassic pyroclastic deposits have been incorporated in the pre-Alpine burial diagenesis, the Miocene pyroclastic deposits are bentonites. The volcanologist is impressed by the circumstances that million years old pyroclast relict textures can be sized. Shape parameters obtained by image analysis can be compared with much younger pyroclastic deposits (2). Both deposits have not been effected by shearing. The alteration of pumice fragments of Triassic age is not a simple replacement process. Intergrowth of different illites and chlorites and probably vesicle filling by SiO2 and subsequent overgrowth make a reconstruction sometimes difficult. These processes are accompanied by the formation of REE-, Y- and Zr-bearing minerals as well as with the alteration of zircons. Studies of recently erupted ash from Popocatepetl volcano reveal the presence of a variety of µm-sized contact-metamorphosed clasts being a part of the volcanic ash (3). Such clasts should be present in many older pyroclastic deposits, especially where volcanoes had been situated on massive sedimentary units providing contact metamorphism in the realm of a magma chamber or during magma ascent. Volcanic aerosol particles collected in 1997 from the passively degassing plume of Popocatepetl volcano revealed in FESEM/EDS analysis (H. Schroettner and P. Poelt) a wide spectrum of fluffy, spherical and coagulated spherical particles (µm-sized). Under pre-vacuum conditions they remained stable for ca. 3 years (3). In nature the fate of these particles in the atmosphere is unknown. Are there relicts in marine, lacustrine sediments and ice cores, which could be used as proxies of volcanic activity? (1) Obenholzner &Heiken,1999. Ann.Naturhist.Mus.Wien, 100 A, 13

  15. Impact of Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols on Age-of-Air and Transport of Long-Lived Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The radiative perturbation associated to stratospheric aerosols from major explosive volcanic eruptions may induce significant changes in stratospheric dynamics. The aerosol heating rates warm up the lower stratosphere and cause a westerly wind anomaly, with additional tropical upwelling. Large scale transport of stratospheric trace species may be perturbed as a consequence of this intensified Brewer–Dobson circulation. The radiatively forced changes of the stratospheric circulation during the first two years after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991 may help explain the observed trend decline of long-lived greenhouse gases at surface stations (approximately −8 and −0.4 ppbv/year for CH4 and N2O, respectively. This decline is partly driven by the increased mid- to high-latitude downward flux at the tropopause and also by an increased isolation of the tropical pipe in the vertical layer near the tropopause, with reduced horizontal eddy mixing. Results from a climate-chemistry coupled model are shown for both long-lived trace species and the stratospheric age-of-air. The latter results to be younger by approximately 0.5 year at 30 hPa for 3–4 years after the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption, as a result of the volcanic aerosols radiative perturbation and is consistent with independent estimates based on long time series of in situ profile measurements of SF6 and CO2. Younger age of air is also calculated after Agung, El Chichón and Ruiz eruptions, as well as negative anomalies of the N2O growth rate at the extratropical tropopause layer. This type of analysis is made comparing the results of two ensembles of model simulations (1960–2005, one including stratospheric volcanic aerosols and their radiative interactions and a reference case where the volcanic aerosols do not interact with solar and planetary radiation.

  16. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  17. Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven; Ni, Ruijing; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Da; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David; Feng, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Yingying; Hu, Yongyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhu; Jiang, Xujia; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin; Huang, Yi; Guan, Dabo

    2016-10-01

    International trade separates regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. Yet the role of trade in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions has never been quantified. Here, we contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers such as Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences between consumption- and production-related radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of aerosols while lowering global emissions.

  18. Detection of volcanic sulfate aerosol with Envisat MIPAS shown for the Kasatochi, Sarychev, and Nabro eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars; Spang, Reinhold; von Hobe, Marc; Müller, Rolf; Riese, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosol is known to have a strong impact on climate. Transport pathways of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol to the stratosphere are still discussed. It is known that volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of sulfur directly into the stratosphere. Most sulfur, however, is injected into the troposphere and only a fraction of it can make its way into the stratosphere. Global and altitude resolved time series of observations are a valuable source of information for sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol detection. Here we present a new aerosol detection method for the infrared limb sounder Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the results for the Kasatochi, Sarychev, and Nabro eruptions. The new detection method utilizes three infrared window regions that are located around 830, 960, and 1224 cm-1. The combination of these three windows allows for a better detection of enhanced aerosol events in the troposphere as well as the discrimination from ice clouds. With this new method the 10 year record of MIPAS measurements was analyzed. The most remarkable sulfate aerosol events follow the Kasatochi, Sarychev, and Nabro eruptions. After these eruptions enhanced aerosol is detected in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. Within one to two months it spreads over most of the northern hemisphere. In the tropics the aerosol reaches altitudes up to around 20 km and in the Arctic up to 15 km. The enhanced aerosol signal can be observed for about 5, 7, and up to 10 month for the Kasatochi, Sarychev, and Nabro eruptions, respectively. During this period the enhanced aerosol detections decrease in number, strength, and observation altitude. After the Nabro eruption on 13 June 2011 volcanic aerosol is detected in the UTLS region two days after the initial eruption. The following days the aerosol moves around the northern edge of the Asian monsoon region, is then transported southwards and later

  19. New microphysical volcanic forcing datasets for the Agung, El Chichon and Pinatubo eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomse, Sandip; Mann, Graham; Marshall, Lauren; Carslaw, Kenneth; Chipperfield, Martyn; Bellouin, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Olaf; Johnson, Colin; O'Connor, Fiona

    2017-04-01

    Major tropical volcanic eruptions inject huge amounts of SO2 directly into the stratosphere, and create a long-lasting perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol. The abruptly elevated aerosol has strong climate impacts, principally surface cooling via scattering incoming solar radiation. The enhanced tropical stratospheric aerosol can also absorb outgoing long wave radiation causing a warming of the stratosphere and subsequent complex composition-dynamics responses (e.g. Dhomse et al., 2015). In this presentation we apply the composition-climate model UM-UKCA with interactive stratospheric chemistry and aerosol microphysics (Dhomse et al., 2014) to assess the enhancement to the stratospheric aerosol and associated radiative forcings from the three largest tropical eruptions in the last 60 years: Mt Agung (February 1963), El Chichon (April 1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991). Accurately characterising the forcing signature from these major eruptions is important for attribution of recent climate change and volcanic effects have been identified as a key requirement for robust attribution of multi-decadal surface temperature trends (e.g. Marotzke and Forster, 2015). Aligning with the design of the ISA-MIP co-ordinated multi-model "Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment" (HErSEA), we have carried out 3-member ensemble of simulations with each of upper, low and mid-point best estimates for SO2 and injection height for each eruption. We evaluate simulated aerosol properties (e.g. extinction, AOD, effective radius, particle size distribution) against a range of satellite and in-situ observational datasets and assess stratospheric heating against temperature anomalies are compared against reanalysis and other datasets. References: Dhomse SS, Chipperfield MP, Feng W, Hossaini R, Mann GW, Santee ML (2015) Revisiting the hemispheric asymmetry in midlatitude ozone changes following the Mount Pinatubo eruption: A 3-D model study, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, pp.3038

  20. Effects of El Chichon volcanic effluents on stratospheric aerosol dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of El Chichon's April 1982 eruption on stratospheric aerosol dynamics are presently discussed in terms of log-normal size distributions over 15-20 km sample altitudes between 30 and 45 deg N over the contiguous U.S. After collection, samples were studied by SEM, and log-normal size distributions were fitted to the data-points obtained. It is found that stratospheric aerosol behavior is explainable by the laws of aerosol mechanics more easily than has been the case for tropospheric aerosol, for which the source-sink relationship is much more complex.

  1. Strategy to use the Terra Aerosol Information to Derive the Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Terra will derive the aerosol optical thickness and properties. The aerosol properties can be used to distinguish between natural and human-made aerosol. In the polar orbit Terra will measure aerosol only once a day, around 10:30 am. How will we use this information to study the global radiative impacts of aerosol on climate? We shall present a strategy to address this problem. It includes the following steps: - From the Terra aerosol optical thickness and size distribution model we derive the effect of aerosol on reflection of solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. In a sensitivity study we show that the effect of aerosol on solar fluxes can be derived 10 times more accurately from the MODIS data than derivation of the optical thickness itself. Applications to data over several regions will be given. - Using 1/2 million AERONET global data of aerosol spectral optical thickness we show that the aerosol optical thickness and properties during the Terra 10:30 pass are equivalent to the daily average. Due to the aerosol lifetime of several days measurements at this time of the day are enough to assess the daily impact of aerosol on radiation. - Aerosol impact on the top of the atmosphere is only part of the climate question. The INDOEX experiment showed that addressing the impact of aerosol on climate, requires also measurements of the aerosol forcing at the surface. This can be done by a combination of measurements of MODIS and AERONET data.

  2. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Volcanic aerosol and ozone depletion within the Antarctic polar vortex during the austral spring of 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshler, T.; Adriani, A.; Gobbi, G.P.; Hofmann, D.J.; Donfrancesco, G. di; Johnson, B.J. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie (United States) CNR, Ist. de Fisica dell' Atmosfera, Frascati (Italy) NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States) ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Casaccia, Rome (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    In the spring of 1991 the Antarctic lower stratosphere was characterized by a layer of volcanic aerosol from the Cerro Hudson eruption. This aerosol layer was observed from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with both lidar and balloonborne particle counters beginning around 10 September. After 20 September the aerosol was observed daily between 9 and 13 km. In this layer homogeneous nucleation of new aerosol was observed with concentrations greater than 6000/cu cm. Comparisons of scattering ratio calculated from measured particle size distributions agree best with the lidar measurements when a real index of refraction near 1.5 is used. In the past 5 years of measurements, ozone below 13 km has been relatively unchanged during the annual Antartic ozone depletion; however, in 1991 ozone below 13 km decreased at a rate of 4 - 8 ppb/day over 30 days. This change began shortly after the appearance of the volcanic aerosol, providing direct measurements correlating volcanic aerosol and ozone depletion. 16 refs.

  4. Anthropogenic Aerosols in Asia, Radiative Forcing, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ocko, I.; Persad, G.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols arising as a result of human-induced emissions in Asia form a key 'driver' in causing pollution and in the forcing of anthropogenic climate change. The manner of the forced climate change is sensitive to the scattering and absorption properties of the aerosols and the aerosol-cloud microphysical interactions. Using the NOAA/ GFDL global climate models and observations from multiple platforms, we investigate the radiative perturbations due to the 20th Century sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol emissions and the resultant impacts on surface temperature, tropical precipitation, Indian monsoon, hemispheric circulation, and atmospheric and oceanic heat transports. The influence of the aerosol species has many contrasts with that due to the anthropogenic well-mixed greenhouse gas emissions e.g., the asymmetry in the hemispheric climate response, but is subject to larger uncertainties. The aerosol forcing expected in the future indicates a significant control on the 21st Century anthropogenic climate change in Asia.

  5. Aerosol modeling in CNRM-CM: evaluation of recent developments on natural aerosols and implications for aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, Pierre; Michou, Martine; Watson, Laura; Saint-Martin, David

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols interact with shortwave and longwave radiation with ensuing consequences on the radiative budget and climate. Their representation in climate models is consequently essential to estimate their radiative forcing and their role in the climate system. However, up to now, the evaluation of these aerosol schemes is often limited to the integrated atmospheric aerosol content given by the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the climate model CNRM-CM, the TACTIC (Tropospheric Aerosols for ClimaTe in CNRM-CM, Michou et al., 2015) aerosol scheme includes the five main aerosol species (desert dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black carbon and organic matter). Recent developments have been carried out to improve the representation of natural aerosols, namely the inclusion of the parameterization of Grythe et al. (2014) for sea-salt emissions, the revision of the size distribution of sea-salt aerosols, and the increase of the number of bins to represent dust aerosols. The objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of these developments to the representation of aerosols in CNRM-CM, using not only AOD from satellite data, but also aerosol vertical distribution and concentrations from in-situ measurements. Simulations have thus been carried out using different configurations of the aerosol scheme over the period 2000-2015, to allow for an evaluation against available measurements. The results show a relatively good performance of the model, but also reveal some discrepancies in the aerosol vertical distribution. The impact on the radiative budget of these changes in aerosol loads has been estimated, and shows the importance of the representation of natural aerosols for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing.

  6. Gas/aerosol-ash interaction in volcanic plumes: New insights from surface analyses of fine ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Lambert, Mathieu; Dufrêne, Yves; Gerin, Patrick; Óskarsson, Niels

    2007-07-01

    The reactions occurring between gases/aerosols and silicate ash particles in volcanic eruption plumes remain poorly understood, despite the fact that they are at the origin of a range of volcanic, environmental, atmospheric and health effects. In this study, we apply X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a surface-sensitive technique, to determine the chemical composition of the near-surface region (2-10 nm) of nine ash samples collected from eight volcanoes. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to image the nanometer-scale surface structure of individual ash particles isolated from three samples. We demonstrate that rapid acid dissolution of ash occurs within eruption plumes. This process is favoured by the presence of fluoride and is believed to supply the cations involved in the deposition of sulphate and halide salts onto ash. AFM imaging also has permitted the detection of extremely thin (< 10 nm) coatings on the surface of ash. This material is probably composed of soluble sulphate and halide salts mixed with sparingly soluble fluoride compounds. The surface approach developed here offers promising aspects for better appraising the role of gas/aerosol-ash interaction in dictating the ability of ash to act as sinks for various volcanic and atmospheric chemical species as well as sources for others.

  7. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  8. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiputra, J. F.; Otterå, O. H.

    2011-06-01

    Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink) on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even in the relatively extreme scenario where

  9. Sensitivity of direct climate forcing by atmospheric aerosols to aerosol size and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilinis, Christodoulos; Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1995-09-01

    We evaluate, using a box model, the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by atmospheric aerosols for a "global mean" aerosol that consists of fine and coarse modes to aerosol composition, aerosol size distribution, relative humidity (RH), aerosol mixing state (internal versus external mixture), deliquescence/crystallization hysteresis, and solar zenith angle. We also examine the dependence of aerosol upscatter fraction on aerosol size, solar zenith angle, and wavelength and the dependence of single scatter albedo on wavelength and aerosol composition. The single most important parameter in determining direct aerosol forcing is relative humidity, and the most important process is the increase of the aerosol mass as a result of water uptake. An increase of the relative humidity from 40 to 80% is estimated for the global mean aerosol considered to result in an increase of the radiative forcing by a factor of 2.1. Forcing is relatively insensitive to the fine mode diameter increase due to hygroscopic growth, as long as this mode remains inside the efficient scattering size region. The hysteresis/deliquescence region introduces additional uncertainty but, in general, errors less than 20% result by the use of the average of the two curves to predict forcing. For fine aerosol mode mean diameters in the 0.2-0.5 μm range direct aerosol forcing is relatively insensitive (errors less than 20%) to variations of the mean diameter. Estimation of the coarse mode diameter within a factor of 2 is generally sufficient for the estimation of the total aerosol radiative forcing within 20%. Moreover, the coarse mode, which represents the nonanthropogenic fraction of the aerosol, is estimated to contribute less than 10% of the total radiative forcing for all RHs of interest. Aerosol chemical composition is important to direct radiative forcing as it determines (1) water uptake with RH, and (2) optical properties. The effect of absorption by aerosol components on forcing is found to be

  10. Climate Implications of the Heterogeneity of Anthropogenic Aerosol Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Geeta Gayatri

    Short-lived anthropogenic aerosols are concentrated in regions of high human activity, where they interact with radiation and clouds, causing horizontally heterogeneous radiative forcing between polluted and unpolluted regions. Aerosols can absorb shortwave energy in the atmosphere, but deplete it at the surface, producing opposite radiative perturbations between the surface and atmosphere. This thesis investigates climate and policy implications of this horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of anthropogenic aerosol forcing, employing the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's AM2.1 and AM3 models, both at a global scale and using East Asia as a regional case study. The degree of difference between spatial patterns of climate change due to heterogeneous aerosol forcing versus homogeneous greenhouse gas forcing deeply impacts the detection, attribution, and prediction of regional climate change. This dissertation addresses a gap in current understanding of these two forcings' response pattern development, using AM2.1 historical forcing simulations. The results indicate that fast atmospheric and land-surface processes alone substantially homogenize the global pattern of surface energy flux response to heterogeneous aerosol forcing. Aerosols' vertical redistribution of energy significantly impacts regional climate, but is incompletely understood. It is newly identified here, via observations and historical and idealized forcing simulations, that increased aerosol-driven atmospheric absorption may explain half of East Asia's recent surface insolation decline. Further, aerosols' surface and atmospheric effects counteract each other regionally---atmospheric heating enhances summer monsoon circulation, while surface dimming suppresses it---but absorbing aerosols' combined effects reduce summer monsoon rainfall. This thesis constitutes the first vertical decomposition of aerosols' impacts in this high-emissions region and elucidates the monsoonal response to aerosols

  11. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  12. Assessing estimates of radiative forcing for solar geoengineering starts with accurate aerosol radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2016-12-01

    The deliberate modification of Earth's albedo as a complement to mitigation in order to slow climate change brings with it a range of risks. A range of different approaches have been studied, including the injection of aerosol particles into the stratosphere to decrease solar energy input into the climate system. Key side effects from this approach include ozone loss and radiative heating. Both of these side effects may produce dynamical changes with further consequences for stratospheric and tropospheric climate. Studies of past volcanic eruptions suggest that sulfate aerosol injection may be capable of achieving a compensating radiative forcing of -1 W m-2 or more. It is also expected that such injection of sulfate aerosols will result in loss of stratospheric ozone and of significant infrared heating. The problems resulting from sulfate aerosols intended have motivated the investigation of alternative materials, including high refractive index solid materials. High refractive index materials have the potential to scatter more efficiently per unit mass, leading to a reduction in surface area for heterogeneous chemistry, and, depending on details of absorption, less radiative heating. Fundamentally, assessing these trade-offs requires accurate knowledge of the complex refractive index of materials being considered over the full range of wavelengths relevant to atmospheric radiative transfer, that is, from ultraviolet to far-infrared. Our survey of the relevant literature finds that such measurements are not available for all materials of interest at all wavelengths. We utilize a method developed in astrophysics to fill in spectral gaps, and find that some materials may heat the stratosphere substantially more than was found in previous work. Stratospheric heating can warm the tropical tropopause layer, increasing the flux of water vapor into the stratosphere, with further consequences for atmospheric composition and radiative forcing. We analyze this consequence

  13. Why Is the Climate Forcing of Sulfate Aerosols So Uncertain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sulfate aerosol particles have strong scattering effect on the solar radiation transfer which results in increasing the planet albedo and, hence, tend to cool the earth-atmosphere system. Also, aerosols can act as the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which tend to increase the albedo of clouds and cool the global warming. The ARPEGE-Climat version 3 AGCM with FMR radiation scheme is used to estimate the direct and indirect radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols. For minimizing the uncertainties in assessing this kind of cooling effect, all kinds of factors are analyzed which have been mixed in the assessment process and may lead to the different results of the radiative forcing of aerosols. It is noticed that one of the uncertainties to assess the climate forcing of aerosols by GCM results from the different definition of radiative forcing that was used. In order to clarify this vague idea, the off-line case for considering no feedbacks and on-line case for including all the feedbacks have been used for assessment. The direct forcing of sulfate aerosols in off-line case is -0.57 W/m2 and -0.38 W/m2 for the clear sky and all sky respectively. The value of on-line case appears to be a little larger than that in off-line case chiefly due to the feedback of clouds. The indirect forcing of sulfate aerosols in off-line case is -1.4 W / m2 and -1.0 W / m2 in on-line case. The radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols has obvious regional characteristics. There is a larger negative radiative forcing over North America, Europe and East Asia. If the direct and indirect forcing are added together, it is enough to offset the positive radiative forcing induced by the greenhouse gases in these regions.

  14. Interaction of Volcanic Forcing and El Nino: Sensitivity to the Eruption Magnitude and El Nino Intensity

    KAUST Repository

    Predybaylo, Evgeniya

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic aerosols formed in the stratosphere after strong explosive eruptions influence Earth\\'s radiative balance, affecting atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and circulation. It was observed that the recent volcanic eruptions frequently occurred in El Nino years. Analysis of the paleo data confirms that the probability of a sequent El Nino occurrence after the eruption increases. To better understand the physical mechanism of this interaction we employed ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model CM2.1, developed in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, and conducted a series of numerical experiments using initial conditions with different El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strengths forced by volcanic eruptions of different magnitudes, Pinatubo of June 1991 and Tambora of April 1815: (i) strong ENSO/Pinatubo, (ii) weak ENSO/Pinatubo, (iii) strong ENSO/Tambora. The amount of ejected material from the Tambora eruption was about three times greater than that of the Pinatubo eruption. The initial conditions with El Nino were sampled from the CM2.1 long control run. Our simulations show the enhancement of El Nino in the second year after an eruption. We found that the spatial-temporal structure of model responses is sensitive to both the magnitude of an eruption and the strength of El Nino. We analyzed the ocean dynamic in the tropical Pacific for all cases to uncover the physical mechanism, resulting in the enhanced and/or prolonged El Nino.

  15. The effect of volcanic aerosols on the thermal infrared budget of the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal IR heating of the stratosphere due to volcanic aerosols such as those released by the eruption of El Chichon is investigated by means of clear-sky model computations using a LOWTRAN5 radiance code (Kneizys et al., 1980) modified by Charlock (1983) to increase its vertical resolution. The results are presented graphically for 4-km-thick aerosol layers at altitudes 18, 22, and 25 km and at latitudes 0 deg and 35 deg N, and the effects of tropospheric cloud height (0-10 km) are taken into account. The aerosol-induced IR divergence is shown to depend on aerosol height and to be highly and nonlinearly sensitive to the location of underlying water clouds.

  16. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  17. Modeling of 2008 Kasatochi volcanic sulfate direct radiative forcing: assimilation of OMI SO2 plume height data and comparison with MODIS and CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Omar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic SO2 column amount and injection height retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with the Extended Iterative Spectral Fitting (EISF technique are used to initialize a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem to simulate the atmospheric transport and lifecycle of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol from the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, and to subsequently estimate the direct shortwave, top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing of the volcanic sulfate aerosol. Analysis shows that the integrated use of OMI SO2 plume height in GEOS-Chem yields: (a good agreement of the temporal evolution of 3-D volcanic sulfate distributions between model simulations and satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP, and (b a e-folding time for volcanic SO2 that is consistent with OMI measurements, reflecting SO2 oxidation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is reliably represented in the model However, a consistent (~25% low bias is found in the GEOS-Chem simulated SO2 burden, and is likely due to a high (~20% bias of cloud liquid water amount (as compared to the MODIS cloud product and the resultant stronger SO2 oxidation in the GEOS meteorological data during the first week after eruption when part of SO2 underwent aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds. Radiative transfer calculations show that the forcing by Kasatochi volcanic sulfate aerosol becomes negligible 6 months after the eruption, but its global average over the first month is −1.3 W m−2 with the majority of the forcing-influenced region located north of 20° N, and with daily peak values up to −2 W m−2 on days 16–17. Sensitivity experiments show that every 2 km decrease of SO2 injection height in the GEOS-Chem simulations will result in a ~25% decrease in volcanic sulfate forcing; similar sensitivity but opposite sign also holds for a 0.03 μm increase of geometric radius of the

  18. Modeling of 2008 Kasatochi volcanic sulfate direct radiative forcing: assimilation of OMI SO2 plume height data and comparison with MODIS and CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krotkov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic SO2 column amount and injection height retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with the Extended Iterative Spectral Fitting (EISF technique are used to initialize a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem to simulate the atmospheric transport and lifecycle of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol from the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, and to subsequently estimate the direct shortwave, top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing of the volcanic sulfate aerosol. Analysis shows that the integrated use of OMI SO2 plume height in GEOS-Chem yields: (a good agreement of the temporal evolution of 3-D volcanic sulfate distributions between model simulations and satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP, and (b an e-folding time for volcanic SO2 that is consistent with OMI measurements, reflecting SO2 oxidation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is reliably represented in the model. However, a consistent (~25% low bias is found in the GEOS-Chem simulated SO2 burden, and is likely due to a high (~20% bias of cloud liquid water amount (as compared to the MODIS cloud product and the resultant stronger SO2 oxidation in the GEOS meteorological data during the first week after eruption when part of SO2 underwent aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds. Radiative transfer calculations show that the forcing by Kasatochi volcanic sulfate aerosol becomes negligible 6 months after the eruption, but its global average over the first month is −1.3 Wm−2, with the majority of the forcing-influenced region located north of 20° N, and with daily peak values up to −2 Wm−2 on days 16–17. Sensitivity experiments show that every 2 km decrease of SO2 injection height in the GEOS-Chem simulations will result in a ~25 % decrease in volcanic sulfate forcing; similar sensitivity but opposite sign also holds for a 0.03 μm increase of geometric radius of

  19. Modeling of 2008 Kasatochi Volcanic Sulfate Direct Radiative Forcing: Assimilation of OMI SO2 Plume Height Data and Comparison with MODIS and CALIOP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Park, S.; Zeng, J.; Ge, C.; Yang, K.; Carn, S.; Krotkov, N.; Omar, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic SO2 column amount and injection height retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with the Extended Iterative Spectral Fitting (EISF) technique are used to initialize a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate the atmospheric transport and lifecycle of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosol from the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, and to subsequently estimate the direct shortwave, top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing of the volcanic sulfate aerosol. Analysis shows that the integrated use of OMI SO2 plume height in GEOS-Chem yields: (a) good agreement of the temporal evolution of 3-D volcanic sulfate distributions between model simulations and satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP), and (b) an e-folding time for volcanic SO2 that is consistent with OMI measurements, reflecting SO2 oxidation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is reliably represented in the model. However, a consistent (approx. 25 %) low bias is found in the GEOS-Chem simulated SO2 burden, and is likely due to a high (approx.20 %) bias of cloud liquid water amount (as compared to the MODIS cloud product) and the resultant stronger SO2 oxidation in the GEOS meteorological data during the first week after eruption when part of SO2 underwent aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds. Radiative transfer calculations show that the forcing by Kasatochi volcanic sulfate aerosol becomes negligible 6 months after the eruption, but its global average over the first month is -1.3W/sq m, with the majority of the forcing-influenced region located north of 20degN, and with daily peak values up to -2W/sq m on days 16-17. Sensitivity experiments show that every 2 km decrease of SO2 injection height in the GEOS-Chem simulations will result in a approx.25% decrease in volcanic sulfate forcing; similar sensitivity but opposite sign also holds for a 0.03 m increase of geometric radius of

  20. Improving estimates of aerosol radiative forcing through a particle-based aerosol microphysical scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierce, L.; McGraw, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Forcing by atmospheric aerosols remains a large source of uncertainty in assessing human influences on the climate. Although global models have moved toward including more detailed representations of aerosol populations, aerosol microphysical schemes have been evaluated against benchmark models in only limited cases. Here we introduce a new framework for simulating atmospheric aerosols based on the Quadrature Method of Moments. This new aerosol model has been designed to reproduce key features of benchmark populations simulated by the particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC, while tracking as little information about aerosol distributions as is necessary. The quadrature-based model simulates the aerosol evolution using a small number of weighted particles and is, therefore, decided as a reduced particle-based model. By applying principles of maximum entropy, the quadrature-based model efficiently reproduces distributions with respect to key aerosol properties, such as critical supersaturation for cloud condensation nuclei activation and optical cross sections, with high accuracy. In addition to providing an optimized aerosol model, the present study also describes how multi-scale modeling can be used as a tool for development of advanced aerosol microphysical schemes.

  1. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  2. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing from contrails and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation-induced cloudiness is investigated by using the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) in the present (2006) and the future (through 2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing in 2050 can reach 87 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 7 from 2006, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. This is due to non-uniform regional increase in air traffic and different sensitivities for contrail radiative forcing in different regions. CAM5 simulations indicate that negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds in 2050 can be as large as -160 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 4 from 2006. As a result, the net 2050 radiative forcing of contrail cirrus and aviation aerosols may have a cooling effect on the planet. Aviation sulfate aerosols emitted at cruise altitude can be transported down to the lower troposphere, increasing the aerosol concentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistence of low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible net forcing globally in 2006 and 2050 in this model study. Uncertainties in the methodology and the modeling are significant and discussed in detail. Nevertheless, the projected percentage increase in contrail radiative forcing is important for future aviation impacts. In addition, the role of aviation aerosols in the cloud nucleation processes can greatly influence on the simulated radiative forcing from aircraft-induced cloudiness and even change its sign. Future research to confirm these results is necessary.

  3. Cloud, Aerosol, and Volcanic Ash Retrievals Using ASTR and SLSTR with ORAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarragh, Gregory; Poulsen, Caroline; Povey, Adam; Thomas, Gareth; Christensen, Matt; Sus, Oliver; Schlundt, Cornelia; Stapelberg, Stefan; Stengel, Martin; Grainger, Don

    2015-12-01

    The Optimal Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) is a generalized optimal estimation system that retrieves cloud, aerosol and volcanic ash parameters using satellite imager measurements in the visible to infrared. Use of the same algorithm for different sensors and parameters leads to consistency that facilitates inter-comparison and interaction studies. ORAC currently supports ATSR, AVHRR, MODIS and SEVIRI. In this proceeding we discuss the ORAC retrieval algorithm applied to ATSR data including the retrieval methodology, the forward model, uncertainty characterization and discrimination/classification techniques. Application of ORAC to SLSTR data is discussed including the additional features that SLSTR provides relative to the ATSR heritage. The ORAC level 2 and level 3 results are discussed and an application of level 3 results to the study of cloud/aerosol interactions is presented.

  4. Evidence for Limited Indirect Aerosol Forcing in Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, O. B.; Stevens, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Increases in cloud cover and condensed water contribute more than half of the indirect aerosol effect in an ensemble of general circulation model (GCM) simulations estimating the global radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. We use detailed simulations of marine stratocumulus clouds and airborne observations of ship tracks to show that increases in cloud cover and condensed water in reality are far less than represented by the GCM ensemble. Our results offer an explanation for recent simplified inverse climate calculations indicating that indirect aerosol effects are greatly exaggerated in GCMs.

  5. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  6. Imaginary refractive index and other microphysical properties of volcanic ash, Sarahan dust, and other mineral aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Artaxo, P.; Todd, M.; Ben Ami, Y.; Dolgos, G.; Espinosa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol properties are essential to support remote sensing measurements, atmospheric circulation and climate models. This research aims to improve the understanding of the optical and microphysical properties of different types of aerosols particles. Samples of volcanic ash, Saharan dust and other mineral aerosols particles were analyzed by different techniques. Ground samples were sieved down to 45um, de-agglomerated and resuspended in the laboratory using a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength was derived empirically from the measurements of the spectral mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. Some selected samples were also analyzed with the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) instrument for the characterization of the aerosol polarized phase function. This work compares results of the spectral refractive index of different materials obtained by our methodology with those available in the literature. In some cases there are significant differences both in magnitude and spectral dependence of the imaginary refractive index. These differences are evaluated and discussed in this work.

  7. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bellouin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC, and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode. GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000–2006. HadGEM simulations using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and cloud susceptibilities, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of −0.49 W m−2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This difference is compensated by changes in first indirect aerosol

  8. Ozone Depletion at Mid-Latitudes: Coupling of Volcanic Aerosols and Temperature Variability to Anthropogenic Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Garcia, R. R.; Randel, W.; Wu, F.; Nagatani, R.; Gleason, J.; Thomason, L.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite observations of total ozone at 40-60 deg N are presented from a variety of instruments over the time period 1979-1997. These reveal record low values in 1992-3 (after Pinatubo) followed by partial but incomplete recovery. The largest post-Pinatubo reductions and longer-term trends occur in spring, providing a critical test for chemical theories of ozone depletion. The observations are shown to be consistent with current understanding of the chemistry of ozone depletion when changes in reactive chlorine and stratospheric aerosol abundances are considered along with estimates of wave-driven fluctuations in stratospheric temperatures derived from global temperature analyses. Temperature fluctuations are shown to make significant contributions to model calculated northern mid-latitude ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosols at temperatures near 200-210 K (depending upon water vapor pressure), particularly after major volcanic eruptions. Future mid-latitude ozone recovery will hence depend not only on chlorine recovery but also on temperature trends and/or variability, volcanic activity, and any trends in stratospheric sulfate aerosol.

  9. Role of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols in the recent global surface warming slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doug M.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Eade, Rosie; Hermanson, Leon; Jones, Gareth S.; Scaife, Adam A.; Sheen, Katy L.; Thompson, Vikki

    2016-10-01

    The rate of global mean surface temperature (GMST) warming has slowed this century despite the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Climate model experiments show that this slowdown was largely driven by a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), with a smaller external contribution from solar variability, and volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols. The prevailing view is that this negative PDO occurred through internal variability. However, here we show that coupled models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project robustly simulate a negative PDO in response to anthropogenic aerosols implying a potentially important role for external human influences. The recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 also contributed to the slowdown in GMST trends. Our results suggest that a slowdown in GMST trends could have been predicted in advance, and that future reduction of anthropogenic aerosol emissions, particularly from China, would promote a positive PDO and increased GMST trends over the coming years. Furthermore, the overestimation of the magnitude of recent warming by models is substantially reduced by using detection and attribution analysis to rescale their response to external factors, especially cooling following volcanic eruptions. Improved understanding of external influences on climate is therefore crucial to constrain near-term climate predictions.

  10. Regional aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate impacts of regional aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of anthropogenic aerosols vary substantially over the globe and the short atmospheric residence time of aerosols leads to a highly uneven radiative forcing distribution, both spatially and temporally. Regional aerosol radiative forcing can, nevertheless, exert a large influence on the temperature field away from the forcing region through changes in heat transport or the atmospheric or ocean circulation. Moreover, the global temperature response distribution to aerosol forcing may vary depending on the geographical location of the forcing. In other words, the climate sensitivity in one region can vary depending on the location of the forcing. The surface temperature distribution response to changes in sulphate aerosol forcing caused by sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission perturbations in four different regions is investigated using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). The four regions, Europe, North America, East and South Asia, are all regions with historically high aerosol emissions and are relevant from both an air-quality and climate policy perspective. All emission perturbations are defined relative to the year 2000 emissions provided for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The global mean temperature change per unit SO2 emission change is similar for all four regions for similar magnitudes of emissions changes. However, the global temperature change per unit SO2 emission in simulations where regional SO2 emission were removed is substantially higher than that obtained in simulations where regional SO2 emissions were increased. Thus, the climate sensitivity to regional SO2 emissions perturbations depends on the magnitude of the emission perturbation in NorESM. On regional scale, on the other hand, the emission perturbations in different geographical locations lead to different regional temperature responses, both locally and in remote regions. The results from the model simulations are used to construct regional temperature potential

  11. Variability of aerosol optical depth and aerosol radiative forcing over Northwest Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb, Shaik Darga; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, D.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the aerosol loading in India is increasing that has significant impact on the weather/climatic conditions. The present study discusses the analysis of temporal (monthly and seasonal) variation of aerosol optical depth(AOD) by the ground based observations from sun photometer and estimate the aerosol radiative forcing and heating rate over selected station Dehradun in North western Himalayas, India during 2015. The in-situ measurements data illustrate that the maximum seasonal average AOD observed during summer season AOD at 500nm ≍ 0.59+/-0.27 with an average angstrom exponent, α ≍0.86 while minimum during winter season AOD at 500nm ≍ 0.33+/-0.10 with angstrom exponent, α ≍1.18. The MODIS and MISR derived AOD was also compared with the ground measured values and are good to be in good agreement. Analysis of air mass back trajectories using HYSPLIT model reveal that the transportation of desert dust during summer months. The Optical Properties of Aerosols and clouds (OPAC) model was used to compute the aerosol optical properties like single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom coefficient (α) and Asymmetry(g) parameter for each day of measurement and they are incorporated in a Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model, i.e Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) to estimate the direct short-wave (0.25 to 4 μm) Aerosol Radiative forcing at the Surface (SUR), the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and Atmosphere (ATM). The maximum Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) was observed during summer months at SUR ≍ -56.42 w/m2, at TOA ≍-21.62 w/m2 whereas in ATM ≍+34.79 w/m2 with corresponding to heating rate 1.24°C/day with in lower atmosphere.

  12. Aerosol Properties and Radiative Forcing over Kanpur during Severe Aerosol Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Sinha, P. R.; Vinoj, V.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.; Misra, Amit; Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit large spatio-temporal fluctuation driven by the local monsoon system, emission rates and seasonally-changed air masses. The northern part of India is well-known for its high aerosol loading throughout the year due to anthropogenic emissions, dust influence and biomass burning. On certain circumstances and, under favorable weather conditions, the aerosol load can be severe, causing significant health concerns and climate implications. The present work analyzes the aerosol episode (AE) days and examines the modification in aerosol properties and radiative forcing during the period 2001-2010 based on Kanpur-AERONET sun photometer data. As AEs are considered the days having daily-mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the decadal mean + 1 STD (standard deviation); the threshold value is defined at 0.928. The results identify 277 out of 2095 days (13.2%) of AEs over Kanpur, which are most frequently observed during post-monsoon (78 cases, 18.6%) and monsoon (76, 14.7%) seasons due to biomass-burning episodes and dust influence, respectively. On the other hand, the AEs in winter and pre-monsoon are lower in both absolute and percentage values (65, 12.5% and 58, 9.1%, respectively). The modification in aerosol properties on the AE days is strongly related to season. Thus, in post-monsoon and winter the AEs are associated with enhanced presence of fine-mode aerosols and Black Carbon from anthropogenic pollution and any kind of burning, while in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons they are mostly associated with transported dust. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) calculated using SBDART shows much more surface (~-69 to -97 Wm-2) and Top of Atmosphere cooling (-20 to -30 Wm-2) as well as atmospheric heating (~43 to 71 Wm-2) during the AE days compared to seasonal means. These forcing values are mainly controlled by the higher AODs and the modified aerosol characteristics (Angstrom α, SSA) during the AE days in each season and may cause

  13. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4

  14. Asymmetric forcing from stratospheric aerosols impacts Sahelian rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Bellouin, Nicolas; Stephenson, David

    2013-07-01

    The Sahelian drought of the 1970s-1990s was one of the largest humanitarian disasters of the past 50 years, causing up to 250,000 deaths and creating 10 million refugees. It has been attributed to natural variability, over-grazing and the impact of industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Each mechanism can influence the Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient, which is strongly coupled to Sahelian precipitation. We suggest that sporadic volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere also strongly influence this gradient and cause Sahelian drought. Using de-trended observations from 1900 to 2010, we show that three of the four driest Sahelian summers were preceded by substantial Northern Hemisphere volcanic eruptions. We use a state-of-the-art coupled global atmosphere-ocean model to simulate both episodic volcanic eruptions and geoengineering by continuous deliberate injection into the stratosphere. In either case, large asymmetric stratospheric aerosol loadings concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere are a harbinger of Sahelian drought whereas those concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere induce a greening of the Sahel. Further studies of the detailed regional impacts on the Sahel and other vulnerable areas are required to inform policymakers in developing careful consensual global governance before any practical solar radiation management geoengineering scheme is implemented.

  15. A model study of Fuego volcanic aerosol dispersion in the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Turner, R. E.; Butler, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    A zonally averaged time-dependent primitive equation model is used to simulate the dispersion of both a carbon 14 injection and the volcanic aerosol from the 1974 Fuego eruption. It is noted that both injections occurred at low latitudes to midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The eddy flux terms, which account for the major portion of the transport in the lower stratosphere of this model, are specified in a manner similar to that of Harwood and Pyle (1975). Comparisons with data underline the ability of the model to simulate the vertical character of the tracer while maintaining reasonable meridional transport times. For the aerosol study, the simulated 1/e decay time at 37 deg N and for the 16- to 21-km altitude region is 9 months, whereas lidar measurements at the same latitude give a decay time of 8 months. The simulated vertical width at half-maximum for the aerosol tracer at 37 deg N and 19 deg N and for 6 months after the event possesses values of 5.0 km and 3.6 km, respectively, whereas the observed lidar values are 4.4 km and 3.0 km, respectively. The tracer transport to the Southern Hemisphere also is in qualitative agreement with the limited data that are available.

  16. PSC and volcanic aerosol routine observations in Antarctica by UV-visible ground-based spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1994-01-01

    Polar statospheric clouds (PSC) and stratospheric aerosol can be observed by ground-based UV-visible spectrometry by looking at the variation of the color of the sky during twilight. A radiative transfer model shows that reddenings are caused by high altitude (22-28 km) thin layers of scatterers, while low altitude (12-20 km) thick ones result in blueings. The color index method applied on 4 years of observations at Dumont d'Urville (67 deg S), from 1988 to 1991, shows that probably because the station is located at the edge of the vortex, dense PSC are uncommon. More unexpected is the existence of a systematic seasonal variation of the color of the twilight sky - bluer at spring - which reveals the formation of a dense scattering layer at or just above the tropopause at the end of the winter. Large scattering layers are reported above the station in 1991, first in August around 12-14 km, later in September at 22-24 km. They are attributed to volcanic aerosol from Mt Hudson and Mt Pinatubo respectively, which erupted in 1991. Inspection of the data shows that the lowest entered rapidly into the polar vortex but not the highest which remained outside, demonstrating that the vortex was isolated at 22-26 km.

  17. EVALUATION OF ACOUSTIC FORCES ON A PARTICLE IN AEROSOL MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    The acoustic force exerted on a solid particle was evaluated to develop a fundamental understanding of the critical physical parameters or constraints affecting particle motion and capture in a collecting device. The application of an acoustic force to the collection of a range of submicron-to-micron particles in a highly turbulent airflow stream laden with solid particles was evaluated in the presence of other assisting and competing forces. This scoping estimate was based on the primary acoustic force acting directly on particles in a dilute aerosol system, neglecting secondary interparticle effects such as agglomeration of the sub-micron particles. A simplified analysis assuming a stable acoustic equilibrium with an infinite sound speed in the solid shows that for a solid-laden air flow in the presence of a standing wave, particles will move toward the nearest node. The results also show that the turbulent drag force on a 1-{micro}m particle resulting from eddy motion is dominant when compared with the electrostatic force or the ultrasonic acoustic force. At least 180 dB acoustic pressure level at 1 MHz is required for the acoustic force to be comparable to the electrostatic or turbulent drag forces in a high-speed air stream. It is noted that particle size and pressure amplitude are dominant parameters for the acoustic force. When acoustic pressure level becomes very large, the acoustic energy will heat up the surrounding air medium, which may cause air to expand. With an acoustic power of about 600 watts applied to a 2000-lpm air flow, the air temperature can increase by as much as 15 C at the exit of the collector.

  18. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second

  19. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second is indire

  20. Microphysical, macrophysical and radiative signatures of volcanic aerosols in trade wind cumulus observed by the A-Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased aerosol concentrations can raise planetary albedo not only by reflecting sunlight and increasing cloud albedo, but also by changing cloud amount. However, detecting aerosol effect on cloud amount has been elusive to both observations and modeling due to potential buffering mechanisms and convolution of meteorology. Here through a natural experiment provided by long-term degassing of a low-lying volcano and use of A-Train satellite observations, we show aerosols are associated strongly with modification of trade cumulus cloud fields including decreased droplet size, decreased precipitation efficiency and increased cloud amount. We also demonstrate that the observed microphysical and macrophysical changes cannot be explained by synoptic meteorology or the orographic effect of the Hawaiian Islands. The "total shortwave aerosol forcing", resulting from direct and indirect forcings including both cloud albedo and cloud amount, is almost an order of magnitude higher than aerosol direct forcing alone. The precipitation reduction associated with enhanced aerosol leads to large changes in the energetics of air-sea exchange. Our results represent the first observational evidence of large-scale increase of cloud amount due to aerosols in a trade cumulus regime, which can be used to constrain the representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in climate models. The findings also have implications for volcano-climate interactions and climate mitigation research.

  1. Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Aerosols over Oceans from Satellite Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHI Guangyu; QIN Shiguang; YANG Su; ZHANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance. Anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its accompanying shortwave radiative forcing (RF) are usually simulated by numerical models. Recently, with the development of space-borne instruments and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, it has become possible to estimate aerosol radiative forcing based on satellite observations. In this study, we have estimated shortwave direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over oceans in all-sky conditions by combining clouds and the Single Scanner Footprint data of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES/SSF) experiment, which provide measurements of upward shortwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere, with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products. We found that globally averaged aerosol radiative forcing over oceans in the clear-sky conditions and all-sky conditions were -1.03±0.48 W m-2 and -0.34 ±0.16 W m-2, respectively. Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols shows large regional and seasonal variations. In some regions and in particular seasons, the magnitude of direct forcing by anthropogenic aerosols can be comparable to the forcing of greenhouse gases. However, it shows that aerosols caused the cooling effect, rather than warming effect from global scale, which is different from greenhouse gases.

  2. Likely seeding of cirrus clouds by stratospheric Kasatochi volcanic aerosol particles near a mid-latitude tropopause fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Yang, Kai; Stewart, Sebastian A.; Fromm, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Following the explosive 7-8 August 2008 Mt. Kasatochi volcanic eruption in southwestern Alaska, a segment of the dispersing stratospheric aerosol layer was profiled beginning 16 August in continuous ground-based lidar measurements over the Mid-Atlantic coast of the eastern United States. On 17-18 August, the layer was displaced downward into the upper troposphere through turbulent mixing near a tropopause fold. Cirrus clouds and ice crystal fallstreaks were subsequently observed, having formed within the entrained layer. The likely seeding of these clouds by Kasatochi aerosol particles is discussed. Cloud formation is hypothesized as resulting from either preferential homogenous freezing of relatively large sulfate-based solution droplets deliquesced after mixing into the moist upper troposphere or through heterogeneous droplet activation by volcanic ash. Satellite-borne spectrometer measurements illustrate the evolution of elevated Kasatochi SO 2 mass concentrations regionally and the spatial extent of the cirrus cloud band induced by likely particle seeding. Satellite-borne polarization lidar observations confirm ice crystal presence within the clouds. Geostationary satellite-based water vapor channel imagery depicts strong regional subsidence, symptomatic of tropopause folding, along a deepening trough in the sub-tropical westerlies. Regional radiosonde profiling confirms both the position of the fold and depth of upper-tropospheric subsidence. These data represent the first unambiguous observations of likely cloud seeding by stratospheric volcanic aerosol particles after mixing back into the upper troposphere.

  3. Letter to the Editor Aerosol radiative forcing over land: effect of surface and cloud reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Satheesh

    Full Text Available It is now clearly understood that atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on climate due to their important role in modifying the incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation. The question of whether aerosol cools (negative forcing or warms (positive forcing the planet depends on the relative dominance of absorbing aerosols. Recent investigations over the tropical Indian Ocean have shown that, irrespective of the comparatively small percentage contribution in optical depth ( ~ 11%, soot has an important role in the overall radiative forcing. However, when the amount of absorbing aerosols such as soot are significant, aerosol optical depth and chemical composition are not the only determinants of aerosol climate effects, but the altitude of the aerosol layer and the altitude and type of clouds are also important. In this paper, the aerosol forcing in the presence of clouds and the effect of different surface types (ocean, soil, vegetation, and different combinations of soil and vegetation are examined based on model simulations, demonstrating that aerosol forcing changes sign from negative (cooling to positive (warming when reflection from below (either due to land or clouds is high.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles History of Geophysics (atmospheric sciences Hydrology (anthropogenic effects

  4. Atmospheric Feedbacks, Aerosol Forcings, and Tropical Precipitation Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y.; Frierson, D. M.; Kang, S.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that variations in climate sensitivity among global climate models (GCMs) are largely attributable to differences in atmospheric feedbacks that affect the top of the atmosphere radiation budget. Here, we demonstrate how the hemispheric asymmetry of these feedbacks influence cross-equatorial energy transport, and thus explain differences in models projection of tropical precipitation. The framework we use is based on fundamental energetic constraints of the system: since both moisture transports and energy transports within the deep tropical atmosphere are governed by the Hadley circulation, a southward shift of the intertropical conversion zone (ITCZ) is associated with a northward transport of moist static energy. This situation is typically associated with enhanced heating of the Southern Hemisphere, often due to hemispheric differences in aerosols, clouds, water vapor, surface albedo changes. We find that the ITCZ appears to shift southward in the 20th century in both rain gauges (GHCN) and reanalysis (20CRP) data. Most of the global climate models (GCMs) in the CMIP3 archive reproduce the direction of this shift. However, they all underestimate the shift with greatly varying degree. Using the energetic framework, we conclude that (1) aerosol cooling in the northern hemisphere shifts the ITCZ south in all of the GCMs (2) differences in feedbacks (particularly cloud feedbacks) in GCMs are responsible for the spread in the ITCZ shifts. This result emphasizes that biases in feedbacks and forcings will not only affect global mean temperature, but will also influence climate in various latitudes through energy transport.

  5. European and Mediterranean hydroclimate responses to tropical volcanic forcing over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. P.; Cook, B. I.; Cook, E. R.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Krusic, P. J.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Buckley, B. M.; Davi, N. K.; Leland, C.; Griffin, K. L.

    2017-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions have global climate impacts, but their effect on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood. We use a modified version of superposed epoch analysis, an eruption year list collated from multiple data sets, and seasonal paleoclimate reconstructions (soil moisture, precipitation, geopotential heights, and temperature) to investigate volcanic forcing of spring and summer hydroclimate over Europe and the Mediterranean over the last millennium. In the western Mediterranean, wet conditions occur in the eruption year and the following 3 years. Conversely, northwestern Europe and the British Isles experience dry conditions in response to volcanic eruptions, with the largest moisture deficits in posteruption years 2 and 3. The precipitation response occurs primarily in late spring and early summer (April-July), a pattern that strongly resembles the negative phase of the East Atlantic Pattern. Modulated by this mode of climate variability, eruptions force significant, widespread, and heterogeneous hydroclimate responses across Europe and the Mediterranean.

  6. Implications of multiple scattering on the assessment of black carbon aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Suresh Babu, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Satheesh, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of radiative coupling between scattering and absorbing aerosols, in an external mixture, on the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to black carbon (BC), its sensitivity to the composite aerosol loading and composition, and surface reflectance are investigated using radiative transfer model simulations. The ARF due to BC is found to depend significantly on the optical properties of the ‘neighboring’ (non-BC) aerosol species. The scattering due to these species significantly increases the top of the atmospheric warming due to black carbon aerosols, and significant changes in the radiative forcing efficiency of BC. This is especially significant over dark surfaces (such as oceans), despite the ARF due to BC being higher over snow and land-surfaces. The spatial heterogeneity of this effect (coupling or multiple scattering by neighboring aerosol species) imposes large uncertainty in the estimation ARF due to BC aerosols, especially over the oceans.

  7. Aerosol forcing of extreme summer drought over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixia; Wu, Peili; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of extreme summer drought has been increasing in North China during the past sixty years, which has caused serious water shortages. It remains unclear whether anthropogenic forcing has contributed to the increasing extreme droughts. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model simulations with various combinations of historical forcings, the authors investigated the driving mechanism behind the observed changes. Metrological drought is usually measured by precipitation anomalies, which show lower fidelity in current climate models compared to large-scale circulation patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, a linear relationship is firstly established between the weakest regional average 850 hPa southerly winds and extreme summer drought. This meridional winds index (MWI) is then used as a proxy for attribution of extreme North China drought using CMIP5 outputs. Examination of the CMIP5 simulations reveals that the probability of the extreme summer droughts with the first percentile of MWI for 1850–2004 under anthropogenic forcing has increased by 100%, on average, relative to a pre-industrial control run. The more frequent occurrence of extremely weak MWIs or drought over North China is ascribed from weakened climate and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation due to the direct cooling effect from increased aerosol.

  8. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  9. Optical characteristics of the aerosol in Spain and Austria and its effect on radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, H.; Alados Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Jovanović, O.; Gangl, M.; Kaller, W.; SáNchez, C.; Sauerzopf, H.; Seidl, S.

    2002-10-01

    The horizontal and vertical attenuation of the aerosol, the sky radiance, and the light absorption coefficient of the aerosol have been determined at wavelengths in the visible. From this set of data the following optical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol could be derived: vertical optical depth, horizontal extinction and absorption coefficient, scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, and single scattering albedo. Campaigns have been performed in Almería, Spain, and Vienna, Austria. The aerosol undergoes a considerable variation, as experienced by many other studies. Sometimes the vertical and the horizontal measurements gave similar data; on other days the aerosol at the surface and the aerosol aloft were completely different. The "clearest" aerosol always had the smallest single scattering albedo and thus relatively the highest light absorption. The optical characteristics of the aerosol in the two very different locations were very similar. Using the measured optical data, a radiative transfer calculation was performed, and the radiation reaching the ground was calculated. Comparing the values for the clear aerosol and the days with higher aerosol load, the radiative forcing due to the additional aerosol particles could be determined. The forcing of the aerosol at the ground is always negative, and at the top of the atmosphere it is close to zero or slightly negative. Its dependence on wavelength and zenith angle is presented. The preindustrial aerosol in Europe was estimated, and the forcing due to the present-day aerosol was determined. At the surface it is negative, but at the top of the atmosphere it is close to zero or positive. This is caused by the light absorption of the European aerosol, which is higher than in most other locations.

  10. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Streets

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We calculate decadal aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 period. Past and future aerosol distributions are constructed using GEOS-Chem and historical emission inventories and future projections from the IPCC A1B scenario. Aerosol simulations are evaluated with observed spatial distributions and 1980–2010 trends of aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in the contiguous US. Direct and indirect radiative forcing is calculated using the GISS general circulation model and monthly mean aerosol distributions from GEOS-Chem. The radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols is strongly localized over the eastern US. We find that its magnitude peaked in 1970–1990, with values over the eastern US (east of 100° W of −2.0 W m−2 for direct forcing including contributions from sulfate (−2.0 W m−2, nitrate (−0.2 W m−2, organic carbon (−0.2 W m−2, and black carbon (+0.4 W m−2. The uncertainties in radiative forcing due to aerosol radiative properties are estimated to be about 50%. The aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be of comparable magnitude to the direct forcing. We find that the magnitude of the forcing declined sharply from 1990 to 2010 (by 0.8 W m−2 direct and 1.0 W m−2 indirect, mainly reflecting decreases in SO2 emissions, and project that it will continue declining post-2010 but at a much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60% from their peak. This suggests that much of the warming effect of reducing US anthropogenic aerosol sources has already been realized. The small positive radiative forcing from US BC emissions (+0.3 W m−2 over the eastern US in 2010; 5% of the global forcing from anthropogenic BC emissions worldwide suggests that a US emission control strategy focused on BC would have only limited climate benefit.

  11. Climatic Effects of 1950-2050 Changes in US Anthropogenic Aerosols. Part 1; Aerosol Trends and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibensperger, E. M.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Chen, W.-T.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.; Streets, D. G.; Kumar, N.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate decadal aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950-2050 period. Past and future aerosol distributions are constructed using GEOS-Chem and historical emission inventories and future projections from the IPCC A1B scenario. Aerosol simulations are evaluated with observed spatial distributions and 1980-2010 trends of aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in the contiguous US. Direct and indirect radiative forcing is calculated using the GISS general circulation model and monthly mean aerosol distributions from GEOS-Chem. The radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols is strongly localized over the eastern US. We find that its magnitude peaked in 1970-1990, with values over the eastern US (east of 100 deg W) of -2.0Wm(exp-2 for direct forcing including contributions from sulfate (-2.0Wm-2), nitrate (-0.2Wm(exp-2), organic carbon (-0.2Wm(exp-2), and black carbon (+0.4Wm(exp-2). The uncertainties in radiative forcing due to aerosol radiative properties are estimated to be about 50 %. The aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be of comparable magnitude to the direct forcing. We find that the magnitude of the forcing declined sharply from 1990 to 2010 (by 0.8Wm(exp-2) direct and 1.0Wm(exp-2 indirect), mainly reflecting decreases in SO2 emissions, and project that it will continue declining post-2010 but at a much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60% from their peak. This suggests that much of the warming effect of reducing US anthropogenic aerosol sources has already been realized. The small positive radiative forcing from US BC emissions (+0.3Wm(exp-2 over the eastern US in 2010; 5% of the global forcing from anthropogenic BC emissions worldwide) suggests that a US emission control strategy focused on BC would have only limited climate benefit.

  12. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Chen; Xiangao Xia; Pucai Wang; Wenxing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the aerosol properties and their climatic effect over the continental source regions of China, it is of significance to carry out long-term ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. A couple of temporary and permanent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and three comprehensive radiative sites were established in China as a result of international cooperation in recent years. Heavy aerosol loading and significant temporal and spatial variation over North China are revealed by the AERONET data.Aerosol-induced reductions in surface radiation budget are examined on the basis of collocated observations by sun photometers and pyranometers.

  13. Monsoon sensitivity to aerosol direct radiative forcing in the community atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajani, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Rajendran, K.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2012-08-01

    Aerosol forcing remains a dominant uncertainty in climate studies. The impact of aerosol direct radiative forcing on Indian monsoon is extremely complex and is strongly dependent on the model, aerosol distribution and characteristics specified in the model, modelling strategy employed as well as on spatial and temporal scales. The present study investigates (i) the aerosol direct radiative forcing impact on mean Indian summer monsoon when a combination of quasi-realistic mean annual cycles of scattering and absorbing aerosols derived from an aerosol transport model constrained with satellite observed Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is prescribed, (ii) the dominant feedback mechanism behind the simulated impact of all-aerosol direct radiative forcing on monsoon and (iii) the relative impacts of absorbing and scattering aerosols on mean Indian summer monsoon. We have used CAM3, an atmospheric GCM (AGCM) that has a comprehensive treatment of the aerosol-radiation interaction. This AGCM has been used to perform climate simulations with three different representations of aerosol direct radiative forcing due to the total, scattering aerosols and black carbon aerosols. We have also conducted experiments without any aerosol forcing. Aerosol direct impact due to scattering aerosols causes significant reduction in summer monsoon precipitation over India with a tendency for southward shift of Tropical Convergence Zones (TCZs) over the Indian region. Aerosol forcing reduces surface solar absorption over the primary rainbelt region of India and reduces the surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. Concurrent warming of the lower atmosphere over the warm oceanic region in the south reduces the land-ocean temperature contrast and weakens the monsoon overturning circulation and the advection of moisture into the landmass. This increases atmospheric convective stability, and decreases convection, clouds, precipitation and associated latent heat release. Our analysis reveals a

  14. Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Zhili; Xu, Yangyang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar to mean precipitation, the increased rate of precipitation extremes caused by aerosol forcing is significantly larger than that caused by GHG forcing. The aerosol forcing in the coming decades can play a critical role in inducing change in precipitation extremes if a lower GHG emission pathway is adopted. Our results have implications for policy-making on climate adaptation to extreme precipitation events.

  15. Whole-atmosphere aerosol microphysics simulations of the Mt Pinatubo eruption: Part 2: Quantifying the direct and indirect (dynamical) radiative forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Carslaw, Ken; Chipperfield, Martyn; Lee, Lindsay; Emmerson, Kathryn; Abraham, Luke; Telford, Paul; Pyle, John; Braesicke, Peter; Bellouin, Nicolas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Mt Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991 injected between 10 and 20 Tg of sulphur dioxide into the tropical lower stratosphere. Following chemical conversion to sulphuric acid, the stratospheric aerosol layer thickened substantially causing a strong radiative, dynamical and chemical perturbation to the Earth's atmosphere with effects lasting several years. In this presentation we show results from model experiments to isolate the different ways the enhanced stratospheric aerosol from Pinatubo influenced the Earth's climate. The simulations are carried out in the UK Chemistry and Aerosol composition-climate model (UKCA) which extends the high-top (to 80km) version of the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM). The UM-UKCA model uses the GLOMAP-mode aerosol microphysics module coupled with a stratosphere-troposphere chemistry scheme including sulphur chemistry. By running no-feedback and standard integrations, we separate the main radiative forcings due to aerosol-radiation interactions (i.e. the direct forcings) from those induced by dynamical changes which alter meridional heat transport and distributions of aerosol, ozone and water vapour.

  16. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  17. Aerosol optical thickness of Mt. Etna volcanic plume retrieved by means of the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European MVRRS project (Mitigation of Volcanic Risk by Remote Sensing Techniques, in June 1997 an airborne campaign was organised on Mt. Etna to study different characteristics of the volcanic plume emitted by the summit craters in quiescent conditions. Digital images were collected with the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS, together with ground-based measurements. MIVIS images were used to calculate the aerosol optical thickness of the volcanic plume. For this purpose, an inversion algorithm was developed based on radiative transfer equations and applied to the upwelling radiance data measured by the sensor. This article presents the preliminary results from this inversion method. One image was selected following the criteria of concomitant atmospheric ground-based measurements necessary to model the atmosphere, plume centrality in the scene to analyse the largest plume area and cloudless conditions. The selected image was calibrated in radiance and geometrically corrected. The 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model was used to invert the radiative transfer equation and derive the aerosol optical thickness. The inversion procedure takes into account both the spectral albedo of the surface under the plume and the topographic effects on the refl ected radiance, due to the surface orientation and elevation. The result of the inversion procedure is the spatial distribution of the plume optical depth. An average value of 0.1 in the wavelength range 454-474 nm was found for the selected measurement day.

  18. Limits to the Indirect Aerosol Forcing in Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew; Toon, O.; Stevens, D.; Coakley, J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The indirect radiative forcing of aerosols is poorly constrained by the observational data underlying the simple cloud parameterizations in GCMs. signal of cloud response to increased aerosol concentrations from meteorological noise. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant decrease of cloud water in ship tracks, in contrast to an ensemble of in situ measurements showing no average change in cloud water relative to the surrounding clouds. Both results contradict the expectation of cloud water increasing in polluted clouds. We find through large-eddy simulations of stratocumulus that the trend in the satellite data is likely an artifact of sampling only overcast clouds. The simulations instead show cloud cover increasing with droplet concentrations. The simulations also show that increases in cloud water from suppressing drizzle by increased droplet concentrations are favored at night or at extremely low droplet concentrations. At typical droplet concentrations we find that the Twomey effect on cloud albedo is amplified very little by the secondary indirect effect of drizzle suppression, largely because the absorption of solar radiation by cloud water reduces boundary-layer mixing in the daytime and thereby restricts any possible increase in cloud water from drizzle suppression. The cloud and boundary layer respond to radiative heating variations on a time scale of hours, and on longer time scales respond to imbalances between large-scale horizontal advection and the entrainment of inversion air. We analyze the co-varying response of cloud water, cloud thickness, width of droplet size distributions, and dispersion of the optical depth, as well as the overall response of cloud albedo, to changes in droplet concentrations. We also dissect the underlying physical mechanisms through sensitivity studies. Ship tracks represent an ideal natural laboratory to extricate the

  19. Response of North Pacific eastern subtropical mode water to greenhouse gas versus aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Yiyong

    2016-04-01

    Mode water is a distinct water mass characterized by a near vertical homogeneous layer or low potential vorticity, and is considered essential for understanding ocean climate variability. Based on the output of GFDL CM3, this study investigates the response of eastern subtropical mode water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific to two different single forcings: greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol. Under GHG forcing, ESTMW is produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and is decreased in volume. Under aerosol forcing, in sharp contrast, it is produced on denser isopycnal surfaces and is increased in volume. The main reason for the opposite response is because surface ocean-to-atmosphere latent heat flux change over the ESTMW formation region shoals the mixed layer and thus weakens the lateral induction under GHG forcing, but deepens the mixed layer and thus strengthens the lateral induction under aerosol forcing. In addition, local wind changes are also favorable to the opposite response of ESTMW production to GHG versus aerosol.

  20. Effect of volcanic aerosol on stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 from 2002–2014 as measured by Odin-OSIRIS and Envisat-MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the large volcanic eruptions of Pinatubo in 1991 and El Chichón in 1982, decreases in stratospheric NO2 associated with enhanced aerosol were observed. The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (OSIRIS measured the widespread enhancements of stratospheric aerosol following seven volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2014, although the magnitudes of these eruptions were all much smaller than the Pinatubo and El Chichón eruptions. In order to isolate and quantify the relationship between volcanic aerosol and NO2, NO2 anomalies were calculated using measurements from OSIRIS and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. In the tropics, variability due to the quasi-biennial oscillation was subtracted from the time series. OSIRIS profile measurements indicate that the strongest anticorrelations between NO2 and volcanic aerosol extinction were for the 5 km layer starting  ∼  3 km above the climatological mean tropopause at the given latitude. OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 partial columns in this layer were found to be smaller than background NO2 levels during these aerosol enhancements by up to  ∼  60 % with typical Pearson correlation coefficients of R ∼ −0. 7. MIPAS also observed decreases in NO2 partial columns during periods affected by volcanic aerosol, with percent differences of up to  ∼  25 % relative to background levels. An even stronger anticorrelation was observed between OSIRIS aerosol optical depth and MIPAS N2O5 partial columns, with R ∼ −0. 9, although no link with MIPAS HNO3 was observed. The variation in OSIRIS NO2 with increasing aerosol was found to be consistent with simulations from a photochemical box model within the estimated model uncertainty.

  1. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Weather Forecasts in the ECMWF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, A.; Benedetti, A.; Rodwell, M. J.; Bechtold, P.; Remy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the energy balance of the Earth system via direct scattering and absorpiton of short-wave and long-wave radiation and indirect interaction with clouds. Diabatic heating or cooling by aerosols can also modify the vertical stability of the atmosphere and influence weather pattern with potential impact on the skill of global weather prediction models. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides operational daily analysis and forecast of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for five aerosol species using a prognostic model which is part of the Integrated Forecasting System of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-IFS). The aerosol component was developed during the research project Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). Aerosols can have a large impact on the weather forecasts in case of large aerosol concentrations as found during dust storms or strong pollution events. However, due to its computational burden, prognostic aerosols are not yet feasible in the ECMWF operational weather forecasts, and monthly-mean climatological fields are used instead. We revised the aerosol climatology used in the operational ECMWF IFS with one derived from the MACC reanalysis. We analyse the impact of changes in the aerosol radiative effect on the mean model climate and in medium-range weather forecasts, also in comparison with prognostic aerosol fields. The new climatology differs from the previous one by Tegen et al 1997, both in the spatial distribution of the total AOD and the optical properties of each aerosol species. The radiative impact of these changes affects the model mean bias at various spatial and temporal scales. On one hand we report small impacts on measures of large-scale forecast skill but on the other hand details of the regional distribution of aerosol concentration have a large local impact. This is the case for the northern Indian Ocean where the radiative impact of the mineral

  2. Characteristics of Carbonaceous and Ionic Species and Direct Aerosol Forcing of the Aerosols over Gosan, Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Kim, Y.; Kang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, consisting of elemental carbon (EC) are emitted into the atmosphere through incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel. It directly warms the air by absorbing solar radiation. Another major pollutant emitted by fossil fuel combustion is SO2, which result in the formation of particulate sulfate (SO42-) compounds, contribute substantially to cool the air by scattering solar radiation. Therefore, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols play an important role in regulating the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth atmosphere. (Charlson et al. 1992; Jacobson, 2004; Khan et al., 2010) Carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols are both temporally and spatially variable. Northeast Asia is characterized by high energy consumption. China, Japan, and South Korea have consumed 16.8%, 4.7%, and 2.1% of the world total primary energy, respectively in 2007 (BP, 2008). Consequently, there are resultant huge emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Therefore, the effect on climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols are even more important in this region. In this study, PM2.5 intensive measurement data for 18 separate periods at Gosan, Jeju, Korea from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed. Gosan is one of the cleanest areas in Korea and an excellent location to study the ambient aerosols in Northeast Asia (Kim et al., 2009). The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols and anthropogenic ions such as SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ were analyzed. Also, direct aerosol forcing due to EC and SO42- were calculated. The net aerosol forcing were about -0.5 W m-2 to -0.1 W m-2 at Gosan. References BP, www.bp.com/statisticalreview, 2008. Charlson, R.J., Schwartz, S.E., Hales, J.M., Cess, R.D., Coakley, J.A.Jr., Hansen, J.E., and Hofmann, D.J. (1992) Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols, Science, 255, 423-430. Jacobson, M.Z. (2004) Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity, Journal of

  3. Aerosol properties and radiative forcing for three air masses transported in Summer 2011 to Sopot, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozwadowska, Anna; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Makuch, P.; Markowicz, K. M.; Petelski, T.; Strzałkowska, A.; Zieliński, T.

    2013-05-01

    Properties of atmospheric aerosols and solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface were measured during Summer 2011 in Sopot, Poland. Three cloudless days, characterized by different directions of incoming air-flows, which are typical transport pathways to Sopot, were used to estimate a radiative forcing due to aerosols present in each air mass.

  4. Mixing state of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Radiative forcing and heating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Ramachandran, S.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols are a major atmospheric variable which perturb the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance by absorbing and scattering the solar and terrestrial radiation. Aerosols are produced by natural and anthropogenic processes. The presence of different types of aerosol over a location and aerosols transported from long-range can give rise to different mixing states because of aging and interaction among the different aerosol species. Knowledge of the mixing state of aerosols is important for an accurate assessment of aerosols in climate forcing, as assumptions regarding the mixing state of aerosol and its effect on optical properties can give rise to uncertainties in modeling their direct and indirect effects [1]. Seasonal variations in mixing states of aerosols over an urban (Kanpur) and a rural location (Gandhi College) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are determined using the measured and modeled aerosol optical properties, and the impact of aerosol mixing state on aerosol radiative forcing are investigated. IGP is one of the most populated and polluted river basins in the world, rich in fertile lands and agricultural production. Kanpur is an urban, industrial and densely populated city, and has several large/small scale industries and vehicles, while Gandhi College in IGP is a rural village, located southeast of Kanpur. Aerosol optical properties obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network sun/sky radiometers [2] over these two environmentally distinct locations in Indo-Gangetic Plain are used in the study, along with aerosol vertical profiles obtained from CALIPSO (Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) lidar observations. Probable mixing state of aerosols is determined utilizing the aerosol optical properties viz., aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. The coated-sphere Mie calculation requires the refractive index of core and shell species, and the radius of core and shell particles. Core to shell radius

  5. Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. Here we implement the IMN scheme into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on H2SO4-H2O binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN, the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~3, CCN burden by ~10% (at 0.2% supersaturation to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation, and cloud droplet number burden by ~18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF by 3.67 W m−2 (more negative and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W m−2 (more positive, with large spatial variations. The effect of ionization on SWCF derived from this study (3.67 W m−2 is a factor of ~3 higher that of a previous study (1.15 W m−2 based on a different ion nucleation scheme and climate model. Based on the present CAM5 simulation, the 5-yr mean impacts of solar cycle induced changes in ionization rates on CCN and cloud forcing are small (~−0.02 W m−2 but have larger inter-annual (from −0.18 to 0.17 W m−2 and spatial variations.

  6. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature, and CO2 concentrations. Recent reconstructions of BVOC emissions have predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased, while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased; however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS (Goddard Earth Observing System; TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional) global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g., SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) turned off and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of > 25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in the combined aerosol radiative effect (direct and indirect) of > 0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields, and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2 and the global mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of between -0.008 and -0.056 W m-2. This change in aerosols, and the associated radiative forcing, could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  7. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Based on Combined A-Train Observations: Towards All-sky Estimates and Attribution to Aerosol Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Livingston, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) measurements for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (2009). We discuss some of the challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed. We also discuss a methodology for using the multi-sensor aerosol retrievals for aerosol type classification based on advanced clustering techniques. The combination of research results permits conclusions regarding the attribution of aerosol radiative forcing to aerosol type.

  8. Volcanic spreading forcing and feedback in geothermal reservoir development, Amiata Volcano, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Allocca, Carmine; Delcroix, Carlo; Micheli, Luigi; Vercellino, Alberto; Grieco, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    We made a stratigraphic, structural and morphologic study of the Amiata Volcano in Italy. We find that the edifice is dissected by intersecting grabens that accommodate the collapse of the higher sectors of the volcano. In turn, a number of compressive structures and diapirs exist around the margin of the volcano. These structures create an angular drainage pattern, with stream damming and captures, and a set of lakes within and around the volcano. We interpret these structures as the result of volcanic spreading of Amiata on its weak substratum, formed by the late Triassic evaporites (Burano Anhydrites) and the Middle-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous clayey chaotic complexes (Ligurian Complex). Regional doming created a slope in the basement facilitating the outward flow and spreading of the ductile layers forced by the volcanic load. We model the dynamics of spreading with a scaled lubrication approximation of the Navier Stokes equations, and numerically study a set of solutions. In the model we include simple functions for volcanic deposition and surface erosion that change the topography over time. Scaling indicates that spreading at Amiata could still be active. The numerical solution shows that, as the central part of the edifice sinks into the weak basement, diapiric structures of the underlying formations form around the base of the volcano. Deposition of volcanic rocks within the volcano and surface erosion away from it both enhance spreading. In addition, a sloping basement may constitute a trigger for spreading and formation of trains of adjacent diapirs. As a feedback, the hot hydrothermal fluids decrease the shear strength of the anhydrites facilitating the spreading process. Finally, we observe that volcanic spreading has created ideal heat traps that constitute todays' exploited geothermal fields at Amiata. Normal faults generated by volcanic spreading, volcanic conduits, and direct contact between volcanic rocks (which host an extensive fresh

  9. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  10. Optimal estimation retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from SAGE II satellite observations in the volcanically unperturbed lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric aerosol particles under non-volcanic conditions are typically smaller than 0.1 μm. Due to fundamental limitations of the scattering theory in the Rayleigh limit, these tiny particles are hard to measure by satellite instruments. As a consequence, current estimates of global aerosol properties retrieved from spectral aerosol extinction measurements tend to be strongly biased. Aerosol surface area densities, for instance, are observed to be about 40% smaller than those derived from correlative in situ measurements (Deshler et al., 2003. An accurate knowledge of the global distribution of aerosol properties is, however, essential to better understand and quantify the role they play in atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, radiation and climate. To address this need a new retrieval algorithm was developed, which employs a nonlinear Optimal Estimation (OE method to iteratively solve for the monomodal size distribution parameters which are statistically most consistent with both the satellite-measured multi-wavelength aerosol extinction data and a priori information. By thus combining spectral extinction measurements (at visible to near infrared wavelengths with prior knowledge of aerosol properties at background level, even the smallest particles are taken into account which are practically invisible to optical remote sensing instruments. The performance of the OE retrieval algorithm was assessed based on synthetic spectral extinction data generated from both monomodal and small-mode-dominant bimodal sulphuric acid aerosol size distributions. For monomodal background aerosol, the new algorithm was shown to fairly accurately retrieve the particle sizes and associated integrated properties (surface area and volume densities, even in the presence of large extinction uncertainty. The associated retrieved uncertainties are a good estimate of the true errors. In the case of bimodal background aerosol, where the retrieved (monomodal size

  11. Multidecadal trends in aerosol radiative forcing over the Arctic: Contribution of changes in anthropogenic aerosol to Arctic warming since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breider, Thomas J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Payer Sulprizio, Melissa; Croft, Betty; Ridley, David A.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Husain, Liaquat; Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Skov, Henrik; Hopke, Phillip K.

    2017-03-01

    Arctic observations show large decreases in the concentrations of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols since the early 1980s. These near-term climate-forcing pollutants perturb the radiative balance of the atmosphere and may have played an important role in recent Arctic warming. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to construct a 3-D representation of Arctic aerosols that is generally consistent with observations and their trends from 1980 to 2010. Observations at Arctic surface sites show significant decreases in sulfate and BC mass concentrations of 2-3% per year. We find that anthropogenic aerosols yield a negative forcing over the Arctic, with an average 2005-2010 Arctic shortwave radiative forcing (RF) of -0.19 ± 0.05 W m-2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA). Anthropogenic sulfate in our study yields more strongly negative forcings over the Arctic troposphere in spring (-1.17 ± 0.10 W m-2) than previously reported. From 1980 to 2010, TOA negative RF by Arctic aerosol declined, from -0.67 ± 0.06 W m-2 to -0.19 ± 0.05 W m-2, yielding a net TOA RF of +0.48 ± 0.06 W m-2. The net positive RF is due almost entirely to decreases in anthropogenic sulfate loading over the Arctic. We estimate that 1980-2010 trends in aerosol-radiation interactions over the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes have contributed a net warming at the Arctic surface of +0.27 ± 0.04 K, roughly one quarter of the observed warming. Our study does not consider BC emissions from gas flaring nor the regional climate response to aerosol-cloud interactions or BC deposition on snow.

  12. Indirect effect of changing aerosol concentrations on methane and ozone radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Matthew; Rap, Alexandru; Arnold, Steve; Forster, Piers; Chipperfield, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols interact with climate in number of complex ways and quantifying the overall effect remains the dominant uncertainty in estimating anthropogenic climate forcing (IPCC, 2013). The radiative forcing (RF) caused by the direct effect of aerosol interacting with radiation is estimated at -0.35 (-0.85 to +0.15) Wm-2, while cloud-aerosol interactions are estimated at -0.45 (-1.2 to 0.0) Wm-2 (IPCC, 2013). The net impact is a cooling with an effective radiative forcing (ERF) of 0.9 (-1.9 to -0.1) Wm-2 (IPCC, 2013). One effect of aerosols which has not been well evaluated is their effect on atmospheric chemistry. Atmospheric aerosols provide a surface for homogeneous reactions to occur, altering reactions rates and the availability of oxidants, thereby influencing the removal/production of radiatively important species such as methane (CH4) and tropospheric ozone (O3). Oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) determine the atmospheric lifetime and hence burden of CH4, therefore changes to atmospheric aerosols which impact oxidation chemistry will also influence RF due to CH4. This effect could enhance or offset the negative RF of aerosols, depending on how the individual aerosol changes availability of oxidants. Quantifying the importance of this mechanism for RF is necessary to provide accurate estimates of the effect of aerosols, and assess relative effectiveness of measures to decrease aerosol emissions and precursors. Using a sophisticated aerosol micro-physics model (GLOMAP) coupled to the TOMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model, we separately simulate changes in atmospheric composition resulting from a 50% decline in anthropogenic emissions of black carbon aerosol (BC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and anthropogenic precursors of sulphate and nitrate. The impact of changes to each aerosol on lifetime of CH4 is then calculated to establish the resulting impact on CH4 burden and RF. Cutting global anthropogenic SO2 emissions by 50

  13. A global modeling study on carbonaceous aerosol microphysical characteristics and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and the way that mixed, aged aerosols interact with clouds and radiation. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the GISS climate model is used in this study to present a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing.

    Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing between 1750 and 2000 is −0.56 W/m2. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are quite sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing can vary between −0.32 to −0.75 W/m2 depending on these carbonaceous particle properties at emission. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particle, changes the overall net aerosol radiative forcing from negative to positive. Taking into account internally mixed black carbon particles let us simulate correct aerosol absorption. Black carbon absorption is amplified by sulfate and nitrate coatings, but even more strongly by organic coatings. Black carbon mitigation scenarios generally showed reduced radiative forcing when sources with a large proportion of black carbon, such as diesel, are reduced; however reducing sources with a larger organic carbon component as well, such as bio-fuels, does not necessarily lead to climate benefits.

  14. Aerosol single scattering albedo and its contribution to radiative forcing dung EAST- AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Li, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Quantification of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) can improve determining aerosol radiative property. Combination technique using MODIS and ground-based Hazemeter measurement data by the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) over China is proposed to retrieve SSA. The accuracy of the retrieval of SSA increases with the aerosol loading and the uncertainties in the SSA retrieval are 0.02~0.03 (AOT=1.0) and up to 0.03~0.05 (AOT=0.5) at 0.47¥ìm, respectively. The comparison of one- year data of retrieved SSA values with those from AERONET inversion product are ~0.03 (RMSD) and ~0.02 (mean bias), respectively. Estimated SSA values were range from 0.89 to 0.93 over the study area. Since SSA is an important factor of aerosol radiative forcing, these will help to understood the study of aerosol climate effects.

  15. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region were derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which were combined to produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to give estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for the year 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  16. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region have been derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to produce estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  17. Direct Radiative Forcing and Climatic Effects of Aerosols over East Asia by RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-Xia; HAN Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) coupled with a chemistry/ aerosol module to simulate East Asian climate in 2006 and to test the climatic impacts of aerosols on regional- scale climate. The direct radiative forcing and climatic effects of aerosols (dust, sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon) were discussed. The results indicated that aerosols generally produced negative radiative forcing at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) over most areas of East Asia. The radiative forcing induced by aerosols exhibited significant seasonal and regional variations, with the strongest forcing occurring in summer. The aerosol feed- backs on surface air temperature and precipitation were clear. Surface cooling dominated features over the East Asian continental areas, which varied in the approximate range of-0.5 to -2℃ with the maximum up to -3℃ in summer over the deserts of West China. The aerosols induced complicated variations of precipitation. Except in summer, the rainfall generally varied in the range of-1 to 1 mm d^-1 over most areas of China.

  18. Evolution of ozone, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Barnard, James C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Grell, Georg A.; Peckham, Steven E.

    2006-11-01

    A new fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model is used to simulate the urban- to regional-scale variations in trace gases, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston over a 5 day summer period. Model performance is evaluated using a wide range of meteorological, chemistry, and particulate measurements obtained during the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study. The predicted trace gas and particulate distributions were qualitatively similar to the surface and aircraft measurements with considerable spatial variations resulting from urban, power plant, and industrial sources of primary pollutants. Sulfate, organic carbon, and other inorganics were the largest constituents of the predicted particulates. The predicted shortwave radiation was 30 to 40 W m-2 closer to the observations when the aerosol optical properties were incorporated into the shortwave radiation scheme; however, the predicted hourly aerosol radiative forcing was still underestimated by 10 to 50 W m-2. The predicted aerosol radiative forcing was larger over Houston and the industrial ship channel than over the rural areas, consistent with surface measurements. The differences between the observed and simulated aerosol radiative forcing resulted from transport errors, relative humidity errors in the upper convective boundary layer that affect aerosol water content, secondary organic aerosols that were not yet included in the model, and uncertainties in the primary particulate emission rates. The current model was run in a predictive mode and demonstrates the challenges of accurately simulating all of the meteorological, chemical, and aerosol parameters over urban to regional scales that can affect aerosol radiative forcing.

  19. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.00 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing could be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extent be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  20. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.05 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing cloud be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extend be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  1. A new method for evaluating the impact of vertical distribution on aerosol radiative forcing in general circulation models

    OpenAIRE

    Vuolo, M. R.; M. Schulz; Balkanski, Y.; Takemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification and understanding of direct aerosol forcing is essential in the study of climate. One of the main issues that makes its quantification difficult is the lack of a complete understanding of the role of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. This work aims at reducing the uncertainty of aerosol top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing due to the vertical superposition of several short-lived atmospheric components, in particular different aerosol species...

  2. Study of Radiative Forcing of Dust Aerosols and its impact on Climate Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Fawwad H

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of following project is to study the effect of dust aerosols on the radiative forcing which is directly related to the surface temperature. A single column radiative convective model is used for simulation purpose. A series of simulations have been performed by varying the amount of dust aerosols present in the atmosphere to study the trends in ground temperature, heating rate and radiative forcing for both its longwave and shortwave components. A case study for dust storm is also performed as dust storms are common in Arabian Peninsula. A sensitivity analyses is also performed to study the relationship of surface temperature minimum and maximum against aerosol concentration, single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. These analyses are performed to get more insight into the role of dust aerosols on radiative forcing.

  3. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  4. THE IMPACT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE RADIATIVE PROPERTY AND RADIATIVE FORCING OF SULFATE AEROSOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立盛; 石广玉

    2001-01-01

    With the data of complex refractive index of sulfate aerosol, the radiative properties of the aerosol under 8 relative humidity conditions are calculated in this paper. By using the concentration distribution from two CTM models and LASG GOALS/AGCM, the radiative forcing due to hygroscopic sulfate aerosol is simulated. The results show that: (1) With the increase of relative humidity, the mass extinction coefficiency factor decreases in the shortwave spectrum: single scattering albedo keeps unchanged except for a little increase in longwave spectrum, and asymmetry factor increases in whole spectrum. (2) Larger differences occur in radiative forcing simulated by using two CTM data, and the global mean forcing is -0. 268 and -0. 816 W/m2,respectively. (3) When the impact of relative humidity on radiative property is taken into account,the distribution pattern of radiative forcing due to the wet particles is very similar to that of dry sulfate, but the forcing value decreases by 6%.

  5. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year, and sensitivity to eruption season is quantified as the difference between the maximum and minimum cumulative anomalies.

    Eruption season has a significant influence on aerosol optical depth (AOD and clear-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~80 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to eruption season of the global mean all-sky SW anomalies is comparable to the sensitivity of global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies. Our estimates of sensitivity to eruption season

  6. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year. Sensitivity to eruption season of aerosol optical depth (AOD, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux is quantified by first integrating each field for four years after the eruption, then calculating for each cumulative field the absolute or percent difference between the maximum and minimum response from the four eruption seasons. Eruption season has a significant influence on AOD and clear-sky SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~75 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for Pinatubo-magnitude eruption, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to

  7. Modeling Study of the Global Distribution of Radiative Forcing by Dust Aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; MA Jinghui; ZHENG Youfei

    2010-01-01

    To quantitatively understand the dust aerosol effects on climate change, we calculated the global dis-tribution of direct radiative forcing due to dust aerosol under clear and cloudy skies in both winter and summer, by using an improved radiative transfer model and the global distribution of dust mass concentra-tion given by GADS (Global Aerosol Data Set). The results show that the global means of the solar forcing due to dust aerosol at the tropopause for winter and summer are -0.48 and -0.50 W m-2, respectively; the corresponding values for the longwave forcing due to dust are 0.11 and 0.09 W m-2, respectively. At the surface, the global means of the solar forcing clue to dust are -1.36 W m-2 for winter and -1.56 W m-2 for summer, whereas the corresponding values for the longwave forcing are 0.27 and 0.23 W m-2, respectively. This work points out that the absolute values of the solar forcing due to dust aerosol at both the tropopause and surface increase linearly with the cosine of solar zenith angle and surface albedo. The solar zenith angle influences both the strength and distribution of the solar forcing greatly. Clouds exert great effects on the direct radiative forcing of dust, depending on many factors including cloud cover, cloud height, cloud water path, surface albedo, solar zenith angle, etc. The effects of low clouds and middle clouds are larger than those of high clouds. The existence of clouds reduces the longwave radiative forcing at the tropopause, where the influences of low clouds are the most obvious. Therefore, the impacts of clouds should not be ignored when estimating the direct radiative forcing due to dust aerosol.

  8. Evaluation of a size-resolved aerosol model based on satellite and ground observations and its implication on aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Yu, Fangqun

    2016-04-01

    The latest AeroCom phase II experiments have showed a large diversity in the simulations of aerosol concentrations, size distribution, vertical profile, and optical properties among 16 detailed global aerosol microphysics models, which contribute to the large uncertainty in the predicted aerosol radiative forcing and possibly induce the distinct climate change in the future. In the last few years, we have developed and improved a global size-resolved aerosol model (Yu and Luo, 2009; Ma et al., 2012; Yu et al., 2012), GEOS-Chem-APM, which is a prognostic multi-type, multi-component, size-resolved aerosol microphysics model, including state-of-the-art nucleation schemes and condensation of low volatile secondary organic compounds from successive oxidation aging. The model is one of 16 global models for AeroCom phase II and participated in a couple of model inter-comparison experiments. In this study, we employed multi-year aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 2004 to 2012 taken from ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite retrievals to evaluate the performance of the GEOS-Chem-APM in predicting aerosol optical depth, including spatial distribution, reginal variation and seasonal variabilities. Compared to the observations, the modelled AOD is overall good over land, but quite low over ocean possibly due to low sea salt emission in the model and/or higher AOD in satellite retrievals, specifically MODIS and MISR. We chose 72 AERONET sites having at least 36 months data available and representative of high spatial domain to compare with the model and satellite data. Comparisons in various representative regions show that the model overall agrees well in the major anthropogenic emission regions, such as Europe, East Asia and North America. Relative to the observations, the modelled AOD is

  9. Recent advances in understanding secondary organic aerosol: Implications for global climate forcing: Advances in Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cappa, Christopher D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis California USA; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Goldstein, Allen H. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley California USA; Guenther, Alex B. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Jimenez, Jose L. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Martin, Scot T. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Ng, Nga Lee [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Petaja, Tuukka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Finland; Pierce, Jeffrey R. [Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Roldin, Pontus [Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund Sweden; Seinfeld, John H. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Shilling, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Smith, James N. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Thornton, Joel A. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Volkamer, Rainer [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica Massachusetts USA; Zaveri, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhang, Qi [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis California USA

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic emissions and land-use changes have modified atmospheric aerosol concentrations and size distributions over time. Understanding pre-industrial conditions and changes in organic aerosol due to anthropogenic activities is important because these features 1) influence estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and 2) can confound estimates of the historical response of climate to increases in greenhouse gases (e.g. the ‘climate sensitivity’). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of organic gases, represents a major fraction of global submicron-sized atmospheric organic aerosol. Over the past decade, significant advances in understanding SOA properties and formation mechanisms have occurred through a combination of laboratory and field measurements, yet current climate models typically do not comprehensively include all important SOA-relevant processes. Therefore, major gaps exist at present between current measurement-based knowledge on the one hand and model implementation of organic aerosols on the other. The critical review herein summarizes some of the important developments in understanding SOA formation that could potentially have large impacts on our understanding of aerosol radiative forcing and climate. We highlight the importance of some recently discovered processes and properties that influence the growth of SOA particles to sizes relevant for clouds and radiative forcing, including: formation of extremely low-volatility organics in the gas-phase; isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) multi-phase chemistry; particle-phase oligomerization; and physical properties such as viscosity. In addition, this review also highlights some of the important processes that involve interactions between natural biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions, such as the role of sulfate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Studies that relate the observed evolution of organic aerosol

  10. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  11. Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution global aerosol model (Oslo CTM2 driven by meteorological data and allowing a comparison with a variety of aerosol observations is used to simulate radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect. The model simulates all main aerosol components, including several secondary components such as nitrate and secondary organic carbon. The model reproduces the main chemical composition and size features observed during large aerosol campaigns. Although the chemical composition compares best with ground-based measurement over land for modelled sulphate, no systematic differences are found for other compounds. The modelled aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared to remote sensed data from AERONET ground and MODIS and MISR satellite retrievals. To gain confidence in the aerosol modelling, we have tested its ability to reproduce daily variability in the aerosol content, and this is performing well in many regions; however, we also identified some locations where model improvements are needed. The annual mean regional pattern of AOD from the aerosol model is broadly similar to the AERONET and the satellite retrievals (mostly within 10–20%. We notice a significant improvement from MODIS Collection 4 to Collection 5 compared to AERONET data. Satellite derived estimates of aerosol radiative effect over ocean for clear sky conditions differs significantly on regional scales (almost up to a factor two, but also in the global mean. The Oslo CTM2 has an aerosol radiative effect close to the mean of the satellite derived estimates. We derive a radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect of −0.35 Wm−2 in our base case. Implementation of a simple approach to consider internal black carbon (BC mixture results in a total RF of −0.28 Wm−2. Our results highlight the importance of carbonaceous particles, producing stronger individual RF than considered in the recent IPCC estimate; however, net RF is less different

  12. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect using a multi-observation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution global aerosol model (Oslo CTM2 driven by meteorological data and allowing a comparison with a variety of aerosol observations is used to simulate radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect. The model simulates all main aerosol components, including several secondary components such as nitrate and secondary organic carbon. The model reproduces the main chemical composition and size features observed during large aerosol campaigns. Although the chemical composition compares best with ground-based measurement over land for modelled sulphate, no systematic differences are found for other compounds. The modelled aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared to remote sensed data from AERONET ground and MODIS and MISR satellite retrievals. To gain confidence in the aerosol modelling, we have tested its ability to reproduce daily variability in the aerosol content, and this is performing well in many regions; however, we also identified some locations where model improvements are needed. The annual mean regional pattern of AOD from the aerosol model is broadly similar to the AERONET and the satellite retrievals (mostly within 10–20%. We notice a significant improvement from MODIS Collection 4 to Collection 5 compared to AERONET data. Satellite derived estimates of aerosol radiative effect over ocean for clear sky conditions differs significantly on regional scales (almost up to a factor two, but also in the global mean. The Oslo CTM2 has an aerosol radiative effect close to the mean of the satellite derived estimates. We derive a radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect of −0.35 Wm−2 in our base case. Implementation of a simple approach to consider internal black carbon (BC mixture results in a total RF of −0.28 Wm−2. Our results highlight the importance of carbonaceous particles, producing stronger individual RF than considered in the recent IPCC estimate; however, net RF is less different

  13. The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricchiazzi, P.; O' Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

    2005-03-18

    Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  14. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles in the Caribbean: Influence of African Dust and Soufriere Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Birriel, C. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric particles such as dust and volcanic ash have the potential of influencing the earth's radiative budget directly by scattering or absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere and indirectly by affecting cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and, therefore, cloud albedo. The radiatively-important properties of atmospheric particles are determined at the most fundamental level by their chemical composition and size distributions; therefore, the importance of studying the chemical, physical, and optical aerosol properties. Over the summer months, the island of Puerto Rico receives African dust incursions that reduce visibility and have an impact on public health, ecosystem, and climate. Visibility is also negatively affected when the island receives south-east winds and the Soufriere volcano (Montserrat Island) has been active. Here we present preliminary results of measurements performed during 2006 and 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The cases investigated showed three possible types of air masses: clean (C), with African Dust (AD), and with volcanic ash (VA) from the Soufriere. We used a condensation particle counter to determine the particle number concentration, a sunphotometer (part of the AERONET) to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficients, and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for the absorption coefficients. The particle number concentrations were higher for AD and VA periods (up to about 700 cm-3 on average for both cases) in contrast to ~400 cm-3 for the C period. Volume size distributions showed bimodal distributions for the three cases with a greater influence of the coarse fraction for the C and VA periods and an increase in the fine particles for the AD period. The total scattering coefficient showed higher values for the AD (30 Mm-1) and the VA (26

  15. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  16. The response of reworked aerosols to climate through estimation of inter-particle forces

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi Langroudi, Arya; Jefferson, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first use of inter-particle force measurement in reworked aerosols to better understand the mechanics of dust deflation and its consequent ecological ramifications. Dust is likely to carry hydrocarbons and micro-organisms including human pathogens and cultured microbes and thereby is a threat to plants, animals and human. Present-day global aerosol emissions are substantially greater than in 1850; however, the projected influx rates are highly disputable. This uncerta...

  17. Volcanic tremors and magma wagging: gas flux interactions and forcing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Jellinek, A. Mark; Michaut, Chloé; Roman, Diana C.; Morse, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Volcanic tremor is an important precursor to explosive eruptions and is ubiquitous across most silicic volcanic systems. Oscillations can persist for days and occur in a remarkably narrow frequency band (i.e. 0.5-7 Hz). The recently proposed magma-wagging model of Jellinek & Bercovici provides a basic explanation for the emergence and frequency evolution of tremor that is consistent with observations of many active silicic and andesitic volcanic systems. This model builds on work suggesting that the magma column rising in the volcanic conduit is surrounded by a permeable vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. The magma-wagging model stipulates that the magma column rattles within the spring like foam of the annulus, and predicts oscillations at the range of observed tremor frequencies for a wide variety of volcanic environments. However, the viscous resistance of the magma column attenuates the oscillations and thus a forcing mechanism is required. Here we provide further development of the magma-wagging model and demonstrate that it implicitly has the requisite forcing to excite wagging behaviour. In particular, the extended model allows for gas flux through the annulus, which interacts with the wagging displacements and induces a Bernoulli effect that amplifies the oscillations. This effect leads to an instability involving growing oscillations at the lower end of the tremor frequency spectrum, and that drives the system against viscous damping of the wagging magma column. The fully non-linear model displays tremor oscillations associated with pulses in gas flux, analogous to observations of audible `chugging'. These oscillations also occur in clusters or envelopes that are consistent with observations of sporadic tremor envelopes. The wagging model further accurately predicts that seismic signals on opposite sides of a volcano are out of phase by approximately half a wagging or tremor period. Finally, peaks in gas flux occur at the end of the growing instability

  18. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations during PRIDE, SAFARI, and ACE-Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Qiang; Liou, K N; Ou, Szu-Cheng

    2003-09-20

    An approach is presented to estimate the surface aerosol radiative forcing by use of collocated cloud-screened narrowband spectral and thermal-offset-corrected radiometric observations during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment 2000, South African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000, and Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia 2001. We show that aerosol optical depths from the Multiple-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sunphotometer data for two SAFARI-2000 dates. The observed aerosol radiative forcings were interpreted on the basis of results from the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model, and, in some cases, cross checked with satellite-derived forcing parameters. Values of the aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiency, which quantifies the sensitivity of the surface fluxes to the aerosol optical depth, were generated on the basis of a differential technique for all three campaigns, and their scientific significance is discussed.

  19. Constraining the long-term climate reponse to stratospheric sulfate aerosols injection by the short-term volcanic climate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzotta, M.; Seferian, R.; Douville, H.; Kravitz, B.; Tilmes, S.; Tjiputra, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions are leading to global warming and climate change, which will have multiple impacts on human society. Geoengineering methods like solar radiation management by stratospheric sulfate aerosols injection (SSA-SRM) aim at treating the symptoms of climate change by reducing the global temperature. Since a real-world testing cannot be implemented, Earth System Models (ESMs) are useful tools to assess the climate impacts of such geoengineering methods. However, coordinated simulations performed with the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) have shown that climate cooling in response to a continuous injection of 5Tg of SO2 per year under RCP45 future projection (the so-called G4 experiment) differs substantially between ESMs. Here, we employ a volcano analog approach to constrain the climate response in SSA-SRM geoengineering simulations across an ensemble of 10 ESMs. We identify an emergent relationship between the long-term cooling in responses to the mitigation of the clear-sky surface downwelling shortwave radiation (RSDSCS), and the short-term cooling related to the change in RSDSCS during the major tropical volcanic eruptions observed over the historical period (1850-2005). This relationship explains almost 80% of the multi-model spread. Combined with contemporary observations of the latest volcanic eruptions (satellite observations and model reanalyzes), this relationship provides a tight constraint on the climate impacts of SSA-SRM. We estimate that a continuous injection of SO2 aerosols into the stratosphere will reduce the global average temperature of continental land surface by 0.47 K per W m-2, impacting both hydrological and carbon cycles. Compared with the unconstrained ESMs ensemble (range from 0.32 to 0.92 K per W m-2 ), our estimate represents much higher confidence ways to assess the impacts of SSA-SRM on the climate while ruling the most extreme projections of the unconstrained ensemble extremely unlikely.

  20. A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the Earth's energy budget directly by scattering and absorbing radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and, thereby, affecting cloud properties. However, large uncertainties exist in current estimates of aerosol forcing because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. In recent years, a great deal of effort has gone into improving measurements and datasets. It is thus feasible to shift the estimates of aerosol forcing from largely model-based to increasingly measurement-based. Our goal is to assess current observational capabilities and identify uncertainties in the aerosol direct forcing through comparisons of different methods with independent sources of uncertainties. Here we assess the aerosol optical depth (τ, direct radiative effect (DRE by natural and anthropogenic aerosols, and direct climate forcing (DCF by anthropogenic aerosols, focusing on satellite and ground-based measurements supplemented by global chemical transport model (CTM simulations. The multi-spectral MODIS measures global distributions of aerosol optical depth (τ on a daily scale, with a high accuracy of ±0.03±0.05τ over ocean. The annual average τ is about 0.14 over global ocean, of which about 21%±7% is contributed by human activities, as estimated by MODIS fine-mode fraction. The multi-angle MISR derives an annual average AOD of 0.23 over global land with an uncertainty of ~20% or ±0.05. These high-accuracy aerosol products and broadband flux measurements from CERES make it feasible to obtain observational constraints for the aerosol direct effect, especially over global the ocean. A number of measurement-based approaches estimate the clear-sky DRE (on solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA to be about -5.5±0.2 Wm-2 (median ± standard error from various methods over the global ocean. Accounting for thin cirrus

  1. Volcanic-aerosol-induced changes in stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.; Browell, E. V.; Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fenn, M. A.; Butler, C. F.; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.; Cros, B.; Mayor, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of lower stratospheric ozone in the Tropics using electrochemical concentrations cell (ECC) sondes and the airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo are compared with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and ECC sonde measurements from below the eruption to determine what changes have occurred as a result. Aerosol data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible and IR wavelengths of the lidar system are used to examine the relationship between aerosols and ozone changes. Ozone decreases of 30 percent at altitudes between 19 and 26 km, partial column (16-28 km) decreases of about 27 D.U., and slight increases (5.4 D.U.) between 28 and 31 km are found in comparison with SAGE 2 climatological values.

  2. Lidar Observation of the 2014 Kelut Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosols at Kototabang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2016-06-01

    The Kelut (Kelud) volcano (7.9S, 112.3E) in the Java island of Indonesia erupted on 13 February 2014. The CALIOP observed that the eruption cloud reached 26km above sea level. We have observed this stratospheric aerosol from 28 February 2014 at equatorial lidar site located in the Sumatra island of Indonesia (0.2S, 100.3E). We observed the depolarization maximum to be up to 2km below the backscatter maximum in April 2014. We also observed the vertical transportation process of stratospheric aerosol to troposphere by equatorial Kelvin wave.

  3. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  4. Tree-ring density variations during the 1450s period of strong volcanic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jan; Büntgen, Ulf; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Oppenheimer, Clive; Schneider, Lea

    2017-04-01

    Ice core based reconstructions of the magnitude and timing of volcanic eruptions are used to force climate models and therefore are of critical importance for assessing the dynamics of the global climate system. The forcing timeseries of the past millennium are punctuated by a few very large volcanic events including a major eruption in the 1450s. This event was originally attributed to the Kuwae caldera in the South Pacific dated to the year 1452. Recent evidence from high-resolution ice core records, however, indicated a shift by six years (to 1458), a change that will fundamentally alter 15th century climate simulations and affect model/proxy comparisons. Here we compile a Northern Hemisphere network of 25 tree-ring maximum latewood density chronologies extending back over the past 650+ years and analyze the 1450s temperature deviations. Warm season temperature reconstructions from these data reveal the spatially most coherent and by far most severe cooling of the 15th century occurred in 1453. Cooling was overall stronger in the Eurasian high latitudes and northwestern North America, and less severe in central and southern Europe. These findings indicate that the original dating of a large eruption in 1452 was correct.

  5. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. D'Andrea

    2014-10-01

    +0.163 W m−2 and the global mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of between −0.008 and −0.056 W m−2. This change in aerosols, and the associated radiative forcing, could be a~largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  6. Regional and seasonal radiative forcing by perturbations to aerosol and ozone precursor emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouin, Nicolas; Baker, Laura; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Olivié, Dirk; Cherian, Ribu; Macintosh, Claire; Samset, Bjørn; Esteve, Anna; Aamaas, Borgar; Quaas, Johannes; Myhre, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    Predictions of temperature and precipitation responses to changes in the anthropogenic emissions of climate forcers require the quantification of the radiative forcing exerted by those changes. This task is particularly difficult for near-term climate forcers like aerosols, methane, and ozone precursors because their short atmospheric lifetimes cause regionally and temporally inhomogeneous radiative forcings. This study quantifies specific radiative forcing, defined as the radiative forcing per unit change in mass emitted, for eight near-term climate forcers as a function of their source regions and the season of emission by using dedicated simulations by four general circulation and chemistry-transport models. Although differences in the representation of atmospheric chemistry and radiative processes in different models impede the creation of a uniform dataset, four distinct findings can be highlighted. Firstly, specific radiative forcing for sulfur dioxide and organic carbon are stronger when aerosol-cloud interactions are taken into account. Secondly, there is a lack of agreement on the sign of the specific radiative forcing of volatile organic compound perturbations, suggesting they are better avoided in climate mitigation strategies. Thirdly, the strong seasonalities of the specific radiative forcing of most forcers allow strategies to minimise positive radiative forcing based on the timing of emissions. Finally, European and shipping emissions exert stronger aerosol specific radiative forcings compared to East Asia where the baseline is more polluted. This study can therefore form the basis for further refining climate mitigation options based on regional and seasonal controls on emissions. For example, reducing summertime emissions of black carbon and wintertime emissions of sulfur dioxide in the more polluted regions is a possible way to improve air quality without weakening the negative radiative forcing of aerosols.

  7. The direct radiative forcing effects of aerosols on the climate in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used to explore the influence of aerosol direct radiative effects on regional climate of California. Aerosol data is provided by the MOZART global chemistry transport model and includes sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust and sea salt. To investigate the sensitivity of aerosol radiative effects to different aerosol species and to the quantity of sulfate and dust, tests are conducted by using different combinations of aerosols and by resetting the quantity of sulfate and dust. The model results show that all the considered aerosols could have a cooling effect of one half to one degree in terms of temperature and that dust and sulfate are the most important aerosols. However, large uncertainties exist. The results suggest that the dust from MOZART is greatly overestimated over the simulation domain. The single scattering albedo (SSA) values of dust used in some global climate models are likely underestimated compared to recent studies on dust optical properties and could result in overestimating the corresponding cooling effects by approximately 0.1 degree. Large uncertainties exist in estimating the roles of different forcing factors which are causing the observed temperature change in the past century in California.

  8. Direct measurement of attachment of {sup 220}Rn progeny on aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C. E-mail: jkcleung@hku.hk; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C.; Zhau, Q.F

    2003-08-11

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha}-particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  9. A Comparison of Pre-monsoonal and Monsoonal Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols after monsoon onset is often considered unimportant compared to forcing during the pre-monsoonal period, due to precipitation scavenging. We tested this assumption for the South Asian monsoon using three model runs with forcing prescribed during the pre-monsoonal period (March-May), monsoon period (June-September) and both periods. The forcing represents the direct radiative effects of sulfate, organic carbon and black carbon. It was derived from a set of Kalman filter-optimised black carbon emissions from a modelling system based on the CAM3 GCM, a two-moment multi-scheme aerosol and radiation model, and a coupled urban scale processing package; we expect it to be reliable within its given error bounds. The monthly climatological forcing values were prescribed over South Asia every year for 100 years to CESM 1.0.4, a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. We shall compare the three resultant climatologies with climatologies from a no aerosol model and a full aerosol model.

  10. Effects of sulfate aerosol forcing on East Asian summer monsoon for 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoong J.; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1. One control and two sensitivity model experiments were conducted in order to diagnose the separate roles played by sea surface temperature (SST) variations and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcing changes in East Asia. We find that the SST variation has been a major driver for the observed weakening of the EASM, whereas the effect of the anthropogenic aerosol forcing has been opposite and has slightly intensified the EASM over the recent decades. The reinforcement of the EASM results from radiative cooling by the sulfate aerosol forcing, which decelerates the jet stream around the jet's exit region. Subsequently, the secondary circulation induced by such a change in the jet stream leads to the increase in precipitation around 18-23°N. This result indicates that the increase in anthropogenic emissions over East Asia may play a role in compensating for the weakening of the EASM caused by the SST forcing.

  11. Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations from Earth observing satellites indicate that dark carbonaceous aerosols that absorb solar radiation are widespread in the tropics and subtropics. When these aerosols mix with clouds, there is generally a reduction of cloudiness owing to absorption of solar energy in the aerosol layer. Over the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean, where smoke from savannah burning in southern Africa resides above a persistent deck of marine stratocumulus clouds, radiative heating of the smoke layer leads to a thickening of the cloud layer. Here, satellite observations of the albedo of overcast scenes of 25 km2 size or larger are combined with additional satellite observations of clouds and aerosols to estimate the top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing attributable to presence of dark aerosol above bright cloud, and the negative semi-direct forcing attributable to the thickening of the cloud layer. The average positive direct radiative forcing by smoke over an overcast scene is 9.2±6.6 W m-2 for cases with an unambiguous signal of absorbing aerosol over cloud in passive ultraviolet remote sensing observations. However, cloud liquid water path is enhanced by 16.3±7.7 g m-2 across the range of values for sea surface temperature for cases of smoke over cloud. The negative radiative forcing associated with this semi-direct effect of smoke over clouds is estimated to be -5.9±3.5 W m-2. Therefore, the cooling associated with the semi-direct cloud thickening effect compensates for greater than 60 % of the direct radiative effect. Accounting for the frequency of occurrence of significant absorbing aerosol above overcast scenes leads to an estimate of the average direct forcing of 1.0±0.7 W m-2 contributed by these scenes averaged over the subtropical southeast Atlantic Ocean during austral winter. The regional average of the negative semi-direct forcing is -0.7±0.4 W m-2. Therefore, smoke aerosols overlaying the decks of overcast marine stratocumulus clouds considered

  12. Aerosol Optical Properties and Its Radiative Forcing over Yulin, China in 2001 and 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Huizheng; ZHANG Xiaoye; Stephane ALFRARO; Bernadette CHATENET; Laurent GOMES; ZHAO Jianqi

    2009-01-01

    The aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing over the Mu Us desert of northern China, acquired through a CE318 sunphotometer of the ground-bascd Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), are analyzed. The seasonal variations in the aerosol optical properties are examined. The effect of meteorological elements (pressure, temperature, water vapor pressure, relative humidity and wind speed) on the aerosol optical properties is also studied. Then, the sources and optical properties under two different cases, a dust event and a pollution event, are compared. The results show that the high aerosol optical depth (AOD) found in Yulin was mostly attributed to the occurrence of dust events in spring from the Mu Us desert and deserts of West China and Mongolia, as well as the impacts of anthropogenic pollutant particles from the middle part of China in the other seasons. The seasonal variation and the probability distribution of the radiative forcing and the radiative forcing efficiency at the surface and the top of the atmosphere are analyzed and regressed using the linear and Gaussian regression methods.

  13. Insulation effects of Icelandic dust and volcanic aerosols on snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosics, Monika; Meinander, Outi; Jónsdóttir, Tinna; Dürig, Tobias; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Pálsson, Finnur; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic region, Iceland is an important source of dust due to ash production from volcanic eruptions. In addition dust is resuspended from the surface into the atmosphere as several dust storms occur each year. During volcanic eruptions and dust storms, material is deposited on the glaciers where it influences their energy balance. The effects of deposited volcanic ash on ice and snow melt were examined using laboratory and outdoor experiments. These experiments were made during the snow melt period using two different ash grain sizes (1 ϕ and 3.5 ϕ) from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, collected on the glacier. Different amounts of ash were deposited on snow or ice after which the snow properties and melt were measured. The results show that a thin ash layer increases the snow and ice melt but an ash layer exceeding a certain critical thickness caused insulation. Ash with 1 ϕ in grain size insulated the ice below at a thickness of 9-15 mm. For the 3.5 ϕ grain size the insulation thickness is 13 mm. The maximum melt occurred at a thickness of 1 mm for the 1 ϕ and only 1-2 mm for 3.5 ϕ ash. A map of dust concentrations on Vatnajökull that represents the dust deposition during the summer of 2013 is presented with concentrations ranging from 0.2 up to 16.6 g m-2.

  14. Aerosol and Cloud Radiative Forcing in China: Preliminary Results from the EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cribb, M.; Xia, X.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2005-12-01

    East Asia, and China in particular, is a region that can provide crucial and unique information concerning natural and anthropogenic aerosols and their impact on fundamental climate issues. Until very recently, few observational studies were conducted in this region of heavy aerosol loading and unique properties. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) is an attempt to more fully characterize the physical, optical and chemical properties of these aerosols in different parts of China. Currently, three ground observation stations have been established under the aegis of this experiment. They include Xianghe (70 km southeast of Beijing), Liaozhong (50 km west of Shenyang), and Tai Lake (central to three mega-cities Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing). Measurements have been taken continuously over different periods of time. The measurements include radiative quantities (for example, longwave and shortwave broadband and narrowband irradiances, etc.), the sky condition from a total sky imager, and aerosol quantities such as optical depth and single-scattering albedo. A preliminary analysis of the data with regards to the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface will be presented. Critical to this analysis is the identification of clear skies, which is problematic in this region due to the ubiquitous presence of aerosol in the atmosphere. Another challenge is the discrimination between haze and cloud. The synergy of multiple data sources from the ground and from satellite is shown to help in identifying sky condition so that aerosol and cloud forcing can be determined.

  15. Radiative Forcing Due to Major Aerosol Emitting Sectors in China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Lu, Zifeng; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic aerosol sources is essential for making effective emission control decisions to mitigate climate change. We examined the net direct plus indirect radiative forcing caused by carbonaceous aerosol and sulfur emissions in key sectors of China and India using the GISS-E2 chemistry-climate model. Diesel trucks and buses (67 mW/ sq. m) and residential biofuel combustion (52 mW/ sq. m) in India have the largest global mean, annual average forcings due mainly to the direct and indirect effects of BC. Emissions from these two sectors in China have near-zero net global forcings. Coal-fired power plants in both countries exert a negative forcing of about -30 mW/ sq. m from production of sulfate. Aerosol forcings are largest locally, with direct forcings due to residential biofuel combustion of 580 mW/ sq. m over India and 416 mW/ sq. m over China, but they extend as far as North America, Europe, and the Arctic

  16. Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-11-01

    Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

  17. Catastrophic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  18. Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean based on AERONET aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bergamo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The all-sky direct radiative effect by anthropogenic aerosol (DREa is calculated in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral ranges for six Mediterranean sites. The sites are differently affected by pollution and together reflect typical aerosol impacts that are expected over land and coastal sites of the central Mediterranean basin. Central to the simulations are aerosol optical properties from AERONET sun-/sky-photometer statistics for the year 2003. A discussion on the variability of the overall (natural + anthropogenic aerosol properties with site location is provided. Supplementary data include MODIS satellite sensor based solar surface albedos, ISCCP products for high- mid- and low cloud cover and estimates for the anthropogenic aerosol fraction from global aerosol models. Since anthropogenic aerosol particles are considered to be smaller than 1 μm in size, mainly the solar radiation transfer is affected with impacts only during sun-light hours. At all sites the (daily average solar DREa is negative all year round at the top of the atmosphere (ToA. Hence, anthropogenic particles produce over coastal and land sites of the central Mediterranean a significant cooling effect. Monthly DREa values vary from site to site and are seasonally dependent as a consequence of the seasonal dependence of available sun-light and microphysical aerosol properties. At the ToA the monthly average DREa is −(4±1 W m−2 during spring-summer (SS, April–September and −(2±1 W m−2 during autumn-winter (AW, October–March at the polluted sites. In contrast, it varies between −(3±1 W m−2 and −(1±1 W m−2 on SS and AW, respectively at the less polluted site. Due to atmospheric absorption the DREa at the surface is larger than at the ToA. At the surface the monthly average DREa varies between the most and the least polluted

  19. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Westervelt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3 to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m−2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d−1. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm d−1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m−2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in cloud droplet effective radius. Future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 30–40% of total climate warming by 2100 in East Asia, even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5. The expected unmasking of global warming caused

  20. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  1. Absorbing aerosols: contribution of biomass burning and implications for radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gadhavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols supplements the global warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, unlike greenhouse gases, the effect of absorbing aerosol on climate is not known with certainty owing to paucity of data. Also, uncertainty exists in quantifying the contributing factors whether it is biomass or fossil fuel burning. Based on the observations of absorption coefficient at seven wavelengths and aerosol optical depth (AOD at five wavelengths carried out at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a remote village in peninsular India, from April to November 2008, as part of the "Study of Atmospheric Forcing and Responses (SAFAR" pilot campaign we discuss seasonal variation of black carbon (BC concentration and aerosol optical depth. Also, using spectral information we estimate the fraction of fossil-fuel and non-fossil fuel contributions to absorption coefficient and contributions of soot (Black Carbon, non-soot fine mode aerosols and coarse mode aerosols to AOD.

    BC concentration is found to be around 1000 ng/m3 during monsoon months (JJAS and around 4000 ng/m3 during pre and post monsoon months. Non-fossil fuel sources contribute nearly 20% to absorption coefficient at 880 nm, which increases to 40% during morning and evening hours. Average AOD is found to be 0.38±0.15, with high values in May and low in September. Soot contributes nearly 10% to the AOD. This information is further used to estimate the clear sky aerosol direct radiative forcing. Top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing varies between −4 to 0 W m−2, except for April when the forcing is positive. Surface level radiative forcing is between −10 to −20 W m−2. The net radiation absorbed within the atmosphere is in the range of 9 to 25 W m−2, of which soot contributes about 80 to 90%.

  2. On the influence of the diurnal variations of aerosol content to estimate direct aerosol radiative forcing using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Jianping; Ceamanos, Xavier; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Min, Min; Carrer, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Long-term measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) located in Beijing reveal a strong diurnal cycle of aerosol load staged by seasonal patterns. Such pronounced variability is matter of importance in respect to the estimation of daily averaged direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). Polar-orbiting satellites could only offer a daily revisit, which turns in fact to be even much less in case of frequent cloudiness. Indeed, this places a severe limit to properly capture the diurnal variations of AOD and thus estimate daily DARF. Bearing this in mind, the objective of the present study is however to evaluate the impact of AOD diurnal variations for conducting quantitative assessment of DARF using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD data over Beijing. We provide assessments of DARF with two different assumptions about diurnal AOD variability: taking the observed hourly-averaged AOD cycle into account and assuming constant MODIS (including Terra and Aqua) AOD value throughout the daytime. Due to the AOD diurnal variability, the absolute differences in annual daily mean DARFs, if the constant MODIS/Terra (MODIS/Aqua) AOD value is used instead of accounting for the observed hourly-averaged daily variability, is 1.2 (1.3) Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere, 27.5 (30.6) Wm-2 at the surface, and 26.4 (29.3) Wm-2 in the atmosphere, respectively. During the summertime, the impact of the diurnal AOD variability on seasonal daily mean DARF estimates using MODIS Terra (Aqua) data can reach up to 2.2 (3.9) Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere, 43.7 (72.7) Wm-2 at the surface, and 41.4 (68.8) Wm-2 in the atmosphere, respectively. Overall, the diurnal variation in AOD tends to cause large bias in the estimated DARF on both seasonal and annual scales. In summertime, the higher the surface albedo, the stronger impact on DARF at the top of the atmosphere caused by dust and biomass burning (continental) aerosol. This

  3. Modeling nitrate aerosol distributions and its direct radiative forcing in East Asia with RAMS-CMAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Meigen Zhang; Baorong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The geographical and seasonal characteristics in nitrate aerosol and its direct radiative forcing over East Asia are analyzed by using the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ coupled with an aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module.For evaluating the model performance,nitrate ion concentration in precipitation,and mixing ratios of PM1o,and some gas precursors of aerosol during the whole year of 2007 are compared against surface observations at 17 stations located in Japan,Korea,and China,and the satellite retrieved NO2 columns.The comparison shows that the simulated values are generally in good agreement with the observed ones.Simulated monthly averaged values are mostly within a factor of 2 of the measurements at the observation stations.The distribution patterns of NO2 from simulation and satellite measurement are also similar with each other.Analysis of the distribution features of monthly and yearly averaged mass concentration and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate indicates that the nitrate aerosol could reach about 25-30% of the total aerosol mass concentration and DRF in Sichuan Basin,Southeast China,and East China where the high mass burden of all major aerosols concentrated.The high-est mass concentration and strongest DRF of nitrate could exceed 40 μg/m3 and-5 W/m2,respectively.It also indicates that other aerosol species,such as carbonaceous and mineral particles,could obviously influence the nitrate DRF for they are often internally mixed with each other.

  4. New liquid aerosol generation devices: systems that force pressurized liquids through nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, David E

    2002-12-01

    Over the past few decades, aerosol delivery devices have been relatively inefficient, wasteful, and difficult for patients to use. These drawbacks have been tolerated because the drugs available for inhalation have wide therapeutic margins and steep dose-response curves at low doses. Recently several forces have converged to drive innovation in the aerosol device industry: the ban on chlorofluorocarbon propellants in metered-dose inhalers, the need for more user-friendly devices, and the invention of expensive inhalable therapies for topical and systemic lung delivery. Numerous devices are in development to improve the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of aerosol delivery to the lung, including systems that force liquid through a nozzle to form the aerosol cloud. The Respimat is a novel, compact, propellant-free, multi-dose inhaler that employs a spring to push drug solution through a nozzle, which generates a slow-moving aerosol. Deposition studies show that the Respimat can deliver 39-44% of a dose to the lungs. Clinical asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease trials with bronchodilators show that the Respimat is 2-8 times as effective as a metered-dose inhaler. Respimat has been tested with bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. The AERx device uses sophisticated electronics to deliver aerosol from a single-dose blister, using an integral, disposable nozzle array. The electronics control dose expression and titration, timing of aerosol generation with the breath, and provide feedback for proper inhalation technique. Lung deposition ranges from 50 to 80% of the loaded dose, with remarkable reproducibility. AERx has been tested with a variety of drugs, for both topical and systemic delivery, including rhDNase (dornase alfa), insulin, and opioids. These novel devices face competition from other technologies as well as financial and regulatory hurdles, but they both offer a marked improvement in the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery.

  5. Aerosol radiative forcing efficiency in the UV-B region over central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Olcese, Luis E.; Lanzaco, Bethania L.; Achad, Mariana; López, María Laura; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2016-07-01

    AEROSOL Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and global UV-B (280-315 nm) irradiance measurements and calculations were combined to investigate the effects of aerosol loading on the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) reaching the surface under cloudless conditions in Córdoba, Argentina. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and the aerosol forcing efficiency (ARFE) were calculated for an extended period of time (2000-2013) at a ground-based monitoring site affected by different types and loading of aerosols. The ARFE was evaluated by using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 340 nm retrieved by AERONET at the Cordoba CETT site. The individual and combined effects of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the ARFE were also analyzed. In addition, and for comparison purposes, the MODIS AOD at 550 nm was used as input in a machine learning method to better characterize the aerosol load at 340 nm and evaluate the ARFE retrieved from AOD satellite measurements. The ARFE at the surface calculated using AOD data from AERONET ranged from (-0.11 ± 0.01) to (-1.76 ± 0.20) Wm-2 with an average of -0.61 Wm-2; however, when using AOD data from MODIS (TERRA/AQUA satellites), it ranged from (-0.22 ± 0.03) to (-0.65 ± 0.07) Wm-2 with an average value of -0.43 Wm-2. At the same SZA and SSA, the maximum difference between ground and satellite-based was 0.22 Wm-2.

  6. Aerosols Monitoring Network to Create a Volcanic ASH Risk Management System in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main decisions were made in Argentina to mitigate the impact of the recent volcanic activity in de country basically affected by the presence of volcanic ash in the air and deposited over the Argentinean territory. The first one was to create a risk management commission were this risk between others were studied, and second to develop new ground based remote sensing technologies to be able to identify and inform the risk close to the airports. In addition the Japanese government program for Science and Technology joint Research Partnership between Argentina, Chile and Japan for Sustainable Development (SATREPS accepted to fund this cooperation due to the potential future utilization of the research outcomes to the benefit of the society. This work present the actual achievements and expected advance of these projects that try to joint efforts between national and international agencies as well as countries on behalf of a better understanding of the risks and a joint collaboration on the mitigation of suspended ashes impact over the aerial navigation.

  7. Aerosols Monitoring Network to Create a Volcanic ASH Risk Management System in Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Otero, Lidia; Jin, Yoshitaka; Ristori, Pablo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; González, Francisco; Papandrea, Sebastián; Shimizu, Atsushi; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Two main decisions were made in Argentina to mitigate the impact of the recent volcanic activity in de country basically affected by the presence of volcanic ash in the air and deposited over the Argentinean territory. The first one was to create a risk management commission were this risk between others were studied, and second to develop new ground based remote sensing technologies to be able to identify and inform the risk close to the airports. In addition the Japanese government program for Science and Technology joint Research Partnership between Argentina, Chile and Japan for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) accepted to fund this cooperation due to the potential future utilization of the research outcomes to the benefit of the society. This work present the actual achievements and expected advance of these projects that try to joint efforts between national and international agencies as well as countries on behalf of a better understanding of the risks and a joint collaboration on the mitigation of suspended ashes impact over the aerial navigation.

  8. Fog-induced variations in aerosol optical and physical properties over the Indo-Gangetic Basin and impact to aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Jayaraman, A.; Misra, A.

    2008-06-01

    A detailed study on the changes in aerosol physical and optical properties during fog events were made in December 2004 at Hissar (29.13° N, 75.70° E), a city located in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The visible aerosol optical depth was relatively low (0.3) during the initial days, which, however, increased (0.86) as the month progressed. The increasing aerosol amount, the decreasing surface temperature and a higher relative humidity condition were found favoring the formation of fog. The fog event is also found to alter the aerosol size distribution. An increase in the number concentration of the nucleation mode (radiuscompute the aerosol radiative forcing. The top of the atmosphere forcing is found to increase during foggy days due to large backscattering of radiation back to space. It is also shown that during foggy days, as the day progresses the RH value decreases, which reduces the forcing value while the increasing solar elevation increases the forcing value. Thus the fog event which prolongs longer into the daytime has a stronger effect on the diurnally averaged aerosol radiative forcing than those events which are confined only to the early morning hours.

  9. Direct radiative forcing properties of atmospheric aerosols over semi-arid region, Anantapur in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Raja Obul Reddy; Gugamsetty, Balakrishnaiah; Kotalo, Rama Gopal; Nagireddy, Siva Kumar Reddy; Tandule, Chakradhar Rao; Thotli, Lokeswara Reddy; Rajuru Ramakrishna, Reddy; Surendranair, Suresh Babu

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the aerosols optical, physical characteristics and the aerosol radiative forcing pertaining to semi-arid region, Anantapur for the period January 2013-December 2014. Collocated measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Black Carbon mass concentration (BC) are carried out by using MICROTOPS II and Aethalometer and estimated the aerosol radiative forcing over this location. The mean values of AOD at 500nm are found to be 0.47±0.09, 0.34±0.08, 0.29±0.06 and 0.30±0.07 during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The Angstrom exponent (α380-1020) value is observed maximum in March (1.25±0.19) and which indicates the predominance of fine - mode aerosols and lowest in the month of July (0.33±0.14) and may be due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols. The diurnal variation of BC is exhibited two height peaks during morning 07:00-08:00 (IST) and evening 19:00-21:00 (IST) hours and one minima noticed during afternoon (13:00-16:00). The highest monthly mean BC concentration is observed in the month of January (3.4±1.2μgm(-3)) and the lowest in July (1.1±0.2μgm(-3)). The estimated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (ADRF) in the atmosphere is found to be +36.8±1.7Wm(-2), +26.9±0.2Wm(-2), +18.0±0.6Wm(-2) and +18.5±3.1Wm(-2) during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Large difference between TOA and BOA forcing is observed during summer which indicate the large absorption of radiant energy (36.80Wm(-2)) which contributes more increase in atmospheric heating by ~1K/day. The BC contribution on an average is found to be 64% and is responsible for aerosol atmospheric heating.

  10. Evapo-transpiration, role of aerosol radiative forcing: a study over a dense canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanage, VInayak; Latha, R.; Murthy, B. S.

    2016-05-01

    Current study uses Satellite and Reanalysis data to quantify the effect of aerosol on ET at various space and time scales. All the data are obtained for the period June 2008 to May 2009 over Dibrugarh district, Assam, Indi a where NDVI has limited change of through the year. Monthly Evapo-Transpiration (ET, cumulative), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are retrieved from satellite images of Terra-MODIS. The AOD data are evaluated against in-situ observations. Maximum values of AOD are observed in the pre-monsoon season while minimum AOD values are perceived in October and November. Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) is calculated by using the MERRA data sets of `clean-clear radiation' and `clear-radiation' at surface over the study area. Maximum aerosol radiative forcing is observed during the pre-monsoon season; this is in tune with ground observations. Strong positive correlation (r=0.75) between ET and NDVI is observed and it is found that the dense vegetative surfaces exhibit higher rate of evapo-transpiration. A strong positive correlation (r= -0.85) between ARF at surface and AOD is observed with radiative forcing efficiency of 35 W/m2. A statistical regression equation of ET a s a function of NDVI and AOD i.e. ET = 0.25 + (-84.27) * AOD + (131.51) * NDVI, is obtained that shows a correlation of 0.824.

  11. Indirect Radiative Forcing and Climatic Effect of the Anthropogenic Nitrate Aerosol on Regional Climate of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu; WANG Wijian; ZHUANG Bingliang; HAN Yong

    2009-01-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) and a tropospheric atmosphere chemistry model (TACM) were couplcd, thus a regional climate chemistry modeling system (RegCCMS) was constructed, which was applied to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic nitrate aerosols, indirect radiative forcing, as well as its climatic effect over China. TACM includes the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA and a condensed gas-phase chemistry model. Investigations show that the concentration of nitrate aerosols is relatively high over North and East China with a maximum of 29μg m-3 in January and 8 μg m-3 in July.Due to the influence of air temperature on thermodynamic equilibrium, wet scavenging of precipitation and the monsoon climate, there are obvious seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations. The average indirect radiative forcing at the tropopause due to nitrate aerosols is -1.63 W m-2 in January and -2.65 W m-2 in July, respectively. In some areas, indirect radiative forcing reaches -10 W m-2. Sensitivity tests show that nitrate aerosols make the surface air temperature drop and the precipitation reduce on the national level. The mean changes in surface air temperature and precipitation are -0.13 K and -0.01 mm d-1 in January and -0.09 K and -0.11 mm d-1 in July, respectively, showing significant differences in different regions.

  12. Direct radiative forcing of aerosols in cloudy condition using CALIPSO satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, E.; Nakajima, T.; Winker, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The aerosol direct effect occurs by direct scattering and absorption of solar and thermal radiation. Shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) under clear-sky condition is estimated about 5 Wm-2 from satellite retrievals and model simulations [Yu et al., 2006ACP]. Simultaneous observations of aerosols and clouds are very limited, thus it is difficult to validate the estimation of DARF under cloudy-sky condition. In 2006, the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite was launched with the space-borne lidar, CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization). This enabled us to get data of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds all over the world. Oikawa et al. [2013JGR] estimated DARF under clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions using CALIPSO and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data. Over Atlantic Ocean off southwest Africa, biomass burning aerosols are transported above low-level clouds and cause large positive DARF [Oikawa et al., 2013JGR; Chand et al., 2009Nat. Geosci.; De Graaf et al., 2012JGR; Takemura et al., 2005JGR]. We calculate DARF using CALIOP Level 2 Cloud and Aerosol Layer Products Version 3 and the method of Oikawa et al. [2013]. In this study, we focus on the case that aerosols exist above clouds (above-cloud case) in 2007. Over Atlantic Ocean off southwest Africa, DARF caused by smoke aerosols is +7.1 Wm-2 in September. On the other hand, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of smoke is small as close to 0 Wm-2 in spring season. Over North Pacific, yellow sand and industrial smoke are transported from Asia and DARF is +5.2 Wm-2 in May. Dust AOT at 532 nm is 0.014 and polluted dust AOT at 532 nm is 0.052; in other words, a large part of dust emitted from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts are mixed with the industrial smoke and transported to the Pacific Ocean according to the CALIPSO algorithms.

  13. The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew S; Kirkpatrick, Michael P; Stevens, David E; Toon, Owen B

    2004-12-23

    Some of the global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases is offset by increased reflection of solar radiation by clouds with smaller droplets that form in air polluted with aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation nuclei. The resulting cooling tendency, termed the indirect aerosol forcing, is thought to be comparable in magnitude to the forcing by anthropogenic CO2, but it is difficult to estimate because the physical processes that determine global aerosol and cloud populations are poorly understood. Smaller cloud droplets not only reflect sunlight more effectively, but also inhibit precipitation, which is expected to result in increased cloud water. Such an increase in cloud water would result in even more reflective clouds, further increasing the indirect forcing. Marine boundary-layer clouds polluted by aerosol particles, however, are not generally observed to hold more water. Here we simulate stratocumulus clouds with a fluid dynamics model that includes detailed treatments of cloud microphysics and radiative transfer. Our simulations show that the response of cloud water to suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations is determined by a competition between moistening from decreased surface precipitation and drying from increased entrainment of overlying air. Only when the overlying air is humid or droplet concentrations are very low does sufficient precipitation reach the surface to allow cloud water to increase with droplet concentrations. Otherwise, the response of cloud water to aerosol-induced suppression of precipitation is dominated by enhanced entrainment of overlying dry air. In this scenario, cloud water is reduced as droplet concentrations increase, which diminishes the indirect climate forcing.

  14. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free direct radiative forcing of aerosol over the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A combination of ground-based and satellite observations are used, in conjunction with column radiative transfer modelling, to assess the climatological aerosol loading and quantify its corresponding cloud-free direct radiative forcing (DRF) over the Red Sea. While there have been campaigns designed to probe aerosol-climate interactions over much of the world, relatively little attention has been paid to this region. Because of the remoteness of the area, satellite retrievals provide a crucial tool for assessing aerosol loading over the Sea. However, agreement between aerosol properties inferred from measurements from different instruments, and even in some cases from the same measurements using different retrieval algorithms can be poor, particularly in the case of mineral dust. Ground based measurements which can be used to evaluate retrievals are thus highly desirable. Here we take advantage of ship-based sun-photometer micro-tops observations gathered from a series of cruises which took place across the Red Sea during 2011 and 2013. To our knowledge these data represent the first set of detailed aerosol measurements from the Sea. They thus provide a unique opportunity to assess the performance of satellite retrieval algorithms in this region. Initially two aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms developed for the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments are evaluated via comparison with the co-located cruise observations. These show excellent agreement, with correlations typically better than 0.9 and very small root-mean-square and bias differences. Calculations of radiative fluxes and DRF along one of the cruises using the observed aerosol and meteorological conditions also show good agreement with co-located estimates from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument if the aerosol asymmetry parameter is adjusted to account for the presence of large

  15. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free direct radiative forcing of aerosol over the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Helen; Osipov, Serega; Bantges, Richard; Smirnov, Alexander; Banks, Jamie; Levy, Robert; Prakash, P.-Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-04-01

    A combination of ground-based and satellite observations are used, in conjunction with column radiative transfer modelling, to assess the climatological aerosol loading and quantify its corresponding cloud-free direct radiative forcing (DRF) over the Red Sea. While there have been campaigns designed to probe aerosol-climate interactions over much of the world, relatively little attention has been paid to this region. Because of the remoteness of the area, satellite retrievals provide a crucial tool for assessing aerosol loading over the Sea. However, agreement between aerosol properties inferred from measurements from different instruments, and even in some cases from the same measurements using different retrieval algorithms can be poor, particularly in the case of mineral dust. Ground based measurements which can be used to evaluate retrievals are thus highly desirable. Here we take advantage of ship-based sun-photometer micro-tops observations gathered from a series of cruises which took place across the Red Sea during 2011 and 2013. To our knowledge these data represent the first set of detailed aerosol measurements from the Sea. They thus provide a unique opportunity to assess the performance of satellite retrieval algorithms in this region. Initially two aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms developed for the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments are evaluated via comparison with the co-located cruise observations. These show excellent agreement, with correlations typically better than 0.9 and very small root-mean-square and bias differences. Calculations of radiative fluxes and DRF along one of the cruises using the observed aerosol and meteorological conditions also show good agreement with co-located estimates from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument if the aerosol asymmetry parameter is adjusted to account for the presence of large

  16. Wintertime characteristics of aerosols over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain: Vertical profile, transport and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Raju, M. P.; Singh, R. K.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. S.; Banerjee, T.

    2017-01-01

    Winter-specific characteristics of airborne particulates over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) were evaluated in terms of aerosol chemical and micro-physical properties under three-dimensional domain. Emphases were made for the first time to identify intra-seasonal variations of aerosols sources, horizontal and vertical transport, effects of regional meteorology and estimating composite aerosol short-wave radiative forcing over an urban region (25°10‧-25°19‧N; 82°54‧-83°4‧E) at middle-IGP. Space-borne passive (Aqua and Terra MODIS, Aura OMI) and active sensor (CALIPSO-CALIOP) based observations were concurrently used with ground based aerosol mass measurement for entire winter and pre-summer months (December, 1, 2014 to March, 31, 2015). Exceptionally high aerosol mass loading was recorded for both PM10 (267.6 ± 107.0 μg m- 3) and PM2.5 (150.2 ± 89.4 μg m- 3) typically exceeding national standard. Aerosol type was mostly dominated by fine particulates (particulate ratio: 0.61) during pre to mid-winter episodes before being converted to mixed aerosol types (ratio: 0.41-0.53). Time series analysis of aerosols mass typically identified three dissimilar aerosol loading episodes with varying attributes, well resemble to that of previous year's observation representing its persisting nature. Black carbon (9.4 ± 3.7 μg m- 3) was found to constitute significant proportion of fine particulates (2-27%) with a strong diurnal profile. Secondary inorganic ions also accounted a fraction of particulates (PM2.5: 22.5%; PM10: 26.9%) having SO4- 2, NO3- and NH4+ constituting major proportion. Satellite retrieved MODIS-AOD (0.01-2.30) and fine mode fractions (FMF: 0.01-1.00) identified intra-seasonal variation with transport of aerosols from upper to middle-IGP through continental westerly. Varying statistical association of columnar and surface aerosol loading both in terms of fine (r; PM2.5: MODIS-AOD: 0.51) and coarse particulates (PM10: MODIS-AOD: 0.53) was

  17. Impact of springtime biomass-burning aerosols on radiative forcing over northern Thailand during the 7SEAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Janjai, Serm; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2016-04-01

    dominate the both surface mass concentration and the columnar burden. The BC contributed only 6% to the aerosol mass loading, but its contribution to the total AOD and net atmospheric forcing were 12% and 75%, respectively. The mean radiative forcing was -6.8 to -8.7 W m-2 at the top-of-atmosphere and -28 to -33 W m-2 at surface. Furthermore BC aerosols contributed 45-49% to the surface radiative forcing along with the water soluble aerosols (49-52%), thus, significantly contributing to solar dimming

  18. Aerosol forcing efficiency in the UVA region from spectral solar irradiance measurements at an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazadzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Ultraviolet (UV measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be −0.71±0.30 W m−2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of −15.2%±3.8% (2 σ per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.

  19. Indirect radiative forcing of aerosols via water vapor above non-precipitating maritime cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pfeffer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol-cloud-water vapor interactions in clean maritime air have been described for different aerosol sources using the WRF-Chem atmospheric model. The simulations were made over the Lesser Antilles in the region of the RICO measurement campaign where the clouds are low, patchy, typical trade-wind cumuli. In this very clean air, sea salt and DMS are found to have greater effects than anthropogenic pollution on the cloud droplets' effective radii and longwave and shortwave outgoing top of atmosphere radiation. The changes in radiation due to each aerosol source are a function of how each source influences aerosol concentration, cloud droplet number concentration, cloud droplet sizes, and water vapor concentration. Changes in outgoing shortwave radiation are due predominantly to changes in the clouds, followed by the direct aerosol effect which is about 2/3 as important, followed by the effects of water vapor which is in turn about 2/3 as important as the direct effect. Changes in outgoing longwave radiation are due predominantly to changes in the clouds, with changes in water vapor being about 1/10 as important. The simulated changes in water vapor concentration are due to the competing effects of aerosol particles being able to both enhance condensation of available water vapor and enhance evaporation of smaller droplets. These changes are independent of precipitation effects as there is essentially no drizzle in the domain. It is expected that the indirect radiative forcing of aerosols via water vapor may be stronger in dirtier and more strongly convective conditions.

  20. Aerosol direct radiative forcing based on GEOS-Chem-APM and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF plays an important role in global climate change but has a large uncertainty. Here we investigate aerosol DRF with GEOS-Chem-APM, a recently developed global aerosol microphysical model that is designed to capture key particle properties (size, composition, coating of primary particles by volatile species, etc.. The model, with comprehensive chemistry, microphysics and up-to-date emission inventories, is driven by assimilated meteorology, which is presumably more realistic compared to the model-predicted meteorology. For this study, the model is extended by incorporating a radiation transfer model. Optical properties are calculated using Mie theory, where the core-shell configuration could be treated with the refractive indices from the recently updated values available in the literature. The surface albedo is taken from MODIS satellite retrievals for the simulation year, in which the data set for the 8-day mean at 0.05° (5600 m resolution for 7 wavebands is provided. We derive the total and anthropogenic aerosol DRF, mainly focus on the results of anthropogenic aerosols, and then compare with those values reported in previous studies. In addition, we examine the anthropogenic aerosol DRF's dependence on several key factors, including the particle size of black carbon (BC and primary organic carbon (POC, the density of BC and the mixing state. Our studies show that the anthropogenic aerosol DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA for all sky is −0.41 W m−2. However, the sensitivity experiments suggest that the magnitude could vary from −0.08 W m−2 to −0.61 W m−2, depending on assumptions regarding the mixing state, size and density of particles.

  1. The Impacts of Optical Properties on Radiative Forcing Due to Dust Aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; SHI Guangyu; LI Shuyan; LI Wei; WANG Biao; HUANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    There are large uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of radiative effects due to atmospheric dust aerosol. The optical properties contribute much to those uncertainties. The authors perform several sensitivity experiments to estimate the impacts of optical characteristics on regional radiative forcing in this paper. The experiments involve in refractive indices, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and optical depth. An updated dataset of refractive indices representing East Asian dust and the one recommended by the World Meteorology Organization (WMO) are contrastively analyzed and used. A radiative transfer code for solar and thermal infrared radiation with detailed aerosol parameterization is employed. The strongest emphasis is on the refractive indices since other optical parameters strongly depend on it, and the authors found a strong sensitivity of radiative forcing on refractive indices. Studies show stronger scattering, weaker absorption and forward scattering of the East Asian dust particles at solar wavelengths, which leads to higher negative forcing, lower positive forcing and bigger net forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) than that of the WMO dust model. It is also found that the TOA forcings resulting from these two dust models have opposite signs in certain regions, which implies the importance of accurate measurements of optical properties in the quantitative estimation of radiative forcing.

  2. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  3. The Impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, A S; Kirkpatrick, M P; Stevens, D E; Toon, O B

    2004-12-20

    Some of the global warming effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases is offset by increased solar reflection from clouds with smaller droplets that form on increased numbers of cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air. The global magnitude of the resulting indirect aerosol climate forcing is estimated to be comparable (and opposed) to the anthropogenic carbon dioxide forcing, but estimates are highly uncertain because of complexities in characterizing the physical process that determine global aerosol and cloud populations and their interactions. Beyond reflecting sunlight more effectively, smaller droplets are less efficient at producing precipitation, and decreased precipitation is expected to result in increased cloud water and cloud cover, further increasing the indirect forcing. Yet polluted marine boundary-layer clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Here we use model simulations of stratocumulus clouds to show that suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations leads to increased cloud water only when sufficient precipitation reaches the surface, a condition favored when the overlying air is moist. Otherwise, aerosol induced suppression of precipitation enhances entrainment of overlying dry air, thereby reducing cloud water and diminishing the indirect climate forcing.

  4. Carbon cycle and climate effects of forcing from fire-emitted aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-02-01

    Aerosols emitted by landscape fires affect many climatic processes. Here, we combined an aerosol–climate model and a coupled climate–carbon model to study the carbon cycle and climate effects caused by fire-emitted aerosols (FEA) forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. This forcing (‘best guess’ present-day values of ‑0.10 and ‑1.3 W m‑2 at the top of the atmosphere and surface, respectively) had a predominant cooling influence that altered regional land carbon stocks on decadal timescales by modifying vegetation productivity and soil–litter decomposition. Changes in regional land and ocean carbon stocks became much stronger for FEA forcing acting on multi-century timescales; this occurred because carbon stocks responded to the forcing itself on such timescales and also due to gradual effects on the climate (e.g. through increased sea ice cover) that further affected the carbon cycle. Carbon increases and decreases in different regions partly offset each other, so that absolute changes in global land, atmosphere, and ocean stocks were all Asia, respectively. This suggests the potential for remote carbon cycle effects from regions emitting large amounts of fire aerosols.

  5. Decadal Changes in Arctic Radiative Forcing from Aerosols and Tropospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breider, T. J.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Croft, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Ge, C.; Yang, Q.; Bitz, C. M.; McConnell, J.; Sharma, S.; Skov, H.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Annual average Arctic sea ice coverage has declined by 3.6% per decade since the 1980s, but factors driving this trend are uncertain. Long-term surface observations and ice core records suggest recent, large declines in the Arctic atmospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, which may account in part for the warming trend. The decline in black carbon (BC) aerosol in the Arctic during the same period may partly offset the warming due to decreases in sulfate. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model together with a detailed inventory of historical anthropogenic trace gas and primary aerosol emissions to quantify changes in Arctic radiative forcing from tropospheric ozone and aerosol between 1980 and 2010. Previous studies have reported an increasing trend in observed ozone at 500 hPa over Canada, but our simulation shows no significant trend. Over Europe, good agreement is found with observed long-term trends in sulfate in surface air (observed = -0.14±0.02 μg m-3 yr-1, model = -0.13±0.01 μg m-3 yr-1), while the observed trend in sulfate in precipitation (-0.20±0.03 μg m-3 yr-1) is underestimated by 40%. At Alert, the timing of the observed decline in sulfate after 1991 is well captured in the simulation, but the observed trend between 1991 and 2001 (-36.3±4.1 ng m-3 yr-1) is underestimated by 26%. BC observations at remote Arctic surface stations are biased low throughout 1980-2010 by a factor of 2. At Greenland ice cores, observed 1980-2010 trends in sulfate deposition are underestimated by 35%. The smaller model bias in observed sulfate and BC deposition at ice cores in southern Greenland (5% and 65%) compared to northern Greenland (56% and 90%) indicates greater uncertainty in pollution emissions from Eurasian sources. We estimate a surface radiative forcing from atmospheric aerosols in the Arctic during 2008 of -0.51 W m-2. The forcing is largest in spring (-1.36 W m-2) and dominated by sulfate aerosol (87%). We will quantify the contributions to the

  6. Long-range forces and the collisions of free-molecular and transition regime aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1988-12-31

    An aerosol here is understood to be a two-component system comprised of gaseous and condensed phases with the characteristic that the condensed phase is not an equilibrium subsystem. In contrast to the usual definitions based upon geometrical or mechanical variables, this quasi-thermodynamic formulation is framed to emphasize the dynamical behavior of aerosols by allowing for coagulation and other aerosol evolutionary processes as natural consequences of the interactions and state variables appropriate to the system. As will become clear later, it also provides a point of departure for distinguishing aerosol particles from unstable gas-phase cluster systems. The question of accommodation in particle collisions must be addressed as a prelude to the discussion of the role of long-range forces. Microscopic reversibility is frequently assumed for molecular collisions with either molecules or solid surfaces. In the case of aerosol collisions, the implication of this assumption is that collisions are elastic, which is contrary to the evidence from coagulation experiments and the conventional operational assumption of sticking upon collision. Gay and Berne have performed computer simulations of the collision of two clusters consisting of a total of 135 molecules interacting via Lennard-Jones potentials. That work showed that complete accommodation, accompanied by overall heating of the unified cluster, occurred. Since heating represents an irreversible degradation of the kinetic energy of the collision, the hamiltonian of the two-cluster system should be considered as dissipative and therefore microscopic reversibility does not apply.

  7. The Impact of Desert Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Global and West African Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Dezfuli, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Desert dust aerosols exert a radiative forcing on the atmosphere, influencing atmospheric temperature structure and modifying radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface. As dust aerosols perturb radiative fluxes, the atmosphere responds by altering both energy and moisture dynamics, with potentially significant impacts on regional and global precipitation. Global Climate Model (GCM) experiments designed to characterize these processes have yielded a wide range of results, owing to both the complex nature of the system and diverse differences across models. Most model results show a general decrease in global precipitation, but regional results vary. Here, we compare simulations from GFDL's CM2Mc GCM with multiple other model experiments from the literature in order to investigate mechanisms of radiative impact and reasons for GCM differences on a global and regional scale. We focus on West Africa, a region of high interannual rainfall variability that is a source of dust and that neighbors major Sahara Desert dust sources. As such, changes in West African climate due to radiative forcing of desert dust aerosol have serious implications for desertification feedbacks. Our CM2Mc results show net cooling of the planet at TOA and surface, net warming of the atmosphere, and significant increases in precipitation over West Africa during the summer rainy season. These results differ from some previous GCM studies, prompting comparative analysis of desert dust parameters across models. This presentation will offer quantitative analysis of differences in dust aerosol parameters, aerosol optical properties, and overall particle burden across GCMs, and will characterize the contribution of model differences to the uncertainty of forcing and climate response affecting West Africa.

  8. Large Aerosol Radiative Forcing due to the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, I. A.; Li, F.; Ramanathan, V.

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, the feedback between El Niño and biomass burning caused the Indonesia's forest fire aerosols to be the second most significant source of anthropogenic aerosol over the tropical Indian Ocean after the South Asian Haze. In this paper, the estimates of the radiative forcing during the 1997 Indonesia's forest fire have been obtained by integrating satellite derived aerosol optical depths and cloud cover with in-situ observations of single scattering albedo and a Monte-Carlo Aerosol-Cloud radiation model. The haze reduced the seasonal average solar radiation absorbed by the equatorial Indian ocean by as much as 30 to 60 W m-2 during September to November 1997, and increased the atmospheric solar heating by as much as 50% to 100% within the first 3 kilometers. The radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was in the range of 5 to 15 W m-2 under cloudy skies. The significance of such large radiative flux changes to the tropical ocean-atmosphere heat budget and climate needs to be examined with climate models.

  9. Dependence of climate forcing and response on the altitude of black carbon aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Cao, Long; Bala, G.; Caldeira, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Black carbon aerosols absorb solar radiation and decrease planetary albedo, and thus can contribute to climate warming. In this paper, the dependence of equilibrium climate response on the altitude of black carbon is explored using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. The simulations model aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, but not indirect effects. Aerosol concentrations are prescribed and not interactive. It is shown that climate response of black carbon is highly dependent on the altitude of the aerosol. As the altitude of black carbon increases, surface temperatures decrease; black carbon near the surface causes surface warming, whereas black carbon near the tropopause and in the stratosphere causes surface cooling. This cooling occurs despite increasing planetary absorption of sunlight (i.e. decreasing planetary albedo). We find that the trend in surface air temperature response versus the altitude of black carbon is consistent with our calculations of radiative forcing after the troposphere, stratosphere, and land surface have undergone rapid adjustment, calculated as "regressed" radiative forcing. The variation in climate response from black carbon at different altitudes occurs largely from different fast climate responses; temperature dependent feedbacks are not statistically distinguishable. Impacts of black carbon at various altitudes on the hydrological cycle are also discussed; black carbon in the lowest atmospheric layer increases precipitation despite reductions in solar radiation reaching the surface, whereas black carbon at higher altitudes decreases precipitation.

  10. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortwave radiative forcingF and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65° in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from −122 ± 37 Wm−2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45 at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and −42 ± 22 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5 at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to −6 ± 3 Wm−2 and −4 ± 2 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02 at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  11. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  12. Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and direct aerosol forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an algorithm for the representation of large spectral variations of albedo over vegetation surfaces based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS observations at 7 discrete channels centered at 0.47, 0.55, 0.67, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.11 μm. The MODIS 7-channel observations miss several major features of vegetation albedo including the vegetation red edge near 0.7 μm and vegetation absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 μm. We characterize these features by investigating aerosol forcing in different spectral ranges. We show that the correction at 0.7 μm is the most sensitive and important due to the presence of the red edge and strong solar radiation; the other two corrections are less sensitive due to the weaker solar radiation and strong atmospheric water absorption. Four traditional approaches for estimating the reflectance spectrum and the MODIS enhanced vegetation albedo (MEVA are tested against various vegetation types: dry grass, green grass, conifer, and deciduous from the John Hopkins University (JHU spectral library; aspens from the US Geological Survey (USGS digital spectral library; and Amazon vegetation types. Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA improves the accuracy of the outgoing flux at the top of the atmosphere by over 60 W m−2 and aerosol forcing by over 10 W m−2. Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol forcing at equator at equinox by 3.7 W m−2 (about 70% of the aerosol forcing calculated with high spectral resolution surface reflectance. These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to vegetation covered regional climate studies, and help to improve understanding of climate processes and climate change.

  13. Particle morphologies and formation mechanisms of fine volcanic ash aerosol collected from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkleff, P. G.; Cahill, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    Fine volcanic ash aerosol (35-0.09um) erupted in 2006 by Augustine Volcano, southwest of Anchorage, Alaska was collected by a DRUM cascade impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy for individual particle chemistry and morphology. Results of these analyses show ash particles occur as either individual glass shard and mineral phase (plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, hornblende, etc.) particles or aggregates thereof. Individual glass shard ash particles are angular, uniformly-sized, consist of calc-alkaline whole-rock elements (Si, Al, Fe, Na, and Ca) and are not collocated on the sample media with non-silicate, Cl and S bearing sea salt particles. Aggregate particles occur as two types: pure ash aggregates and sea salt-cored aggregates. Pure ash aggregates are made up of only ash particles and contain no other constituents. Sea salt-cored aggregates are ash particles commingled with sea salts. Determining the formation processes of the different ash particle types need further investigation but some possibilities are proposed here. Individual ash particles may exist when the ambient air is generally dry, little electrical charge exists on ash particles, the eruptive cloud is generally dry, or the number of individual particles exceeds the scavenging capacity of the water droplets present. Another possibility is that ash aggregates may break apart as relative humidity drops over time and causes ash-laden water droplets to evaporate and subsequently break apart. Pure ash aggregates may form when the ambient air and plume is relatively dry but the ash has a significant charge to cause ash to aggregate. Or they could form during long-range transport when turbulent or Brownian motion can cause ash particles to collide and coagulate. Pure ash aggregates could also form as a result of water droplet scavenging and subsequent evaporation of water droplets, leaving behind only ash. In this case, droplets would not have interacted with a sea salt

  14. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  15. Direct radiative forcing properties of atmospheric aerosols over semi-arid region, Anantapur in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalluri, Raja Obul Reddy; Gugamsetty, Balakrishnaiah [Aerosol & Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kotalo, Rama Gopal, E-mail: krgverma@yahoo.com [Aerosol & Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Nagireddy, Siva Kumar Reddy; Tandule, Chakradhar Rao; Thotli, Lokeswara Reddy [Aerosol & Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajuru Ramakrishna, Reddy [Aerosol & Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, B.K. Samudram Mandal, Anantapur 515 701, Andhra Pradesh (India); Surendranair, Suresh Babu [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022, Kerala (India)

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the aerosols optical, physical characteristics and the aerosol radiative forcing pertaining to semi-arid region, Anantapur for the period January 2013-December 2014. Collocated measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Black Carbon mass concentration (BC) are carried out by using MICROTOPS II and Aethalometer and estimated the aerosol radiative forcing over this location. The mean values of AOD at 500 nm are found to be 0.47 ± 0.09, 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.30 ± 0.07 during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The Angstrom exponent (α{sub 380–1020}) value is observed maximum in March (1.25 ± 0.19) and which indicates the predominance of fine - mode aerosols and lowest in the month of July (0.33 ± 0.14) and may be due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols. The diurnal variation of BC is exhibited two height peaks during morning 07:00–08:00 (IST) and evening 19:00–21:00 (IST) hours and one minima noticed during afternoon (13:00–16:00). The highest monthly mean BC concentration is observed in the month of January (3.4 ± 1.2 μg m{sup −3}) and the lowest in July (1.1 ± 0.2 μg m{sup −3}). The estimated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (ADRF) in the atmosphere is found to be + 36.8 ± 1.7 W m{sup −2}, + 26.9 ± 0.2 W m{sup −2}, + 18.0 ± 0.6 W m{sup −2} and + 18.5 ± 3.1 W m{sup −2} during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Large difference between TOA and BOA forcing is observed during summer which indicate the large absorption of radiant energy (36.80 W m{sup −2}) which contributes more increase in atmospheric heating by ~ 1 K/day. The BC contribution on an average is found to be 64% and is responsible for aerosol atmospheric heating. - Highlights: • The mean values of AOD{sub 500} are found to be high during summer whereas low in monsoon. • The highest values of BC are observed in January and the lowest in the month of July. • The annual mean

  16. Future Projections of Aerosol Optical Depth, Radiative Forcing, and Climate Response Due to Declining Aerosol Emissions in the Representative Concentration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted based on human health concerns. However, the resulting decrease in atmospheric aerosol burden will have unintended climate consequences. Since aerosols generally exert a net cooling influence on the climate, their removal will lead to an unmasking of global warming as well as other changes to the climate system. Aerosol and precursor global emissions decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to projections in four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3) to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without aerosol emission changes projected by the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response due to the aerosol reductions. We find that up to 1 W m-2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally by 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d-1 (3%). Regionally and locally, climate impacts are much larger, as RCP8.5 projects a 2.1 K warming over China, Japan, and Korea due to reduced aerosol emissions. Our results highlight the importance of crafting emissions control policies with both climate and air pollution benefits in mind. The expected unmasking of additional global warming from aerosol reductions highlights the importance of robust greenhouse gas mitigation policies and may require more aggressive policies than anticipated.

  17. Optical closure for an aerosol column: Method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Markus; Petzold, Andreas; Wandinger, Ulla; Wendisch, Manfred; Kiemle, Christoph; Stifter, Armin; Ebert, Martin; Rother, Tom; Leiterer, Ulrich

    2002-11-01

    During the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98), airborne measurements of aerosol size distribution, fine-particle concentration, particle absorption coefficient, backscatter coefficient, depolarization, and chemical composition as well as ground-based measurements of spectral particle optical depth and of spectral backscatter and extinction coefficients were performed in the aerosol column above Lindenberg, Germany. We compare the measured optical parameters with calculations from the size distributions, which assume the aerosol to consist of sulfuric acid near the tropopause and mixtures of ammonium sulfate and soot in the remaining column. We obtain closure to within 25% for the optical depth of a column, which includes a biomass-burning aerosol of North American origin, and infer a soot volume fraction of 35% for this aerosol. Assuming spheroidal particles of prolate shape and the average aspect ratio of the particles to be 1.3 in the biomass-burning aerosol layer, the calculated depolarization agrees with the lidar measurement, whereas comparing the spectral backscatter coefficient shows the soot to be externally mixed with the nonabsorbing particles. With the two-stream approximation, we estimate the local, instantaneous, cloud-free radiative forcing of the biomass-burning aerosol at the tropopause to -5.8 W/m2 with a corresponding optical depth of 0.09 at 710 nm wavelength and solar zenith angle of 56°. The radiative forcing for the biomass-burning aerosol is as sensitive to a change in state of mixture, either external or internal, as to a change in surface albedo, ocean to coniferous forest.

  18. Aerosol Climatology at Pune, Western India: Implications to Direct Radiative Forcing and Heating Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandithurai, G.; Pinker, R. T.; Devara, P. C.; Raj, P. E.; Jayarao, Y.; Dani, K. K.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Saha, S. K.; Bhawar, R.; Shinde, U. P.

    2005-12-01

    Extensive aerosol observations were carried out at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, an urban site in the western part of the country, using a Prede (Model POM-01L) sun/sky radiometer and a bi-static Argon ion lidar since December 2000 and October 1986, respectively. The sun/sky radiometer was operated daily at every 15 minute interval during day-time to derive column aerosol optical parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (ASY) while the lidar was operated weekly in the early-night period to derive vertical distributions of aerosol number density. The sun/sky radiance data collected during the above period have been analysed by using the radiative transfer model SkyRadPack version 3.0 (Nakajima et al. 1996) to retrieve AOD, SSA and ASY. AOD and SSA retrieved at 15-minutes interval were averaged to get monthly means. On every year from 2000 to 2005, monthly means of AOD show gradual increase of aerosol loading from December to April and Angstrom exponent decreases from March due to local as well as transported dust from African / Arabian regions through Arabian Sea. Monthly means of SSA show decrease from December to April and the wavelength dependence also indicate the abundance of dust from March to May. Lidar-derived vertical distributions yield minimum during the monsoon months, gradually builds up during the post-monsoon and winter months, and finally peaks during the pre-monsoon months in every year (Devara et al., 2002). The aerosol climatology of optical/radiative parameters and their vertical distribution are used for estimating aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and atmospheric heating rates by using a discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model (Ricchiazzi et al., 1998, Pandithurai et al. 2004). Details of the experimental methods, data, results of aerosol climatology and implications to radiative forcing and associated heating rates will be presented. References Devara, P

  19. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB.

  20. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  1. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005-2010) over South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The instantaneous values of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated during desert dust events occurred at Granada (Southeastern Spain) from 2005 to 2010. For that, the SBDART radiative transfer model was utilized to simulate the global irradiance values (0.3-2.8 μm) at the surface and TOA using as input the aerosol properties derived from a CIMEL sun-photometer measurements and an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and non-spherical particle shapes approximation. The SBDART modeled global irradiances at surface have been successfully validated against experimental measurements obtained by CM-11 pyranometer, indicating the reliability of the radiative transfer model used in this work for the ARF calculations. The monthly ARF values at surface ranged from -32 W m-2 to -46 W m-2, being larger in April and July than in the rest of months. The seasonal ARF evolution was inconsistent with seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) variation due to the effects induced by other aerosol parameter such as the single scattering albedo. The ARF at TOA changed from -9 W m-2 to -29 W m-2. Thus, the atmospheric ARF values (ARF at TOA minus ARF at surface) ranged from +15 to +35 W m-2. These results suggest that the African dust caused local atmospheric heating over the study location. The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE), aerosol radiative forcing per unit of AOD (440 nm), at surface and TOA during African desert dust events was evaluated according to the desert dust source origins. The ARFE values at surface were relatively high (in absolute term) and were -157 ± 20 (Sector A), -154 ± 23 (Sector B), and -147 ± 23 (Sector C) W m-2. These values were larger than many of the values found in literature which could be due to the presence of more absorbing atmospheric particles during African desert dust intrusions over our study area

  2. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  3. Pacific trade winds accelerated by aerosol forcing over the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The Pacific trade winds, coupled with the zonal sea surface temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, control regional sea levels, and therefore their trend is a great concern in the Pacific Rim. Over the past two decades, easterly winds have been accelerated in association with eastern tropical Pacific cooling. They may represent natural interdecadal variability in the Pacific and possibly explain the recent global warming hiatus. However, the intensification of the winds has been the strongest ever observed in the past century, the reason for which is still unclear. Here we show, using multiple climate simulations for 1921-2014 by a global climate model, that approximately one-third of the trade-wind intensification for 1991-2010 can be attributed to changes in sulfate aerosols. The multidecadal sea surface temperature anomaly induced mostly by volcanic aerosols dominates in the western North Pacific, and its sign changed rapidly from negative to positive in the 1990s, coherently with Atlantic multidecadal variability. The western North Pacific warming resulted in intensification of trade winds to the west of the dateline. These trends have not contributed much to the global warming hiatus, but have greatly impacted rainfall over the western Pacific islands.

  4. Threshold of the volcanic forcing that leads the El Niño-like warming in the last millennium: results from the ERIK simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Young-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hun; Park, Rokjin; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-06-01

    In order to examine the threshold of the volcanic forcing that leads to the El Niño-like warming, we analyze a millennium ERIK simulation (AD 1000-1850) forced by three external forcings including greenhouse gases, solar forcing and volcanic eruptions using the ECHO-G coupled climate model. It is found that there exists a threshold of the volcanic forcing above 15 W/m2 to lead the El Niño-like warming in the climate model. When the volcanic forcing is above this threshold forcing, then the intensity of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is weakened and its position is shifted to the south. This might be associated with the processes of less evaporation in the subtropical cloudless region by a cooling due to the reduction of net surface shortwave radiation. Concurrently, a weakening of ITCZ is associated with a weakening of the trade winds and the subsequent Bjerknes feedback causes El Niño-like warming. Therefore, El Niño-like warming events can occur when volcanic eruption is above threshold forcing, implying that there exists a certain level of radiative forcing change which is capable of changing the state of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature. The last millennium simulation of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 climate models also indicates that there may exist a threshold forcing to lead the El Niño-like warming, which has been also discussed in the present study.

  5. Response of Mode Water and Subtropical Countercurrent to Greenhouse Gas and Aerosol Forcing in the North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liyi; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; XIE Shang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The response of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) and aerosol is investigated based on the 20th-century historical and single-forcing simulations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3).The aerosol effect causes sea surface temperature (SST)to decrease in the mid-latitude North Pacific,especially in the Kuroshio Extension region,during the past five decades (1950-2005),and this cooling effect exceeds the warming effect by the GHG increase.The STCC response to the GHG and aerosol forcing are opposite.In the GHG (aerosol) forcing run,the STCC decelerates (accelerates) due to the decreased (increased) mode waters in the North Pacific,resulting from a weaker (stronger) front in the mixed layer depth and decreased (increased) subduction in the mode water formation region.The aerosol effect on the SST,mode waters and STCC more than offsets the GHG effect.The response of SST in a zonal band around 40°N and the STCC to the combined forcing in the historical simulation is similar to the response to the aerosol forcing.

  6. Fingerprinting Volcanic and Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide in the Air: A 25 Year Record of Sulfate Aerosols from the South Pole Snowpit, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, R.; Abaunza-Quintero, M.; Jackson, T. L.; McCabe, J.; Savarino, J. P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols, unlike greenhouse gases, cause cooling effect (-0.4 ± 0.2 W.m-2) by scattering incoming solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (IPCC 2007). Volcanic eruptions with explosivity Indices >5 inject large amounts of SO2 and particles into the stratosphere causing a significant decrease in temperature. For example a 0.7oC decrease in Earth's temperature was observed following the Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosols has been suggested as a geoengineering effort to mitigate global warming caused by a significant increase in greenhouse gases. To understand the impact of volcanic events on the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer and subsequent changes in the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, a long term and high temporal resolution record of sulfate aerosol is needed. Here we present a 25 year (1978 to 2003) high resolution record of sulfate aerosols which covers largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century namely, El-Chichón 1982 and Pinatubo 1991. Sulfate aerosol samples were obtained from a 1x1m snowpit at the South Pole, Antarctica with approximately 6 month time steps. Sulfate concentrations vary from 30 to 70 ppb depending on the season with exceptions during volcanic events which contributed a three to four folds increase in sulfate concentration Sulfate concentrations of120 ppb following El Chichón and 190 ppb after Pinatubo eruptions were observed. The oxygen isotopic anomaly varied from 0.7‰ to 3.9‰ with the highest anomaly occurring after the Pinatubo eruption. The positive Δ17O of sulfate derives from aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 and O3 oxidation and involves transfer of the isotopic anomaly from the oxidant to the product sulfate. Coupled with kinetic analysis the relative reaction rates the relative proportions of oxidation can be calculated. All other sulfate sources such as sea salt sulfates, primary sulfates from fossil fuel combustion, metal catalyzed oxidation of S

  7. Intensification of North American Megadroughts through Surface and Dust Aerosol Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.; Mason, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Tree-ring-based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) indicate that, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains of North America experienced recurrent periods of drought spanning decades or longer. These megadroughts had exceptional persistence compared to more recent events, but the causes remain uncertain. The authors conducted a suite of general circulation model experiments to test the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface forcing on the MCA megadroughts over the central plains. The land surface forcing is represented as a set of dune mobilization boundary conditions, derived from available geomorphological evidence and modeled as increased bare soil area and a dust aerosol source (32deg-44degN, 105deg-95degW). In the experiments, cold tropical Pacific SST forcing suppresses precipitation over the central plains but cannot reproduce the overall drying or persistence seen in the PDSI reconstruction. Droughts in the scenario with dust aerosols, however, are amplified and have significantly longer persistence than in other model experiments, more closely matching the reconstructed PDSI. This additional drying occurs because the dust increases the shortwave planetary albedo, reducing energy inputs to the surface and boundary layer. The energy deficit increases atmospheric stability, inhibiting convection and reducing cloud cover and precipitation over the central plains. Results from this study provide the first model-based evidence that dust aerosol forcing and land surface changes could have contributed to the intensity and persistence of the central plains megadroughts, although uncertainties remain in the formulation of the boundary conditions and the future importance of these feedbacks.

  8. Seasonal variation of columnar aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingna; Lü, Rui; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Liang; Shao, Yixing; Zhu, Bin; Lei, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Long-term seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing at Beijing (during March 2001-March 2015) were investigated using a combination of ground-based Sun/sky radiometer retrievals from the AERONET and a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with higher values in spring and summer, and relatively lower values in fall and winter. Average Angstrom exponent (AE) in spring was lower than other seasons, implying the significant impact of dust episodes on aerosol size distribution. AE mainly distributed between 1.0 and 1.4 with an obvious uni-peak pattern in each season. The observation data showed that high AODs (>1.0) were clustered in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode. Compared to AOD, seasonal variation in single scattering albedo (SSA) showed an opposite pattern with larger values in summer and spring, and smaller ones in winter and fall. The highest volume size distribution and median radius of fine mode particles occurred in summer, while those of coarse mode particles in spring. The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in spring, summer, fall and winter were -33 ± 22 W m-2, -35 ± 22 W m-2, -28 ± 20 W m-2, and -24 ± 23 W m-2 respectively, and these differences were mainly due to the SSA seasonal variation. The largest positive ARF within atmosphere occurred in spring, implying strong warming in the atmosphere. The low heating ratio in summer was caused by the increase in water vapor content, which enhanced light scattering capacity (i.e., increased SSA).

  9. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  10. A Modeling Study of the Effects of Direct Radiative Forcing Due to Carbonaceous Aerosol on the Climate in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; WANG Zhili; GUO Pinwen; WANG Zaizhi

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of global direct radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosol on the climate in East Asia, using the CAM3 developed by NCAR. The results showed that carbonaceous aerosols cause negative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface under clear sky conditions, but positive forcing at the TOA and weak negative forcing at the surface under all sky conditions. Hence, clouds could change the sign of the direct radiative forcing at the TOA, and weaken the forcing at the surface. Carbonaceous aerosols have distinct effects on the summer climate in East Asia. In southern China and India, it caused the surface temperature to increase, but the total cloud cover and precipitation to decrease. However, the opposite effects are caused for most of northern China and Bangladesh. Given the changes in temperature, vertical velocity, and surface streamflow caused by carbonaceous aerosol in this simulation, carbonaceous aerosol could also induce summer precipitation to decrease in southern China but increase in northern China.

  11. Reactive bromine chemistry in Mt. Etna's volcanic plume: the influence of total Br, high temperature processing, aerosol loading and plume-air mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roberts

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic emissions present a source of reactive halogens to the troposphere, through rapid plume chemistry that converts the emitted HBr to more reactive forms such as BrO. The nature of this process is poorly quantified, yet is of interest to understand volcanic impacts on the troposphere, and infer volcanic activity from volcanic gas measurements (i.e. BrO / SO2 ratios. Recent observations from Etna report an initial increase and subsequent plateau or decline in BrO / SO2 ratios with distance downwind. We present daytime PlumeChem model simulations that reproduce and explain the reported trend in BrO / SO2 at Etna including the initial rise and subsequent plateau. Through suites of model simulations we also investigate the influences of volcanic aerosol loading, bromine emission, and plume-air mixing rate on the downwind plume chemistry. Emitted volcanic HBr is converted into reactive bromine by autocatalytic bromine chemistry cycles whose onset is accelerated by the model high-temperature initialisation. These rapid chemistry cycles also impact the reactive bromine speciation through inter-conversion of Br, Br2, BrO, BrONO2, BrCl, HOBr. Formation of BrNO2 is also discussed. We predict a new evolution of Br-speciation in the plume, with BrO, Br2, Br and HBr as the main plume species in the near downwind plume whilst BrO, and HOBr are present in significant quantities further downwind (where BrONO2 and BrCl also make up a minor fraction. The initial rise in BrO / SO2 occurs as ozone is entrained into the plume whose reaction with Br promotes net formation of BrO. Aerosol has a modest impact on BrO / SO2 near-downwind (2 occurs as entrainment of oxidants HO2 and NO2 promotes net formation of HOBr and BrONO2, whilst the plume dispersion dilutes volcanic aerosol so slows the heterogeneous loss rates of these species. A higher volcanic aerosol loading enhances BrO / SO2 in the (> 6 km downwind plume. Simulations assuming low/medium and high Etna

  12. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  13. Impact of Two Intense Dust Storms on Aerosol Characteristics and Radiative Forcing over Patiala, Northwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of dust storms on the aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing over Patiala, northwestern India has been studied during April-June of 2010 using satellite observations and ground-based measurements. Six dust events (DE have been identified during the study period with average values of Aqua-MODIS AOD550 and Microtops-II AOD500 over Patiala as 1.00±0.51 and 0.84±0.41, respectively while Aura-OMI AI exhibits high values ranging from 2.01 to 6.74. The Ångström coefficients α380–870 and β range from 0.12 to 0.31 and 0.95 to 1.40, respectively. The measured spectral AODs, the OPAC-derived aerosol properties and the surface albedo obtained from MODIS were used as main inputs in SBDART model for the calculation of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF over Patiala. The ARF at surface (SRF and top of atmosphere (TOA ranges from ∼−50 to −100 Wm−2 and from ∼−10 to −25 Wm−2, respectively during the maximum of dust storms. The radiative forcing efficiency was found to be −66 Wm−2AOD−1 at SRF and −14 Wm−2AOD−1 at TOA. High values of ARF in the atmosphere (ATM, ranging between ∼+40 Wm−2 and +80.0 Wm−2 during the DE days, might have significant effect on the warming of the lower and middle atmosphere and, hence, on climate over northwestern India.

  14. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  15. Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis ofpublished data and implications for climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakov, T.; Menon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Koch, D.; Hansen, J.E.

    2005-07-11

    Measurements of organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC)concentrations over a variety of locations worldwide, have been analyzed to infer the spatial distributions of the ratios of OC to BC. Since these ratios determine the relative amounts of scattering and absorption, they are often used to estimate the radiative forcing due to aerosols. An artifact in the protocol for filter measurements of OC has led to widespread overestimates of the ratio of OC to BC in atmospheric aerosols. We developed a criterion to correct for this artifact and analyze corrected OC to BC ratios. The OC to BC ratios, ranging from 1.3to 2.4, appear relatively constant and are generally unaffected by seasonality, sources or technology changes, at the locations considered here. The ratios compare well with emission inventories over Europe and China but are a factor of two lower in other regions. The reduced estimate for OC/BC in aerosols strengthens the argument that reduction of soot emissions maybe a useful approach to slow global warming.

  16. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005–2010 over Southeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valenzuela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily (24 h averages of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA were calculated during desert dust events over Granada (southeastern Spain from 2005 to 2010. A radiative transfer model (SBDART was utilized to simulate the solar irradiance values (0.31–2.8 μm at the surface and TOA, using as input aerosol properties retrieved from CIMEL sun photometer measurements via an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and a spheroid particle shape approximation. This inversion methodology was checked by means of simulated data from aerosol models, and the derived aerosol properties were satisfactorily compared against well-known AERONET products. Good agreement was found over a common spectral interval (0.2–4.0 μm between the simulated SBDART global irradiances at surface and those provided by AERONET. In addition, simulated SBDART solar global irradiances at the surface have been successfully validated against CM-11 pyranometer measurements. The comparison indicates that the radiative transfer model slightly overestimates (mean bias of 3% the experimental solar global irradiance. These results show that the aerosol optical properties used to estimate ARF represent appropriately the aerosol properties observed during desert dust outbreak over the study area. The ARF mean monthly values computed during desert dust events ranged from −13 ± 8 W m−2 to −34 ± 15 W m−2 at surface, from −4 ± 3 W m−2 to −13 ± 7 W m−2 at TOA and from +6 ± 4 to +21 ± 12 W m−2 in the atmosphere. We have checked if the differences found in aerosol optical properties among desert dust sectors translate to differences in ARF. The mean ARF at surface (TOA were −20 ± 12 (−5 ± 5 W m−2, −21 ± 9 (−7 ± 5 W m−2 and −18 ± 9 (−6 ± 5 W m−2 for sector A

  17. Aerosol radiative forcing during African desert dust events (2005-2010) over Southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-11-01

    The daily (24 h) averages of the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated during desert dust events over Granada (southeastern Spain) from 2005 to 2010. A radiative transfer model (SBDART) was utilized to simulate the solar irradiance values (0.31-2.8 μm) at the surface and TOA, using as input aerosol properties retrieved from CIMEL sun photometer measurements via an inversion methodology that uses the sky radiance measurements in principal plane configuration and a spheroid particle shape approximation. This inversion methodology was checked by means of simulated data from aerosol models, and the derived aerosol properties were satisfactorily compared against well-known AERONET products. Good agreement was found over a common spectral interval (0.2-4.0 μm) between the simulated SBDART global irradiances at surface and those provided by AERONET. In addition, simulated SBDART solar global irradiances at the surface have been successfully validated against CM-11 pyranometer measurements. The comparison indicates that the radiative transfer model slightly overestimates (mean bias of 3%) the experimental solar global irradiance. These results show that the aerosol optical properties used to estimate ARF represent appropriately the aerosol properties observed during desert dust outbreak over the study area. The ARF mean monthly values computed during desert dust events ranged from -13 ± 8 W m-2 to -34 ± 15 W m-2 at surface, from -4 ± 3 W m-2 to -13 ± 7 W m-2 at TOA and from +6 ± 4 to +21 ± 12 W m-2 in the atmosphere. We have checked if the differences found in aerosol optical properties among desert dust sectors translate to differences in ARF. The mean ARF at surface (TOA) were -20 ± 12 (-5 ± 5) W m-2, -21 ± 9 (-7 ± 5) W m-2 and -18 ± 9 (-6 ± 5) W m-2 for sector A (northern Morocco; northwestern Algeria), sector B (western Sahara, northwestern Mauritania and southwestern Algeria), and sector C

  18. What do we need to know to model the microphysical evolution of volcanic clouds and how can we make these measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions can inject millions of tons of ash, sulfate and gaseous precursors into the stratosphere. The magnitude and duration of the volcanic cloud on Earth's temperatures, circulation, clouds, and stratospheric ozone is strongly affected by the microphysical properties of the aerosol size distribution, which can evolve in complex ways. This presentation will cover the impacts and uncertainties associated with microphysical aerosol measurements and modeling of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, and valuable future measurements after the next large volcanic eruption. These additional measurements can help improve our understanding of stratospheric processes as well as possible consequences of large volcanic eruptions and hypothetical geoengineering scenarios on radiative forcing and chemistry.

  19. Dust aerosol radiative effect and forcing over West Africa : A case study from the AMMA SOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, C.; Flamant, C.; Pelon, J.; Cuesta, J.; Chazette, P.; Raut, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The massive transport of arid dust by the African easterly jet (AEJ) can impact the dynamic of the AEJ and modify the development of westerly African waves through modifications of horizontal temperature gradient. Hence, it is important to evaluate the radiative impact of dust and their effect on thermodynamical properties of the AEJ. In this presentation, the impact of aerosol on solar and infra-red fluxes and the heating rate due to dust over West Africa are investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as space-borne and airborne lidars (CALIPSO and LEANDRE 2, respectively) as well as dropsonde observations acquired during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period. Aircraft operations were conducted on 13 and 14 June 2006, over Benin and Niger. On these days the dust observed over Benin and Niger originated from the Bodélé depression and from West Sudan. In this study, we use aerosol extinction coefficient derived from lidar, as well as temperature, pressure and water vapour profiles derived from dropsondes as inputs to STREAMER. The surface albedo is obtained with MODIS. A series of runs was carried out on 13 and 14 June 2006, around mid-day, to investigate the dust radiative forcing as a function of latitude, from 6°N to 15°N, i.e. between the vegetated coast of the Guinea Gulf and the arid Sahel. In the solar spectrum, the maximum heating rate associated with the dust plume on these days was comprised between 1.5 K/day and 3 K/day, depending on the aerosol load, over the entire Sudanian and Sahel regions as inferred from CALIPSO. Sensitivity studies to surface albedo, aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio, temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles were also conducted.

  20. Easy Aerosol - Robust and non-robust circulation responses to aerosol radiative forcing in comprehensive atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Aiko; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Boucher, Olivier; Medeiros, Brian; Pincus, Robert; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Lewinschal, Anna; Bellouin, Nicolas; Yang, Young-Min

    2015-04-01

    A number of recent studies illustrated the potential of aerosols to change the large-scale atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns. It remains unclear, however, to what extent the proposed aerosol-induced changes reflect robust model behavior or are affected by uncertainties in the models' treatment of parametrized physical processes, such as those related to clouds. "Easy Aerosol", a model-intercomparison project organized within the Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity of the World Climate Research Programme, addresses this question by subjecting a suite of comprehensive atmosphere general circulation models with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) to the same set of idealized "easy" aerosol perturbations. This contribution discusses the aerosol perturbations as well as their impact on the model's precipitation and surface winds. The aerosol perturbations are designed based on a global aerosol climatology and mimic the gravest mode of the anthropogenic aerosol. Specifically, the meridional and zonal distributions of total aerosol optical depth are approximated by a superposition of Gaussian plumes; the vertical distribution is taken as constant within the lowest 1250m of the atmosphere followed by an exponential decay with height above. The aerosol both scatters and absorbs shortwave radiation, but in order to focus on direct radiative effects aerosol-cloud interactions are omitted. Each model contributes seven simulations. A clean control case with no aerosol-radiative effects at all is compared to six perturbed simulations with differing aerosol loading, zonal aerosol distributions, and SSTs. To estimate the role of natural variability, one of the models, MPI-ESM, contributes a 5-member ensemble for each simulation. If the observed SSTs from years 1979-2005 are prescribed, the aerosol leads to a local depression of precipitation at the Northern Hemisphere center of the aerosol and a northward shift of the

  1. Abrupt transition from natural to anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing: Observations at the ABC-Maldives Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, M. V.; Ramanathan, V.

    2006-10-01

    Using aerosol-radiation observations over the north Indian Ocean, we show how the monsoon transition from southwest to northeast flow gives rise to a similar transition in the direct aerosol radiative forcing from natural to anthropogenic forcing. These observations were taken at the newly built aerosol-radiation-climate observatory at the island of Hanimaadhoo (6.776°N, 73.183°E) in the Republic of Maldives. This observatory is established as a part of Project Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) and is referred to as the ABC-Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (ABC_MCOH). The transition from the southwest monsoon during October to the northeast monsoon flow during early November occurs abruptly over a period of few weeks over ABC-MCOH and reveals a dramatic contrast between the natural marine aerosols transported from the south Indian Ocean by the southwest monsoon and that of the polluted aerosols transported from the south and Southeast Asian region by the northeast monsoon. We document the change in the microphysical properties and the irradiance at the surface, to identify the human signature on aerosol radiative forcing. We first establish the precision of surface radiometric observations by comparing simultaneous observations using calibrated Kipp & Zonen and Eppley pyrheliometers and pyranometers for direct, diffuse and global solar radiation. We show that the direct, diffuse and global radiation can be measured within a precision of about 3 to 5 Wm-2. Furthermore, when we include the observed aerosol optical properties as input into the Monte Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model (developed by us using Indian Ocean Experiment data), the simulated fluxes agree with the observed direct, diffuse and global fluxes within the measurement accuracy. A steady southwest monsoon flow of about 5 to 7 ms-1 persists until middle of October which switches to an abrupt change in direction to northeast flow of similar speeds bringing in polluted air from south

  2. Regional Aerosol Forcing over India: Preliminary Results from the South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) Aircraft Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Brooks, J.; Fox, C.; Haslett, S.; Liu, D.; Kompalli, S. K.; Pathak, H.; Manoj, M. R.; Allan, J. D.; Haywood, J. M.; Highwood, E.; Langridge, J.; Nanjundaiah, R. S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Babu, S. S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Turner, A. G.; Coe, H.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles from multiple sources across the Indian subcontinent build up to form a dense and extensive haze across the region in advance of the monsoon. These aerosols are thought to perturb the regional radiative balance and hydrological cycle, which may have a significant impact on the monsoon circulation, as well as influencing the associated cloud and rainfall of the system. However the nature and magnitude of such impacts are poorly understood or constrained. Major uncertainties relevant to the regional aerosol burden include its vertical distribution, the relative contribution of different pollution sources and natural emissions and the role of absorbing aerosol species (black carbon and mineral dust). The South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) project sought to address these major uncertainties by conducting an airborne experiment during June/July 2016 on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Based out of Lucknow in the), The aircraft conducted multiple flights from Lucknow in the heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in advance of the monsoon and during the onset phase. The spatial and vertical distribution of aerosol was evaluated across northern India, encompassing drier desert-like regions to the west, heavily populated urban and industrial centres over the IGP and air masses in outflow regions to the south-east towards the Bay of Bengal. Principal measurements included aerosol chemical composition using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer, alongside a Leosphere backscatter LIDAR. Sulphate was a major contributor to the aerosol burden across India, while the organic aerosol was elevated and more dominant over the most polluted regions of the IGP. Substantial aerosol concentrations were frequently observed up to altitudes of approximately 6km, with notable changes in aerosol chemical and physical properties when comparing different

  3. Large atmospheric shortwave radiative forcing by Mediterranean aerosols derived from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne observations and dependence on the aerosol type and single scattering albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Biagio, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties and shortwave irradiance measurements at the island of Lampedusa (central Mediterranean) during 2004-2007 are combined with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System observations of the outgoing shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The measurements are used to estimate the surface (FES), the top of the atmosphere (FETOA), and the atmospheric (FEATM) shortwave aerosol forcing efficiencies for solar zenith angle (θ) between 15° and 55° for desert dust (DD), urban/industrial-biomass burning aerosols (UI-BB), and mixed aerosols (MA). The forcing efficiency at the different atmospheric levels is derived by applying the direct method, that is, as the derivative of the shortwave net flux versus the aerosol optical depth at fixed θ. The diurnal average forcing efficiency at the surface/TOA at the equinox is (-68.9 ± 4.0)/(-45.5 ± 5.4) W m-2 for DD, (-59.0 ± 4.3)/(-19.2 ± 3.3) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (-94.9 ± 5.1)/(-36.2 ± 1.7) W m-2 for MA. The diurnal average atmospheric radiative forcing at the equinox is (+7.3 ± 2.5) W m-2 for DD, (+8.4 ± 1.9) W m-2 for UI-BB, and (+8.2 ± 1.9) W m-2 for MA, suggesting that the mean atmospheric forcing is almost independent of the aerosol type. The largest values of the atmospheric forcing may reach +35 W m-2 for DD, +23 W m-2 for UI-BB, and +34 W m-2 for MA. FETOA is calculated for MA and 25° ≤ θ ≤ 35° for three classes of single scattering albedo (0.7 ≤ ω < 0.8, 0.8 ≤ ω < 0.9, and 0.9 ≤ ω ≤ 1) at 415.6 and 868.7 nm: FETOA increases, in absolute value, for increasing ω. A 0.1 increment in ω determines an increase in FETOA by 10-20 W m-2.

  4. Aerosol forcing in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations by HadGEM2-ES and the role of ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouin, Nicolas; Rae, Jamie; Jones, Andy; Johnson, Colin; Haywood, Jim; Boucher, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    The latest Hadley Centre climate model, HadGEM2-ES, includes Earth system components such as interactive chemistry and eight species of tropospheric aerosols. It has been run for the period 1860-2100 in support of the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Anthropogenic aerosol emissions peak between 1980 and 2020, resulting in a present-day all-sky top of the atmosphere aerosol forcing of -1.6 and -1.4 W m-2 with and without ammonium nitrate aerosols, respectively, for the sum of direct and first indirect aerosol forcings. Aerosol forcing becomes significantly weaker in the 21st century, being weaker than -0.5 W m-2 in 2100 without nitrate. However, nitrate aerosols become the dominant species in Europe and Asia and decelerate the decrease in global mean aerosol forcing. Considering nitrate aerosols makes aerosol radiative forcing 2-4 times stronger by 2100 depending on the representative concentration pathway, although this impact is lessened when changes in the oxidation properties of the atmosphere are accounted for. Anthropogenic aerosol residence times increase in the future in spite of increased precipitation, as cloud cover and aerosol-cloud interactions decrease in tropical and midlatitude regions. Deposition of fossil fuel black carbon onto snow and ice surfaces peaks during the 20th century in the Arctic and Europe but keeps increasing in the Himalayas until the middle of the 21st century. Results presented here confirm the importance of aerosols in influencing the Earth's climate, albeit with a reduced impact in the future, and suggest that nitrate aerosols will partially replace sulphate aerosols to become an important anthropogenic species in the remainder of the 21st century.

  5. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hervo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010, the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD. In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m−3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm−3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98, showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m−2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m−2. Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23

  6. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervo, M.; Quennehen, B.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Boulon, J.; Stohl, A.; Fréville, P.; Pichon, J.-M.; Picard, D.; Labazuy, P.; Gouhier, M.; Roger, J.-C.; Colomb, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.

    2012-02-01

    During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010), the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles) were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France) with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT) were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD). In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m-3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm-3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98), showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η) with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m-2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m-2). Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23 μg m-3 when the plume was located in the FT (3000 m above the sea level

  7. Modeling Study of the Impact of Heterogeneous Reactions on Dust Surfaces on Aerosol Optical Depth and Direct Radiative Forcing over East Asia in Springtime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Wei; HAN Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distributions and interannual variations of aerosol concentrations, aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol direct radiative forcings, and their responses to heterogeneous reactions on dust surfaces over East Asia in March 2006-10 were investigated by utilizing a regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model. Anthropogenic aerosol concentrations (inorganic + carbonaceous) were higher in March 2006 and 2008, whereas soil dust reached its highest levels in March 2006 and 2010, resulting in stronger aerosol radiative forcings in these periods. The domain and five-year (2006-10) monthly mean concentrations of anthropogenic and dust aerosols, AOD, and radiative forcings at the surface (SURF) and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in March were 2.4 μg m 3 13.1 lag m^-3, 0.18, -19.0 W m^-2, and -7.4 W m^-2, respectively. Heterogeneous reactions led to an increase of total inorganic aerosol concentration; however, the ambient inorganic aerosol concentration decreased, resulting in a smaller AOD and weaker aerosol radiative forcings. In March 2006 and 2010, the changes in ambient inorganic aerosols, AOD, and aerosol radiative forcings were more evident. In terms of the domain and five-year averages, the total inorganic aerosol concentrations increased by 13.7% (0.17 μg m^-3) due to heterogeneous reactions, but the ambient inorganic aerosol concentrations were reduced by 10.5% (0.13 lag m-3). As a result, the changes in AOD, SURF and TOA radiative forcings were estimated to be -3.9% (-0.007), -1.7% (0.34 W m^-2), and -4.3% (0.34 W m^-2), respectively, in March over East Asia.

  8. Aerosol measurements over South Africa using LIDAR, Satellite and Sun Photometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of South Africa. 1. Introduction Aerosols (solid particles suspended in the air) play an important role in the global climate, the radiative forcing of the climate, and the Earth?s radiative balance. The interaction between atmospheric aerosol... pollution as well as from natural processes, such as wind generated dust and sea spray, volcanic eruptions and smoke from natural forest fires, etc. The knowledge of aerosol characteristics at a local and global scale, their temporal change interrelations...

  9. Anthropogenic sulphate aerosol from India: estimates of burden and direct radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Patwardhan, Anand

    A one-box chemical-meteorological model had been formulated to make preliminary estimates of sulphate aerosol formation and direct radiative forcing over India. Anthropogenic SO 2 emissions from India, from industrial fuel use and biomass burning, were estimated at 2.0 Tg S yr -1 for 1990 in the range of previous estimates of 1.54 and 2.55 Tg S yr -1 for 1987. Meteorological parameters for 1990 from 18 Indian Meteorological Department stations were used to estimate spatial average sulphate burdens through formation from SO 2 reactions in gas and aqueous phase and removal by dry and wet deposition. The hydrogen peroxide reaction was found dominating for undepleted oxidant-rich conditions. Monthly mean sulphate burdens ranged from 2-10 mg m -2 with a seasonal variation of winter-spring highs and summer lows in agreement with previous GCM studies. The sulphate burdens are dominated by sulphate removal rates by wet deposition, which are high in the monsoon period from June-November. Monthly mean direct radiative forcing from sulphate aerosols is high (-3.5 and -2.3 W m -2) in December and January, is moderate (-1.3 to -1.5 W m -2) during February to April and November and low (-0.4 to -0.6 W m -2) during May to October also in general agreement with previous GCM estimates. This model, in reasonable agreement with detailed GCM results, gives us a simple tool to make preliminary estimates of sulphate burdens and direct radiative forcing.

  10. Observation of {sup 222}Rn progeny-and {sup 220}Rn progeny-loaded aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C. [The Univ., of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhau, Q.F. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    2002-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha} -particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  11. Aerosol shortwave daily radiative effect and forcing based on MODIS Level 2 data in the Eastern Mediterranean (Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean daily shortwave (SW radiation budget was computed on a 10 km × 10 km resolution above FORTH-CRETE AERONET station in Crete, Greece, for the 9-yr period from 2000 to 2008. The area is representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region, where air pollution and diminishing water resources are exacerbated by high aerosol loads and climate change. The present study aims to quantify the aerosol direct effect and forcing on the local energy budget. A radiative transfer model was used, with daily climatological data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The radiative fluxes were computed at the surface, within the atmosphere and at the top of atmosphere (TOA. Downward surface fluxes and aerosol optical thickness (AOT were validated against ground measurements. Daily fluxes reveal the direct radiative effects of dust events, with mean daily values reaching up to −100, 55 and −30 W m−2 at the surface (cooling, within the atmosphere (warming and at TOA (cooling, respectively. Mean monthly values show a decreasing trend of the aerosol direct radiative effect, in agreement with a similar trend in AOT. The analysis of the contribution of anthropogenic and natural aerosol show major peaks of natural aerosol direct effect occurring mainly in spring, while a summer maximum is attributed to anthropogenic aerosol. During their peaks, anthropogenic aerosol forcing can reach values of −15 W m−2 at the surface, 8 W m−2 in the atmosphere and over −4 W m−2 at TOA (monthly mean values. The corresponding daily peak values for natural aerosol are over −10 W m−2, 6 W m−2 and −3 W m−2. Annual mean values and standard deviations (interannual variability of anthropogenic aerosol forcing are −10 ± 3 W m−2 at the surface, 5 ± 1 W m−2 in the atmosphere and −3 ± 1 W m

  12. Incorporation of Advanced Activation Treatments into CESM/CAM5: Model Evaluation and Impacts on Aerosol Indirect Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, B.; He, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate science is the influence of aerosols on clouds through indirect effects, especially processes affecting the activation of aerosols into cloud droplets. Aerosol activation parameterizations incorporate much of the complexity of these processes, but the small differences between parameterizations can have a large impact on the spatiotemporal distribution of activated aerosols and the resulting cloud properties. Currently, most models simulate aerosol activation using the Abdul-Razzak and Ghan [2000] (AR-G00) scheme which derives an empiric calculation of the maximum parcel supersaturation based on the regression of numerical parcel calculations. The Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1 within the Community Earth Systems Model version 1.0.5 (CESM/CAM5) is an online-coupled Earth Systems model that simulates the interactions among aerosols, clouds, and radiation. CESM/CAM5 uses the AR-G00 scheme to simulate aerosol activation. In this work, we update CESM/CAM5 by incorporating a series of explicit aerosol activation schemes (Fountoukis and Nenes [2005]; Barahona and Nenes [2007]; Kumar et al. [2009]; and Barahona et al. [2010]) which account for the impacts of insoluble aerosol adsorption, giant cloud condensation nuclei activation kinetics, and entrainment on cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC). CESM/CAM5 results with the empiric and explicit aerosol activation schemes are evaluated against several global datasets including observed low-level CDNC and satellite-derived cloud optical thickness (COT), liquid water path (LWP), and shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF). Globally, the incorporation of all explicit schemes leads to an average increase in column CDNC of 155%, increase (more negative) in SWCF of 13%, and decrease in surface shortwave radiation of -4%. In terms of climate impacts, these schemes result in an annual mean decrease in surface temperature and precipitation of -0.9 K (~0.2%) and -0.04 mm day

  13. Impact of Indonesian forest fires during the 1997 El Nino on aerosol distribution and clear sky aerosol aradiatikve forcing over the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, K.; Nair, S.; Rejeev, K.

    The El Nino event of 1997-1998 followed by the La Nina in 1998-1999 was the strongest of its kind encountered in the 20t h century. Associated with this event Indonesia experienced severe drought leading to large forest fires. Large aerosol plume from these fires has advected over the Equatorial Indian Ocean region. Development and decay of this plume and its regional transport are studied using aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from NOAA-14 AVHRR data using the Discrete Ordinate Method along with the tropospheric circulation derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In the second half of 1997 extensive smoke and haze episodes are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean in the latitude range of 5° N to 10° S. The AOD values at 630nm often exceeded 1.0 near Indonesia and in the southeastern parts of Bay of Bengal. Development of this plume started from September and continued up to the first half of November. During first half of September, the plume was conf ined to the coastal regions of Indonesia and then started developing towards west to reach up to 60°E. Decay of the plume started by the middle of November and subsided almost completely by December. During the development phase this plume showed a consistent increase in AOD from western Indian Ocean to Eastern part of tropical Indian Ocean. This westward transport of aerosols from the Indonesian region was confined to the equatorial latitudes. This was due to the reversal of zonal circulation during the El Nino period leading to large westward wind anomaly in the equatorial Indian Ocean region. Westward propagation of the aerosol plume is arrested near ~60°E because of the large convection and rainfall caused by El Nino in this longitude region. The El Nino related weather and atmospheric dynamics is found to have significantly influenced the regional aerosol distribution over the Indian Ocean. On an average, the diurnal mean clear sky aerosol radiative forcing at top of atmosphere (TOA) is estimated to be

  14. Assessment of simulated aerosol effective radiative forcings in the terrestrial spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Irene; Block, Karoline; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Kühne, Philipp; Salzmann, Marc; Quaas, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    In its fifth assessment report (AR5), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provides a best estimate of the effective radiative forcing (ERF) due to anthropogenic aerosol at -0.9 W m-2. This value is considerably weaker than the estimate of -1.2 W m-2 in AR4. A part of the difference can be explained by an offset of +0.2 W m-2 which AR5 added to all published estimates that only considered the solar spectrum, in order to account for adjustments in the terrestrial spectrum. We find that, in the CMIP5 multimodel median, the ERF in the terrestrial spectrum is small, unless microphysical effects on ice- and mixed-phase clouds are parameterized. In the latter case it is large but accompanied by a very strong ERF in the solar spectrum. The total adjustments can be separated into microphysical adjustments (aerosol "effects") and thermodynamic adjustments. Using a kernel technique, we quantify the latter and find that the rapid thermodynamic adjustments of water vapor and temperature profiles are small. Observation-based constraints on these model results are urgently needed.

  15. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schulz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the solar energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is −0.22 Wm−2, ranging from +0.04 to −0.41 Wm−2, with a standard deviation of ±0.16 Wm−2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is −0.68 Wm−2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between −0.16 and +0.34 Wm−2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth. The clear-sky forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth has diversity comparable to that for the all-sky/ clear-sky forcing ratio. While the diversity in clear-sky forcing efficiency is impacted by factors such as aerosol absorption, size, and surface albedo, we can show that the all-sky/clear-sky forcing ratio is important because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that long sulphate residence times are compensated by low mass extinction coefficients and vice versa. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in those models where short-lived sulphate

  16. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  17. Extensive closed cell marine stratocumulus downwind of Europe—A large aerosol cloud mediated radiative effect or forcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Tom; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) cover large areas over the oceans and possess super sensitivity of their cloud radiative effect to changes in aerosol concentrations. Aerosols can cause transitions between regimes of fully cloudy closed cells and open cells. The possible role of aerosols in cloud cover has a big impact on the amount of reflected solar radiation from the clouds, thus potentially constitutes very large aerosol indirect radiative effect, which can exceed 100 Wm-2. It is hypothesized that continentally polluted clouds remain in closed cells regime for longer time from leaving continent and hence for longer distance away from land, thus occupying larger ocean areas with full cloud cover. Attributing this to anthropogenic aerosols would imply a very large negative radiative forcing with a significant climate impact. This possibility is confirmed by analyzing a detailed case study based on geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite observations of the microphysical and dynamical evolution of MSC. We show that large area of closed cells was formed over the northeast Atlantic Ocean downwind of Europe in a continentally polluted air mass. The closed cells undergo cleansing process that was tracked for 3.5 days that resulted with a rapid transition from closed to open cells once the clouds started drizzling heavily. The mechanism leading to the eventual breakup of the clouds due to both meteorological and aerosol considerations is elucidated. We termed this cleansing and cloud breakup process maritimization. Further study is needed to assess the climatological significance of such situations.

  18. A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate to the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, G.J.; Flato, G.; Ramsden, D. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The potential climatic consequences of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and sulfate aerosol loading are investigated for the years 1900 to 2100 based on five simulations with the CCCma coupled climate model. The five simulations comprise a control experiment without change in GHG or aerosol amount, three independent simulations with increasing GHG and aerosol forcing, and a simulation with increasing GHG forcing only. Climate warming accelerates from the present with global mean temperatures simulated to increase by 1.7 C to the year 2050 and by a further 2.7 C by the year 2100. The warming is nonuniform as to hemisphere, season, and underlying surface. Changes in interannual variability of temperature show considerable structure and seasonal dependence. The effect of the comparatively localized negative radiative forcing associated with the aerosol is to retard and reduce the warming by about 0.9 C at 2050 and 1.2 C at 2100. Its primary effect on temperature is to counteract the global pattern of GHG-induced warming and only secondarily to affect local temperatures suggesting that the first order transient climate response of the system is determined by feedback processes and only secondarily by the local pattern of radiative forcing. The warming is accompanied by a more active hydrological cycle with increases in precipitation and evaporation rates that are delayed by comparison with temperature increases. There is an ''El Nino-like'' shift in precipitation and an overall increase in the interannual variability of precipitation. The effect of the aerosol forcing is again primarily to delay and counteract the GHG-induced increase. Decreases in soil moisture are common but regionally dependent and interannual variability changes show considerable structure. (orig.)

  19. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  20. Radiative Forcing Due to Enhancements in Tropospheric Ozone and Carbonaceous Aerosols Caused by Asian Fires During Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Murali; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lenzen, Allen J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Soja, Amber J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Winker, David M.; Worden, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of tropospheric ozone and carbonaceous aerosol distributions, conducted with the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), are used to study the effects of major outbreaks of fires that occurred in three regions of Asia, namely Thailand, Kazakhstan, and Siberia, during spring 2008. RAQMS is a global scale meteorological and chemical modeling system. Results from these simulations, averaged over April 2008, indicate that tropospheric ozone column increases by more than 10 Dobson units (DU) near the Thailand region, and by lesser amounts in the other regions due to the fires. Widespread increases in the optical depths of organic and black carbon aerosols are also noted. We have used an off-line radiative transfer model to evaluate the direct radiative forcing due to the fire-induced changes in atmospheric composition. For clear sky, the monthly averaged radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is mostly negative with peak values less than -12 W/sq m occurring near the fire regions. The negative forcing represents the increased outgoing shortwave radiation caused by scattering due to carbonaceous aerosols. At high latitudes, the radiative forcing is positive due to the presence of absorbing aerosols over regions of high surface albedo. Regions of positive forcing at TOA are more pronounced under total sky conditions. The monthly averaged radiative forcing at the surface is mostly negative, and peak values of less than -30 W/sq m occur near the fire regions. Persistently large negative forcing at the surface could alter the surface energy budget and potentially weaken the hydrological cycle.

  1. The ice-core record of volcanism: Status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Chellman, Nathan; Ludlow, Francis; Curran, Mark; Plunkett, Gill; Büntgen, Ulf; Toohey, Matthew; Burke, Andrea; Grieman, Mackenzie

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from stratospheric aerosols produced by major volcanic eruptions is a dominant driver of climate variability in the Earth's past. Accurate knowledge of the climate anomalies resulting from volcanic eruptions provides important information for understanding the global and regional responses of the Earth system to external forcing agents. Based on a unique compilation of newly obtained, high-resolution, ice-core measurements, as well as palaeo-climatic evidence inferred from existing tree-ring records and historical documentary sources, we revised the dating of ice-core based reconstructions of past volcanic eruptions and confirmed the dominant role of explosive volcanism on short-term summer temperature variability throughout the past 2,500 years. Continuous weekly surface snow measurements obtained from Summit, Greenland (2005-2014) further allow placing volcanic sulphate emissions arising from a series of moderate volcanic eruptions during the last decade into a multi-millennial context. While these updated ice core records provide a more accurate constraint on the timing and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, there is also new data emerging on the geographic locations of past eruptions, atmospheric transport of volcanic fallout and climatic consequences (e.g. sea-ice; hydro-climate) from studying volcanic deposits (e.g. extent of volcanic ash deposition), proxy data and historical records. On the basis of selected case studies we will discuss the role volcanic eruptions have played in the Earth's climate system during the past and identify potential additional constraints provided by ice cores.

  2. Anthropogenic sulphate aerosol from India: estimates of burden and direct radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, C.; Chandramouli, B.; Patwardhan, A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    1999-08-01

    The paper describes a one-box chemical-meteorological model formulated to make preliminary estimates of sulphate aerosol formation and direct radiative forcing over India. Anthropogenic SO{sub 2} emissions from India, from industrial fuel use and biomass burning, were estimated at 2.0 Tg S yr{sup -1} for 1990 in the range of previous estimates of 1.54 and 2.55 Tg S yr{sup -1} for 1987. Meteorological parameters for 1990 from 18 Indian Meteorological Department stations were used to estimate spatial average sulphate burdens through formation from SO{sub 2} reactions in gas and aqueous phase and removal by dry and wet deposition. The hydrogen peroxide reaction was found dominating for undepleted oxidant-rich conditions. Monthly mean sulphate burdens ranged from 2-10 mg m{sup -2} with a seasonal variation of winter-spring highs and summer lows in agreement with previous GCM studies. The sulphate burdens are dominated by sulphate removal rates by wet deposition, which are high in the monsoon period from June to November. The model is in reasonable agreement with detailed GCM results and provides a simple tool to make preliminary estimates of sulphate burdens and direct radiative forcing.

  3. On multi-fingerprint detection and attribution of greenhouse gas- and aerosol forced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom). Meteorological Office; Roeckner, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Waszkewitz, J. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    A multi-fingerprint analysis is applied to the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change. While a single fingerprint, as applied in a previous paper by Hegerl et al. (1996), is optimal for detecting a significant climate change, the simultaneous use of several fingerprints allows one to investigate additionally the consistency between observations and model predicted climate change signals for competing candidate forcing mechanisms. Thus the multi-fingerprint method is a particularly useful technique for attributing an observed climate change to a proposed cause. Different model-predicted climate change signals are derived from three global warming simulations for the period 1880 to 2049. In one simulation, the forcing was by greenhouse gases only, while in the remaining two simulations the influence of aerosols was also included. The two dominant climate change signals derived from these simulations are optimized statistically by weighting the model-predicted climate change pattern towards low-noise directions. These optimized fingerprints are then applied to observed near surface temperature trends. The space-time structure of natural climate variability (needed to determine the signal-to-noise ratio) is estimated from several multi-century control simulations with different CGCMs and from instrumental data over the last 134 years. (orig.)

  4. The sensitivity of tropical convective precipitation to the direct radiative forcings of black carbon aerosols emitted from major regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have suggested that the direct radiative forcing (DRF of black carbon (BC aerosols are able to force a significant change in tropical convective precipitation ranging from the Pacific and Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. In this in-depth analysis, the sensitivity of this modeled effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation to the emissions of BC from 5 major regions of the world has been examined. In a zonal mean base, the effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation is a result of a displacement of ITCZ toward the forcing (warming hemisphere. However, a substantial difference exists in this effect associated with BC over different continents. The BC effect on convective precipitation over the tropical Pacific Ocean is found to be most sensitive to the emissions from Central and North America due to a persistent presence of BC aerosols from these two regions in the lowermost troposphere over the Eastern Pacific. The BC effect over the tropical Indian and Atlantic Ocean is most sensitive to the emissions from South as well as East Asia and Africa, respectively. Interestingly, the summation of these individual effects associated with emissions from various regions mostly exceeds their actual combined effect as shown in the model run driven by the global BC emissions, so that they must offset each other in certain locations and a nonlinearity of this type of effect is thus defined. It is known that anthropogenic aerosols contain many scattering-dominant constituents that might exert an effect opposite to that of absorbing BC. The combined aerosol forcing is thus likely differing from the BC-only one. Nevertheless, this study along with others of its kind that isolates the DRF of BC from other forcings provides an insight of the potentially important climate response to anthropogenic forcings particularly related to the unique particulate solar absorption.

  5. Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Atmospheres, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Kim, M.K. [Kongju National University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Gongju (Korea); Kim, K.M. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc, Lanham, MD (United States)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we present results of a numerical study using the NASA finite-volume GCM to elucidate a plausible mechanism for aerosol impact on the Asian summer monsoon involving interaction with physical processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). During the pre-monsoon season of March-April, dusts from the deserts of western China, Afghanistan/Pakistan, and the Middle East are transported into and stacked up against the northern and southern slopes of the TP. The absorption of solar radiation by dust heats up the elevated surface air over the slopes. On the southern slopes, the atmospheric heating is reinforced by black carbon from local emission. The heated air rises via dry convection, creating a positive temperature anomaly in the mid-to-upper troposphere over the TP relative to the region to the south. In May through early June in a manner akin to an ''elevated heat pump'', the rising hot air forced by the increasing heating in the upper troposphere, draws in warm and moist air over the Indian subcontinent, setting the stage for the onset of the South Asia summer monsoon. Our results suggest that increased dust loading coupled with black carbon emission from local sources in northern India during late spring may lead to an advance of the rainy periods and subsequently an intensification of the Indian summer monsoon. The enhanced rainfall over India is associated with the development of an aerosol-induced large-scale sea level pressure anomaly pattern, which causes the East Asia (Mei-yu) rain belt to shift northwestward, suppressing rainfall over East Asia and the adjacent oceanic regions. (orig.)

  6. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; Denjean, C.; Brogniez, G.; di Sarra, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, T.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Waquet, F.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2016-01-01

    events in the region. However, numerous mineral dust plumes were observed during the campaign, with the main sources located in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, leading to aerosol optical depth (AOD) values ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 (at 440 nm) over the western and central Mediterranean basins. One important point of this experiment concerns the direct observations of aerosol extinction onboard the ATR-42, using the CAPS system, showing local maxima reaching up to 150 M m-1 within the dust plume. Non-negligible aerosol extinction (about 50 M m-1) has also been observed within the marine boundary layer (MBL). By combining the ATR-42 extinction coefficient observations with absorption and scattering measurements, we performed a complete optical closure revealing excellent agreement with estimated optical properties. This additional information on extinction properties has allowed calculation of the dust single scattering albedo (SSA) with a high level of confidence over the western Mediterranean. Our results show a moderate variability from 0.90 to 1.00 (at 530 nm) for all flights studied compared to that reported in the literature on this optical parameter. Our results underline also a relatively low difference in SSA with values derived near dust sources. In parallel, active remote-sensing observations from the surface and onboard the F-20 aircraft suggest a complex vertical structure of particles and distinct aerosol layers with sea spray and pollution located within the MBL, and mineral dust and/or aged North American smoke particles located above (up to 6-7 km in altitude). Aircraft and balloon-borne observations allow one to investigate the vertical structure of the aerosol size distribution showing particles characterized by a large size (> 10 µm in diameter) within dust plumes. In most of cases, a coarse mode characterized by an effective diameter ranging between 5 and 10 µm, has been detected above the MBL. In terms of shortwave (SW) direct forcing, in situ

  7. Aerosol nucleation and its role for clouds and Earth's radiative forcing in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kazil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation from the gas phase is an important source of aerosol particles in the Earth's atmosphere, contributing to the number of cloud condensation nuclei, which form cloud droplets. We have implemented in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM a new scheme for neutral and charged nucleation of sulfuric acid and water based on laboratory data, and nucleation of an organic compound and sulfuric acid using a parametrization of cluster activation based on field measurements. We give details of the implementation, compare results with observations, and investigate the role of the individual aerosol nucleation mechanisms for clouds and the Earth's radiative budget. The results of our simulations are most consistent with observations when neutral and charged nucleation of sulfuric acid proceed throughout the troposphere and nucleation due to cluster activation is limited to the forested boundary layer. The globally averaged annual mean contributions of the individual nucleation processes to total absorbed solar short-wave radiation via the direct, semi-direct, indirect cloud-albedo and cloud-lifetime effects in our simulations are −1.15 W/m2 for charged H2SO4/H2O nucleation, −0.235 W/m2 for cluster activation, and −0.05 W/m2 for neutral H2SO4/H2O nucleation. The overall effect of nucleation is −2.55 W/m2, which exceeds the sum of the individual terms due to feedbacks and interactions in the model. Aerosol nucleation contributes over the oceans with −2.18 W/m2 to total absorbed solar short-wave radiation, compared to −0.37 W/m2 over land. We explain the higher effect of aerosol nucleation on Earth's radiative budget over the oceans with the larger area covered by ocean clouds, due to the larger contrast in albedo between clouds and the ocean surface compared to continents, and the larger susceptibility of

  8. Influence of the vertical absorption profile of mixed Asian dust plumes on aerosol direct radiative forcing over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young Min; Lee, Kwonho; Kim, Kwanchul; Shin, Sung-Kyun; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) and heating rate profiles of mixed East Asian dust plumes in the solar wavelength region ranging from 0.25 to 4.0 μm using the Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients and single-scattering albedos (SSA) were derived from measurements with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system. The data are used as input parameters for our radiative transfer calculations. We considered four cases of radiative forcing in SBDART: 1. dust, 2. pollution, 3. mixed dust plume and the use of vertical profiles of SSA, and 4. mixed dust plumes and the use of column-averaged values of SSA. In our sensitivity study we examined the influence of SSA and aerosol layer height on our results. The ADRF at the surface and in the atmosphere shows a small dependence on the specific shape of the aerosol extinction vertical profile and its light-absorption property for all four cases. In contrast, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the ADRF is largely affected by the vertical distribution of the aerosols extinction. This effect increases if the light-absorption capacity (decrease of SSA) of the aerosols increases. We find different radiative effects in situations in which two layers of aerosols had different light-absorption properties. The largest difference was observed at the TOA for an absorbing aerosol layer at high altitude in which we considered in one case the vertical profile of SSA and in another case the column-averaged SSA only. The ADRF at the TOA increases when the light-absorbing aerosol layer is located above 3 km altitude. The differences between height-resolved SSA, which can be obtained from lidar data, and total layer-mean SSA indicates that the use of a layer-mean SSA can be rather misleading as it can induce a large error in the calculation of the ADRF at the TOA, which in turn may cause errors in the vertical profiles of heating rates.

  9. Climatic Impacts of a Volcanic Double Event: 536/540 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Krüger, K.; Sigl, M.; Stordal, F.; Svensen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic activity in and around the year 536 CE led to the coldest decade of the Common Era, and has been speculatively linked to large-scale societal crises around the world. Using a coupled aerosol-climate model, with eruption parameters constrained by recently re-dated ice core records and historical observations of the aerosol cloud, we reconstruct the radiative forcing resulting from a sequence of two major volcanic eruptions in 536 and 540 CE. Comparing with a reconstruction of volcanic forcing over the past 1200 years, we estimate that the decadal-scale Northern Hemisphere (NH) extra-tropical radiative forcing from this volcanic "double event" was larger than that of any known period. Earth system model simulations including the volcanic forcing are used to explore the temperature and precipitation anomalies associated with the eruptions, and compared to available proxy records, including maximum latewood density (MXD) temperature reconstructions. Special attention is placed on the decadal persistence of the cooling signal in tree rings, and whether the climate model simulations reproduce such long-term climate anomalies. Finally, the climate model results will be used to explore the probability of socioeconomic crisis resulting directly from the volcanic radiative forcing in different regions of the world.

  10. Effects of sea surface winds on marine aerosols characteristics and impacts on longwave radiative forcing over the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar S. Nair

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Collocated measurements of spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs, total and BC mass concentrations, and number size distributions of near surface aerosols, along with sea surface winds, made onboard a scientific cruise over southeastern Arabian Sea, are used to delineate the effects of changes in the wind speed on aerosol properties and its implication on the shortwave and longwave radiative forcing. The results indicated that an increase in the sea-surface wind speed from calm to moderate (<1 to 8 m s−1 values results in a selective increase of the particle concentrations in the size range 0.5 to 5 μm, leading to significant changes in the size distribution, increase in the mass concentration, decrease in the BC mass fraction, a remarkable increase in AODs in the near infrared and a flattening of the AOD spectrum. The consequent increase in the longwave direct radiative forcing almost entirely offsets the corresponding increase in the short wave direct radiative forcing (or even overcompensates at the top of the atmosphere; while the surface forcing is offset by about 50%.

  11. Rare Isotope Insights into Supereruptions: Rare Sulfur and Triple Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols Absorbed on Volcanic Ash Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Eiler, J.; Wing, B.; Farquhar, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present analyses of stable isotopic ratios of 17O/16O, 18O/16O, 34S/32S, and 33S/32S, 36S/32S of sulfate leached from volcanic ash of a series of well-known volcanic eruptions. This list covers much of the diversity of sizes and the character of volcanic eruptions. Particular emphasis is paid to the Lava Creek Tuff of Yellowstone and we present wide geographic sample coverage for this unit. This global dataset spans a significant range in δ34S, δ18O, and Δ17O of sulfate (29, 30 and 3.3 permil respectively) with oxygen isotopes recording mass-independent fractionation and sulfur isotopes exhibiting mass-dependent behavior. These ranges are defined by the isotopic compositions of products of large caldera forming eruptions. Proximal ignimbrites and coarse ash typically do not contain sulfate. The presence of sulfate with Δ17O > 0.2 permil is characteristic of small distal ash particles, suggesting that sulfate aerosols were scavenged after they underwent atmospheric photochemical reactions. Additionally, sediments that embed ash layers either do not contain sulfate or contain minor sulfate with Δ17O near 0 permil, suggesting that the observed sulfate in ash is of volcanic origin. Mass-dependent sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that sulfate-forming reactions did not involve photolysis of SO2, unlike the situation inferred for some pre-2.3 Ga sulfates or hypothesized to occur during the formation of sulfate associated with plinian eruptions that pierce the ozone layer. However, sulfate in the products of caldera-forming eruptions display a large δ34S range and fractionation relationships that do not follow equilibrium slopes of 0.515 and 1.90 for 33S/32S vs. 34S/32S and 36S/32S vs. 34S/32S, respectively. This implies that the sulfur isotopic characteristics of these sulfates were not set by a single stage, high-temperature equilibrium process in the volcanic plum. The data presented here are consistent with a single stage kinetic fractionation of sulfur

  12. Contribution of volcanic forcing to the initiation of the Black Death Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Henry; Baldini, James; Dodds, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The 14th Century plague epidemic, commonly termed the Black Death, coincided with the tumultuous climatic shift from the relative stability of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the initiation of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Plague is predominantly a vector borne disease that is spread through the transmission of the Yersinia pestis bacteria. This bacterium may have originated in the rodent populations of the Tibetan Plateau and later spread rapidly westward though Eurasia after vector transmission to humans. Several studies have determined that Asian rodent and vector populations are highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. The Samalas eruption of 1257 was the largest injection of aerosols in the Common Era and therefore probably had a significant climatic effect. Through a range of proxy records across Eurasia we reconstruct the climate for the period immediately preceding the outbreak of plague. This study investigates the interaction between the Samalas eruption of 1257, the climatic response to the event and the potential effect on the initiation of the Black Death epidemic which shaped population and culture across Eurasia for centuries.

  13. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ADRIMED project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental set-up also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modelling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows were not favorable to produce high level of atmospheric pollutants nor intense biomass burning events in

  14. Anthropogenic Aerosol Forcing as Indicated by the Reversion of Warming-elevation Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Chen, A.; Ciais, P.; Li, Y.; Li, L. Z. X.; Vautard, R.; Zhou, L.; Yang, H.; Huang, M.; Piao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate models prescribed with increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) produce warming trends that increase with altitude. However, observations do not show a uniform acceleration of warming with elevation. Here, we explore warming-elevation relationship, apply records from 2660 meteorological stations, and determine that the vertical gradient of warming rate varies with location. Warming is faster at higher altitude in Asia and western North America, but the opposite is observed over central Europe and eastern North America which have received more short-wave radiation (brightening) associated with a decrease of aerosols and clouds since the 1980s. We found that altitudinal differences in air pollution brightening, with observations showing more short-wave radiation received at low altitudes than at mountain stations, modulate the otherwise uniform effect of the long-wave forcing of GHGs on the warming-elevation relationship. Characterizing the warming-elevation relationships over different mountainous regions thus provides a valuable tool for understanding the drivers of regional climate change and will contribute to the formulation of strategies for climate change mitigation (e.g., biodiversity conservation) at high elevations.

  15. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  16. Lidar Observations of Aerosol Disturbances of the Stratosphere over Tomsk (56.5∘N; 85.0∘E in Volcanic Activity Period 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E. Bazhenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lidar measurements (Tomsk: 56.5∘N; 85.0∘E of the optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL in the volcanic activity period 2006–2011 are summarized and analyzed. The background SAL state with minimum aerosol content, observed since 1997 under the conditions of long-term volcanically quiet period, was interrupted in October 2006 by series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire: Rabaul (October 2006, New Guinea; Okmok and Kasatochi (July-August 2008, Aleutian Islands; Redoubt (March-April 2009, Alaska; Sarychev Peak (June 2009, Kuril Islands; Grimsvötn (May 2011, Iceland. A short-term and minor disturbance of the lower stratosphere was also observed in April 2010 after eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull. The developed regional empirical model of the vertical distribution of background SAL optical characteristics was used to identify the periods of elevated stratospheric aerosol content after each of the volcanic eruptions. Trends of variations in the total ozone content are also considered.

  17. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-10-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation are introduced into the LMDz-INCA (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, version 4 - INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols, version 3) global model. An important aspect of this new model is that both fine nitrate particle formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing corresponds to 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing, representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050, and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentration of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia, which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and North America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in ammonium nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates, for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative

  18. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg - Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  19. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-12-02

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  20. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  1. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2  (g SO42−−1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO42−−1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m2− are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL = −0.750, FU = −0.930, and

  2. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hauglustaine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation have been introduced in the LMDz-INCA global model. Both fine nitrate particles formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is −0.056 W m−2. This forcing has the same magnitude than the forcing associated with organic carbon particles and represents 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios and for the 2030, 2050 and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentrations of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and Northern America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of −0.234 W m−2 to a range of −0.070 to −0.130 W m−2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of −0.060 to −0.115 W m−2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative forcing calculations increases the

  3. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  4. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-12-23

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  5. Atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental location Tripura in North-East India: Model results and ground observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pranab; De, Barin Kumar; Banik, Trisanu; Gogoi, Mukunda M; Babu, S Suresh; Guha, Anirban

    2017-02-15

    Northeast India (NEI) is located within the boundary of the great Himalayas in the north and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the southwest, experiences the mixed influence of the westerly dust advection from the Indian desert, anthropogenic aerosols from the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and marine aerosols from BoB. The present study deals with the estimation and characterization of aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental site Tripura, which is a strategic location in the western part of NEI having close proximity to the outflow of the IGP. Continuous long term measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) are used for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing in each monthly time scale. The study revealed that the surface forcing due to aerosols was higher during both winter and pre-monsoon seasons, having comparable values of 32W/m(2) and 33.45W/m(2) respectively. The atmospheric forcing was also higher during these months due to increased columnar aerosol loadings (higher AOD ~0.71) shared by abundant BC concentrations (SSA ~0.7); while atmospheric forcing decreased in monsoon due to reduced magnitude of BC (SSA ~0.94 in July) as well as columnar AOD. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is positive in pre-monsoon and monsoon months with the highest positive value of 3.78W/m(2) in June 2012. The results are discussed in light of seasonal source impact and transport pathways from adjacent regions.

  6. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-11

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do.

  7. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol – Part 1: Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20 % in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2 % number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides

  8. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol - Part 1: Model improvements and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, B.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.; Ghan, S. J.; Liu, X.; Easter, R.; Zaveri, R.

    2011-07-01

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS-) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr-1, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS- (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr-1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m-3, with values up to 400 ng m-3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increase and decrease in the concentration of CCN over different parts of

  9. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, B.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.; Ghan, S. J.; Liu, X.; Easter, R.; Zaveri, R.

    2011-11-01

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS-) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr-1, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS- (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr-1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m-3, with values up to 400 ng m-3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20%) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2%) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases

  10. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001–2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m−2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m−2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (−583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m−2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m−2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  11. Intraseasonal responses of the East Asia summer rainfall to anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxing; Yang, Jing; Bao, Qing; Wang, Wei-Chyung

    2017-04-01

    The WRF Model is used to investigate intraseasonal responses of the summer rainfall to aerosol direct and cloud-adjustment effects over East Asia, where the anthropogenic aerosol loading has been increasing in the past few decades. The responses are evaluated by comparing two cases for each year during 2002-2008: a control case imposing the observed aerosol optical depth of the corresponding year and a sensitivity case having anthropogenic components of the control case reduced by 75%. Analyses of multiple-year simulations reveal that aerosol-induced changes of rainfall and circulation exhibit strong intraseasonal variability, and that the spatial pattern of changes in the monthly rainfall is related to the intensification and westward extension of the western North-Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) by increased aerosols. This perturbation of the WNPSH induces surface air divergence over the southeast China and convergence over regions to the north and west of the WNPSH, causing, respectively, decreased and increased rainfall. As the WNPSH migration path varies year by year, however, the variability of rainfall changes over subregions of the eastern China (e.g., North China) is large within the decade. Meanwhile, the pattern of summer-gross rainfall changes also shows large interannual variation, but the general pattern of wetter in the west and dryer in the east persists. Results also suggest that the aerosol increase tends to reduce the number of Tibet Plateau vortices, which indirectly influence summer rainfall over the eastern China.

  12. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

  13. The persistently variable "background" stratospheric aerosol layer and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S; Daniel, J S; Neely, R R; Vernier, J-P; Dutton, E G; Thomason, L W

    2011-08-12

    Recent measurements demonstrate that the "background" stratospheric aerosol layer is persistently variable rather than constant, even in the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Several independent data sets show that stratospheric aerosols have increased in abundance since 2000. Near-global satellite aerosol data imply a negative radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosol changes over this period of about -0.1 watt per square meter, reducing the recent global warming that would otherwise have occurred. Observations from earlier periods are limited but suggest an additional negative radiative forcing of about -0.1 watt per square meter from 1960 to 1990. Climate model projections neglecting these changes would continue to overestimate the radiative forcing and global warming in coming decades if these aerosols remain present at current values or increase.

  14. Reevaluation of Mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Balkanski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling studies and satellite retrievals do not agree on the amplitude and/or sign of the direct radiative perturbation from dust. Modelling studies have systematically overpredicted mineral dust absorption compared to estimates based upon satellite retrievals. In this paper we first point out the source of this discrepancy, which originates from the shortwave refractive index of dust used in models. The imaginary part of the refractive index retrieved from AERONET over the range 300 to 700 nm is 3 to 6 times smaller than that used previously to model dust. We attempt to constrain these refractive indices using a mineralogical database and varying the abundances of iron oxides (the main absorber in the visible. We first consider the optically active mineral constituents of dust and compute the refractive indices from internal and external mixtures of minerals with relative amounts encountered in parent soils. We then compute the radiative perturbation due to mineral aerosols for internally and externally mixed minerals for 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume. These constant amounts of hematite allow bracketing the influence of dust aerosol when it is respectively an inefficient, standard and a very efficient absorber. These values represent low, central and high content of iron oxides in dust determined from the mineralogical database. Linke et al. (2006 determined independently that iron-oxides represent 1.0 to 2.5% by volume using x-Ray fluorescence on 4 different samples collected over Morocco and Egypt. Based upon values of the refractive index retrieved from AERONET, we show that the best agreement between 440 and 1020 nm occurs for mineral dust internally mixed with 1.5% volume weighted hematite. This representation of mineral dust allows us to compute, using a general circulation model, a new global estimate of mineral dust perturbation between –0.47 and –0.24 Wm−2 at the top of the atmosphere, and between

  15. Atmospheric responses to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angus; Highwood, Eleanor; Charlton-Perez, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, also called solar radiation management (SRM), involves the injection of aerosol into the stratosphere to increase the planetary albedo. It has been conceieved as a policy option in response to human-induced global warming. It is well-established from modelling studies and observations following volcanic eruptions that stratospheric sulphate aerosols cause global cooling. Some aspects of the climate response, especially those involving large-scale dynamical changes, are more uncertain. This work attempts to identify the physical mechanisms operating in the climate response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering using idealised model experiments. The radiative forcing produced by the aerosol depends on its type (species) and size. Aerosols absorb terrestrial and solar radiation, which drives stratospheric temperature change. The stratospheric temperature change also depends on aerosol type and size. We calculate the stratospheric temperature change due to geoengineering with sulphate, titania, limestone and soot in a fixed-dynamical-heating radiative model. Sulphate produces tropical heating of up to ~6 K. Titania produces much less heating, whereas soot produces much more. Most aerosols increase the meridional temperature gradient in the lower stratosphere which, by thermal wind balance, would be expected to intensify the zonal winds in the polar vortex. An intermediate-complexity general circulation model is used to investigate the dynamical response to geoengineering aerosols. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The carbon dioxide forcing is then balanced using stratospheric sulphate aerosol. We assess dynamical changes in the stratosphere, for example, the frequency of stratospheric sudden warmings and the strength of the Brewer-Dobson overturning circulation. We also assess changes in the strength and position of the tropospheric jets. We compare results for sulphate with those for titania.

  16. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-01

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub μm} and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub μm} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m{sup 3} and 4.5 μg/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between − 14.1 W m{sup −2} and − 35.6 W m{sup −2}, − 6.7 W m{sup −2} and − 13.4 W m{sup −2} and 5.5 W m{sup −2} to 22.5 W m{sup −2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is

  17. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-09-23

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  18. Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Hasselmann, K.; Cubasch, U.; Roeckner, E.; Voss, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom). Meteorological Office; Waszkewitz, J. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    A multifingerprint analysis is applied to the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change. While a single fingerprint is optimal for the detection of climate change, further tests of the statistical consistency of the detected climate change signal with model predictions for different candidate forcing mechanisms require the simultaneous application of several fingerprints. Model-predicted climate change signals are derived from three anthropogenic global warming simulations for the period 1880 to 2049and two simulations forced by estimated changes in solar radiation from 1700 to 1992. In the first global warming simulation, the forcing is by greenhouse gas only, while in the remaining two simulations the direct influence of sulfate aerosols is also included. From the climate change signals of the greenhouse gas only and the average of the two greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol simulations, two optimized fingerprint patterns are derived by weighting the model-predicted climate change patterns towards low-noise directions. The optimized fingerprint patterns are then applied as a filter to the observed near-surface temperature trend patterns, yielding several detection variables. The space-time structure of natural climate variability needed to determine the optimal fingerprint pattern and the resultant signal-to-noise ratio of the detection variable is estimated from several multicentury control simulations with different CGCMs and from instrumental data over the last 136 y. Applying the combined greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol fingerprint in the same way as the greenhouse gas only fingerprint in a previous work, the recent 30-y trends (1966-1995) of annual mean near surface temperature are again found to represent a significant climate change at the 97.5% confidence level. (orig.) With 13 figs., 3 tabs., 63 refs.

  19. Impact of dust size parameterizations on aerosol burden and radiative forcing in RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Zanis, Prodromos; Steiner, Allison L.; Solmon, Fabien; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Katragkou, Eleni; Karacostas, Theodoros; Foret, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of aerosol representation in the regional climate model RegCM4 for two dust parameterizations for the period 2007-2014 over the Sahara and the Mediterranean. We apply two discretization methods of the dust size distribution keeping the total mass constant: (1) the default RegCM4 4-bin approach, where the size range of each bin is calculated using an equal, logarithmic separation of the total size range of dust, using the diameter of dust particles, and (2) a newly implemented 12-bin approach with each bin defined according to an isogradient method where the size ranges are dependent on the dry deposition velocity of dust particles. Increasing the number of transported dust size bins theoretically improves the representation of the physical properties of dust particles within the same size bin. Thus, more size bins improve the simulation of atmospheric processes. The radiative effects of dust over the area are discussed and evaluated with the CALIPSO dust optical depth (DOD). This study is among the first studies evaluating the vertical profile of simulated dust with a pure dust product. Reanalysis winds from ERA-Interim and the total precipitation flux from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) observational gridded database are used to evaluate and explain the discrepancies between model and observations. The new dust binning approach increases the dust column burden by 4 and 3 % for fine and coarse particles, respectively, which increases DOD by 10 % over the desert and the Mediterranean. Consequently, negative shortwave radiative forcing (RF) is enhanced by more than 10 % at the top of the atmosphere and by 1 to 5 % on the surface. Positive longwave RF locally increases by more than 0.1 W m-2 in a large portion of the Sahara, the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. The four-bin isolog method is to some extent numerically efficient, nevertheless our work highlights that the simplified representation of the four

  20. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2, both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20% in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2% number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming

  1. The tropospheric aerosol at mid-latitudes - microphysics, optics, and climate forcing illustrated by the LACE 98 field study; Das troposphaerische Aerosol in mittleren Breiten - Mikrophysik, Optik und Klimaantrieb am Beispiel der Feldstudie LACE 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, M.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the column closure of optical aerosol parameters as part of the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (LACE 98). The optical aerosol parameters were calculated from microphysical aerosol parameters which were measured height resolved from tropopause to boundary layer and compared with the direct measurement of the respective property (closure). The closure allows the validation of the measured aerosol properties and the inversion of aerosol properties which are not measurable directly. The radiative forcings of the measured aerosol columns are estimated. The measured, quality assured microphysical aerosol properties are parameterized and tabulated as input data for models. The successful closure of the aerosol column's optical depth validates the measured particle size distributions, whereas the successful closure of the backscatter coefficient validates the assumptions made on the aerosol chemical composition and serves to deduce its state of mixture, the latter point exemplified using a 7 day old forest fire aerosol. The local, instantaneous radiative forcing of the measured continental particle columns are estimated to lie between -33 W/m{sup 2} for continental and -6 W/m{sup 2} for marine air masses for a solar zenith angle of 56 . (orig.) [German] Als Teil des Lindenberger Aerosol Charakterisierungsexperimentes (LACE 98) behandelt diese Arbeit die Saeulenschliessung optischer Aerosolparameter. Diese wurden aus den von Tropopause bis Grenzschicht hoehenaufgeloest gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften berechnet, um sie mit den am gleichen Ort direkt gemessenen optischen Aerosolparametern zu vergleichen (Schliessung). Es wird gezeigt, dass die Schliessung die Qualitaetssicherung der gemessenen Aerosoleigenschaften und die Invertierung direkt nicht messbarer Aerosoleigenschaften ermoeglicht. Die Strahlungsantriebe der vermessenen Aerosolsaeulen werden abgeschaetzt. Die qualitaetsgesicherten gemessenen

  2. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanchettin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decadal evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice following strong volcanic eruptions is investigated in four climate simulation ensembles performed with the COSMOS-Mill version of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model. The ensembles differ in the magnitude of the imposed volcanic perturbations, with sizes representative of historical tropical eruptions (1991 Pinatubo and 1815 Tambora and of tropical and extra-tropical "supervolcano" eruptions. A post-eruption Arctic sea-ice expansion is robustly detected in all ensembles, while Antarctic sea ice responds only to "supervolcano" eruptions, undergoing an initial short-lived expansion and a subsequent prolonged contraction phase. Strong volcanic forcing therefore emerges as a potential source of inter-hemispheric interannual-to-decadal climate variability, although the inter-hemispheric signature is weak in the case of historical-size eruptions. The post-eruption inter-hemispheric decadal asymmetry in sea ice is interpreted as a consequence mainly of different exposure of Arctic and Antarctic regional climates to induced meridional heat transport changes and of dominating local feedbacks that set in within the Antarctic region. "Supervolcano" experiments help clarifying differences in simulated hemispheric internal dynamics related to imposed negative net radiative imbalances, including the relative importance of the thermal and dynamical components of the sea-ice response. "Supervolcano" experiments could therefore serve the assessment of climate models' behavior under strong external forcing conditions and, consequently, favor advancements in our understanding of simulated sea-ice dynamics.

  3. Assessment of Clear Sky Radiative Forcing in the Caribbean Region Using an Aerosol Dispersion Model and Ground Radiometry During Puerto Rico Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Qi, Qiang; Westpthal, Douglas; Reid, Jeffery; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the surface and top of the atmosphere solar radiative forcing by long-range transport of Saharan dust. The calculations of radiative forcing are based on measurements collected in the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) carried out during July, 2000. The purpose of the experiment was the characterization of the Saharan dust plume, which frequently reaches the Caribbean region during the summer. The experiment involved the use of three approaches to study the plume: space and ground based remote sensing, airborne and ground based in-situ measurements and aerosol dispersion modeling. The diversity of measuring platforms provides an excellent opportunity for determination of the direct effect of dust on the clear sky radiative forcing. Specifically, comparisons of heating rates, surface and TOA fluxes derived from the Navy global aerosol dispersion model NAAPS (NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) and actual measurements of fluxes from ground and space based platforms are shown. In addition, the direct effect of dust on the clear sky radiative forcing is modeled. The extent and time of evolution of the radiative properties of the plume are computed with the aerosol concentrations modeled by NAAPS. Standard aerosol parameterizations, as well as in-situ composition and size distributions measured during PRIDE, are utilized to compute the aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. Radiative transfer computations are done with an in-house modified spectral radiative transfer code (Fu-Liou). The code includes gas absorption and cloud particles (ice and liquid phase) and it allows the input of meteorological data. The code was modified to include modules for the aerosols contribution to the calculated fluxes. This comparison study helps to narrow the current uncertainty in the dust direct radiative forcing, as recently reported in the 2001 IPCC assessment.

  4. Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Tim; Cai, Wenju; Purich, Ariaan; Rotstayn, Leon; England, Matthew H

    2013-01-01

    In the late twentieth century, the sub-thermocline waters of the southern tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean experienced a sharp cooling. This cooling has been previously attributed to an anthropogenic aerosol-induced strengthening of the global ocean conveyor, which transfers heat from the subtropical gyre latitudes toward the North Atlantic. From the mid-1990s the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean experienced a rapid temperature trend reversal. Here we show, using climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, that the late twentieth century sub-thermocline cooling of the southern Indian Ocean was primarily driven by increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. The models simulate a slow-down in the sub-thermocline cooling followed by a rapid warming towards the mid twenty-first century. The simulated evolution of the Indian Ocean temperature trend is linked with the peak in aerosols and their subsequent decline in the twenty-first century, reinforcing the hypothesis that aerosols influence ocean circulation trends.

  5. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites

  6. El Nino, from 1870 to 2014, and other Atmospheric Circulation Forcing by Extreme Apparitions of the Eight Annual, Continental Scale, Aerosol Plumes in the Satellite Era which Point to a Possible Cause for the Current Californian Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Eight continental scale aerosol plumes exist each year as the enclosed image shows. Apparitions of seven plumes only exist for a few months in the same season each year whilst the East Asian Plume is visible all year. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) of all the plumes varies enormously interannually with two studies showing the surface radiative forcing of the South East Asian Plume (SEAP) as -150W/m2 and -286W/m2/AOD. I show that the SEAP, created by volcanic aerosols (natural) and biomass burning and gas flares in the oil industry (anthropogenic), is the sole cause of all El Nino events, the greatest interannual perturbation of the atmospheric circulation system. The SEAP creates an El Nino by absorbing solar radiation at the top of the plume which heats the upper atmosphere and cools the surface. This creates a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume and reduces convection. With reduced convection in SE Asia, the Maritime Continent, the Trade Winds blowing across the Pacific are forced to relax as their exit into the Hadley and Walker Cells is constrained and the reduced Trade Wind speed causes the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to rise in the central tropical Pacific Ocean as there is a strong negative correlation between wind speed and SST. The warmer SST in the central Pacific creates convection in the region which further reduces the Trade Wind speed and causes the Walker Cell to reverse - a classic El Nino. Having established the ability of such extreme aerosol plumes to create El Nino events I will then show how the South American, West African, Middle East and SEAP plumes create drought in the Amazon, Spain, Darfur and Australia as well as causing the extremely warm autumn and winter in Europe in 2006-07. All these effects are created by the plumes reducing convection in the region of the plume which forces the regional Hadley Cells into anomalous positions thereby creating persistent high pressure cells in the mid latitudes. This

  7. Solar energy assessment in the Alpine area: satellite data and ground instruments integration for studying the radiative forcing of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M.; Petitta, M.; Emili, E.

    2012-04-01

    measurement site of Bolzano, where we installed an AERONET sun-photometer for measuring aerosol optical properties and column water-vapor amount. The impact of aerosols on the surface irradiance was already demonstrated, in fact the literature shows that the daily aerosol direct forcing on the surface radiation in the Italian Po valley amounts on average to -12.2 Wm-2, with extremes values beyond -70 Wm-2. In particular here we examine the role in the radiation budget of the Alpine valleys of aerosol microphysical characteristics, such as size distribution, and optical properties, such as phase function, derived from the inversion of spectrally resolved sky radiances. After provided evidence of the radiative impact of atmospheric aerosols on solar energy availability in the Alpine area, the final step will be the enhancement of the most advanced existent algorithm for retrieving SIS in the Alpine area from satellite data, developed by MeteoSwiss in the framework of CM-SAF, which thoroughly considers the effect of topography and clouds, while can still be improved in terms of atmospheric input data.

  8. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  9. Impact of anomalous forest fire on aerosol radiative forcing and snow cover over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Kunal; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2017-02-01

    Forest fires are very common in tropical region during February-May months and are known to have significant impact on ecosystem dynamics. Moreover, aerosols emitted from these burning activities significantly modulate the Earth's radiation budget. In present study, we investigated the anomalous forest fire events and their impact on atmospheric radiation budget and glaciated snow cover over the Himalayan region. We used multiple dataset derived from satellites [Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] and reanalysis models [Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), Second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA-2) and ERA-interim] to evaluate the effect of biomass burning aerosols on radiation budget. April 2016 is associated with anomalous fire activities over lower Himalayan region in the last fourteen years (2003-2016). The model estimated organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) emission reaches up to ∼3 × 104 and ∼2 × 103 μg/m2/day, respectively during the biomass burning period of April 2016. The meteorological data analysis accompanied with CALIOP aerosol vertical profile shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could reach up to ∼5-7 km altitude and could be transported towards glaciated region of upper Himalayas. The large amount of BC/OC from biomass burning significantly modulates the atmospheric radiation budget. The estimated columnar heating rate shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could heat up the atmosphere by ∼0.04-0.06 K/day in April-2016 with respect to non-burning period (2015). The glaciated snow cover fractions are found to be decreasing by ∼5-20% in 2016 as compared to long term mean (2003-2016). The combined analyses of various climatic factors, fires and associated BC emissions show that the observed snow cover decrease could be results of increased surface/atmospheric temperature due to combined effect of

  10. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  11. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles across the Caribbean Basin: A Comparison between Clean and Perturbed African Dust and Volcanic Ash Air Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, H.; Ogren, J. A.; Sheridan, P. J.; Mayol-Bracero, O.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol’s optical and physical properties were measured during year 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The three cases investigated were classified according to the origin of the air masses: clean (C), African dust (AD), and volcanic ash (VA). The instrumentation used included a sunphotometer to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficient (σsp), and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) to measure the absorption coefficient (σap). The average volume size distributions were trimodal for the C (peaks at 0.14, 0.99 and 4.25 µm radius) and AD (peaks at 0.11, 1.30 and 2.00 µm radius) cases and bimodal for the VA (peaks at 0.19 and 2.75 µm radius) case. Fine and coarse modes maxima for AD occurred at radii smaller than for VA, confirming the different origins of those particles. The average values for the total σsp were higher for AD (82.9 Mm-1) and VA (33.7 Mm-1) compared to C (16.6 Mm-1). The same happened for the AOT maximum values at 500 nm with 0.92, 0.30, and 0.06 for AD, VA, and C, respectively. The observed increase in the values of the Angstrom exponent (å) is indicative of a decrease in the size of the particles associated to VA (å= 0.27) and AD (å =0.89) when compared to C (å =0.24). The volume size distributions and thus the mass were dominated by the coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) especially for the AD case. Results have shown that AD as well as VA has a significant impact on the physical and radiative properties across Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. Additional results on the AOT wavelength dependence and on the annual variability of the properties under study will be presented.

  12. Long-term aerosol-mediated changes in cloud radiative forcing of deep clouds at the top and bottom of the atmosphere over the Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols can alter the macro- and micro-physical properties of deep convective clouds (DCC and their radiative forcing (CRF. This study presents what is arguably the first long-term estimate of the aerosol-mediated changes in CRF (AMCRF for deep cloud systems derived from decade-long continuous ground-based and satellite observations, model simulations and reanalysis data. Measurements were made at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP site. Satellite retrievals are from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. Increases in aerosol loading were accompanied by the thickening of DCC cores and the expansion and thinning of anvils, due presumably to the aerosol invigoration effect (AIV and the aerosol microphysical effect (AME. Meteorological variables dictating these cloud processes were investigated. Consistent with previous findings, the AIV is most significant when the atmosphere is moist and unstable with weak wind shear. Such aerosol-mediated systematic changes in DCC core thickness and anvil size alter CRF at the top of atmosphere (TOA and at the surface. Using extensive observations, ~300 DCC systems were identified over a 10 yr period at the SGP site (2000–2011 and analyzed. Daily mean AMCRF at the TOA and at the surface are 29.3 W m−2 and 22.2 W m−2, respectively. This net warming effect due to changes in DCC microphysics offsets the cooling resulting from the first aerosol indirect effect.

  13. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to obtain a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to perform radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways, are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous all-wave (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 Wm−2 and the – (44–20 Wm−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous all-wave DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within – (13–7 Wm−2 and – (18–11 Wm−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41

  14. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to get a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to initialize radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous net (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 W m−2 and the – (44–20 W m−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous net DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within −(13–8 W m−2 and −(17–11 W m−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41 up to 89

  15. On the wrong inference of long-range correlations in climate data; the case of the solar and volcanic forcing over the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2017-05-01

    A substantial weakness of several climate studies on long-range dependence is the conclusion of long-term memory of the climate conditions, without considering it necessary to establish the power-law scaling and to reject a simple exponential decay of the autocorrelation function. We herewith show one paradigmatic case, where a strong long-range dependence could be wrongly inferred from incomplete data analysis. We firstly apply the DFA method on the solar and volcanic forcing time series over the tropical Pacific, during the past 1000 years and the results obtained show that a statistically significant straight line fit to the fluctuation function in a log-log representation is revealed with slope higher than 0.5, which wrongly may be assumed as an indication of persistent long-range correlations in the time series. We argue that the long-range dependence cannot be concluded just from this straight line fit, but it requires the fulfilment of the two additional prerequisites i.e. reject the exponential decay of the autocorrelation function and establish the power-law scaling. In fact, the investigation of the validity of these prerequisites showed that the DFA exponent higher than 0.5 does not justify the existence of persistent long-range correlations in the temporal evolution of the solar and volcanic forcing during last millennium. In other words, we show that empirical analyses, based on these two prerequisites must not be considered as panacea for a direct proof of scaling, but only as evidence that the scaling hypothesis is plausible. We also discuss the scaling behaviour of solar and volcanic forcing data based on the Haar tool, which recently proved its ability to reliably detect the existence of the scaling effect in climate series.

  16. On the wrong inference of long-range correlations in climate data; the case of the solar and volcanic forcing over the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial weakness of several climate studies on long-range dependence is the conclusion of long-term memory of the climate conditions, without considering it necessary to establish the power-law scaling and to reject a simple exponential decay of the autocorrelation function. We herewith show one paradigmatic case, where a strong long-range dependence could be wrongly inferred from incomplete data analysis. We firstly apply the DFA method on the solar and volcanic forcing time series over the tropical Pacific, during the past 1000 years and the results obtained show that a statistically significant straight line fit to the fluctuation function in a log-log representation is revealed with slope higher than 0.5, which wrongly may be assumed as an indication of persistent long-range correlations in the time series. We argue that the long-range dependence cannot be concluded just from this straight line fit, but it requires the fulfilment of the two additional prerequisites i.e. reject the exponential decay of the autocorrelation function and establish the power-law scaling. In fact, the investigation of the validity of these prerequisites showed that the DFA exponent higher than 0.5 does not justify the existence of persistent long-range correlations in the temporal evolution of the solar and volcanic forcing during last millennium. In other words, we show that empirical analyses, based on these two prerequisites must not be considered as panacea for a direct proof of scaling, but only as evidence that the scaling hypothesis is plausible. We also discuss the scaling behaviour of solar and volcanic forcing data based on the Haar tool, which recently proved its ability to reliably detect the existence of the scaling effect in climate series.

  17. Estimation of shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing at four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains: Model results and ground measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2017-08-01

    This study provides observational results of aerosol optical and radiative characteristics over four locations in IGP. Spectral variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Asymmetry Parameter (AP) were analysed using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. The analysis revealed that coarse particles were dominant in summer and pre-monsoon, while fine particles were more pronounced in winter and post-monsoon. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal variations of Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (SDARF) and Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency (SDARFE) at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), SURface (SUR) and within ATMosphere (ATM) were calculated using SBDART model. The atmospheric Heating Rate (HR) associated with SDARFATM were also computed. It was observed that the monthly averaged SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were found to be negative leading to positive SDARFATM during all the months over all sites. The increments in net atmospheric forcing lead to maximum HR in November-December and May. The seasonal analysis of SDARF revealed that SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were negative during all seasons. The SW atmospheric absorption translates to highest atmospheric HR during summer over Karachi and during pre-monsoon over Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. Like SDARF, the monthly and seasonal variations of SDARFETOA and SDARFESUR were found to be negative, resulting in positive atmospheric forcing. Additionally, to compare the model estimated forcing against AERONET derived forcing, the regression analysis of AERONET-SBDART forcing were carried out. It was observed that SDARF at SUR and TOA showed relatively higher correlation over Lahore, moderate over Jaipur and Kanpur and lower over Karachi. Finally, the analysis of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that air masses were arriving from multiple source locations.

  18. Multi-Model Simulations of Aerosol and Ozone Radiative Forcing Due to Anthropogenic Emission Changes During the Period 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Gunnar; Aas, Wenche; Ribu, Cherian; Collins, William; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Flanner, Mark; Forster, Piers; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Klimont, Zbigniew; Lund, Marianne T.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. 1 to 3 percent per year in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by 0.17 plus or minus 0.08 watts per square meter, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report). The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the new emission inventory compared to that used in the IPCC analysis, and higher black carbon emissions.

  19. Multi-Model Simulations of Aerosol and Ozone Radiative Forcing Due to Anthropogenic Emission Changes During the Period 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Gunnar; Aas, Wenche; Ribu, Cherian; Collins, William; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Flanner, Mark; Forster, Piers; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Klimont, Zbigniew; Lund, Marianne T.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. 1 to 3 percent per year in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by 0.17 plus or minus 0.08 watts per square meter, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report). The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the new emission inventory compared to that used in the IPCC analysis, and higher black carbon emissions.

  20. Multi-model simulations of aerosol and ozone radiative forcing due to anthropogenic emission changes during the period 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Gunnar; Aas, Wenche; Cherian, Ribu; Collins, William; Faluvegi, Greg; Flanner, Mark; Forster, Piers; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Klimont, Zbigniew; Lund, Marianne T.; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Olivié, Dirk; Prather, Michael; Quaas, Johannes; Samset, Bjørn H.; Schnell, Jordan L.; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsyro, Svetlana

    2017-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. -1 to -3 % yr-1 in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by +0.17 ± 0.08 W m-2, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5. The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the new emission inventory compared to that used in the IPCC analysis, and higher black carbon emissions.

  1. In situ and space-based observations of the Kelud volcanic plume: The persistence of ash in the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Jean-Paul; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Deshler, Terry; Natarajan, Murali; Knepp, Travis; Foster, Katie; Wienhold, Frank G.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Thomason, Larry; Trepte, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Volcanic eruptions are important causes of natural variability in the climate system at all time scales. Assessments of the climate impact of volcanic eruptions by climate models almost universally assume that sulfate aerosol is the only radiatively active volcanic material. We report satellite observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite after the eruption of Mount Kelud (Indonesia) on 13 February 2014 of volcanic materials in the lower stratosphere. Using these observations along with in situ measurements with the Compact Optical Backscatter AerosoL Detector (COBALD) backscatter sondes and optical particle counters (OPCs) made during a balloon field campaign in northern Australia, we find that fine ash particles with a radius below 0.3 µm likely represented between 20 and 28% of the total volcanic cloud aerosol optical depth 3 months after the eruption. A separation of 1.5-2 km between the ash and sulfate plumes is observed in the CALIOP extinction profiles as well as in the aerosol number concentration measurements of the OPC after 3 months. The settling velocity of fine ash with a radius of 0.3 µm in the tropical lower stratosphere is reduced by 50% due to the upward motion of the Brewer-Dobson circulation resulting a doubling of its lifetime. Three months after the eruption, we find a mean tropical clear-sky radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere from the Kelud plume near -0.08 W/m2 after including the presence of ash; a value 20% higher than if sulfate alone is considered. Thus, surface cooling following volcanic eruptions could be affected by the persistence of ash and should be considered in climate simulations.

  2. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  3. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2014-01-15

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 μm and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 μm exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m(3) and 4.5 μg/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year.

  4. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Zhou, L.; Makkonen, R.;

    2011-01-01

    The release of vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere as a result of clathrate destabilization is a potential mechanism for rapid amplification of global warming. Previous studies have calculated the enhanced warming based mainly on the radiative effect of the methane itself, with smaller...... contributions from the associated carbon dioxide or ozone increases. Here, we study the effect of strongly elevated methane (CH4) levels on oxidant and aerosol particle concentrations using a combination of chemistry-transport and general circulation models. A 10-fold increase in methane concentrations...

  5. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Zhou, L.; Makkonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    contributions from the associated carbon dioxide or ozone increases. Here, we study the effect of strongly elevated methane (CH4) levels on oxidant and aerosol particle concentrations using a combination of chemistry-transport and general circulation models. A 10-fold increase in methane concentrations...... is predicted to significantly decrease hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations, while moderately increasing ozone (O-3). These changes lead to a 70% increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an 18% decrease in global mean cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC). The CDNC change causes a radiative...

  6. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics and direct radiative forcing during a "Shamal" dust storm, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dust aerosols are analyzed for their optical and physical properties during an episode of dust storm that hit Kuwait on 26 March 2003 when "Iraqi Freedom" military operation was in full swing. The intensity of the dust storm was such that it left a thick suspension of dust throughout the following day, 27 March, resulting in a considerable cooling effect at the surface on both days. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical thickness reached 3.617 and 4.17 on 26–27 March respectively while Ångstrom coefficient, α870/440, dropped to −0.0234 and −0.0318. Particulate matter concentration of diameter 10 μm or less, PM10, peaked at 4800 μg m−3 during dust storm hours of 26 March. Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS retrieved optical and physical characteristics that exhibited extreme values as well. The synoptic of the dust storm is presented and source regions are identified using total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS aerosol index retrieved images. The vertical profile of the dust layer was simulated using SKIRON atmospheric model. Instantaneous net direct radiative forcing is calculated at top of atmosphere (TOA and surface level. The thick dust layer of 26 March resulted in cooling the TOA by −60 Wm−2 and surface level by −175 Wm−2 for a surface albedo of 0.35. Slightly higher values were obtained for 27 March due to the increase in aerosol optical thickness. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level had caused a drop in surface temperature by approximately 6 °C below its average value. Radiative heating/cooling rates in the shortwave and longwave bands were also examined. Shortwave heating rate reached a maximum value of 2 °K day−1 between 3 and 5 km, dropped to 1.5 °K day−1 at 6 km and diminished at 8 km. Longwave radiation initially heated the lower atmosphere by a maximum value of 0.2 °K day−1 at surface level, declined sharply at increasing altitude and diminished at 4 km

  7. A study of uncertainties in the sulfate distribution and its radiative forcing associated with sulfur chemistry in a global aerosol model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols is still uncertain, mainly because the uncertainties are largely derived from differences in sulfate column burdens and its vertical distributions among global aerosol models. One of possible reasons of the large difference in the computed values is that the radiative forcing delicately depends on various simplifications of the sulfur processes made in the models. In this study, therefore, we investigated impacts of different parts of the sulfur chemistry module in a global aerosol model, SPRINTARS, on the sulfate distribution and its radiative forcing. Important studies were effects of simplified and more physical-based sulfur processes in terms of treatment of sulfur chemistry, oxidant chemistry, and dry deposition process of sulfur components. The results showed that the difference in the aqueous-phase sulfur chemistry among these treatments has the largest impact on the sulfate distribution. Introduction of all the improvements mentioned above brought the model values noticeably closer to in-situ measurements than those in the simplified methods used in the original SPRINTARS model. At the same time, these improvements also led the computed sulfate column burdens and its vertical distributions in good agreement with other AEROCOM model values. The global annual mean radiative forcings due to aerosol direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate was thus estimated to be −0.3 W m−2, whereas the original SPRINTARS model showed −0.2 W m−2. The magnitude of the difference between original and improved methods was approximately 50% of the uncertainty among estimates by the world's global aerosol models reported by the IPCC-AR4 assessment report. Findings in the present study, therefore, may suggest that the model differences in the simplifications of the sulfur processes are still a part of the large uncertainty in their simulated radiative forcings.

  8. Temporal characteristics of columnar aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing (2011-2015) measured at AERONET's Pretoria_CSIR_DPSS site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Kang, Na; Sivakumar, V.; Griffith, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Ground-based observations of the spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) revealed that the northwest of South Africa (SA) possessed large aerosol loading and still remained unexplored as none of the authors have been extensively studied. The characteristics of aerosol optical, physical, and radiative properties, as well as their relationships presented in this paper, were derived from the direct sun and sky radiances measured at Pretoria during August 2011-December 2015 using the AERONET's (CE-318) automatic sun/sky radiometer. The annual mean AOD440, AE440-870, and SSA-T440 estimated at Pretoria during the study period were 0.23 ± 0.13, 1.50 ± 0.26, and 0.91 ± 0.04, respectively. The mean AOD440 (AE440-870) for the study period appeared higher during the spring and summer seasons (summer), suggest dominance of fine mode particles attributed to biomass burning activities and seasonal influence of meteorology. Analysis of frequency occurrences of AOD and AE also indicate that this region is richly populated with fine mode particles. Further, the AOD-AE relationship was studied at Pretoria and the result concluded that the mixed type aerosols contributed more among the others followed by the urban/industrial-biomass burning and clean continental (background) aerosols. The high summertime SSA-T440 and fine mode radius of AVSD could be associated with the hygroscopic growth of water-soluble aerosols under high water vapor (absorbing aerosols). The positive (negative) values of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) were observed in all the months, an indication of significant heating (cooling) within the atmosphere (top of the atmosphere (TOA) and bottom of the atmosphere (BOA)) were due to strong absorption (scattering) of radiation. Further, the efficiency derived between ARF and AOD440 indicated that ARF is a strong function of AOD at the BOA noted with a high degree of correlation coefficient (r = 0.93).

  9. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C.

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  10. Radiative forcing estimates of sulfate aerosol in coupled climate-chemistry models with emphasis on the role of the temporal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Déandreis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the impact on the sulfate aerosol radiative effects of coupling the radiative code of a global circulation model with a chemistry-aerosol module. With this coupling, temporal variations of sulfate aerosol concentrations influence the estimate of aerosol radiative impacts. Effects of this coupling have been assessed on net fluxes, radiative forcing and temperature for the direct and first indirect effects of sulfate.

    The direct effect respond almost linearly to rapid changes in concentrations whereas the first indirect effect shows a strong non-linearity. In particular, sulfate temporal variability causes a modification of the short wave net fluxes at the top of the atmosphere of +0.24 and +0.22 W m−2 for the present and preindustrial periods, respectively. This change is small compared to the value of the net flux at the top of the atmosphere (about 240 W m−2. The effect is more important in regions with low-level clouds and intermediate sulfate aerosol concentrations (from 0.1 to 0.8 μg (SO4 m−3 in our model.

    The computation of the aerosol direct radiative forcing is quite straightforward and the temporal variability has little effect on its mean value. In contrast, quantifying the first indirect radiative forcing requires tackling technical issues first. We show that the preindustrial sulfate concentrations have to be calculated with the same meteorological trajectory used for computing the present ones. If this condition is not satisfied, it introduces an error on the estimation of the first indirect radiative forcing. Solutions are proposed to assess radiative forcing properly. In the reference method, the coupling between chemistry and climate results in a global average increase of 8% in the first indirect radiative forcing. This change reaches 50% in the most sensitive regions. However, the reference method is not suited to run long climate

  11. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  12. Examining the influence of meteorological simulations forced by different initial and boundary conditions in volcanic ash dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulena, Gabriela C.; Allende, David G.; Puliafito, Salvador E.; Lakkis, Susan G.; Cremades, Pablo G.; Ulke, Ana G.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the combination of the FALL3D ash dispersion model with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological model in the southern cone of South America under two initial and boundary conditions was evaluated. ERA-Interim and NCEP-GFS datasets were used as dynamic conditions by WRF to simulate meteorological fields for FALL3D. As a study case, we used the eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex occurred in Chile in June 2011. The simulated meteorological results were compared with the horizontal wind direction, meridional and zonal wind components, air and dew point temperatures of 7 radio sounding stations using a set of error indicators. In addition, the ash mass load simulated by FALL3D for a day of maximum dispersion of volcanic ash was evaluated using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, on which the Prata algorithm was applied. As well as this, the WRF-dominant physical processes with both dynamic conditions were analyzed for that same date. Meteorological results indicated that the simulation performed with WRF and NCEP-GFS shows the lowest errors at levels between 925 and 300 hPa. Ash dispersion simulated with FALL3D and WRF in both dynamic conditions shows a different perfomance, which from the synoptic and dynamic viewpoint can be explained for the result of wind intensity and geopotential height. Moreover, WRF intiliazed with NCEP-GFS and FALL3D has a higher degree of concordance with the MODIS image. Based on the analysis and results, it was concluded that for the southern cone of South America, 1) it was not trivial for the simulation of volcanic ash dispersion to use one dynamic condition or another in WRF; 2) in that sense, meteorological variables that influenced the differences in volcanic ash dispersion were horizontal wind intensity and direction and geopotential heights; 3) the system generated from the combination of the WRF model initialized with NCEP-GFS and the FALL3D dispersion

  13. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  14. Evaluating the skill of high-resolution WRF-Chem simulations in describing drivers of aerosol direct climate forcing on the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, P.; Sullivan, R. C.; Thota, A.; Pryor, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the ability of global and regional models to describe aerosol optical properties is essential to reducing uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing in the contemporary climate and to improving confidence in future projections. Here we evaluate the performance of high-resolution simulations conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in capturing spatiotemporal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångström exponent (AE) by comparison with ground- and space-based remotely sensed observations. WRF-Chem is run over eastern North America at a resolution of 12 km for a representative year (2008). A systematic positive bias in simulated AOD relative to observations is found (annual mean fractional bias (MFB) is 0.15 and 0.50 relative to MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AERONET, respectively), whereas the spatial variability is well captured during most months. The spatial correlation of observed and simulated AOD shows a clear seasonal cycle with highest correlation during summer months (r = 0.5-0.7) when the aerosol loading is large and more observations are available. The model is biased towards the simulation of coarse-mode aerosols (annual MFB for AE = -0.10 relative to MODIS and -0.59 for AERONET), but the spatial correlation for AE with observations is 0.3-0.5 during most months, despite the fact that AE is retrieved with higher uncertainty from the remote-sensing observations. WRF-Chem also exhibits high skill in identifying areas of extreme and non-extreme aerosol loading, and its ability to correctly simulate the location and relative intensity of extreme aerosol events (i.e., AOD > 75th percentile) varies between 30 and 70 % during winter and summer months, respectively.

  15. Technical Note: Multi-centennial scale analysis and synthesis of an ensemble mean response of ENSO to solar and volcanic forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Sesma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO to solar and volcanic radiative forcings over the past millennium is reanalyzed and extrapolated based on historical data and numerical experiments employing the Zebiak–Cane (ZC model of the tropical Pacific coupled ocean–atmosphere system. The results suggest a self-similarity of the centennial scale component of the reconstructed ENSO record with a shift in frequencies around 1700 AD when the frequencies almost double. This shift of regime puts forward the non-linearity of ENSO climate with a possible centennial scale forecast, suggesting an ENSO trend toward La Niña conditions for the next three decades.

  16. Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory – pyramid site (5100 m a.s.l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub-continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush (HKH. Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly absorbing material, including black carbon (BC, organic compounds (OC, and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming, in addition to greenhouse gases. Using a 3-year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties, we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption (σap and scattering (σsp coefficients as well as the single-scattering albedo (w. Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties, with long range transport during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season. The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0.1 Mm−1 (monsoon to 20 Mm−1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0.5 Mm−1 to 3.5 Mm−1. Both have their maximum values during the pre-monsoon period (April and reach a minimum during Monsoon (July–August. This leads to w values from 0.86 (pre-monsoon to 0.79 (monsoon seasons. Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported. Using typical air mass trajectories encountered at the station, and aerosol optical depth (aod measurements, we calculated the resulting direct local radiative forcing due to aerosols. We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere (TOA forcing of 10 to 20 W m−2 for the first atmospheric layer (500 m above surface. The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface, and takes place preferentially during episodes

  17. Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid site (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub-continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush (HKH. Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly absorbing material, including black carbon (BC, organic compounds (OC, and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming, in addition to greenhouse gases. Using a 3-year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties, we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption (σap and scattering (σsp coefficients as well as the single-scattering albedo (w0. Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties, with long range transport during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season. The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0.1 Mm−1 (monsoon to 20 Mm−1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0.5 Mm−1 to 3.5 Mm−1. Both have their maximum values during the pre-monsoon period (April and reach a minimum during Monsoon (July–August. This leads to dry w0 values from 0.86 (pre-monsoon to 0.79 (monsoon seasons. Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported. Using aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements, we calculated the resulting direct local radiative forcing due to aerosols for selected air mass cases. We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere (TOA forcing of 10 to 20 W m−2 for the first atmospheric layer (500 m above surface. The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface, and takes place preferentially during episodes of

  18. Impact of Improvements in Volcanic Implementation on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in the GISS-E2 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas; LeGrande, Allegra; Bauer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The representation of volcanic eruptions in climate models introduces some of the largest errors when evaluating historical simulations, partly due to the crude model parameterizations. We will show preliminary results from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)-E2 model comparing traditional highly parameterized volcanic implementation (specified Aerosol Optical Depth, Effective Radius) to deploying the full aerosol microphysics module MATRIX and directly emitting SO2 allowing us the prognosically determine the chemistry and climate impact. We show a reasonable match in aerosol optical depth, effective radius, and forcing between the full aerosol implementation and reconstructions/observations of the Mt. Pinatubo 1991 eruption, with a few areas as targets for future improvement. This allows us to investigate not only the climate impact of the injection of volcanic aerosols, but also influences on regional water vapor, O3, and OH distributions. With the skill of the MATRIX volcano implementation established, we explore (1) how the height of the injection column of SO2 influence atmospheric chemistry and climate response, (2) how the initial condition of the atmosphere influences the climate and chemistry impact of the eruption with a particular focus on how ENSO and QBO and (3) how the coupled chemistry could mitigate the climate signal for much larger eruptions (i.e. the 1258 eruption, reconstructed to be approximately 10x Pinatubo). During each sensitivity experiment we assess the impact on profiles of water vapor, O3, and OH, and assess how the eruption impacts the budget of each.

  19. DMS atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study to the DMS source representation and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boucher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The global sulphur cycle has been simulated using a general circulation model with a focus on the source and oxidation of atmospheric dimethylsulphide (DMS. The sensitivity of atmospheric DMS to the oceanic DMS climatology, the parameterisation of the sea-air transfer and to the oxidant fields have been studied. The importance of additional oxidation pathways (by O3 in the gas- and aqueous-phases and by BrO in the gas phase not incorporated in global models has also been evaluated. While three different climatologies of the oceanic DMS concentration produce rather similar global DMS fluxes to the atmosphere at 24-27 Tg S yr -1, there are large differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution. The relative contributions of OH and NO3 radicals to DMS oxidation depends critically on which oxidant fields are prescribed in the model. Oxidation by O3 appears to be significant at high latitudes in both hemispheres. Oxidation by BrO could be significant even for BrO concentrations at sub-pptv levels in the marine boundary layer. The impact of such refinements on the DMS chemistry onto the indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols is also discussed.

  20. Evaluation of climate impacts after a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Kokkola, Harri; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Niemeier, Ulrike; Timmreck, Claudia; Lehtinen, Kari; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Korhonen, Hannele

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere is one of the most discussed geoengineering methods, because it has been suggested to be affordable and effective and its impacts have been thought to be predictable based on volcanic eruptions. Injecting sulfur to the stratosphere could be seen as an analogy of large volcanic eruptions, where large amounts of sulfur dioxide are released into the stratosphere. In the atmosphere sulfur dioxide oxidizes and forms aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols which reflect incoming solar radiation back to space. If SRM is ever used to cool the climate it is possible that a large volcanic eruption could happen also during the SRM, which would lead temporally to a very strong cooling. The simulations in this study were performed in two steps. In the first step, we used the aerosol-climate model MAECHAM5-HAM-SALSA to define global aerosol fields in scenarios with stratospheric sulfur injections and/or a volcanic eruption. In the second step of the study we performed climate simulations using Max-Planck-Institute's Earth system model (MPI-ESM) by using aerosol fields defined by MAECHAM5-HAM-SALSA. We studied scenarios of volcanic eruptions in two different locations and seasons and during the SRM sulfur injections and without injections. According to our simulations the radiative impacts of the eruption and SRM are not additive and the radiative effects and climate changes occurring after the eruption depend strongly on whether SRM is continued or suspended after the eruption. Adding to this, sulfate burden and radiative forcing after the volcanic eruption decrease significantly faster if the volcanic eruption happens during the geoengineering injections. In this situation, sulfur from the eruption does not only form new particles but it also condenses into pre-existing particles. Furthermore, the new small particles that are formed after the eruption coagulate effectively with the existing larger particles from

  1. Dependence of solar radiative forcing of forest fire aerosol on ageing and state of mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fiebig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During airborne in situ measurements of particle size distributions in a forest fire plume originating in Northern Canada, an accumulation mode number mean diameter of 0.34 mm was observed over Lindenberg, Germany on 9 August 1998. Realizing that this is possibly the largest value observed for this property in a forest fire plume, scenarios of plume ageing by coagulation are considered to explain the observed size distribution, concluding that the plume dilution was inhibited in parts of the plume. The uncertainties in coagulation rate and transition from external to internal mixture of absorbing forest fire and non-absorbing background particles cause uncertainties in the plume's solar instantaneous radiative forcing of 20-40% and of a factor of 5-6, respectively. Including information compiled from other studies on this plume, it is concluded that the plume's characteristics are qualitatively consistent with a radiative-convective mixed layer.

  2. An anomalous African dust event and its impact on aerosol radiative forcing on the Southwest Atlantic coast of Europe in February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Andrews, E; Yela, M

    2017-04-01

    A desert dust (DD) event that had its origin in North Africa occurred on the 20th-23rd of February 2016. The dust transport phenomenon was exceptional because of its unusual intensity during the coldest season. A historical dataset (2006-2015) of February meteorological scenarios using ECMWF fields, meteorological parameters, aerosol optical properties, surface O3 and AOD retrieved from MODIS at the El Arenosillo observatory (southwestern Spain) were analysed and compared with the levels during the DD event to highlight its exceptionality. Associated with a low-pressure system in western North Africa, flows transported air from the Sahel to Algeria and consequently increased temperatures from the surface to 700hPa by up to 7-9°C relative to the last decade. These conditions favoured the formation of a Saharan air layer. Dust was transported to the north and reached the Western Mediterranean Basin and the Iberian Peninsula. The arrival of the DD event at El Arenosillo did not affect the surface weather conditions or ozone but did impact the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (RFTOA). Aerosol radiative properties did not change relative to historical; however, the particle size and the amount of the aerosol were significantly higher. The DD event caused an increase (in absolute terms) of the mean aerosol RFTOA to a value of -8.1Wm(-2) (long-term climatological value ~-1.5Wm(-2)). The aerosol RFTOA was not very large relative other DD episodes; however, our analysis of the historical data concluded that the importance of this DD event lay in the month of occurrence. European phenological datasets related to extreme atmospheric events predominantly reflect changes that are probably associated with climate change. This work is an example of this phenomenon, showing an event that occurred in a hotspot, the Saharan desert, and its impact two thousand km away. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  4. A study of uncertainties in the sulfate distribution and its radiative forcing associated with sulfur chemistry in a global aerosol model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols is still uncertain, mainly because the uncertainties are largely derived from differences in sulfate column burdens and its vertical distributions among global aerosol models. One possible reason for the large difference in the computed values is that the radiative forcing delicately depends on various simplifications of the sulfur processes made in the models. In this study, therefore, we investigated impacts of different parts of the sulfur chemistry module in a global aerosol model, SPRINTARS, on the sulfate distribution and its radiative forcing. Important studies were effects of simplified and more physical-based sulfur processes in terms of treatment of sulfur chemistry, oxidant chemistry, and dry deposition process of sulfur components. The results showed that the difference in the aqueous-phase sulfur chemistry among these treatments has the largest impact on the sulfate distribution. Introduction of all the improvements mentioned above brought the model values noticeably closer to in-situ measurements than those in the simplified methods used in the original SPRINTARS model. At the same time, these improvements also brought the computed sulfate column burdens and its vertical distributions into good agreement with other AEROCOM model values. The global annual mean radiative forcing due to the direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol was thus estimated to be −0.26 W m−2 (−0.30 W m−2 with a different SO2 inventory, whereas the original SPRINTARS model showed −0.18 W m−2 (−0.21 W m−2 with a different SO2 inventory. The magnitude of the difference between original and improved methods was approximately 50% of the uncertainty among estimates by the world's global aerosol models reported by the IPCC-AR4 assessment report. Findings in the present study, therefore, may suggest that the model differences in the

  5. Spatio-temporal characteristics of aerosol distribution over Tibetan Plateau and numerical simulation of radiative forcing and climate response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维亮; 于胜民

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have analyzed aerosol distribution over the Tibetan Plateau by using the global monthly mean satellite data of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Ⅱ (SAGE Ⅱ).The results are as follows: (1) Stratospheric aerosol optical depth can oscillate in the four seasons. It means that the aerosol optical depth is the thickest in winter and a little thinner in spring and the thinnest in summer and then a little thicker in autumn. We have found that the oscillation is caused by the oscillation of tropopause in different seasons. (2) Stratospheric aerosol comes mainly from sprays of volcano. After eruption of Mount Pinatubo aerosol optical depth in stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau increases 10 times compared with before. (3) The characteristic of aerosol vertical distribution over the Tibetan Plateau is that there is an extremely high value at the altitude of 70 hPa. The most interesting thing is that the extremely high value can oscillate between 50 hPa and 100 hPa. We have verified that

  6. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  7. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa; Mastin, Larry G.; Herzog, M.; Schwaiger, Hans F.; Schneider, David J.; Wallace, Kristi; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-01-01

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized ‘wet’ eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits, and numerical modeling demonstrate that volcanic hail formed rapidly in the eruption plume, leading to mixed-phase aggregation of ~95% of the fine ash and stripping much of the cloud out of the atmosphere within 30 minutes. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and the occurrence of concentrically-layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  8. The aerosol forcing efficiency in the UV region and the estimation of single scattering albedo at a typical West European site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitidou, E.; Kazantzidis, A.; De Bock, V.; De Backer, H.

    2013-04-01

    The measurements of aerosol optical depth, total ozone and UV irradiance from a Brewer spectrophotometer located at Uccle, Belgium, were used to estimate, for the first time at a typical site in Western Europe, the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (the forcing performed per unit of aerosol optical depth). The study was performed at selected solar zenith angles during the period July 2006-May 2010. In the 300-360 nm spectral region, the highest values were revealed at 30° (-6.9 ± 0.9 W m-2), while at 60° the RFE was almost 2.5 times lower (-2.7 ± 0.1 W m-2). In the UV-B region (300-315 nm), the RFE value at 60° (-0.069 ± 0.005 W m-2) was 5 times lower than the corresponding value at 30° (-0.35 ± 0.04 W m-2). Extending previous studies for the estimation of aerosol single scattering albedo in UV-A wavelengths down to 340 nm, an attempt was made, taking advantage of the Brewer measurements, to provide estimates at low UV-A wavelengths and in the UV-B region. The estimated monthly averages of the Brewer single scattering albedo at 320 nm are in very close agreement (within ±0.01) with measurements at 440 nm from a collocated CIMEL sunphotometer. Due to increased measurement uncertainties and the effect of ozone absorption, large differences between the two instruments were found at 306.5 nm. For the rest of wavelengths, average differences up to 0.03 were revealed.

  9. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  10. Risk assessment of the impact of future volcanic eruptions on direct normal irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Blanc, Philippe; Vignola, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from Plinian volcanic eruptions affect the solar surface irradiance forcing by scattering the solar radiation as it passes through the Earth atmosphere. Since these aerosols have high single scattering albedos they mostly affect direct normal irradiances (DNI). The effect on global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is less because some of the scattered irradiance reaches the surface as diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and adds to the GHI. DNI is the essential input to concentrating solar thermal electric power (CSP/STE) and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plants. Therefore, an assessment of the future potential variability in the DNI resource caused by Plinian volcanic eruptions is desirable. Based on investigations of the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions, the microphysical, and thereby optical, properties of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols are well known. Given these, radiative transfer computations of the DNI resource can be made. The DNI resource includes forward scattered irradiance within the acceptance angle of a given CSP/STE or CPV plant. The rarity of Plinian eruptions poses a challenge for assessing the statistical risk of future eruptions and its potential of risk in the electricity production. Here we present and discuss methods to account for these potential volcanic eruptions for technical and economical studies including scenarios with very high probability of exceedance (e.g. P99 scenarios) for risk assessment of DNI-based solar power projects.

  11. H2O-rich melt inclusions in fayalitic olivine from Hekla volcano: Implications for phase relationships in silicic systems and driving forces of explosive volcanism on Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj; Storm, Sonja; Mironov, Nikita; van den Bogaard, Christel; Botcharnikov, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Silicic Icelandic magmas are widely believed to contain low to moderate H2O content prior to degassing, and that their high explosivity mostly results from the interaction of the magmas with ice or meteoric water. Here we report the compositions of glass inclusions (SiO2=57-72 wt%, K2O=1.3-2.6 wt%) in Fe-rich olivines (Fo2-42) from the largest Holocene eruptions of Hekla volcano (H3 and H4) on Iceland, which preserved quenched melts with very high primary H2O contents (3.3-6.2 wt%). The silicic Hekla melts originate primarily by extensive (˜90%) crystal fractionation of H2O-poor (˜0.6 wt%) basalts and represent an end member in the systematics of terrestrial magmas because they originate at low fO2 (ΔQFM ˜-0.1 to -0.4) and have as high H2O contents as significantly more oxidized island-arc magmas (ΔQFM≥1). This demonstrates that H2O and ΔQFM do not correlate in silicic magmas from different tectonic settings, and that fO2, not H2O content, shows a major difference between silicic ocean-island (e.g., Icelandic) and island-arc magmas. Analysis of available experimental data suggests that high H2O activity and low fO2 expand the field of olivine stability in silicic melts. Low fO2 and low MgO content could also suppress crystallization of amphibole. On the basis of these results we propose that an anhydrous mineral assemblage bearing Fe-rich olivine in evolved volcanic and Skaergaard-type intrusive rocks does not imply low H2O in magmas prior to degassing but, in contrast to the commonly held view, is an indicator of H2O-rich silicic parental magmas crystallized at low fO2. Finally, the high H2O content in magma was a major driving force of the largest explosive eruptions of Hekla volcano and must be at least as important for driving silicic explosive volcanism on Iceland as magma-ice interaction.

  12. Climate Forcing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of changes in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, atmospheric trace gases, and other properties thought to influence climate in the past. Parameter keywords...

  13. Short wave Aerosol Radiative Forcing estimates over a semi urban coastal environment in south-east India and validation with surface flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, K.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Babu, S. Suresh; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Rao, D. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    The short wave direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) at a semi urban coastal location near Chennai (12.81 °N, 80.03 °E, ˜45 m amsl), a mega city on the east coast of India has been estimated for all the four seasons in the year 2013 using the SBDART (Santa Barbara Discrete ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model. As inputs to this model, measured aerosol parameters together with modeled aerosol and atmospheric parameters are used. The ARF in the atmosphere is found to be higher in the pre-monsoon and winter seasons compared to the other seasons whereas at the surface, it is found to be higher in the south-west (SW) monsoon and winter seasons. The estimated ARF values are compared with those reported over other locations in India. The effect of Relative Humidity on ARF has been investigated for the first time in the present study. It is found that the ARF increases with increasing RH in the SW monsoon and winter seasons. An unique feature of the present study is the comparison of the net surface short wave fluxes estimated from the model (SBDART) and measured fluxes using CNR 4 net radiometer. This comparison between the estimated and measured fluxes showed good agreement, providing a 'closure' for the estimates.

  14. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  15. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  16. Quantifying the impact of early 21st century volcanic eruptions on global-mean surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Terray, Laurent; Valcke, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    Despite a continuous increase in well-mixed greenhouse gases, the global-mean surface temperature has shown a quasi-stabilization since 1998. This muted warming has been linked to the combined effects of internal climate variability and external forcing. The latter includes the impact of recent increase in the volcanic activity and of solar irradiance changes. Here we used a high-resolution coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model to assess the impact of the recent volcanic eruptions on the Earth's temperature, compared with the low volcanic activity of the early 2000s. Two sets of simulations are performed, one with realistic aerosol optical depth values, and the other with a fixed value of aerosol optical depth corresponding to a period of weak volcanic activity (1998-2002). We conclude that the observed recent increase in the volcanic activity led to a reduced warming trend (from 2003 to 2012) of 0.08 °C in ten years. The induced cooling is stronger during the last five-year period (2008-2012), with an annual global mean cooling of 0.04 °C (+/- 0.04 °C). The cooling is similar in summer (0.05 °C +/- 0.04 °C cooling) than in winter (0.03 °C +/- 0.04 °C cooling), but stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Although equatorial and Arctic precipitation decreases in summer, the change in precipitation does not indicate robust changes at a local scale. Global heat content variations are found not to be impacted by the recent increase in volcanic activity.

  17. ISA-MIP: A co-ordinated intercomparison of Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Mann, Graham; Aquila, Valentina; Bruehl, Christoph; Chin, Mian; Dohmse, Sandip; English, Jason; Lee, Lindsay; Mills, Michael; Hommel, Rene; Neely, Ryan; Schmidt, Anja; Sheng, Jianxiong; Toohey, Matthew; Weisenstein, Debra

    2016-04-01

    The SPARC activity, "Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) was initiated to coordinate international research activities on modelling and observation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols (and precursor gases) in order to assess its climate forcing and feedback. With several international activities to extend and improve observational stratospheric aerosol capabilities and data sets, and a growing number of global models treating stratospheric aerosol interactively, a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" has been established in the frame of SSIRC. ISA-MIP will compare interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) models using a range of observations to constrain and improve the models and to provide a sound scientific basis for future work. Four ISA-MIP experiments have been designed to assess different periods of the obervational stratospheric aerosol record, and to explore key processes which influence the formation and temporal development of stratospheric aerosol. The "Background" experiment will focus on the role of microphysical and transport processes under volcanically quiescent conditions, where the stratospheric aerosol size distribution is only modulated by seasonal circulations. The "Model intercomparison of Transient Aerosol Record" (MiTAR) experiment will focus on addressing the role of small- to moderate-magnitude volcanic eruptions and transport processes in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosols loading over the period 1998-2011. Background and MiTAR simulations will be compared to recent in-situ and satellite observations to evaluate the performances of the model and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Two further experiments investigate the radiative forcing from historical major eruptions. The Historical Eruptions SO2 Emission Assessment (HErSEA) will involve models carrying out mini-ensembles of the stratospheric aerosol perturbations from each of the 1963 Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Pinatubo

  18. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    strongly influenced by fresh emissions into a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. In spite of high photochemical activity during daytime, we found no evidence for strong local production of secondary aerosol mass.

    The average mass scattering efficiencies with respect to PM10 and PM1 concentrations derived from particle size distribution measurements were 2.8 m2 g−1 and 4.1 m2 g−1, respectively. The Ångström exponent exhibited a wavelength dependence (curvature that was related to the ratio of fine and coarse particle mass (PM1/PM10 as well as the surface mode diameter of the fine particle fraction. The results demonstrate consistency between in situ measurements and a remote sensing formalism with regard to the fine particle fraction and volume mode diameter, but there are also systematic deviations for the larger mode diameters. Thus we suggest that more data sets from in situ measurements of aerosol optical parameters and particle size distributions should be used to evaluate formalisms applied in aerosol remote sensing. Moreover, we observed a negative correlation between single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction, and we found that it affects the impact that these parameters have on aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and should be considered in model studies of the PRD and similarly polluted mega-city regions.

  19. A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2) and toxic trace metals (e.g., mercury). It is also a required input for atmospheric chemistry and climate models, since it impacts the tropospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, a major climate-forcing species. Despite its significance, an inventory of passive volcanic degassing is very difficult to produce, due largely to the patchy spatial and temporal coverage of ground-based SO2 measurements. We report here the first volcanic SO2 emissions inventory derived from global, coincident satellite measurements, made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite in 2005-2015. The OMI measurements permit estimation of SO2 emissions from over 90 volcanoes, including new constraints on fluxes from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. On average over the past decade, the volcanic SO2 sources consistently detected from space have discharged a total of ~63 kt/day SO2 during passive degassing, or ~23 ± 2 Tg/yr. We find that ~30% of the sources show significant decadal trends in SO2 emissions, with positive trends observed at multiple volcanoes in some regions including Vanuatu, southern Japan, Peru and Chile.

  20. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  1. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-08-03

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  2. Impacts of volcanic eruptions and geoengineering on Arctic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Mira

    Stratospheric aerosols can produce large radiative forcing and climate response, often amplified in the Arctic. Here I study the Arctic response to natural (volcanic eruptions) and potential anthropogenic (geoengineering) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. I use a regional climate model and global climate model output from two modeling intercomparison projects. First, I investigate the relative impacts of changes in radiation and advection on snow extent over Baffin Island with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Model results show it is possible to suddenly lower the snowline by amounts comparable to those seen during the Little Ice Age with an average temperature decrease of --3.9 +/- 1.1 K from present. Further, sea ice expansion following large volcanic eruptions would have significant affects on inland temperatures, especially in the fall. Next, I analyze Last Millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3 to assess whether state-of-the-art global climate models produce sudden changes and persistence of cold conditions after large volcanic eruptions as inferred by geological records and previous climate modeling. North Atlantic sea ice and Baffin Island snow cover showed large-scale expansion in the simulations, but none of the models produced significant centennial-scale effects. Warm Baffin Island summer climates stunt snow expansion in some models completely, and model topography misses the critical elevations that could sustain snow on the island. This has critical consequences for ice and snow formation and persistence in regions such as the Arctic where temperatures are near freezing and small temperature changes affect the state of water. Finally, I analyze output from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project to examine whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere prevents the demise of minimum annual sea ice extent, or slows spring snow cover loss. Despite

  3. The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem is applied to simulate mineral dust and its shortwave (SW radiative forcing over North Africa. Two dust emission schemes (GOCART and DUSTRAN and two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC are adopted in simulations to investigate the modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments. The modeled size distribution and spatial variability of mineral dust and its radiative properties are evaluated using measurements (ground-based, aircraft, and satellites during the AMMA SOP0 campaign from 6 January to 3 February of 2006 (the SOP0 period over North Africa. Two dust emission schemes generally simulate similar spatial distributions and temporal evolutions of dust emissions. Simulations using the GOCART scheme with different initial (emitted dust size distributions require ~40% difference in total emitted dust mass to produce similar SW radiative forcing of dust over the Sahel region. The modal approach of MADE/SORGAM retains 25% more fine dust particles (radius<1.25 μm but 8% less coarse dust particles (radius>1.25 μm than the sectional approach of MOSAIC in simulations using the same size-resolved dust emissions. Consequently, MADE/SORGAM simulates 11% higher AOD, up to 13% lower SW dust heating rate, and 15% larger (more negative SW dust radiative forcing at the surface than MOSAIC over the Sahel region. In the daytime of the SOP0 period, the model simulations show that the mineral dust heats the lower atmosphere with an average rate of 0.8 ± 0.5 K day−1 over the Niamey vicinity and 0.5 ± 0.2 K day−1 over North Africa and reduces the downwelling SW radiation at the surface by up to 58 W m−2 with an average of 22 W m−2 over North Africa. This highlights the importance of including dust radiative impact in understanding the regional climate of North Africa. When compared to the available measurements, the WRF

  4. The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem is applied to simulate mineral dust and its shortwave (SW radiative forcing over North Africa. Two dust emission schemes (GOCART and DUSTRAN and two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC are adopted in simulations to investigate the modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments. The modeled size distribution and spatial variability of mineral dust and its radiative properties are evaluated using measurements (ground-based, aircraft, and satellites during the AMMA SOP0 campaign from 6 January to 3 February of 2006 (the SOP0 period over North Africa. Two dust emission schemes generally simulate similar spatial distributions and temporal evolutions of dust emissions. Simulations using the GOCART scheme with different initial (emitted dust size distributions show that the difference of initial dust size distributions can result in significant difference (up to ~50% in simulating SW dust heating and SW dust radiative forcing at the surface over the Sahel region. The modal approach of MADE/SORGAM retains 25% more fine dust particles (radius <1.25 μm but 8% less coarse dust particles (radius >1.25 μm than the sectional approach of MOSAIC in simulations using the same size-resolved dust emissions. Consequently, MADE/SORGAM simulates 11% higher AOD, up to 13% lower SW dust heating rate, and 15% larger (more negative SW dust radiative forcing at the surface than MOSAIC over the Sahel region. In the daytime of the SOP0 period, the model simulations show that mineral dust heats the lower atmosphere (1–3 km with a maximum rate of 0.8±0.5 K day−1 below 1 km and reduces the downwelling SW radiation at the surface by up to 58 W m−2 over the Sahel region. This highlights the importance of including dust radiative impact in understanding the regional climate of North Africa. When compared to the available measurements, the WRF-Chem simulations can

  5. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared Spectroscopy of Individual Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Subdiffraction Limit Vibrational Spectroscopy and Morphological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Amy L; Kirpes, Rachel M; Merzel, Rachel L; Pratt, Kerri A; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Ault, Andrew P

    2017-09-05

    Chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols is an analytical challenge, as aerosol particles are complex chemical mixtures that can contain hundreds to thousands of species in attoliter volumes at the most abundant sizes in the atmosphere (∼100 nm). These particles have global impacts on climate and health, but there are few methods available that combine imaging and the detailed molecular information from vibrational spectroscopy for individual particles particles down to 150 nm. By detecting photothermal expansion at frequencies where particle species absorb IR photons from a tunable laser, AFM-IR can study particles smaller than the optical diffraction limit. Combining strengths of AFM (ambient pressure, height, morphology, and phase measurements) with photothermal IR spectroscopy, the potential of AFM-IR is shown for a diverse set of single-component particles, liquid-liquid phase separated particles (core-shell morphology), and ambient atmospheric particles. The spectra from atmospheric model systems (ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate, succinic acid, and sucrose) had clearly identifiable features that correlate with absorption frequencies for infrared-active modes. Additionally, molecular information was obtained with particles with a ∼150 nm shell and 300 nm core. The subdiffraction limit capability of AFM-IR has the potential to advance understanding of particle impacts on climate and health by improving analytical capabilities to study water uptake, heterogeneous reactivity, and viscosity.

  7. Impact of explosive volcanic eruptions on the main climate variability modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Ortega, Pablo; Khodri, Myriam; Menegoz, Martin; Cassou, Christophe; Hanquiez, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Volcanic eruptions eject largeamounts of materials into the atmosphere, which can have an impact on climate. In particular, the sulphur dioxide gas released in the stratosphere leads to aerosol formation that reflects part of the incoming solar radiation, thereby affecting the climate energy balance. In this review paper, we analyse the regional climate imprints of large tropical volcanic explosive eruptions. For this purpose, we focus on the impact on three major climatic modes, located in the Atlantic (the North Atlantic Oscillation: NAO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: AMO) and Pacific (the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO) sectors. We present an overview of the chain of events that contributes to modifying the temporal variability of these modes. Our literature review is complemented by new analyses based on observations of the instrumental era as well as on available proxy records and climate model simulations that cover the last millennium. We show that the impact of volcanic eruptions of the same magnitude or weaker than 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption on the NAO and ENSO is hard to detect, due to the noise from natural climate variability. There is however a clear impact of the direct radiative forcing resulting from tropical eruptions on the AMO index both in reconstructions and climate model simulations of the last millennium, while the impact on the ocean circulation remains model-dependent. To increase the signal to noise ratio and better evaluate the climate response to volcanic eruptions, improved reconstructions of these climatic modes and of the radiative effect of volcanic eruptions are required on a longer time frame than the instrumental era. Finally, we evaluate climate models' capabilities to reproduce the observed and anticipated impacts and mechanisms associated with volcanic forcing, and assess their potential for seasonal to decadal prediction. We find a very large spread in the simulated responses across the different climate

  8. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2008-04-01

    suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is strongly influenced by fresh emissions into a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. In spite of high photochemical activity during daytime, we found no evidence for strong local production of secondary aerosol mass.

    The relatively low average mass scattering efficiency with respect to PM10 (2.84±0.037 m2 g−1, λ=550 nm indicates a high proportion of mass in the coarse particle fraction (diameter >1 μm. During high pollution episodes, however, the Ångström exponent exhibited a dependence on wavelength, which indicates an enhancement of the fine particle fraction during these periods. A negative correlation between single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction was observed and found to affect the impact that these parameters have on aerosol radiative forcing efficiency.

  9. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  10. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in volcanic ash-clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the longevity of volcanic ash-clouds generated by powerful explosive eruptions is a long standing problem for assessing volcanic hazards and the nature and time scale of volcanic forcings on climate change. It is well known that the lateral spreading and longevity of these clouds is influenced by stratospheric winds, particle settling and turbulent diffusion. Observations of the recent 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn umbrella clouds, as well as the structure of atmospheric aerosol clouds from the 1991 Mt Pinatubo event, suggest that an additional key process governing the cloud dynamics is the production of internal layering. Here, we use analog experiments on turbulent particle-laden umbrella clouds to show that this layering occurs where natural convection driven by particle sedimentation and the differential diffusion of primarily heat and fine particles give rise to a large scale instability. Where umbrella clouds are particularly enriched in fine ash, this "particle diffusive convection" strongly influences the cloud longevity. More generally, cloud residence time will depend on fluxes due to both individual settling and diffusive convection. We develop a new sedimentation model that includes both sedimentation processes, and which is found to capture real-time measurements of the rate of change of particle concentration in the 1982 El Chichon, 1991 Mt Pinatubo and 1992 Mt Spurr ash-clouds. A key result is that these combined sedimentation processes enhance the fallout of fine particles relative to expectations from individual settling suggesting that particle aggregation is not the only mechanism required to explain volcanic umbrella longevity.

  11. Tropospheric Radiative Forcing from EL Chichon and MT. Pinatubo: Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Ellsworth George

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of volcanic effects on global and regional climate variables has had a long history of speculation, correlative study, and proposed physical mechanisms. The potential for widespread surface cooling following the extensive spreading of long-lived stratospheric aerosols following major volcanic eruptions is based on the partial blocking of solar radiation incident at the top of the troposphere. Relatively simple physical mechanisms oppose this potential for cooling: dominant forward solar scattering and absorption of outgoing infrared radiation by the aerosols. More complex considerations are the spatial and temporal variations of the distributed aerosol and its optical and physical properties; potential for water/ice cloud modification by the volcanic particles; surface albedo, water vapor, and cloud feedbacks to a temperature change; the role of the oceans in a large-scale radiatively forced temperature variation; possible circulation modifications; and other forced and random variations in climate. In the current work, rigorous radiative transfer calculations relative to a subset of the above considerations are carried out and compared to observational data to examine deterministic volcanic effects on climate. Specifically, zonally resolved volcanic radiative forcing at the tropopause, and other levels, is computed from the best available information on the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic aerosols from two recent eruptions, El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). Accuracy of the radiative calculations is partially verified with surface- and satellite -based irradiance observations. Maximum global seasonal -mean radiative forcings of -4.5 and -2.2 W m^{-2} are calculated following the Mt. Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions, respectively. Within hemisphere irradiance gradient anomalies of up to 16% at the tropopause are calculated for the second N. Hemisphere summer following the eruptions. The computed radiative

  12. Direct Radiative Effect and Heating Rate of black carbon aerosol: high time resolution measurements and source-identified forcing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Cogliati, Sergio; Comi, Alberto; Degni, Francesca; Di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) absorbs sunlight in the atmosphere heating it. However, up to now, heating rate (HR) calculations from the divergence of the net radiative flux with altitude or from the modelling activity are too sparse. This work fills the aforementioned gap presenting a new methodology based on a full set of physical equations to experimentally determine both the radiative power density absorbed into a ground-based atmospheric layer (ADRE), and the consequent HR induced by the absorptive component of aerosol. In urban context, it is essentially related to the BC. The methodology is also applicable to natural components (i.e. dust) and is obtained solving the first derivative of the main radiative transfer equations. The ADRE and the consequent HR can be determined coupling spectral aerosol absorption measurements with the spectrally resolved measurements of the direct, diffuse downward radiation and the surface reflected radiance components. Moreover, the spectral absorption of BC aerosol allows its source apportionment (traffic and biomass burning (BB)) allowing the same apportionment on HR. This work reports one year of high-time resolution measurements (5 min) of sunlight absorption and HR induced by BC aerosol over Milan. A unique sampling site was set up from March 2015 with: 1) Aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Scientific, 7-λ), 2) the Multiplexer-Radiometer-Irradiometer which detects downward and reflected radiance (350-1000 nm in 3648 spectral bands) coupled with a rotating shadow-band to measure spectrally-resolved global and diffuse radiation (thus direct), 3) a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem) equipped with 3 pyranometers (global, diffuse and refrected radiation; 300-3000 nm), a thermohygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer, 4) condensation and optical particle counters (TSI 3775 and Grimm 1.107), 5) low volume sampler (FAI Hydra dual sampler, PM2.5 and PM10) for sample collection and chemistry determination. Results concerning the radiative power

  13. Volcanic Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  14. The radiative impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have significant impact on the earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes also the stratosphere is influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour after the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as important sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on the tropospheric water vapour and ENSO are evident.

  15. What We Can Learn from the Next Large Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2015-12-01

    The April 1982 eruption of El Chichón in México stimulated interest in the climate response to volcanic eruptions and produced very useful observations and modeling studies. The last large volcanic eruption, the June 15, 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, was the best observed eruption ever, and serves as a canonical example for studies of aerosol production and transport, climate response, and deposition on ice sheets. However, many aspects of both eruptions were poorly observed, climate model simulations of the response are imperfect, and new scientific issues, such as stratospheric sulfate geoengineering, raise new scientific questions that could be answered by better observations of the next large volcanic eruption. In this talk I will summarize what we know and do not know about large volcanic eruptions, and discuss new questions that can be addressed by being prepared for the next large eruption. These include: How and how fast will SO2 convert to sulfate aerosols? How will the aerosols grow? What will be the size distribution of the resulting sulfate aerosol particles? How will the aerosols be transported throughout the stratosphere? How much fine ash gets to the stratosphere, how long does it stay there, and what are its radiative and chemical impacts? How will temperatures change in the stratosphere as a result of the aerosol interactions with shortwave (particularly near IR) and longwave radiation? Are there large stratospheric water vapor changes associated with stratospheric aerosols? Is there an initial injection of water from the eruption? Is there ozone depletion from heterogeneous reactions on the stratospheric aerosols? As the aerosols leave the stratosphere, and as the aerosols affect the upper troposphere temperature and circulation, are there interactions with cirrus and other clouds?

  16. The ISA-MIP Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment (HErSEA): an intercomparison for interactive stratospheric aerosol models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Sheng, Jianxiong; Mills, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Major historical volcanic eruptions have injected huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere with observations showing an enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer for several years (ASAP, 2006). Such long-lasting increases in stratospheric aerosol loading cool the Earth's surface by scattering incoming solar radiation and warm the stratosphere via absorption of near infra-red solar and long-wave terrestrial radiation with complex effects on climate (e.g. Robock, 2000). Two recent modelling studies of Mount Pinatubo (Dhomse et al., 2014; Sheng et al. 2015) have highlighted that observations suggest the sulphur loading of the volcanically enhanced stratospheric aerosol may have been considerably lower than suggested by measurements of the injected SO2. This poster describes a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" for interactive stratospheric aerosol models within the framework of the SPARC initiative on Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC). The new "Historical Eruption SO2 emissions Assessment" (HErSEA) will intercompare model simulations of the three largest volcanic perturbations to the stratosphere in the last 50 years, 1963 Mt Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mt Pinatubo. The aim is to assess how effectively the emitted SO2 translates into perturbations to stratospheric aerosol properties and simulated radiative forcings in different composition-climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA). Each modelling group will run a mini-ensemble of transient AMIP-type runs for the 3 eruptions with a control no-eruption run followed by upper and lower bound injection amount estimates and 3 different injection height settings for two shallow (e.g. 19-21km amd 23-25km) and one deep (e.g. 19-25km) injection. First order analysis will intercompare stratospheric aerosol metrics such as 2D-monthly AOD(550nm, 1020nm) and timeseries of tropical and NH/SH mid-visible extinction at three different models levels (15, 20 and 25km

  17. Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Plumes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tjarda

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes release vast amounts of gases and particles in the atmosphere. Volcanic halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, HI) are co-emitted alongside SO2, and observations show rapid formation of BrO and OClO in the plume as it disperses into the troposphere. The development of 1D and Box models (e.g. PlumeChem) that simulate volcanic plume halogen chemistry aims to characterise how volcanic reactive halogens form and quantify their atmospheric impacts. Following recent advances, these models can broadly reproduce the observed downwind BrO/SO2 ratios using "bromine-explosion" chemistry schemes, provided they use a "high-temperature initialisation" to inject radicals (OH, Cl, Br and possibly NOx) which "kick-start" the low-temperature chemistry cycles that convert HBr into reactive bromine (initially as Br2). The modelled rise in BrO/SO2 and subsequent plateau/decline as the plume disperses downwind reflects cycling between reactive bromine, particularly Br-BrO, and BrO-HOBr-BrONO2. BrCl is produced when aerosol becomes HBr-depleted. Recent model simulations suggest this mechanism for reactive chlorine formation can broadly account for OClO/SO2 reported at Mt Etna. Predicted impacts of volcanic reactive halogen chemistry include the formation of HNO3 from NOx and depletion of ozone. This concurs with HNO3 widely reported in volcanic plumes (although the source of NOx remains under question), as well as observations of ozone depletion reported in plumes from several volcanoes (Mt Redoubt, Mt Etna, Eyjafjallajokull). The plume chemistry can transform mercury into more easily deposited and potentially toxic forms, for which observations are limited. Recent incorporation of volcanic halogen chemistry in a 3D regional model of degassing from Ambrym (Vanuatu) also predicts how halogen chemistry causes depletion of OH to lengthen the SO2 lifetime, and highlights the potential for halogen transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere. However, the model parameter-space is vast and

  18. Climate Throughout Geologic Time Was Cooled by Sequences of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Forming Aerosols That Reflect and Scatter Ultraviolet Solar Radiation and Warmed by Relatively Continuous Extrusion of Basaltic Lava that Depletes Ozone, Allowing More Solar Ultraviolet Radiation to Reach Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Active volcanoes of all sizes and eruptive styles, emit chlorine and bromine gases observed to deplete ozone. Effusive, basaltic volcanic eruptions, typical in Hawaii and Iceland, extrude large lava flows, depleting ozone and causing global warming. Major explosive volcanoes also deplete ozone with the same emissions, causing winter warming, but in addition eject megatons of water and sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where they form sulfuric-acid aerosols whose particles grow large enough to reflect and scatter ultraviolet sunlight, causing net global cooling for a few years. The relative amounts of explosive and effusive volcanism are determined by the configuration of tectonic plates moving around Earth's surface. Detailed studies of climate change throughout geologic history, and since 1965, are not well explained by greenhouse-gas theory, but are explained quite clearly at OzoneDepletionTheory.info. Ozone concentrations vary substantially by the minute and show close relationships to weather system highs and lows (as pointed out by Dobson in the 1920s), to the height of the tropopause, and to the strength and location of polar vortices and jet streams. Integrating the effects of volcanism on ozone concentrations and the effects of ozone concentrations on synoptic weather patterns should improve weather forecasting. For example, the volcano Bárðarbunga, in central Iceland, extruded 85 km2 of basaltic lava between August 29, 2014, and February 28, 2015, having a profound effect on weather. Most surprising, more than a week before the March 4 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, substantial amounts of ozone were released in the vicinity of the volcano precisely when surface deformation showed that magma first began moving up from sills below 4 km depth. Ozone similarly appears to have been emitted 3.5 months before the Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Readily available daily maps of ozone concentrations may allow early warning of an imminent volcanic

  19. Aerosol nucleation over oceans and the role of galactic cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kazil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate formation of sulfate aerosol in the marine troposphere from neutral and charged nucleation of H2SO4 and H2O. A box model of neutral and charged aerosol processes is run on a grid covering the oceans. Input data are taken from a model of galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and from global chemistry and transport models. We find a weak aerosol production over the tropical oceans in the lower and middle troposphere, and a stronger production at higher latitudes, most notably downwind of industrial regions. The highest aerosol production, however, occurs in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics. This finding supports the proposition by which non-sea salt marine boundary layer aerosol in tropical regions does not form in situ, but nucleates in the upper troposphere from convectively lifted and cloud processed boundary layer air rich in aerosol precursor gases, from where it descends in subsiding air masses compensating convection. Convection of boundary layer air also appears to drive the formation of condensation nuclei in the tropical upper troposphere which maintains the stratospheric aerosol layer in the absence of volcanic activity. Neutral nucleation contributes only marginally to aerosol production in our simulations. This highlights the importance of charged binary and of ternary nucleation involving ammonia for aerosol formation. In clean marine regions however, ammonia concentrations seem too low to support ternary nucleation, making binary nucleation from ions a likely pathway for sulfate aerosol formation. On the other hand, our analysis indicates that the variation of ionization by galactic cosmic rays over the decadal solar cycle does not entail a response in aerosol production and cloud cover via the second indirect aerosol effect that would explain observed variations in global cloud cover. We estimate that the variation in radiative forcing resulting from a response of

  20. Numerical studies of microphysical modulations of stratospheric aerosol within ROMIC-ROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, René; von Savigny, Christian; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John; Zalach, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    The stratospheric aerosol layer (so-called Junge layer) is an inherent part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). Stratospheric aerosols play a large role in the Earth's climate system because they interact with catalytic cycles depleting ozone, directly alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and modulate the strength of polar vortices, in particular when this system is perturbed. In terms of mass the layer is predominantly composed of liquid sulphate-water droplets and is fed from the oxidation of gaseous precursors reaching the stratosphere either by direct volcanic injections (mainly supplying SO2) or troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes. In volcanically quiescent periods, latter processes predominantly maintain the so-called background state of aerosol layer through oxidation of OCS above 22 km, and SO2 below. The Junge layer begins to develop 2-3 km above the tropopause and reaches a height of about 35 km, with a largest vertical extent in the tropics and spring-time polar regions. Above the TTL, the layer's vertical extent varies between 2 km and 8 km (about 35% of its mean vertical expansion), depending on the phase of the QBO. The QBO-induced meridional circulation, overlying the BDC, and accompanied signatures in the stratospheric temperature directly affect the life cycle of stratospheric aerosol. Mainly by modulating the equilibrium between microphysical processes which maintain the layer. Effects caused by QBO modulations of the advective transport in the upwelling region of the BDC are smaller and difficult to quantify, because the overlying sedimentation of aerosol is also being modulated and counteract the aerosol lofting. Here we show results from numerical studies performed within the project ROMIC-ROSA (Role of Stratospheric Aerosol in Climate and Atmospheric Science). We further explored relationships between QBO forcing and aerosol processes in the lower stratosphere. We examined whether similar process interferences can be caused by

  1. Aerosols impact on the multi-decadal SST variability simulation over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Kyung-On; Booth, Ben; Byun, Young-Hwa; Cho, ChunHo; Lee, Johan; Park, Soo-Hyun; Shim, Sung-Bo; Park, Sung-Bin

    2013-04-01

    ; Rotstayn and Lohmann, 2002; Lohmann and Feichter, 2005]. The emitted aerosols contribute to decrease cloud droplet radius and increase cloud fraction and cloud albedo. The reduced shortwave radiation accompamies SST cooling over the North Pacific and large scale cyclonic atmospheric circulation. The anthropogenic aerosol effects are distinct after 1920s, when anthropogenic emission grows rapidly. Since 1920s, the Pacific SST anomalies between historical run and fixed aerosol experiments(NOA) shows discrepancy. Accordingly, from late 19th century to 1910s, volcanic aerosol forcing appears and SST anomalies in historical run and NOA are similar. Recent studies suggest that aerosol process can drive pronounced multi-decadal variability in historical North Atlantic climate variability and show that the forced variability appears in the Atlantic and the North Pacific as well. This study confirms their result that the consistent results are presented over the North Pacific. Acknowledgements This study is supported by the project of NIMR/KMA "NIMR-2013-B-2".

  2. The effect of volcanic eruptions on the North Atlantic ocean temperatures over the past millennium (800-2000 AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrina, M.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies suggest that the North Atlantic Ocean is of particular importance for the climate variability, especially that of western Europe (Schlesinger M. E. & Ramankutty 1994, Knight J., Folland C. K. & Scaife A. 2006). The changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are related to the thermohaline's circulation strength (Kushnir Y., 1994) and affected by volcanic eruptions (Church J.A, White N.J. & Arblaster J.M. 2005), due to their release of aerosols into the stratosphere. In this study we examine the signal of tropical volcanic eruptions in the temperatures of the North Atlantic Ocean in various depths (6, 100, 560 and 3070 m from the sea surface), for the past millennium. The temperatures are derived from the comprehensive COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5-OM at T30 spatial resolution) and are presented for a control run and for three fully forced ensemble simulations including changes in orbital, solar, volcanic, land use and greenhouse gas changes. The model shows a response in the years following volcanic eruptions, being mostly pronounced after the large eruptions that took place between 1200 and 1300 AD, as well as at the beginning of the 19thcentury. The strongest impact on the ocean temperatures, due to the increased atmospheric optical depth, is evident in the uppermost level, especially for two out of the three ensemble simulations. In these simulations a pronounced decrease in the ocean temperature between 1400 and 1500 AD is observed due to the increase of the aerosol effective radius. In the mixed ocean layers the response to volcanic aerosols is more obvious in the third ensemble simulation, whereas in the deep ocean the temperatures do not seem to be strongly affected by volcanic eruptions. Schlesinger, M. E. & Ramankutty, N. An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years. Nature 367, 723-726 (1994). Kushnir, Y. Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions

  3. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  4. New AgMIP Scenarios: Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, or Nuclear War on Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops in response to different climate forcings. Previous studies mainly focus on the impact from global warming. Here we propose that the AgMIP community also study the impacts of stratospheric aerosols on agriculture. While nature can load the stratosphere with sulfate aerosols for several years from large volcanic eruptions, humans could also put sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere on purpose through geoengineering or soot as a result of the fires from a nuclear war. Stratospheric aerosols would change the temperature, precipitation, total insolation, and fraction of diffuse radiation due to their radiative impacts, and could produce more ultraviolet radiation by ozone destruction. Surface ozone concentration could also change by changed transport from the stratosphere as well as changed tropospheric chemistry. As a demonstration of these effects, using the crop model in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM-crop), we have studied sulfate injection geoengineering and nuclear war impacts on global agriculture in response to temperature, precipitation and radiation changes, and found significant changes in patterns of global food production. With the new ozone module in CLM-crop, we simulated how surface ozone concentration change under sulfate injection geoengineering would change the agriculture response. Agriculture would benefit from less surface ozone concentration associated with the specific geoengineering scenario comparing with the global warming scenario. Here, we would like to encourage more crop modelers to improve crop models in terms of crop responses to ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and diffuse radiation. We also invite more global crop modeling groups to use the climate forcing we would be happy to provide to gain a better understanding of global agriculture responses

  5. Aerosol black carbon at an urban site-Srinagar, Northwestern Himalaya, India: Seasonality, sources, meteorology and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mudasir Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Beig, Gufran

    2017-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) mass concentration was measured first-time at a high altitude urban site-Srinagar (1600 m asl), in northwestern Himalaya, India using an Aethalometer during 2013 to study temporal variations (monthly, diurnal and seasonal), meteorological influences, source and its radiative forcing. Diurnal variations with two peaks (at 8-10 h and 20-23 h) and two dips (at 13-17 h and 0-3 h) were observed throughout the year with varying magnitude. November and April showed the highest (13.6 μg/m3) and the lowest (3.4 μg/m3) mean monthly BC concentration respectively. Seasonally, autumn displayed the highest (9.2 μg/m3) and spring the lowest (3.5 μg/m3) mean BC concentration. Annual average BC concentration was quite higher (6 μg/m3) than those reported for other high altitude stations. Wind speed, Minimum temperature and total precipitation showed a clear negative correlation with BC (r = -0.63, -0.51 and -0.55 respectively), while as, the evening relative humidity showed positive correlation (r = 0.56). During autumn, spring and winter seasons, the main source of BC at Srinagar is the biomass burning, while during summer season, equal contribution of BC is from fossil fuel and biomass burning. Back trajectory simulations revealed that, except summer, westerly air masses are the dominant winds, transporting BC from central Asia, west Asia, south Asia, Africa and some parts of Europe to Srinagar adding to its local sources. Clear-sky short wave radiative forcing of atmosphere due to BC was highest (58.2 W m-2) during autumn which leads to the increase in lower atmospheric heating rate by 1.6 K/d. The high concentration of BC observed over the high-altitude Himalayan Kashmir region has serious implications for the regional climate, hydrology and cryosphere which needs to be investigated.

  6. Simulating the Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption Using the ARPEGE Atmosphere General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odd Helge OTTER(A)

    2008-01-01

    The climate changes that occured following the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Phillippines on 15 June 1991 have been simulated using the ARPEGE atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM).The model was forced by a reconstructed spatial-time distribution of stratospheric aerosols intended for use in long climate simulations.Four statistical ensembles of the AGCM simulations with and without volcanic aerosols over a period of 5 years following the eruption have been made,and the calculated fields have been compared to available observations.The model is able to reproduce SOme of the observed features after the eruption,such as the winter warming pattern that was observed over the Northern Hemisphere(NH)during the following winters.This pattern Was caused by an enhanced Equator-to-pole temperature gradient in the stratosphere that developed due to aerosol heating of the tropics.This in turn led to a strengthening of the polar vortex,which tends to modulate the planetary wave field in such a way that an anomalously positive Arctic Oscillation Pattern is produced in the troposphere and at the surface,favouring warm conditions over the NH.During the summer.the model produced a more uniform cooling over the NH.

  7. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to study the radiative and climate impacts of an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM. According to our simulations, the radiative impacts of an eruption and SRM are not additive: in the simulated case of concurrent eruption and SRM, the peak increase in global forcing is about 40 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfate burden and forcing was significantly faster in the concurrent case since the sulfate particles grew larger and thus sedimented faster from the stratosphere. In our simulation where we assumed that SRM would be stopped immediately after a volcano eruption, stopping SRM decreased the overall stratospheric aerosol load. For the same reasons, a volcanic eruption during SRM lead to only about 1/3 of the peak global ensemble-mean cooling compared to an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal was seen only for 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of the global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the first year after the eruption and again a clearly faster recovery in the concurrent eruption and SRM scenario. We also found that an explosive eruption could lead to significantly different regional climate responses depending on whether it takes place during geoengineering or into an unperturbed background atmosphere. Our results imply that observations from previous large eruptions, such as Mt Pinatubo in 1991, are not directly applicable when estimating the potential consequences of a

  8. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of passive and eruptive volcanic SO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Prata, Fred; Telling, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Periodic injections of sulfur gas species (SO2, H2S) into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions are among the most important, and yet unpredictable, drivers of natural climate variability. However, passive (lower tropospheric) volcanic degassing is the major component of total volcanic emissions to the atmosphere on a time-averaged basis, but is poorly constrained, impacting estimates of global emissions of other volcanic gases (e.g., CO2). Stratospheric volcanic emissions are very well quantified by satellite remote sensing techniques, and we report ongoing efforts to catalog all significant volcanic SO2 emissions into the stratosphere and troposphere since 1978 using measurements from the ultraviolet (UV) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS; 1978-2005), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI; 2004 - present) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS; 2012 - present) instruments, supplemented by infrared (IR) data from HIRS, MODIS and AIRS. The database, intended for use as a volcanic forcing dataset in climate models, currently includes over 600 eruptions releasing a total of ~100 Tg SO2, with a mean eruption discharge of ~0.2 Tg SO2. Sensitivity to SO2 emissions from smaller eruptions greatly increased following the launch of OMI in 2004, but uncertainties remain on the volcanic flux of other sulfur species other than SO2 (H2S, OCS) due to difficulty of measurement. Although the post-Pinatubo 1991 era is often classified as volcanically quiescent, many smaller eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 3-4) since 2000 have injected significant amounts of SO2 into the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS), peaking in 2008-2011. We also show how even smaller (VEI 2) tropical eruptions can impact the UTLS and sustain above-background stratospheric aerosol optical depth, thus playing a role in climate forcing on short timescales. To better quantify tropospheric volcanic degassing, we use ~10 years of operational SO2 measurements by OMI to identify the

  9. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity. Direct measurement of the electric potential at the crater, where the electric activity in the volcanic plume is first observed, is severely impeded, limiting progress in its investigation. We have achieved volcanic lightning in the laboratory during rapid decompression experiments of gas-particle mixtures under controlled conditions. Upon decompression (from ~100 bar argon pressure to atmospheric pressure), loose particles are vertically accelerated and ejected through a nozzle of 2.8 cm diameter into a large tank filled with air at atmospheric conditions. Because of their impulsive character, our experiments most closely represent the conditions encountered in the gas-thrust region of the plume, when ash is first ejected from the crater. We used sieved natural ash with different grain sizes from Popocatépetl (Mexico), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), and Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanoes, as well as micrometric glass beads to constrain the influence of material properties on lightning. We monitored the dynamics of the particle-laden jets with a high-speed camera and the pressure and electric potential at the nozzle using a pressure transducer and two copper ring antennas connected to a high-impedance data acquisition system, respectively. We find that lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the particle-laden jet and by the abundance of fine particles. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) self-electrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. The relative movement of clusters of charged particles within the plume generates the gradient in electrical potential, which is necessary for lightning. In this manner it is the gas-particle dynamics together with the evolving particle-density distribution within different regions of

  10. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  11. Volcanic loading: The dust veil index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, H.H. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit

    1985-09-01

    Dust ejected into the high atmosphere during explosive volcanic eruptions has been considered as a possible cause for climatic change. Dust veils created by volcanic eruptions can reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth`s surface and can cause reductions in surface temperatures. These climatic effects can be seen for several years following some eruptions and the magnitude and duration of the effects depend largely on the density or amount of tephra (i.e. dust) ejected, the latitude of injection, and atmospheric circulation patterns. Lamb (1970) formulated the Dust Veil Index (DVI) in an attempt to quantify the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact of a particular volcanic eruptions release of dust and aerosols over the years following the event. The DVI for any volcanic eruptions are available and have been used in estimating Lamb`s dust veil indices.

  12. Atmosphere aerosol satellite project Aerosol-UA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Syniavskyi, Ivan; Bovchaliuk, Andrii; Degtyaryov, Oleksandr; Sosonkin, Mikhail; Mishchenko, Michael; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Ivanov, Yury; Oberemok, Yevgeny; Masley, Volodymyr; Rosenbush, Vera; Moskalev, Sergii

    2017-04-01

    The experiment Aerosol-UA is Ukrainian space mission aimed to the terrestrial atmospheric aerosol spatial distribution and microphysics investigations. The experiment concept is based on idea of Glory/APS mission of precise orbital measurements of polarization and intensity of the sunlight scattered by the atmosphere, aerosol and the surface the multichannel Scanning Polarimeter (ScanPol) with narrow field-of-view. ScanPol measurements will be accompanied by the wide-angle MultiSpectral Imager-Polarimeter (MSIP). The ScanPol is designed to measure Stokes parameters I, Q, U within the spectral range from the UV to the SWIR in a wide range of phase angles along satellite ground path. Expected ScanPol polarimetric accuracy is 0.15%. A high accuracy measurement of the degree of linear polarization is provided by on-board calibration of the ScanPol polarimeter. On-board calibration is performed for each scan of the mirror scanning system. A set of calibrators is viewed during the part of the scan range when the ScanPol polarimeter looks in the direction opposite to the Earth's surface. These reference assemblies provide calibration of the zero of the polarimetric scale (unpolarized reference assembly) and the scale factor for the polarimetric scale (polarized reference assembly). The zero of the radiometric scale is provided by the dark reference assembly.The spectral channels of the ScanPol are used to estimate the tropospheric aerosol absorption, the aerosol over the ocean and the land surface, the signals from cirrus clouds, stratospheric aerosols caused by major volcanic eruptions, and the contribution of the Earth's surface. The imager-polarimeter MSIP will collect 60°x60° field-of-view images on the state of the atmosphere and surface in the area, where the ScanPol polarimeter will measure, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and polarization properties of aerosol by registration of three Stokes parameters simultaneously in three spectral channels. The two more

  13. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  14. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  15. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    [eng] One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology, which represents a significant socio-economic implication, is to conduct hazard assessment in active volcanic systems. These volcanological studies are aimed at hazard that allows to constructing hazard maps and simulating different eruptive scenarios, and are mainly addressed to contribute to territorial planning, definition of emergency plans or managing volcanic crisis. The impact of a natural event, as a volcanic eruption, can s...

  16. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Simon

    2012-09-16

    The ability of the climate models submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) database to simulate the Northern Hemisphere winter climate following a large tropical volcanic eruption is assessed. When sulfate aerosols are produced by volcanic injections into the tropical stratosphere and spread by the stratospheric circulation, it not only causes globally averaged tropospheric cooling but also a localized heating in the lower stratosphere, which can cause major dynamical feedbacks. Observations show a lower stratospheric and surface response during the following one or two Northern Hemisphere (NH) winters, that resembles the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Simulations from 13 CMIP5 models that represent tropical eruptions in the 19th and 20th century are examined, focusing on the large-scale regional impacts associated with the large-scale circulation during the NH winter season. The models generally fail to capture the NH dynamical response following eruptions. They do not sufficiently simulate the observed post-volcanic strengthened NH polar vortex, positive NAO, or NH Eurasian warming pattern, and they tend to overestimate the cooling in the tropical troposphere. The findings are confirmed by a superposed epoch analysis of the NAO index for each model. The study confirms previous similar evaluations and raises concern for the ability of current climate models to simulate the response of a major mode of global circulation variability to external forcings. This is also of concern for the accuracy of geoengineering modeling studies that assess the atmospheric response to stratosphere-injected particles.

  17. The evidences of progressive pressurization of volcanic conduit as driving forces of unrest phenomena analyzed via modelling of multiplatform geodetic measurements: Fernandina (GALAPAGOS) and Maunaloa (HAWAII) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Casu, Francesco; D'Auria, Luca; De Luca, Claudio; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the source of the ground deformation pattern affecting the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes by jointly exploiting different dataset collected by both GPS and multiplatform and multiorbit SAR sensors. We exploited the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques to analyze unrest episode in two different geodynamics context. Our main goal is the understanding of the relationship among the spatio-temporal evolution of the ground deformation field and the temporal volumetric variation of the detected geodetic source during the uplift phenomena. We highlight the huge opportunity in understanding volcano unrest phenomena offered by the joint use of remote sensing data and inversion procedures: this prospect is particularly relevant for the analysis of uplift events, when other geophysical measurements are not available. For Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes, the performed statistic analysis support the source pipe-like as the more suitable geometry to explain the unrest phenomena in which magmatic masses intrude in volcanic conduits. In particular, the deformation time series achieved at MounaLoa volcano are achieved by 23 GPS permanent stations of the Hawaii surveillance network, processed by Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, 7 SAR dataset acquired from ascending and descending orbits, with different look angles and along different tracks, by the C-Band Envisat satellite along the 2003 - 2010 time period for a total of 189 SAR imagery. Moreover, we exploited 2 dataset collected from ascending and descending passes by the X-Band Cosmo Sky-Med constellation during the 2012 - 2015 time span . These SAR datasets have been processed through the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as P-SBAS (De Luca et al., 2016), which allows us to retrieve the Line of Sight (LOS) projection of the surface deformation and analyze its temporal evolution by generating displacement time series. Starting this data

  18. Stratospheric Aerosol--Observations, Processes, and Impact on Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresmer, Stefanie; Thomason, Larry W.; von Hobe, Marc; Hermann, Markus; Deshler, Terry; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Stenke, Andrea; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weigel, Ralf; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Prata, Fred J.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Schlager, Hans; Barnes, John E.; Antuna-Marrero, Juan-Carlos; Fairlie, Duncan; Palm, Mathias; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus; Rex, Markus; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bourassa, Adam; Plane, John M. C.; Klocke, Daniel; Carn, Simon A.; Clarisse, Lieven; Trickl, Thomas; Neeley, Ryan; James, Alexander D.; Rieger, Landon; Wilson, James C.; Meland, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Interest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfatematter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.

  19. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  20. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  1. How Volcanism Controls Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large explosive volcanoes eject megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where it spreads around the world within months and is oxidized slowly to form a sulfuric-acid aerosol with particle sizes that grow large enough to reflect and scatter solar radiation, cooling Earth ~0.5C for up to 3 years. Explosive eruptions also deplete total column ozone ~6% causing up to 3C winter warming at mid-latitudes over continents. Global cooling predominates. Extrusive, basaltic volcanoes deplete ozone ~6% but do not eject much sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, causing net global warming. Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete ozone ~3% for up to a century while each volcanic eruption, even small ones, depletes ozone twice as much but for less than a decade through eruption of halogens and ensuing photochemical processes. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, plus anthropogenic CFCs depleted ozone over Toronto Canada 14% in 2012, causing an unusually warm winter and drought. Total column ozone determines how much solar ultraviolet energy with wavelengths between 290 and 340 nanometers reaches Earth where it is absorbed most efficiently by the ocean. A 25% depletion of ozone increases the amount of this radiation reaching Earth by 1 W m-2 for overhead sun and 0.25 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 70 degrees. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere heated from below by a sun-warmed Earth and the stratosphere heated from above by the Sun through photodissociation primarily of oxygen and ozone. The mean annual height of the tropopause increased ~160 m between 1980 and 2004 at the same time that northern mid-latitude total column ozone was depleted by ~4%, the lower stratosphere cooled ~2C, the upper troposphere warmed ~0.1C, and mean surface temperatures in the northern hemisphere rose ~0.5C. Regional total ozone columns are observed to increase as rapidly as 20% within 5 hours with an associated 5

  2. Forcing of stratospheric chemistry and dynamics during the Dalton Minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Anet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of atmospheric chemistry and climate to volcanic eruptions and a decrease in solar activity during the Dalton Minimum is investigated with the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-chemistry general circulation model SOCOL-MPIOM covering the time period 1780 to 1840 AD. We carried out several sensitivity ensemble experiments to separate the effects of (i reduced solar ultra-violet (UV irradiance, (ii reduced solar visible and near infrared irradiance, (iii enhanced galactic cosmic ray intensity as well as less intensive solar energetic proton events and auroral electron precipitation, and (iv volcanic aerosols. The introduced changes of UV irradiance and volcanic aerosols significantly influence stratospheric climate in the early 19th century, whereas changes in the visible part of the spectrum and energetic particles have smaller effects. A reduction of UV irradiance by 15% causes global ozone decrease below the stratopause reaching 8% in the midlatitudes at 5 hPa and a significant stratospheric cooling of up to 2 °C in the midstratosphere and to 6 °C in the lower mesosphere. Changes in energetic particle precipitation lead only to minor changes in the yearly averaged temperature fields in the stratosphere. Volcanic aerosols heat the tropical lower stratosphere allowing more water vapor to enter the tropical stratosphere, which, via HOx reactions, decreases upper stratospheric and mesospheric ozone by roughly 4%. Conversely, heterogeneous chemistry on aerosols reduces stratospheric NOx leading to a 12% ozone increase in the tropics, whereas a decrease in ozone of up to 5% is found over Antarctica in boreal winter. The linear superposition of the different contributions is not equivalent to the response obtained in a simulation when all forcing factors are applied during the DM – this effect is especially well visible for NOx/NOy. Thus, this study highlights the non-linear behavior of the coupled chemistry-climate system. Finally, we

  3. The role of carbonyl sulphide as a source of stratospheric sulphate aerosol and its impact on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brühl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, carbonyl sulphide (COS is the most abundant sulphur gas in the atmosphere. Our chemistry-climate model (CCM of the lower and middle atmosphere with aerosol module realistically simulates the background stratospheric sulphur cycle, as observed by satellites in volcanically quiescent periods. The model results indicate that upward transport of COS from the troposphere largely controls the sulphur budget and the aerosol loading of the background stratosphere. This differs from most previous studies which indicated that short-lived sulphur gases are also important. The model realistically simulates the modulation of the particulate and gaseous sulphur abundance in the stratosphere by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. In the lowermost stratosphere organic carbon aerosol contributes significantly to extinction. Further, using a chemical radiative convective model and recent spectra, we compute that the direct radiative forcing efficiency by 1 kg of COS is 724 times that of 1 kg CO2. Considering an anthropogenic fraction of 30% (derived from ice core data, this translates into an overall direct radiative forcing by COS of 0.003 W m−2. The direct global warming potentials of COS over time horizons of 20 and 100 yr are GWP(20 yr = 97 and GWP(100 yr = 27, respectively (by mass. Furthermore, stratospheric aerosol particles produced by the photolysis of COS (chemical feedback contribute to a negative direct solar radiative forcing, which in the CCM amounts to −0.007 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere for the anthropogenic fraction, more than two times the direct warming forcing of COS. Considering that the lifetime of COS is twice that of stratospheric aerosols the warming and cooling tendencies approximately cancel.

  4. Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, E.; Stier, P.; Feichter, J.; Kloster, S.; Esch, M.; Fischer-Bruns, I.

    2006-11-01

    The past and future evolution of atmospheric composition and climate has been simulated with a version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The system consists of the atmosphere, including a detailed representation of tropospheric aerosols, the land surface, and the ocean, including a model of the marine biogeochemistry which interacts with the atmosphere via the dust and sulfur cycles. In addition to the prescribed concentrations of carbon dioxide, ozone and other greenhouse gases, the model is driven by natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol), and by emissions of mineral dust, sea salt, sulfur, black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). Transient climate simulations were performed for the twentieth century and extended into the twenty-first century, according to SRES scenario A1B, with two different assumptions on future emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (BC, POM). In the first experiment, BC and POM emissions decrease over Europe and China but increase at lower latitudes (central and South America, Africa, Middle East, India, Southeast Asia). In the second experiment, the BC and POM emissions are frozen at their levels of year 2000. According to these experiments the impact of projected changes in carbonaceaous aerosols on the global mean temperature is negligible, but significant changes are found at low latitudes. This includes a cooling of the surface, enhanced precipitation and runoff, and a wetter surface. These regional changes in surface climate are caused primarily by the atmospheric absorption of sunlight by increasing BC levels and, subsequently, by thermally driven circulations which favour the transport of moisture from the adjacent oceans. The vertical redistribution of solar energy is particularly large during the dry season in central Africa when the anomalous atmospheric heating of up to 60 W m-2 and a corresponding decrease in surface solar radiation leads to a marked surface cooling, reduced

  5. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia: AEROSOL AND MONSOON CLIMATE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Lau, W. K. -M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Ramanathan, V. [Department of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, University of California, San Diego California USA; Wu, G. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Ding, Y. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Manoj, M. G. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Liu, J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Qian, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Li, J. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhou, T. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rosenfeld, D. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Israel; Ming, Y. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton New Jersey USA; Wang, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Huang, J. [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Wang, B. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Hawaii USA; School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Xu, X. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Lee, S. -S. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Cribb, M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Yang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhao, C. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Takemura, T. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Wang, K. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Xia, X. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Yin, Y. [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Zhang, H. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Guo, J. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhai, P. M. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Sugimoto, N. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Babu, S. S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Brasseur, G. P. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany

    2016-11-15

    Asian monsoons and aerosols have been studied extensively which are intertwined in influencing the climate of Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive review of ample studies on Asian aerosol, monsoon and their interactions. The region is the primary source of aerosol emissions of varies species, influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes. On continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulation. The atmospheric thermodynamic state may also be altered by the aerosol serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of numerous monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcings of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  6. Effects of volcanic eruptions on China's monsoon precipitation over the past 700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Z.; Gao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical volcanic eruptions were found to affect precipitation especially in Asia and Africa monsoon region. However, studies with different types of eruptions suggested different impacts as well as the spatial patterns. In this study, we combined the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA, [Cook et al., 2010]) and the Chinese Historical Drought Disaster Index (CHDDI) compiled from the historic meteorological records to study the effect of volcanic eruptions on China's monsoon precipitation over the past 700 years. Histories of past volcanism were compiled from the IVI2[Gao et al., 2008] and Crowley2013[Crowley and Unterman, 2013] reconstructions. Volcanic events were classified into 2×Pinatubo, 1×Pinatubo , ≥5 Tg sulfate aerosols injection in the northern hemisphere (NH) stratosphere for IVI2; and NH sulfate flux more than 20/15/10/5 kg km-2 for Crowley2013. In both cases, average MADA show a drying trend over mainland China from year zero(0) to year three(+3) after the eruption; and the more sulfate aerosol injected into the NH stratosphere or the larger the sulfate flux, the more severe this drying trend seem to reveal. In comparison, a wetting trend was found in the eruption year with Southern Hemisphere (SH) only injections. Superposed epoch analysis with a 10,000 Monte Carlo resampling procedure showed that 97.9% (96.9%) of the observed MADA values are statistically significant at the 95% (99%) confidence level. The drying is probably caused by a reduction of the latent heat flux due to volcanic aerosol' cooling effect, leading to the weakening of south Asian monsoon and decrease of moisture vapor over tropical oceans, which contribute to a reduced moisture flux over china. Spatial distribution of the average MADA show a southward movement of the driest areas in eastern China from year zero to year three after the 1×Pinatubo and 2×Pinatubo eruptions, whereas part of north china experienced unusual wetting condition. This is in good agreement with CHDDI, which

  7. Aerosols in and Above the Bornean Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Niall Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by affecting the albedo and lifetime of clouds through their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosol sources, and the processes that govern their evolution in the atmosphere are not well understood, making the aerosol effects a significant source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. The tropics experience a large solar flux meaning that any radiative forcing in this region is p...

  8. Direct radiative forcing of urban aerosols over Pretoria (25.75°S, 28.28°E) using AERONET Sunphotometer data: first scientific results and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayodele Joseph; Kumar, Kanike Raghavendra; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Griffith, Derek

    2014-12-01

    The present study uses the data collected from Cimel Sunphotometer of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for the period from January to December, 2012 over an urban site, Pretoria (PTR; 25.75°S, 28.28°E, 1449 m above sea level), South Africa. We found that monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD, τ(a)) exhibits two maxima that occurred in summer (February) and winter (August) having values of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.14, respectively, high-to-moderate values in spring and thereafter, decreases from autumn with a minima in early winter (June) 0.12 ± 0.07. The Angstrom exponents (α440-870) likewise, have its peak in summer (January) 1.70 ± 0.21 and lowest in early winter (June) 1.38 ± 0.26, while the columnar water vapor (CWV) followed AOD pattern with high values (summer) at the beginning of the year (February, 2.10 ± 0.37 cm) and low values (winter) in the middle of the year (July, 0.66 ± 0.21 cm). The volume size distribution (VSD) in the fine-mode is higher in the summer and spring seasons, whereas in the coarse mode the VSD is higher in the winter and lower in the summer due to the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 at 440 nm over PTR for the entire study period. The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) computed using SBDART model at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was -8.78 ± 3.1 W/m², while at the surface it was -25.69 ± 8.1 W/m² leading to an atmospheric forcing of +16.91 ± 6.8 W/m², indicating significant heating of the atmosphere with a mean of 0.47K/day.

  9. Direct radiative forcing of urban aerosols over Pretoria (25.75°S, 28.28°E) using AERONET Sunphotometer data:First scientific results and environmental impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayodele Joseph Adesina; Kanike Raghavendra Kumar; Venkataraman Sivakumar; Derek Griffith

    2014-01-01

    The present study uses the data collected from Cimel Sunphotometer of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for the period from January to December,2012 over an urban site,Pretoria (PTR; 25.75°S,28.28°E,1449 m above sea level),South Africa.We found that monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD,Ta) exhibits two maxima that occurred in summer (February) and winter (August) having values of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.14,respectively,high-to-moderate values in spring and thereafter,decreases from autumn with a minima in early winter (June) 0.12 ± 0.07.The Angstrom exponents (α440-870) likewise,have its peak in summer (January) 1.70 ± 0.21 and lowest in early winter (June) 1.38 ± 0.26,while the columnar water vapor (CWV) followed AOD pattem with high values (summer) at the beginning of the year (February,2.10 ± 0.37 cm) and low values (winter) in the middle of the year (July,0.66 ± 0.21 cm).The volume size distribution (VSD) in the fine-mode is higher in the summer and spring seasons,whereas in the coarse mode the VSD is higher in the winter and lower in the summer due to the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles.The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 at 440 nm over PTR for the entire study period.The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) computed using SBDART model at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was-8.78 ± 3.1 W/m2,while at the surface it was-25.69 ± 8.1 W/m2 leading to an atmospheric forcing of +16.91 ± 6.8 W/m2,indicating significant heating of the atmosphere with a mean of 0.47 K/day.

  10. Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: importance relative to other aerosol species and tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate aerosols are expected to become more important in the future atmosphere due to the expected increase in nitrate precursor emissions and the decline of ammonium-sulphate aerosols in wide regions of this planet. The GISS climate model is used in this study, including atmospheric gas- and aerosol phase chemistry to investigate current and future (2030, following the SRES A1B emission scenario atmospheric compositions. A set of sensitivity experiments was carried out to quantify the individual impact of emission- and physical climate change on nitrate aerosol formation. We found that future nitrate aerosol loads depend most strongly on changes that may occur in the ammonia sources. Furthermore, microphysical processes that lead to aerosol mixing play a very important role in sulphate and nitrate aerosol formation. The role of nitrate aerosols as climate change driver is analyzed and set in perspective to other aerosol and ozone forcings under pre-industrial, present day and future conditions. In the near future, year 2030, ammonium nitrate radiative forcing is about –0.14 W/m2 and contributes roughly 10% of the net aerosol and ozone forcing. The present day nitrate and pre-industrial nitrate forcings are –0.11 and –0.05 W/m2, respectively. The steady increase of nitrate aerosols since industrialization increases its role as a non greenhouse gas forcing agent. However, this impact is still small compared to greenhouse gas forcings, therefore the main role nitrate will play in the future atmosphere is as an air pollutant, with annual mean near surface air concentrations rising above 3 μg/m3 in China and therefore reaching pollution levels, like sulphate aerosols, in the fine particle mode.

  11. The impact of Mount Etna's sulphur emissi