Sample records for volcan jocotitlan estado

  1. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico; Calidad del agua de manantiales y pozos que se utilizan para consumo humano, en la region del volcan Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico

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    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, V. [CIRA, UAEM, Unidad San Cayetabo, Toluca-Ixtlahuaca (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, C. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [CNRS, Univ. Montpellier (France)


    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the {sup 222} Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the {sup 226} Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  2. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.


    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the 222 Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the 226 Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  3. Tectonics control over instability of volcanic edifices in transtensional tectonic regimes (United States)

    Norini, G.; Capra, L.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Manea, M.; Groppelli, G.


    We present the results of analogue modeling designed to investigate the interactions between volcanic edifices and transtensional basement faulting. Three sets of experiments were run to account for three examples of stratovolcanoes in active transtensive tectonics regimes, the Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in Mexico, and the Mayon volcano in the Philippines. All these volcanoes show different behavior and relationship among volcanism, instability of the volcanic edifice, and basement tectonics. Field geological and structural data gave the necessary constrains to the models. The modeling apparatus consisted of a sand cone on a sheared basal layer. Injections of vegetable oil were used to model the rising of magma inside the deformed analogue cones. Set 1: In the case of a volcano directly on top of a basal transtensive shear producing a narrow graben, as observed on the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the analogue models reveal a strong control of the basement faulting on the magma migration path and the volcano instability. Small lateral collapses are directed parallel to the basal shear and affect a limited sector of the cone. Set 2: If the graben generated by transtensive tectonics is bigger in respect to the volcanic edifice and the volcano sits on one boundary fault, as in the case of Mayon volcano, the combined normal and transcurrent movements of the analogue basement fault generate a sigmoidal structure in the sand cone, inducing major sector collapses directed at approx 45° relative to the basement shear toward the downthrown block. Set 3: For volcanoes located near major transtensive faults, as the Jocotitlan volcano, analogue modelling shows an important control of the regional tectonics on the geometry of the fractures and migration paths of magma inside the cone. These structures render unstable the flanks of the volcano and promote sector collapses perpendicular to the basement shear and directed toward the graben formed by the transtensive

  4. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico (United States)

    Macias, J.L.; Garcia, P.A.; Arce, J.L.; Siebe, C.; Espindola, J.M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Scott, K.


    This field guide describes a five day trip to examine deposits of Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in central Mexico. We will discuss the stratigraphy, petrology, and sedimentological characteristics of these deposits which provide insights into the eruptive history, type of volcanic activity, and transport and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic materials. These parameters will allow us to discuss the kinds of hazards and the risk that they pose to populations around these volcanoes. The area to be visited is tectonically complex thus we will also discuss the location of the volcanoes with respect to the tectonic environment. The first four days of the field trip will be dedicated to Nevado de Toluca Volcano (19 degrees 09'N; 99 degrees 45'W) located at 23 km. southwest of the City of Toluca, and is the fourth highest peak in the country, reaching an elevation of 4,680 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano, composed of a central vent excavated upon the remains of older craters destroyed by former events. Bloomfield and Valastro, (1974, 1977) concluded that the last cycle of activity occurred nearly equal 11,600 yr. ago. For this reason Nevado de Toluca has been considered an extinct volcano. Our studies, however, indicate that Nevado de Toluca has had at least two episodes of cone destruction by sector collapse as well as several explosive episodes including plinian eruptions and dome-destruction events. These eruptions occurred during the Pleistocene but a very young eruption characterized by surge and ash flows occurred ca. 3,300 yr. BP. This new knowledge of the volcano's eruptive history makes the evaluation of its present state of activity and the geological hazards necessary. This is important because the area is densely populated and large cities such as Toluca and Mexico are located in its proximity.

  5. Primer registro del ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni para el estado de Hidalgo, México First record of the volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Becerra


    Full Text Available El ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni se registra por primera vez en el estado de Hidalgo, México. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en diciembre de 2010, en el municipio de Almoloya, aproximadamente a 32.8 km al norte de la localidad documentada más cercana al estado de Tlaxcala, por lo que este nuevo registro se convierte en el más norteño para la distribución conocida del ratón de los volcanes.The volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni is firstly recorded in the State of Hidalgo. Specimens were collected in December 2010, at the municipality of Almoloya, approximately 32.8 km to the north from the nearest locality in the state of Tlaxcala. Therefore, this is the northernmost record for the range of the Mexican volcano mouse.



    Horacio Mercado Vargas; Edgar Allan Mercado Flores


    El Estado de Michoacán, que se ubica en la parte del extremo sur occidental de México, posee paisajes muy hermosos: de bosques, praderas y lagunas de gran belleza, montañas y volcanes que descienden hacia el mar. Es uno de los más ricos en recursos naturales. La Secretaría de Turismo, diversas entidades del gobierno federal y gobiernos estatales y municipales desarrollaron el Programa de Pueblos Mágicos, para darle un valor a ciertas poblaciones del país que tienen características culturales ...

  7. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)


    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  8. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P.; Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L.; Seidel, J.L.


    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The 222 Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  9. Volcanic activity in the Acambay Graben: a < 25 Ka subplinian eruption from the Temascalcingo volcano and implications for volcanic hazard. (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Aguirre Díaz, Gerardo; Sunyé Puchol, Ivan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina


    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) contains a large number of stratovolcanoes, some well-known, as Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl, Nevado de Toluca, or Colima and many others of more modest dimensions that are not well known but constitute the majority in the TMVB. Such volcanoes are, for example, Tequila, San Juan, Sangangüey, Cerro Culiacán, Cerro Grande, El Zamorano, La Joya, Palo Huerfano, Jocotitlán, Altamirano and Temascalcingo, among many others. The Temascalcingo volcano (TV) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) at the eastern part of the Acambay Graben (northwest portion of Estado de México). The TV is composed mainly by dacitic, porphyritic lavas, block and ash deposits and subordinate pumice fall deposits and ignimbrites (Roldán-Quintana et al., 2011). The volcanic structure includes a summit caldera that has a rectangular shape, 2.5×3.5 km, with the largest side oriented E-W, parallel to major normal faults affecting the edifice. The San Mateo Pumice eruption is one of the greatest paroxysmal episodes of this volcano with pumice deposits mainly exposed at the scarp of the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault and at the northern and northeastern flanks of TV. It overlies a paleosol dated at 25 Ka. A NE-trending dispersion was obtained from field data covering an area of at least 80 km2. These deposits overlie older lava flows and mud flows and are discontinuously covered and eroded by younger reworked deposits of Temascalcingo volcano. This event represents a highly explosive phase that generated a relatively thick and widespread pumice fallout deposit that may occur again in future eruptions. A similar eruption today would have a significantly impact in the region, overall due to the fact that there has been no systematic assessment of the volcanic hazard in any of the studies that have been conducted so far in the area. So, this is a pending and urgent subject that must be tackled without delay. Financed by

  10. Volcanism on Io (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard


    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Mercado Vargas


    Full Text Available El Estado de Michoacán, que se ubica en la parte del extremo sur occidental de México, posee paisajes muy hermosos: de bosques, praderas y lagunas de gran belleza, montañas y volcanes que descienden hacia el mar. Es uno de los más ricos en recursos naturales. La Secretaría de Turismo, diversas entidades del gobierno federal y gobiernos estatales y municipales desarrollaron el Programa de Pueblos Mágicos, para darle un valor a ciertas poblaciones del país que tienen características culturales y que llaman la atención de los visitantes mexicanos y extranjeros. Michoacán es una entidad que por sus características culturales, se distingue del resto de las entidades, y por ello es el estado con mayor número de Pueblos Mágicos en todo el país. La belleza y cultura de Michoacán se puede constatar en sus Pueblos Mágicos, que siempre recordarán los visitantes. Sus formas, colores y tradiciones son expresiones de un pasado lleno de gloria que se manifiesta en el presente.

  12. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio


    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  13. The Origin of Widespread Long-lived Volcanism Across the Galapagos Volcanic Province (United States)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.


    40Ar/39Ar ages for rocks dredged (SO144 PAGANINI expedition) and drilled (DSDP) from the Galapagos Volcanic Province (Cocos, Carnegie, Coiba and Malpelo aseismic ridges and associated seamounts) show evidence of 1) increasing age with distance from the Galapagos Archipelago, 2) long-lived episodic volcanism at many locations, and 3) broad overlapping regions of coeval volcanism. The widespread nature of synchronous volcanism across the Galapagos Volcanic Province (GVP) suggests a correspondingly large Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly (O'Connor et al., 2004). Development of the GVP via Cocos and Nazca plate migration and divergence over this broad melting anomaly would explain continued multiple phases of volcanism over millions of years following the initial onset of hotspot volcanism. The question arising from these observations is whether long-lived GVP episodic volcanism is equivalent to `rejuvenescent' or a `post-erosional' phase of volcanism that occurs hundreds of thousands or million years after the main shield-building phase documented on many mid-plate seamount chains, most notably along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain? Thus, investigating the process responsible for long-lived episodic GVP volcanism provides the opportunity to evaluate this little understood process of rejuvenation in a physical setting very different to the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain (i.e. on/near spreading axis versus mid-plate). We consider here timing and geochemical information to test the various geodynamic models proposed to explain the origin of GVP hotspot volcanism, especially the possibility of rejuvenated phases that erupt long after initial shield-building.

  14. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.


    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  15. El estado Schumpeteriano en diálogo con el estado de bienestar


    Peñas Felizzola, Olga Luz


    El presente trabajo se desarrolla con la intención de dar cuenta de algunos de los planteamientos básicos de la teoría del estado Schumpeteriano, particularmente alrededor de dos reflexiones centrales: la importancia de la obra de Schumpeter para la teoría económica, y los elementos distintivos entre el estado Shumpeteriano y el estado de Bienestar.

  16. Analisis TLC entre Colombia y Estados Unidos: Estados de Virginia y Washington


    Pulecio Leon, Gloria Daniela


    el punto central de esta investigación será identificar las principales fortalezas y oportunidades de las empresas colombianas frente al Tratado de Libre Comercio con Estados Unidos, con miras al desarrollo de un proceso de exportación no tradicional e internacionalización, en los estados de Virginia y Washington. Para esto debemos primero reconocer las oportunidades que el mercado colombiano ha aprovechado en los estados de Virginia y Washington, segundo revisar si el tratado de libre ...

  17. Sources of Quaternary volcanism in the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, Madagascar (United States)

    Rasoazanamparany, C.; Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.; Raharimahefa, T.; Rakotondrazafy, F. M. A.; Rakotondravelo, K. M.


    We present new major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope data for Quaternary basaltic lavas and tephra from the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, representing the most recent volcanism in Madagascar. Mafic magmas from Itasy and Ankaratra exhibit significant inter- and intra-volcanic field geochemical heterogeneity. The Itasy eruptive products range in composition from foidite to phonotephrite whereas Ankaratra lavas range from basanite to trachybasalts. Trace element signatures of samples from both volcanic fields are very similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), with significant enrichment in Nb and Ta, depletion in Rb, Cs, and K, and relatively high Nb/U and Ce/Pb. However, the Itasy volcanic rocks show enrichment relative to those of Ankaratra in most incompatible elements, indicative of a more enriched source and/or lower degrees of partial melting. Significant inter- and intra-volcanic field heterogeneity is also observed in Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope signatures. The Itasy volcanic rocks generally have less radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic ratios but more radiogenic Pb isotopic signatures than the Ankaratra volcanic field. Together, the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic rocks form a well-defined negative correlation in Sr vs. Pb isotopes that could be attributed to lithospheric contamination or variable degrees of mixing between distinct mantle sources. However, the lack of correlation between isotopes and indices of crustal contamination (e.g. MgO and Nb/U) are inconsistent with shallow lithospheric contamination, and instead suggest mixing between compositionally distinct mantle sources. Furthermore, although Sr-Pb isotope systematics are apparently consistent with mixing between two different sources, distinct trends in Sr vs. Nd isotopes displayed by samples from Itasy and Ankaratra, respectively, argue for more complex source mixing involving three or more sources. The current data demonstrate that although the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic

  18. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation (United States)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo


    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  19. De los estados fallidos


    Ruiz Medrano, Salvador Francisco


    Al presente, desde distintas perspectivas, los Estados fallidos parecieran ser una clasificación más de los Estados en general. Este artículo constituye un intento por revisar dicho concepto, que en nuestros días, últimamente, a cobrando nueva relevancia. La tarea se emprende desde el concepto que el derecho internacional da a los Estados fallidos. Luego se analizan las características políticas del mismo, a través del Índice de Política Exterior y Fondo para la Paz de los...

  20. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia


    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  1. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  2. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.


    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  3. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  4. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.


    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  5. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  6. Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas


    López Medina, Alicia


    Estado actual del Recolector de ciencia abierta español: Recolecta y proyectos de futuro. López Medina, A. (2010). Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas. X Workshop Rebiun sobre proyectos digitales.

  7. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury


    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.


    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  8. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.


    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  9. Modelo Vectorial para la Inferencia del Estado Cognitivo de Pacientes en Estados Derivados del Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Velásquez R.


    Full Text Available La forma tradicional de evaluar el estado de conciencia de un individuo, ha sido mediante la aplicación de estímulos y el análisis de sus respuestas, sin embargo, esta técnica se ve limitada cuando el individuo es incapaz de responder evidentemente ante un estímulo, como es el caso de los pacientes en estados derivados del coma. En estos casos, se requiere de una conexión directa con el cerebro del paciente para detectar una respuesta. Por consiguiente, en este artículo se desarrolla y analiza un modelo computacional basado en los principios de las máquinas de soporte vectorial (MSV, para inferir el estado cognitivo de pacientes en estados derivados del coma, mediante la utilización de un equipo de electroencefalografía comercial. Los resultados obtenidos, mostraron que el modelo logró clasificar correctamente una tarea cognitiva en al menos cuatro de cada cinco pruebas en pacientes de control, lo que se traduce en la obtención de un sistema de bajo costo para el análisis del estado de conciencia y para la posible comunicación con algunos pacientes en estados derivados del coma mediante protocolos médicos definidos. De esta manera, este sistema se presenta como un gran aporte para las clínicas y centros hospitalarios, como herramienta potencial de diagnóstico para este tipo de pacientes.

  10. A Influência de um protocolo de coordenação motora no estado depressivo e estado cognitivo


    Costa, Cândida; Pinheira, Vítor; Rodrigues, Abel


    Introdução: São conhecidos os efeitos positivos do exercício terapêutico no estado depressivo e estado cognitivo do idoso. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar e comparar os efeitos de um protocolo de coordenação motora, com a duração de 8 semanas, duas vezes por semana, 50 minutos cada sessão, no estado depressivo e estado cognitivo. Metodologia: 30 idosos (81,43 ±8,97 anos), 66,7% mulheres, clinicamente estáveis e capazes de realizar marcha, numa amostra por conveniência...

  11. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity (United States)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.


    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  12. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.


    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  13. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited) (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.


    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  14. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime


    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  15. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.


    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  16. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón


    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  17. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone


    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  18. Gas measurements from the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment suggest possible along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry (United States)

    Aiuppa, A.; Robidoux, P.; Tamburello, G.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.; Avard, G.; Bagnato, E.; De Moor, J. M.; Martínez, M.; Muñóz, A.


    Obtaining accurate estimates of the CO2 output from arc volcanism requires a precise understanding of the potential along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry, and ultimately of the magmatic gas signature of each individual arc segment. In an attempt to more fully constrain the magmatic gas signature of the Central America Volcanic Arc (CAVA), we present here the results of a volcanic gas survey performed during March and April 2013 at five degassing volcanoes within the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment (CNVS). Observations of the volcanic gas plume made with a multicomponent gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) have allowed characterization of the CO2/SO2-ratio signature of the plumes at Poás (0.30±0.06, mean ± SD), Rincón de la Vieja (27.0±15.3), and Turrialba (2.2±0.8) in Costa Rica, and at Telica (3.0±0.9) and San Cristóbal (4.2±1.3) in Nicaragua (all ratios on molar basis). By scaling these plume compositions to simultaneously measured SO2 fluxes, we estimate that the CO2 outputs at CNVS volcanoes range from low (25.5±11.0 tons/day at Poás) to moderate (918 to 1270 tons/day at Turrialba). These results add a new information to the still fragmentary volcanic CO2 output data set, and allow estimating the total CO2 output from the CNVS at 2835±1364 tons/day. Our novel results, with previously available information about gas emissions in Central America, are suggestive of distinct volcanic gas CO2/ST (= SO2 + H2S)-ratio signature for magmatic volatiles in Nicaragua (∼3) relative to Costa Rica (∼0.5-1.0). We also provide additional evidence for the earlier theory relating the CO2-richer signature of Nicaragua volcanism to increased contributions from slab-derived fluids, relative to more-MORB-like volcanism in Costa Rica. The sizeable along-arc variations in magmatic gas chemistry that the present study has suggested indicate that additional gas observations are urgently needed to more-precisely confine the volcanic CO2 from the CAVA, and from

  19. Structural control of monogenetic volcanism in the Garrotxa volcanic field (Northeastern Spain) from gravity and self-potential measurements (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Gottsmann, J.; Martí, J.; Bolós, X.; Camacho, A. G.; Geyer, A.; Planagumà, Ll.; Ronchin, E.; Sánchez, A.


    We report new geophysical observations on the distribution of subsurface structures associated with monogenetic volcanism in the Garrotxa volcanic field (Northern Spain). As part of the Catalan Volcanic Zone, this Quaternary volcanic field is associated with the European rifts system. It contains the most recent and best preserved volcanic edifices of the Catalan Volcanic Zone with 38 monogenetic volcanoes identified in the Garrotxa Natural Park. We conducted new gravimetric and self-potential surveys to enhance our understanding of the relationship between the local geology and the spatial distribution of the monogenetic volcanoes. The main finding of this study is that the central part of the volcanic field is dominated by a broad negative Bouguer anomaly of around -0.5 mGal, within which a series of gravity minima are found with amplitudes of up to -2.3 mGal. Inverse modelling of the Bouguer data suggests that surficial low-density material dominates the volcanic field, most likely associated with effusive and explosive surface deposits. In contrast, an arcuate cluster of gravity minima to the NW of the Croscat volcano, the youngest volcano of this zone, is modelled by vertically extended low-density bodies, which we interpret as a complex ensemble of fault damage zones and the roots of young scoria cones. A ground-water infiltration zone identified by a self-potential anomaly is associated with a steep horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient and interpreted as a fault zone and/or magmatic fissure, which fed the most recent volcanic activity in the Garrotxa. Gravimetric and self-potential data are well correlated and indicate a control on the locations of scoria cones by NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE striking tectonic features, which intersect the main structural boundaries of the study area to the north and south. Our interpretation of the data is that faults facilitated magma ascent to the surface. Our findings have major implications for understanding the relationship

  20. Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication provides comprehensive and updated guidance for site evaluation in relation to volcanic hazards. It includes recommendations on assessing the volcanic hazards at a nuclear installation site, in order to identify and characterize, in a comprehensive manner, all potentially hazardous phenomena that may be associated with future volcanic events. It describes how some of these volcanic phenomena may affect the acceptability of the selected site, resulting in exclusion of a site or determining the corresponding design basis parameters for the installation. This Safety Guide is applicable to both existing and new sites, and a graded approach is recommended to cater for all types of nuclear installations. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Overview of volcanic hazard assessment; 3. General recommendations; 4. Necessary information and investigations (database); 5. Screening of volcanic hazards; 6. Site specific volcanic hazard assessment; 7. Nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants; 8. Monitoring and preparation for response; 9. Management system for volcanic hazard assessment; Annex I: Volcanic hazard scenarios; Annex II: Worldwide sources of information.

  1. Volcanic ash in ancient Maya ceramics of the limestone lowlands: implications for prehistoric volcanic activity in the Guatemala highlands (United States)

    Ford, Anabel; Rose, William I.


    In the spirit of collaborative research, Glicken and Ford embarked on the problem of identifying the source of volcanic ash used as temper in prehistoric Maya ceramics. Verification of the presence of glass shards and associated volcanic mineralogy in thin sections of Maya ceramics was straightforward and pointed to the Guatemala Highland volcanic chain. Considering seasonal wind rose patterns, target volcanoes include those from the area west of and including Guatemala City. Joint field research conducted in 1983 by Glicken and Ford in the limestone lowlands of Belize and neighboring Guatemala, 300 km north of the volcanic zone and 150 km from the nearest identified ash deposits, was unsuccessful in discovering local volcanic ash deposits. The abundance of the ash in common Maya ceramic vessels coupled with the difficulties of long-distance procurement without draft animals lead Glicken to suggest that ashfall into the lowlands would most parsimoniously explain prehistoric procurement; it literally dropped into their hands. A major archaeological problem with this explanation is that the use of volcanic ash occurring over several centuries of the Late Classic Period (ca. 600-900 AD). To accept the ashfall hypothesis for ancient Maya volcanic ash procurement, one would have to demonstrate a long span of consistent volcanic activity in the Guatemala Highlands for the last half of the first millennium AD. Should this be documented through careful petrographic, microprobe and tephrachronological studies, a number of related archaeological phenomena would be explained. In addition, the proposed model of volcanic activity has implications for understanding volcanism and potential volcanic hazards in Central America over a significantly longer time span than the historic period. These avenues are explored and a call for further collaborative research of this interdisciplinary problem is extended in this paper.

  2. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.


    The High Rock, Lake Owyhee, and McDermitt volcanic fields, consisting of regionally extensive ash flow tuffs and associated calderas, developed in NW Nevada and SE Oregon following eruption of the ca. 16.7 Ma Steens flood basalt. The first ash flow, the Tuff of Oregon Canyon, erupted from the McDermitt volcanic field at 16.5Ma. It is chemically zoned from peralkaline rhyolite to dacite with trace element ratios that distinguish it from other ash flow tuffs. The source caldera, based on tuff distribution, thickness, and size of lithic fragments, is in the area in which the McDermitt caldera (16.3 Ma) subsequently formed. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with some but not all of the calderas. The White Horse caldera (15.6 Ma), the youngest caldera in the McDermitt volcanic field has the best geophysical expression, with both aeromagnetic and gravity lows coinciding with the caldera. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity surveys of the McDermitt caldera, combined with geology and radiometric surveys, provides insight into the complexities of caldera collapse, resurgence, post collapse volcanism, and hydrothermal mineralization. The McDermitt caldera is among the most mineralized calderas in the world, whereas other calderas in these three Mid Miocene volcanic fields do not contain important hydrothermal ore deposits, despite having similar age and chemistry. The McDermitt caldera is host to Hg, U, and Li deposits and potentially significant resources of Ga, Sb, and REE. The geophysical data indicate that post-caldera collapse intrusions were important in formation of the hydrothermal systems. An aeromagnetic low along the E caldera margin reflects an intrusion at a depth of 2 km associated with the near-surface McDermitt-hot-spring-type Hg-Sb deposit, and the deeper level, high-sulfidation Ga-REE occurrence. The Li deposits on the W side of the caldera are associated with a series of low amplitude, small diameter aeromagnetic anomalies that form a continuous

  3. Modelling ground deformation patterns associated with volcanic processes at the Okataina Volcanic Centre (United States)

    Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.


    The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the

  4. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.


    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Dieder Reverbel


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho insere-se na Teoria do Estado e no Direito Constitucional. Parte da natural sociabilidade do humano para demonstrar que o Estado de Direito nasce para servir a pessoa, e esta abdica parte de sua liberdade em prol de um convívio harmônico e pacífico dentro da sociedade. Delimita, mesmo que não desenvolva, o que entende ser os princípios de Estado de Direito. Após, insere o estudo dentro das duas principais famílias de direito: common law e romano-germânica; apresentando o princípío prevalente em cada uma delas: legalidade e processualidade. Desenvolve distinção de McILWIAN entre  jurisdictio y gubernaculum, pois o Estado de Direito só pode ser aquele que delimite e proteja uma área restrita à  Política, e uma área restrita ao  Direito. Por fim, antes da conclusão e da bibliografia, mostramos  os  entraves que o  ativismo judicial  – inclusive colacionando jurisprudências – tem gerado para o florescimento de um Estado de Direito racional.

  6. del Estado Aragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselys Cintia Zerpa


    Full Text Available Diagnostica la situación actual de los bienes que conforman al patrimonio histórico-cultural del Municipio Zamora, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. La Investigación es descriptiva y de campo, comprendió la elaboración de un inventario de los bienes inmuebles, festividades religiosas y manifestaciones artesanales del municipio. Se estudiaron la condición física y uso actual de estos bienes y los planes y proyectos existentes. Analizó el marco normativo que los rige. Se obtuvo la opinión de los representantes de organismos públicos relacionados con la actividad turística del Municipio, de los visitantes, cronistas e historiadores. Aportes: La mayoría de los bienes se encuentran en buen estado de conservación, Las manifestaciones culturales, festividades y la artesanía se desarrollan periódicamente pero no son aprovechadas turísticamente, Se determinó que existe un marco normativo para tales bienes y No existen propuestas actuales referentes a estos bienes. Se reflejó el interés de los sectores institucional y privado para la incorporación de estos bienes a la oferta turística del Municipio y del Estado

  7. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts (United States)

    Mather, T. A.


    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  8. Decadencia del estado de cambios en la posición financiera

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    Diego Ramírez Cardona


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción de la evolución del estado de cambios en la situación financiera como estado financiero básico en Colombia. Analiza y confronta las normas técnicas de revelación de este estado financiero con las del estado financiero básico, armonizándolas con las normas internacionales. Establece la dualidad de las normas técnicas de revelación entre estado de cambios en la situación financiera y el estado de flujos de efectivo, determinando la duplicidad de estos estados financieros básicos reglamentados en Colombia. Recomienda la eliminación del estado de cambios en la situación financiera como estado financiero básico.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda García Lozano


    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis de la incidencia del tipo de Estado en la independencia judicial. En la primera parte, se aborda de forma integral el concepto de Estado de derecho haciendo énfasis en las características históricas y neoinstitucionales que han sido el fundamento de imposición en los últimos años. En la segunda parte, se estudia la trasformación del paradigma jurídico colombiano con su consagración en un Estado Social de Derecho, sus alcances en el campo constitucional y, la necesidad de realizar un estudio específico de este tema.

  10. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.


    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  11. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

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    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa


    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  12. Estado, Estado de Derecho y Violencia Armada en Colombia (2000-2011

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    Jerónimo Ríos Sierra


    Full Text Available Para la superación sostenible de la violencia armada en Colombia, con o sin negociaciones, la noción de “paz positiva” es imprescindible. El  éxito militar muestra su precariedad frente al necesario fortalecimiento del Estado de Derecho en un escenario de urgencias sociales, políticas y económicas. Durante la última década, tanto la Política de Seguridad Democrática como el Plan Colombia han priorizado el fortalecimiento del Estado en términos de seguridad, control territorial y fortaleza militar. Ello se debe a la idea de concebir la superación de la violencia armada en términos de ausencia de conflicto.Problemas tales como inequidad social, pobreza, parapolítica, connivencias de sectores políticos y del Estado con narcotráfico y actores armados, persistencia de la violencia guerrillera, paramilitarismo creciente, violaciones a los Derechos Humanos (DDHH y el Derecho Internacional Humanitario (DIH y/o desplazamiento forzado, tal y como se pondrá de manifiesto, persisten como desafíos por superar, más allá de la seguridad, si se pretende aspirar a una verdadera consecución de la paz en Colombia.

  13. Transition of neogene arc volcanism in central-western Hokkaido, viewed from K-Ar ages, style of volcanic activity, and bulk rock chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Wataru; Iwasaki, Miyuki; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)


    Spatial and temporal variations in late Cenozoic volcanism of southwestern Hokkaido at the northern end of NE-Japan arc have been clarified by 261 K-Ar and 76 FT ages including 49 newly determined K-Ar ages, volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry. Arc volcanism characterized by rocks with low-Ti and Nb, and by across-arc increase in K{sub 2}O content in these rocks has continued at least since 12 Ma. Based on volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry, volcanism after 12 Ma can be subdivided into 4 stages, 12-5, 5-1.7, and 1.7-0 Ma. The volcanism from 12 Ma to 5 Ma extended northward widely compared with distribution of Quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma). This suggests that the arc trench junction between Kuril and NE-Japan arc's trenches was located about 100 km northward from the present position. Since around 5 Ma until 1.7 Ma, different type of volcanism under local extension field, characterized by a group of monogenetic volcanoes of alkali basalt and shield volcanoes of calc-alkaline andesite, had occurred at northern end of the volcanic region (Takikawa-Mashike region). During and after this volcanism, the northern edge of arc volcanism in the area has migrated southward. This suggests that the trench junction has migrated about 100 km southward since {approx}5 Ma. The quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma) has been restricted at the southern part of the region. The volcanism since 12 Ma might be influenced by oblique subduction of Pacific plate beneath Kuril arc, resulting in the formation of local back arc basin at the junction and to southward migration of the trench junction. (author)

  14. Slab dehydration in Cascadia and its relationship to volcanism, seismicity, and non-volcanic tremor (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.


    The characteristics of subduction beneath the Pacific Northwest (Cascadia) are variable along strike, leading to the segmentation of Cascadia into 3 general zones: Klamath, Siletzia, and Wrangelia. These zones show marked differences in tremor density, earthquake density, seismicity rates, and the locus and amount of volcanism in the subduction-related volcanic arc. To better understand what controls these variations, we have constructed a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the upper 80 km along the Cascadia margin from the joint inversion of CCP-derived receiver functions and ambient noise surface wave data using 900 temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. With this model, we can investigate variations in the seismic structure of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and overlying mantle wedge, the character of the crust-mantle transition beneath the volcanic arc, and local to regional variations in crustal structure. From these results, we infer the presence and distribution of fluids released from the subducting slab and how they affect the seismic structure of the overriding lithosphere. In the Klamath and Wrangelia zones, high seismicity rates in the subducting plate and high tremor density correlate with low shear velocities in the overriding plate's forearc and relatively little arc volcanism. While the cause of tremor is debated, intermediate depth earthquakes are generally thought to be due to metamorphic dehydration reactions resulting from the dewatering of the downgoing slab. Thus, the seismic characteristics of these zones combined with rather sparse arc volcanism may indicate that the slab has largely dewatered by the time it reaches sub-arc depths. Some of the water released during earthquakes (and possibly tremor) may percolate into the overriding plate, leading to slow seismic velocities in the forearc. In contrast, Siletzia shows relatively low seismicity rates and tremor density, with relatively higher shear velocities in the forearc

  15. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.


    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  16. Estado e controle nas prisões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Soria Batista

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa do Estado possa ser vinculada às condições institucionais adequadas e, no segundo (negociação entre o estado e as lideranças dos presos às condições precárias dos presídios, como superlotação, número reduzido de agentes penitenciários, entre outros, a análise apontou que ambas as modalidades traduzem formas de relacionamentos e interações sociais historicamente produzidas entre o Estado e a sociedade, que remetem à fundação da República, recriadas através do habitus dos atores sociais, não se restringindo exclusivamente ao espaço social das prisões.

  17. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.


    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  18. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.


    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  19. Timing and compositional evolution of Late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanism within the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.; Downs, D. T.; Dietterich, H. R.


    Harrat Rahat is one of the largest ( 20,000 km2) of 15 active Cenozoic volcanic fields that stretch 3,000 km along the western Arabian Peninsula from Yemen to Syria. The Harrat Rahat volcanic field is 310 km long (N-S) by 75 km wide (E-W), and is dominated by alkalic basalts with minor hawaiite, mugearite, benmoreite, and trachyte eruptives. The timing of volcanism within greater Harrat Rahat is poorly constrained, but field relations and geochronology indicate that northern Harrat Rahat hosted the most recent eruptions. To better constrain the timing and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat during this recent phase, we present 743 geochemical analyses, 144 40Ar/39Ar ages, and 9 36Cl exposure ages for volcanic strata from northernmost Harrat Rahat. These data demonstrate that volcanism has been ongoing from at least 1.2 Ma to the present, with the most recent eruption known from historical accounts at 1256 CE. Basalt has erupted persistently from 1.2 Ma to the present, but more evolved volcanism has been episodic. Benmoreite erupted at 1.1 Ma and between 550 to 400 ka. Trachytic volcanism has only occurred over the past 150 ka, with the most recent eruption at 5 ka. Aside from the well-documented basaltic eruption at 1256 CE, prior workers interpreted 6 additional basaltic eruptions during the Holocene. However, our 36Cl exposure ages demonstrate that these erupted between 60 to 13 ka. Interestingly, in the northern part of our field area, where the spatial density of volcanic vents is low, young volcanism (<150 ka) is dominated by basaltic eruptions. Conversely, young volcanism in the southern part of our field area, where volcanic vent density is high, is dominated by trachyte. This observation is consistent with a process wherein the time-integrated effects of basaltic influx into the crust in the south produced a mafic intrusive complex, through which younger basaltic magmas cannot ascend. Instead, these magmas stall and produce trachyte, likely through

  20. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation (United States)

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    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  1. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.


    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  2. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism. (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C


    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Satellite Observations to Evaluate the AeroCOM Volcanic Emissions Inventory and the Dispersal of Volcanic SO2 Clouds in MERRA (United States)

    Hughes, Eric J.; Krotkov, Nickolay; da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter


    Simulation of volcanic emissions in climate models requires information that describes the eruption of the emissions into the atmosphere. While the total amount of gases and aerosols released from a volcanic eruption can be readily estimated from satellite observations, information about the source parameters, like injection altitude, eruption time and duration, is often not directly known. The AeroCOM volcanic emissions inventory provides estimates of eruption source parameters and has been used to initialize volcanic emissions in reanalysis projects, like MERRA. The AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory provides an eruptions daily SO2 flux and plume top altitude, yet an eruption can be very short lived, lasting only a few hours, and emit clouds at multiple altitudes. Case studies comparing the satellite observed dispersal of volcanic SO2 clouds to simulations in MERRA have shown mixed results. Some cases show good agreement with observations Okmok (2008), while for other eruptions the observed initial SO2 mass is half of that in the simulations, Sierra Negra (2005). In other cases, the initial SO2 amount agrees with the observations but shows very different dispersal rates, Soufriere Hills (2006). In the aviation hazards community, deriving accurate source terms is crucial for monitoring and short-term forecasting (24-h) of volcanic clouds. Back trajectory methods have been developed which use satellite observations and transport models to estimate the injection altitude, eruption time, and eruption duration of observed volcanic clouds. These methods can provide eruption timing estimates on a 2-hour temporal resolution and estimate the altitude and depth of a volcanic cloud. To better understand the differences between MERRA simulations and volcanic SO2 observations, back trajectory methods are used to estimate the source term parameters for a few volcanic eruptions and compared to their corresponding entry in the AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory. The nature of

  4. La Reforma del Estado y la Social democracia


    Cárdenas, Manuel José


    En este artículo el autor sostiene que la gran tarea política de esta primera década del siglo XXI es la reconstrucción del Estado colombiano. Destaca que cuando existe una crisis importante en el sistema político su origen debe buscarse en el Estado o en el mercado. La Depresión del año 30 se produjo por un mal funcionamiento del mercado y la gran crisis de los años 80 por el colapso del Estado. Esta crisis en realidad comprendió varias crisis: fiscal, del modelo de intervención del Estado e...

  5. Análisis florístico en tepetates del estado de Tlaxcala Floristic analysis in tepetates of Tlaxcala State

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    José Luis Martínez-y-Pérez


    Full Text Available En México no se conocen trabajos sobre florística de los tepetates, ya que se consideran suelos improductivos y poco interesantes para su estudio. Se recolectó material botánico durante 18 meses en 2 localidades del estado de Tlaxcala con presencia de tepetates y en 40 unidades experimentales con barreras para retención de sedimentos y 40 sin barreras, que también fueron utilizadas para introducir arbustos nativos micorrizados. Las plantas se identificaron taxonómicamente y se depositaron en el herbario TLXM. Se registran 44 familias, 106 géneros y 140 especies que representan más del 10% de lo conocido para el estado. Las 2 localidades comparten 51 especies y existen muchas exclusivas de cada sitio. El análisis de varianza muestra diferencias significativas (pWe present one floristic analysis of tepetates (indurated volcanic soils in Tlaxcala State because information of these kind environments is poor in Mexico. We recollected botanic samples of vascular plants during 18 months in 2 localities of Tlaxcala State with volcanic soils. We used 40 experimentation parcels with borders for sediments accumulation and 40 without them used for introduced natives shrub micorrized. Vegetational samples were identified taxonomically and deposited in TLXM herbaria. We listed 44 families, 106 genera and 140 species that represent more of 10% known flora for the state. There are 51 species common for the 2 localities and the majority of them are exclusively at their own localities. There are significatives differences (p<0.05 between localities and between experimentation parcels with borders or without. The analysis shows 4 groups with 43% of similarity, the first and second represent the parcels with few species, the third and fourth represent parcels of Atlangatepec and Altzayanca respectively, this situation could be influenced by the presence of Asteraceae and Poaceae, families which are known of wide distribution and with affinities to open

  6. Assessment of volcanic hazards, vulnerability, risk and uncertainty (Invited) (United States)

    Sparks, R. S.


    A volcanic hazard is any phenomenon that threatens communities . These hazards include volcanic events like pyroclastic flows, explosions, ash fall and lavas, and secondary effects such as lahars and landslides. Volcanic hazards are described by the physical characteristics of the phenomena, by the assessment of the areas that they are likely to affect and by the magnitude-dependent return period of events. Volcanic hazard maps are generated by mapping past volcanic events and by modelling the hazardous processes. Both these methods have their strengths and limitations and a robust map should use both approaches in combination. Past records, studied through stratigraphy, the distribution of deposits and age dating, are typically incomplete and may be biased. Very significant volcanic hazards, such as surge clouds and volcanic blasts, are not well-preserved in the geological record for example. Models of volcanic processes are very useful to help identify hazardous areas that do not have any geological evidence. They are, however, limited by simplifications and incomplete understanding of the physics. Many practical volcanic hazards mapping tools are also very empirical. Hazards maps are typically abstracted into hazards zones maps, which are some times called threat or risk maps. Their aim is to identify areas at high levels of threat and the boundaries between zones may take account of other factors such as roads, escape routes during evacuation, infrastructure. These boundaries may change with time due to new knowledge on the hazards or changes in volcanic activity levels. Alternatively they may remain static but implications of the zones may change as volcanic activity changes. Zone maps are used for planning purposes and for management of volcanic crises. Volcanic hazards maps are depictions of the likelihood of future volcanic phenomena affecting places and people. Volcanic phenomena are naturally variable, often complex and not fully understood. There are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Guandalini Jr.


    Full Text Available El artículo pretende comprender la actuación del Consejo de Estado en la construcción de un Estado nacional brasilero, desde su formación como Consejo General de Procuradores Generales de las Provincias del Brasil (1822-1823, pasando por su consolidación constitucional como Consejo de Estado (1823-1831, hasta su decadencia y extinción en el inicio de la Regencia (1831-1834. La investigación desea contribuir a la solución de la cuestión referente al papel desempeñado por el Consejo de Estado en el Brasil: al contrario de lo que afirma la doctrina brasilera del derecho administrativo, la institución no cumple funciones jurídicas, limitándose al trabajo de constitución de una estructura política para el nuevo Estado naciente.

  8. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.


    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  9. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  10. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.


    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 x 10 -5 per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 x 10 -5 per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis

  11. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review]. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun


    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson,

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Past Volcanic Crises (United States)

    Woo, Gordon


    The statistical foundation of disaster risk analysis is past experience. From a scientific perspective, history is just one realization of what might have happened, given the randomness and chaotic dynamics of Nature. Stochastic analysis of the past is an exploratory exercise in counterfactual history, considering alternative possible scenarios. In particular, the dynamic perturbations that might have transitioned a volcano from an unrest to an eruptive state need to be considered. The stochastic modeling of past volcanic crises leads to estimates of eruption probability that can illuminate historical volcanic crisis decisions. It can also inform future economic risk management decisions in regions where there has been some volcanic unrest, but no actual eruption for at least hundreds of years. Furthermore, the availability of a library of past eruption probabilities would provide benchmark support for estimates of eruption probability in future volcanic crises.

  13. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.


    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  14. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Schmidt, Anja [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Easter, Richard [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Solomon, Susan [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kinnison, Douglas E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Neely, Ryan R. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Marsh, Daniel R. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Conley, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Bardeen, Charles G. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Gettelman, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA


    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  15. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.


    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  16. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Perry, Frank V.; Valentine, Greg A.; Bowker, Lynn M.


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( than about 7 x 10 -8 events yr -1 . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption probability to the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain sit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Báez Silva


    Full Text Available En el artículo se aborda el tema de la naturaleza del Estado mexicano, partiendo de la teoría de la contradicción del Estado capitalista adaptada al caso nacional. Se critican las posiciones tradicionales y se sostiene que la contradicción esencial del Estado en México consistió en su labor modernizadora mediante prácticas autoritarias, puesto que se institucionalizó la incertidumbre, entendido esto no como el desconocimiento del nombre del ganador de un proceso electoral preestablecido, sino como el uso y abuso de la discrecionalidad con que se gobernaba en México, la cual se convirtió en una verdadera institución, en el sentido económico del término.

  18. Mainshock-Aftershocks Clustering Detection in Volcanic Regions (United States)

    Garza Giron, R.; Brodsky, E. E.; Prejean, S. G.


    Crustal earthquakes tend to break their general Poissonean process behavior by gathering into two main kinds of seismic bursts: swarms and mainshock-aftershocks sequences. The former is commonly related to volcanic or geothermal processes whereas the latter is a characteristic feature of tectonically driven seismicity. We explore the mainshock-aftershock clustering behavior of different active volcanic regions in Japan and its comparison to non-volcanic regions. We find that aftershock production in volcanoes shows mainshock-aftershocks clustering similar to what is observed in non-volcanic areas. The ratio of volanic areas that cluster in mainshock-aftershocks sequences vs the areas that do not is comparable to the ratio of non-volcanic regions that show clustering vs the ones that do not. Furthermore, the level of production of aftershocks for most volcanic areas where clustering is present seems to be of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as the median of the non-volcanic regions. An interesting example of highly aftershock-productive volcanoes emerges from the 2000 Miyakejima dike intrusion. A big seismic cluster started to build up rapidly in the south-west flank of Miyakejima to later propagate to the north-west towards the Kozushima and Niijima volcanoes. In Miyakejima the seismicity showed a swarm-like signature with a constant earthquake rate, whereas Kozushima and Niijima both had expressions of highly productive mainshock-aftershocks sequences. These findings are surprising given the alternative mechanisms available in volcanic systems for releasing deviatoric strain. We speculate that aftershock behavior might hold a relationship with the rheological properties of the rocks of each system and with the capacity of a system to accumulate or release the internal pressures caused by magmatic or hydrothermal systems.

  19. Neogene volcanism in Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Kovacs


    Full Text Available Two types of volcanism developed in Gutâi Mts. (inner volcanic chain of Eastern Carpathians: a felsic, extensional/“back-arc” type and an intermediate, arc type. The felsic volcanism of explosive origin, consisting of caldera-related rhyolitic ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics, had taken place during Early-Middle Badenian and Early Sarmatian. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The geochemical study on the volcanic rocks shows the calc-alkaline character of both felsic and intermediate volcanism and typical subduction zones geochemical signatures for the intermediate one. The felsic volcanism shows affinities with subduction-related rocks as well. The main petrogenetic process in Gutâi Mts. was crustal assimilation, strongly constrained by trace element and isotope geochemistry.

  20. Petrology and geochronology of metamorphosed volcanic rocks and a middle Cretaceous volcanic neck in the east-central Sierra Nevada, California. (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Swanson, S.E.


    Metamorphosed Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the E-central Sierra Nevada range in composition from basalt to rhyolite and have ages, based on whole rock Rb-Sr and U-Pb zircon dating, of about 237- 224, 185, 163, 134, and 100Ma. The major plutons of the batholith in this area are of Triassic (215-200Ma) and Cretaceous (94-80Ma) ages. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values for the metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the area are in the range from 0.7042 to 0.7058 and are generally different from the values for the surrounding batholithic rocks (0.7056-0.7066). A circular, zoned granitic pluton, with an outcrop area of 2.5km2, similar in appearance to a ring dike complex, was apparently a conduit for some or possibly all of the middle-Cretaceous metamorphosed volcanic rocks exposed about 5km to the S in the western part of the Ritter Range. Samples from the metamorphosed volcanic rocks and the pluton yield a Rb/Sr whole rock isochron age of 99.9+ or -2.2Ma with an intitial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7048+ or -0.00001. Major element variation diagrams of the pluton and volcanic rocks define coincident compositional trends. The ages of volcanic events relative to the ages of the major intrusive epochs and the major element and isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks relative to the major plutons indicate that the volcanic rocks are not simply or directly related to the major plutons in the Sierra Nevada. -from Authors

  1. Volcanic Characteristics of Kueishantao in Northeast Taiwan and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Chiu


    Full Text Available Kueishantao (KST is a small offshore volcanic island located at the southernmost part of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we conducted a detailed mapping incorporating the new high resolution LiDAR DTM laser scanning device to accurately construct a volcanic sequence. A new 1/5000 geological map was established. One primary volcanic cone, composed of layers of both lava flows and pyroclastic rocks constituted the major edifice of KST. The other minor volcanic cone, which consists of volcanic lapillis and blocks, is seated to the east of the main cone. The escarped and nearly straight coast in the southern part of the KST indicates that the volcano suffered a large post-volcanic edifice collapse erasing nearly one half of the volume of both volcanic cones. The increase in the abundance of the xenoliths of sedimentary rocks from the lower to the upper part of the volcanic sequence indicates that the formation of volcanic rocks of the KST involved an intensification of crustal contamination. The possibility of volcanic eruption can not be excluded in the future based on the present thermolu¬minescene age data of 7 ka. The associated eruptive ash fall and tsunami induced by the further collapse of the KST volcanic edifice might have great influence to the adjacent inland. Thus, long-term monitoring of volcanic activities around KST should be required for future hazard assessments.

  2. The Valle de Bravo Volcanic Field. A monogenetic field in the central front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Jaimes-Viera, M. D.; Nieto-Obreg¢n, J.; Lozano-Santacruz, R.


    The Valle de Bravo volcanic field, VBVF, is located in the central-southern front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt just to the southwest of Nevado de Toluca volcano. The VBVF covers 3,703 square Km and includes at least 122 cinder cones, 1 shield volcano, several domes, and the 2 volcanic complexes of Zitacuaro and Villa de Allende. Morphometric parameters calibrated with isotopic ages of the volcanic products indicate four groups or units for the VBVF, Pliocene domes and lava flows, undifferentiated Pleistocene lava flows,> 40 Ka cones and lavas, 40 to 25 Ka cones and lavas, 25 to 10 Ka cones and lavas, and < 10 Ka cones and lavas. Whole-rock chemistry shows that all products of the VBVF range from basaltic andesites to dacites. No basalts were found, in spite of many units are olivine-rich and large some with large weight percent contents of MgO, 1 to 9. There is the possibility that some or all of the olivines in some samples could be xenocrysts. Some andesites are high in Sr, 1000 to 1800 ppm, that correlates with relatively high values of Ba, Cr, Ni, Cu, CaO and MgO. Y and Nb have the typical low values for orogenic rocks. The only shield volcano of the VBVF has a base of 9 Km, and its composition is practically the average composition of the whole field. Stratigraphycally, it is one of the earlier events of the VBVF. Compared with other volcanic fields of the Mexican Volcanic Belt, it lacks basalts and alkalic rocks. All volcanism of this field is calcalkaline

  3. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.


    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  4. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa


    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  5. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  6. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus (United States)

    Roberts, K. Magee; Head, James W.


    The formation and evolution of coronae on Venus are thought to be the result of mantle upwellings against the crust and lithosphere and subsequent gravitational relaxation. A variety of other features on Venus have been linked to processes associated with mantle upwelling, including shield volcanoes on large regional rises such as Beta, Atla and Western Eistla Regiones and extensive flow fields such as Mylitta and Kaiwan Fluctus near the Lada Terra/Lavinia Planitia boundary. Of these features, coronae appear to possess the smallest amounts of associated volcanism, although volcanism associated with coronae has only been qualitatively examined. An initial survey of coronae based on recent Magellan data indicated that only 9 percent of all coronae are associated with substantial amounts of volcanism, including interior calderas or edifices greater than 50 km in diameter and extensive, exterior radial flow fields. Sixty-eight percent of all coronae were found to have lesser amounts of volcanism, including interior flooding and associated volcanic domes and small shields; the remaining coronae were considered deficient in associated volcanism. It is possible that coronae are related to mantle plumes or diapirs that are lower in volume or in partial melt than those associated with the large shields or flow fields. Regional tectonics or variations in local crustal and thermal structure may also be significant in determining the amount of volcanism produced from an upwelling. It is also possible that flow fields associated with some coronae are sheet-like in nature and may not be readily identified. If coronae are associated with volcanic flow fields, then they may be a significant contributor to plains formation on Venus, as they number over 300 and are widely distributed across the planet. As a continuation of our analysis of large-scale volcanism on Venus, we have reexamined the known population of coronae and assessed quantitatively the scale of volcanism associated

  7. Superficie Específica y Estado Vital de la Materia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernando Ordoñez


    Full Text Available

    Se propone reemplazar el término de materia viva por el de estado vital de la materia por considerarlo adecuado, pues la materia es la misma, lo que cambia es su estado. Se estudia la relación entre la superficie específica y el estado vital de la materia. Constante del estado vital y el valor crítico de la superficie específica. Qué es la fuerza de inducción vital? Diferenciación funcional de las células. Cómo regula la unidad biológica su superficie específica? La materia que piensa es el fenómeno más grandioso de la creación.

    Sin entrar en disquisiciones sobre la naturaleza, manifestaciones y formas de la energía, me permito hacer unas a manera de divagaciones sobre los diferentes estados de la materia, que es una forma de la energía.

    Estados de la materia

    Sabemos que la mínima porción de la materia es el átomo, que tiene una composición compleja, que no es del caso estudiar. Los átomos pueden existir aislados y estar en lo que llamamos estado iónico. Si los átomos se juntan, forman moléculas, y su existencia constituye el estado molecular. Si las moléculas se juntan, forman complejos más grandes y tendremos las micelas, que constituyen el estado coloidal.

    Hasta aquí nuestros conocimientos nos son familiares, triviales. Pero hay un estado más complejo, en el cual entra materia en estado iónico, molecular y coloidal entrelazados entre sí, con propiedades totalmente diferentes. La materia en este estado adquiere caracteres extraordinarios tales como el de crecer, reproducirse, independizarse de las leyes físicas, puede autorregular su composición química, autorregular sus manifestaciones físicas, reaccionar ante los estímulos más variados, puede llegar hasta alturas inconcebibles integrando ideas. A este estado fue al que llamé en publicación anterior (1 estado vital, concepto que fue corroborado más ‘tarde por J.R. Brown (2 cuando me coment

  8. Submarine Volcanic Eruptions and Potential Analogs for Venus (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Fryer, P.; Gaddis, L. R.


    As part of an analysis program to better understand the diversity of volcanic processes on the terrestrial planets, an investigation of the volcanic landforms which exist on the Earth's ocean floor was initiated. In part, this analysis is focused toward gaining a better understanding of submarine volcanic landforms in their own right, but also it is hoped that these features may show similarities to volcanic landforms on Venus, due to the high ambient water (Earth) and atmospheric (Venus) pressures. A series of numerical modelling experiments was performed to investigate the relative importance of such attributes as water pressure and temperature on the eruption process, and to determine the rate of cooling and emplacement of lava flows in the submarine environment. Investigations to date show that the confining water pressure and the buoyancy effects of the surrounding water significantly affect the styles of volcanism on the ocean floor. In the case of Venusian volcanism, confining pressures will not be as great as that found at the ocean's abyssal plains, but nevertheless the general trend toward reducing magma vesiculation will hold true for Venus as well as the ocean floor. Furthermore, other analogs may also be found between submarine volcanism and Venusian activity.

  9. Constructional Volcanic Edifices on Mercury: Candidates and Hypotheses of Formation (United States)

    Wright, Jack; Rothery, David A.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.


    Mercury, a planet with a predominantly volcanic crust, has perplexingly few, if any, constructional volcanic edifices, despite their common occurrence on other solar system bodies with volcanic histories. Using image and topographical data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, we describe two small (Earth and the Moon. Though we cannot definitively conclude that these landforms are volcanic, the paucity of constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury is intriguing in itself. We suggest that this lack is because volcanic eruptions with sufficiently low eruption volumes, rates, and flow lengths, suitable for edifice construction, were highly spatiotemporally restricted during Mercury's geological history. We suggest that volcanic edifices may preferentially occur in association with late-stage, postimpact effusive volcanic deposits. The European Space Agency/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury will be able to investigate further our candidate volcanic edifices; search for other, as-yet unrecognized edifices beneath the detection limits of MESSENGER data; and test our hypothesis that edifice construction is favored by late-stage, low-volume effusive eruptions.

  10. Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.; Leonard, G.S.


    In 2008 a multi-disciplinary research programme was launched, a GNS Science-University of Auckland collaboration with the aim of DEtermining VOlcanic Risk in Auckland (DEVORA). A major aspiration of DEVORA is development of a probabilistic hazard model for the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). This will be achieved by investigating past eruption magnitude-frequency relationships and comparing these with similar data from analogous volcanic fields. A key data set underpinning this is an age database for the AVF. To this end a comprehensive dating campaign is planned as part of DEVORA. This report, Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field, is a synthesis of all currently available age data for the AVF. It represents one of several reports carried out as part of the 'synthesis' phase of DEVORA, whereby existing data from all previous work is collated and summarised, so that gaps in current knowledge can be identified and addressed. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Sediment-infill volcanic breccia from the Neoarchean Shimoga greenstone terrane, western Dharwar Craton: Implications on pyroclastic volcanism and sedimentation in an active continental margin (United States)

    Manikyamba, C.; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Santosh, M.; Lingadevaru, M.; Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Subba Rao, D. V.


    We report sediment-infill volcanic breccia from the Neoarchean Shimoga greenstone belt of western Dharwar Craton which is associated with rhyolites, chlorite schists and pyroclastic rocks. The pyroclastic rocks of Yalavadahalli area of Shimoga greenstone belt host volcanogenic Pb-Cu-Zn mineralization. The sediment-infill volcanic breccia is clast-supported and comprises angular to sub-angular felsic volcanic clasts embedded in a dolomitic matrix that infilled the spaces in between the framework of volcanic clasts. The volcanic clasts are essentially composed of alkali feldspar and quartz with accessory biotite and opaques. These clasts have geochemical characteristics consistent with that of the associated potassic rhyolites from Daginkatte Formation. The rare earth elements (REE) and high field strength element (HFSE) compositions of the sediment-infill volcanic breccia and associated mafic and felsic volcanic rocks suggest an active continental margin setting for their generation. Origin, transport and deposition of these rhyolitic clasts and their aggregation with infiltrated carbonate sediments may be attributed to pyroclastic volcanism, short distance transportation of felsic volcanic clasts and their deposition in a shallow marine shelf in an active continental margin tectonic setting where the rhyolitic clasts were cemented by carbonate material. This unique rock type, marked by close association of pyroclastic volcanic rocks and shallow marine shelf sediments, suggest shorter distance between the ridge and shelf in the Neoarchean plate tectonic scenario.

  12. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe


    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  13. Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Maio, Giovanni; Del Franco, Mario; Aiuppa, Alessandro


    Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidar has been undertaken at the Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two differential absorption lidar instruments will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser, double grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing (DFM) and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), and VULLI (VULcamed Lidar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The first one is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE and the second one by the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) project VULCAMED. While VULLI has not yet been tested in a volcanic site, BILLI scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Naples, Italy) during a field campaign carried out from 13 to 17 October 2014. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater area. Lidar measurements were in good agreement with well-established techniques, based on different operating principles. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar, representing the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on an active volcano and showing the high potential of laser remote sensing in geophysical research.

  14. Topographic stress and catastrophic collapse of volcanic islands (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.


    Flank collapse of volcanic islands can devastate coastal environments and potentially induce tsunamis. Previous studies have suggested that factors such as volcanic eruption events, gravitational spreading, the reduction of material strength due to hydrothermal alteration, steep coastal cliffs, or sea level change may contribute to slope instability and induce catastrophic collapse of volcanic flanks. In this study, we examine the potential influence of three-dimensional topographic stress perturbations on flank collapses of volcanic islands. Using a three-dimensional boundary element model, we calculate subsurface stress fields for the Canary and Hawaiian islands to compare the effects of stratovolcano and shield volcano shapes on topographic stresses. Our model accounts for gravitational stresses from the actual shapes of volcanic islands, ambient stress in the underlying plate, and the influence of pore water pressure. We quantify the potential for slope failure of volcanic flanks using a combined model of three-dimensional topographic stress and slope stability. The results of our analysis show that subsurface stress fields vary substantially depending on the shapes of volcanoes, and can influence the size and spatial distribution of flank failures.

  15. Lahar—River of volcanic mud and debris (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Vallance, James W.


    Lahar, an Indonesian word for volcanic mudflow, is a mixture of water, mud, and volcanic rock flowing swiftly along a channel draining a volcano. Lahars can form during or after eruptions, or even during periods of inactivity. They are among the greatest threats volcanoes pose to people and property. Lahars can occur with little to no warning, and may travel great distances at high speeds, destroying or burying everything in their paths.Lahars form in many ways. They commonly occur when eruptions melt snow and ice on snow-clad volcanoes; when rains fall on steep slopes covered with fresh volcanic ash; when crater lakes, volcano glaciers or lakes dammed by volcanic debris suddenly release water; and when volcanic landslides evolve into flowing debris. Lahars are especially likely to occur at erupting or recently active volcanoes.Because lahars are so hazardous, U.S. Geological Survey scientists pay them close attention. They study lahar deposits and limits of inundation, model flow behavior, develop lahar-hazard maps, and work with community leaders and governmental authorities to help them understand and minimize the risks of devastating lahars.

  16. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeberger, D.M.; Pieri, D.C.


    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process

  17. El papel de los comités Pro-Estado en la creación del estado de Baja California

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    Lawrence Douglas Taylor


    Full Text Available El artículo trata del papel de los Comités Pro-Estado en la formación de Baja California como estado. Se analizan las raíces de la autonomía política en la península, que se remontan al Porfiriato, así como el impacto de la Revolución Mexicana sobre este proceso. Se examinan los diversos movimientos pro- estado que surgieron de 1929 en adelante la composición de sus grupos de integrantes, sus objetivos y contribuciones principales en términos de dirigir el sentimiento popular hacia la realización de esta meta.

  18. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2 (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.


    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  19. La Reforma del Estado y la Social democracia

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    Manuel José Cárdenas


    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor sostiene que la gran tarea política de esta primera década del siglo XXI es la reconstrucción del Estado colombiano. Destaca que cuando existe una crisis Importante en el sistema político su origen debe buscarse en el Estado o en el mercado. La Depresión del año 30 se produjo por un mal funcionamiento del mercado y la Gran Crisis de los años 80 por el colapso del Estado. Esta crisis en realidad comprendió varias crisis: fiscal, el modelo de intervención del Estado en lo económico y en lo social y en la forma burocrática de la administración del Estado. Las reformas económicas orientadas al mercado fueron la respuesta a la necesidad de tener un Estado mínimo y de dar más libertad a las fuerzas del mercado. Con este propósito se expidió la Constitución Política de 1991 y se realizaron reformas en la mayoría de los campos económicos y sociales.  Ante el hecho de que estas reformas no han sido plenamente satisfactorias y que el Estado no ha podido recuperar su papel de agente del desarrollo, estando en la práctica paralizado, en su concepto no se requiere una nueva reforma constitucional salvo aspectos muy puntuales como las transferencias territoriales, la gran reforma que debe hacerse debe  ser de carácter administrativo para recuperar la gobernanza, aumentar la gobemab1hdad y fortalecer la capacidad de promoción del Estado. En el artículo se explican en detalle las acciones que deberían realizarse para llevar a la práctica ca a uno de estos tres conceptos. Todo ello para alcanzar un Estado social­ liberal, Social porque debe seguir protegiendo los derechos sociales y promoviendo el desarrollo económico. Liberal porque debe usar más los controles del mercado y menos los controles administrativos, para lo cual debe descentralizarse la acción estatal fortalecerse lo merca  s de trabajo con la capacitación de los recursos humanos fomentarse la 1nnovacwn, el conocimiento y la competitividad.

  20. Inside the volcanic boiler room: knowledge exchange among stakeholders of volcanic unrest (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Christie, Ryerson; Bretton, Richard


    The knowledge of the causative links between subsurface processes, resulting monitoring signals and imminent eruption is incomplete. As a consequence, hazard assessment and risk mitigation strategies are subject to uncertainty. Discussion of unrest and pre-eruptive scenarios with uncertain outcomes are central during the discourse between a variety of stakeholders in volcanic unrest including scientists, emergency managers, policy makers and the public. Drawing from research within the EC FP7 VUELCO project, we argue that knowledge exchange amongst the different stakeholders of volcanic unrest evolves along three dimensions: 1) the identification of knowledge holders (including local communities) and their needs and expectations, 2) vehicles of communication and 3) trust. In preparing products that feed into risk assessment and management, scientists need to ensure that their deliverables are timely, accurate, clear, understandable and cater to the expectations of emergency managers. The means and content of communication amongst stakeholders need to be defined and adhered to. Finally, efficient and effective interaction between stakeholders is ideally based on mutual trust between those that generate knowledge and those that receive knowledge. For scientists, this entails contextualising volcanic hazard and risk in the framework of environmental and social values. Periods of volcanic quiescence are ideally suited to test established protocols of engagement between stakeholders in preparation for crises situations. The different roles of stakeholders and associated rules of engagement can be scrutinised and reviewed in antecessum rather than ad-hoc during a crisis situation to avoid issues related to distrust, loss of credibility and overall poor risk management. We will discuss these themes drawing from exploitation of research results from Mexico and Ecuador.

  1. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr


    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  2. Estado de exceção em Giorgio Agamben

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    Evandro Pontel


    Full Text Available Esta reflexão aborda o estado de exceção enquanto necessidade à existência do direito e como realidade que emerge sempre mais e tende a ser tornar, por fim, regra nas sociedades atuais. Não mais excepcional, mas o padrão de atuação dos Estados que está se generalizando e se misturando com o que era o seu oposto, o estado de direito. Nesta perspectiva, o estado de exceção como paradigma de governo repercute no modo como o direito internacional regula o uso da força pelos Estados. Nesse sentido, a positivação dos princípios da soberania e não-intervenção confere e reforça a autonomia dos governos na condução de seus atos. Da mesma forma, em nome da defesa dos interesses nacionais há um enfraquecimento de iniciativas de cooperação entre os Estados. Frente a estas questões a abordagem agambeniana lança luzes no que tange ao Estado, à política e ao direito, justamente focando as estruturas que legitimam a violência, a arbitrariedade e a suspensão dos direitos, em nome da segurança, a serviço da concentração de poder e de uma lógica de domínio.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Barreto Leitão


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, busca-se trazer à luz as relações entre Estado, Sociedade Civil e garantias de liberdade tendo em vista a evolução do pensamento político a esse respeito. Para tanto, tomou-se como parâmetro a passagem do estado de natureza ao estado civil segundo as concepções de Thomas Hobbes e de Immanuel Kant, levando-se em consideração as influências e os respectivos contextos históricos em que os arcabouços teóricos de cada autor foram erigidos. O primeiro deles veria tal passagem como fruto de um cálculo interessado, o segundo, como resultado de um dever-ser.

  4. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin


    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  5. El estado laico: ¿importa su vigencia?

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    María del Luján Flores


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de reflexionar acerca del Estado Laico y de alguno de sus actuales desafios sin pretender dar respuestas sino más bien plantear interrogantes.La cuestión fundamental a nuestro entender es la de determinar si se entiende o no que el Estado Laico es el sistema adecuado a adoptarse en el mundo contemporáneo y en caso afirmativo qué implicancias tendría la violación de sus postulados.Contenido: El principio de laicidad y la libertad de pensamiento. El estado laico como garantía del desarrollo de los derechos humanos. La exigencia ética. Etica y derecho.Conclusiones

  6. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.


    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  7. Properties of volcanic soils in cold climate conditions (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena


    Layers of volcanic ash and the Andosol soils derived from them may play an important role in preserving snow and ice as well as developing permafrost conditions in the immediate vicinity of volcanoes of high elevation or those situated at high latitudes, and land areas, often distant from volcanic activity that are either prone to permafrost or covered by snow and ice, but are affected by the deposition of subaerial ash. The special properties of volcanic ash that are responsible are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place. Volcanic glass is the most easily weathered component of volcanic ejecta (Shoji et al., 1993; Kimble et al., 2000). There are many specific environmental conditions, including paleoclimate and present-day climate, the composition of volcanic tephra and glaciation history, which cause the differences in weathering and development of volcanic ash soils (Zehetner et al., 2003). The preservation of in situ, unweathered, and unaltered surficial ash-fall deposits in the cold regions has important implications for paleoclimate and glacial history. Ash-fall deposits, which trap and preserve the soils, sediments, and landforms on which they fall, can be used to resolve local climate conditions (temperature and moisture) at the ash site during ash-fall deposition. The preservation of detailed sedimentary features (e.g. bedding in the ash, sharpness of stratigraphic contacts) can tell us about their post-depositional history, whether they have been redeposited by wind or water, or overridden by glaciers (Marchant et al., 1996). Weathering of volcanic glass results in the development of amorphous clay minerals (e.g. allophane, opal, palagonite) but this takes place much slower in cold than under warmer climate conditions. Only few

  8. The onset of the volcanism in the Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (Eastern Carpathians): Eruption chronology and magma type variation (United States)

    Molnár, Kata; Harangi, Szabolcs; Lukács, Réka; Dunkl, István; Schmitt, Axel K.; Kiss, Balázs; Garamhegyi, Tamás; Seghedi, Ioan


    Combined zircon U-Th-Pb and (U-Th)/He dating was applied to refine the eruption chronology of the last 2 Myr for the andesitic and dacitic Pilişca volcano and Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (CVDC), the youngest volcanic area of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, located in the southernmost Harghita, eastern-central Europe. The proposed eruption ages, which are supported also by the youngest zircon crystallization ages, are much younger than the previously determined K/Ar ages. By dating every known eruption center in the CVDC, repose times between eruptive events were also accurately determined. Eruption of the andesite at Murgul Mare (1865 ± 87 ka) and dacite of the Pilişca volcanic complex (1640 ± 37 ka) terminated an earlier pulse of volcanic activity within the southernmost Harghita region, west of the Olt valley. This was followed by the onset of the volcanism in the CVDC, which occurred after several 100s kyr of eruptive quiescence. At ca. 1 Ma a significant change in the composition of erupted magma occurred from medium-K calc-alkaline compositions to high-K dacitic (Baba-Laposa dome at 942 ± 65 ka) and shoshonitic magmas (Malnaş and Bixad domes; 964 ± 46 ka and 907 ± 66 ka, respectively). Noteworthy, eruptions of magmas with distinct chemical compositions occurred within a restricted area, a few km from one another. These oldest lava domes of the CVDC form a NNE-SSW striking tectonic lineament along the Olt valley. Following a brief (ca. 100 kyr) hiatus, extrusion of high-K andesitic magma continued at Dealul Mare (842 ± 53 ka). After another ca. 200 kyr period of quiescence two high-K dacitic lava domes extruded (Puturosul: 642 ± 44 ka and Balvanyos: 583 ± 30 ka). The Turnul Apor lava extrusion occurred after a ca. 200 kyr repose time (at 344 ± 33 ka), whereas formation of the Haramul Mic lava dome (154 ± 16 ka) represents the onset of the development of the prominent Ciomadul volcano. The accurate determination of eruption dates shows that the

  9. Neoliberalismo socioeconômico e mutações jurídicas do Estado moderno: o Estado Plurinacional boliviano

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    Martinho Martins Botelho


    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar as recentes modificações no ordenamento jurídico constitucional boliviano, no que tange à institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional, criado a partir do diálogo maior entre a democracia cultural, o direito e as instituições econômicas. Em 2009, fora aprovada a Constituição Política do Estado Plurinacional de Bolívia, depois de manifestação por meio de referendo. O legado da nova Constituição Política boliviana reside no desligamento com o antigo regime mais corporativista e voltado para a difusão de um ideal neoliberal socioeconômico.  A compreensão da nova categoria constitucional poderá contribuir para o levantamento de elementos que possibilitem a compreensão de novas mutações constitucionais e intervenções jurídicas na sociedade do século XXI. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a recente crise do Estado boliviano e na institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional como uma demanda social para a superação das ideias neoliberais.

  10. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities (United States)

    Connor, Charles


    Worldwide, tremendous progress has been made in recent decades in forecasting volcanic events, such as episodes of volcanic unrest, eruptions, and the potential impacts of eruptions. Generally these forecasts are divided into two categories. Short-term forecasts are prepared in response to unrest at volcanoes, rely on geophysical monitoring and related observations, and have the goal of forecasting events on timescales of hours to weeks to provide time for evacuation of people, shutdown of facilities, and implementation of related safety measures. Long-term forecasts are prepared to better understand the potential impacts of volcanism in the future and to plan for potential volcanic activity. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful to better understand and communicate the potential consequences of volcanic events for populated areas around volcanoes and for siting critical infrastructure, such as nuclear facilities. Recent work by an international team, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has focused on developing guidelines for long-term volcanic hazard assessments. These guidelines have now been implemented for hazard assessment for nuclear facilities in nations including Indonesia, the Philippines, Armenia, Chile, and the United States. One any time scale, all volcanic hazard assessments rely on a geologically reasonable conceptual model of volcanism. Such conceptual models are usually built upon years or decades of geological studies of specific volcanic systems, analogous systems, and development of a process-level understanding of volcanic activity. Conceptual models are used to bound potential rates of volcanic activity, potential magnitudes of eruptions, and to understand temporal and spatial trends in volcanic activity. It is these conceptual models that provide essential justification for assumptions made in statistical model development and the application of numerical models to generate quantitative forecasts. It is a

  11. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.


    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  12. Monogenetic volcanism: personal views and discussion (United States)

    Németh, K.; Kereszturi, G.


    Monogenetic volcanism produces small-volume volcanoes with a wide range of eruptive styles, lithological features and geomorphic architectures. They are classified as spatter cones, scoria (or cinder) cones, tuff rings, maars (maar-diatremes) and tuff cones based on the magma/water ratio, dominant eruption styles and their typical surface morphotypes. The common interplay between internal, such as the physical-chemical characteristics of magma, and external parameters, such as groundwater flow, substrate characteristics or topography, plays an important role in creating small-volume volcanoes with diverse architectures, which can give the impression of complexity and of similarities to large-volume polygenetic volcanoes. In spite of this volcanic facies complexity, we defend the term "monogenetic volcano" and highlight the term's value, especially to express volcano morphotypes. This study defines a monogenetic volcano, a volcanic edifice with a small cumulative volume (typically ≤1 km3) that has been built up by one continuous, or many discontinuous, small eruptions fed from one or multiple magma batches. This definition provides a reasonable explanation of the recently recognized chemical diversities of this type of volcanism.

  13. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning. (United States)

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M


    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  14. Principal geological characteristics of the volcanic-type uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiheng


    The volcanic-type uranium deposits in China distribute in two gigantic active belts, that is, circum-Pacific belt and latitudinal structure belt crossing Europe-Asia. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur in continental volcanics,which are mainly composed of acid or alkali volcanics. Based on the study of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio, REE distribution pattern and melt inclusion thermometry of volcanics, it is found that volcanic magma originated mainly from high-temperature melt of sialsphere and they were propably contaiminated partially by mantle materials. The volcanic eruption was controlled by regional fault and formed eruption belt, the beld can be divided into several sub-belt which was comprised by a serial eruption centres. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur by the side of down-faulted red basin or associated with basic swarm. This means that the uranium mineralization is related to deep tectonics-magmatism. The paper proposes that the moderate erosion of volcanic belt is an important precondition to find uranium deposits. (authors)

  15. Eocene volcanism and the origin of horizon A (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Towe, K.M.


    A series of closely time-equivalent deposits that correlate with seismic reflector horizon A exists along the coast of eastern North America. These sediments of Late-Early to Early-Middle Eocene age contain an authigenic mineral suite indicative of the alteration of volcanic glass. A volcanic origin for these siliceous deposits onshore is consistent with a volcanic origin for the cherts of horizon A offshore.

  16. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  17. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  18. De los Estados fallidos a los Estados frágiles: un reto para el Derecho internacional contemporáneo [RECENSIÓN


    Ortiz-Hernández, E. (Eimys)


    Recensión de Garciandía Garmendia, R., De los Estados fallidos a los Estados frágiles: un reto para el Derecho internacional contemporáneo Ed. Comares, Granada, 2013, 294 pp. (ISBN: 978-84-9045-054-3)

  19. Estado social de derecho o estado de opinión: dilema sin resolver en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José Cadrazco Salcedo


    Full Text Available Resumen:El alcance del Estado Social de Derecho no se circunscribe solamente a su terminología ni a lo etimológico desu traducción, todo por el contrario se da en las relaciones que deben marcar el comportamiento del Estado frentea los conciudadanos que lo integran y se refuerza con el principio de la Dignidad Humana, lo que había venidosiendo tratado desde la Revolución Francesa pero que ahora cobra mayor vigencia, dada la alta concentracióndel garantismo que sobre los derechos de los individuos deben preservar los Estados frente al conglomeradosocial. En el Estado de Opinión si bien existen unas normas, estas se van acomodando diariamente según elquerer del Gobernante de turno y lo que prima no es el apego o cumplimiento de las normas, sino la manipulaciónque el o los Gobernantes de turno hacen de la opinión pública a través de los medios masivos de comunicacióny el manejo de las encuestas de opinión que sirven para catapultar o enterrar un gobernante o un período deGobierno en un estado determinado.Palabras Claves:Estado Social de Derecho, Estado de Opinión, Gobierno, Democracia, Constitución, Población, Encuestas,Medios de Comunicación, Derechos Sociales.Abstract:The scope of the rule of law is not limited to terminology or the etymology of its translation, on the contrary,everything is in relationships that should mark the conduct of the State against the citizens in it and is strengthenedby the principles of human dignity, which had been treated since the French Revolution, but now becomes moreeffective, given the high concentration of the guarantors of the rights of individuals to preserve the front of thesocial conglomerate. In the state of opinion, although there are rules, they will want to accommodate the daily asthe ruler of the day and what the attachment is no premium or compliance, but the handling or the rulers of themake-shift public opinion through the mass media and the handling of the polls used to bury a

  20. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.


    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  1. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.


    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  2. Volcanic hazard studies for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Turrin, B.; Wells, S.; Perry, F.; McFadden, L.; Renault, C.E.; Champion, D.; Harrington, C.


    Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located a minimum distance of 12 km and a maximum distance of 47 km from the outer boundary of the exploration block. The conditional probability of disruption of a repository by future basaltic volcanism is bounded by the range of 10/sup /minus/8/ to 10/sup /minus/10/ yr/sup /minus/1/. These values are currently being reexamined based on new developments in the understanding of the evaluation of small volume, basaltic volcanic centers including: (1) Many, perhaps most, of the volcanic centers exhibit brief periods of eruptive activity separated by longer periods of inactivity. (2) The centers may be active for time spans exceeding 10 5 yrs, (3) There is a decline in the volume of eruptions of the centers through time, and (4) Small volume eruptions occurred at two of the Quaternary centers during latest Pleistocene or Holocene time. We classify the basalt centers as polycyclic, and distinguish them from polygenetic volcanoes. Polycyclic volcanism is characterized by small volume, episodic eruptions of magma of uniform composition over time spans of 10 3 to 10 5 yrs. Magma eruption rates are low and the time between eruptions exceeds the cooling time of the magma volumes. 25 refs., 2 figs

  3. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.


    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  4. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,


    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  5. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang


    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  6. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.


    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  7. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon--Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Sargent, K.A.


    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13 to 15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline commendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic centers differ in the total range and distribution of SiO 2 , contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na 2 O + K 2 O > Al 2 O 3 ) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

  8. Síntesis del estado del conocimiento del ciclo de carbono en ecosistemas boscosos de los Estados Unidos (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Mark E. Harmon; Richard A. Birdsey; Christian P. Giardina; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Robert B. Jackson; Duncan C. McKinley; James F. Morrison; Brian C. Murray; Diane E. Pataki; Kenneth E. Skog


    Los bosques juegan un papel central en el ciclo de carbono de los Estados Unidos y global. El secuestro de carbono de los bosques de los Estados Unidos, a través de su crecimiento y la cosecha de productos madereros, compensa en la actualidad entre un 12 y un 19% de las emisiones de carbono asociadas al uso de combustible fósil de dicho país. El ciclo natural de un...

  9. Ash production by attrition in volcanic conduits and plumes. (United States)

    Jones, T J; Russell, J K


    Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions. Our experimental results indicate that fine ash production and surface area generation is fast (eruption column stability, tephra dispersal, aggregation, volcanic lightening generation, and has concomitant effects on aviation safety and Earth's climate.

  10. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco


    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  11. Classifcation of volcanic structure in mesozoic era in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengqi.


    The volcanic structure in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area can be classified into IV grades: the grade I be the zone of volcanic activity; the grade II be the second zone of volcanic activity; the grade III be the positive, negative volcanic structure; the grade IV be volcanic conduit, volcanic crater, concealed eruption breccia pipe. Based on the geological situation in this area, the different types of volcanic structure are also dealt with. In the mean time, both the embossed type in the depression area and the depressed type in the embossed area in the volcanic basin are pointed out. It is of great advantage to Uranium mineralization

  12. Volcanic eruptions on Io (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.


    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  13. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands (United States)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.


    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  14. Self-potential anomalies in some Italian volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Silenziario


    Full Text Available The study of Self-Potential (SP space and time variations in volcanic areas may provide useful information on both the geometrical structure of the volcanic apparatuses and the dynamical behaviour of the feeding and uprising systems. In this paper, the results obtained on the islands of Vulcano (Eolian arc and Ponza (Pontine archipelago and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complex are shown. On the island of Vulcano and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius apparatus areal SP surveys were performed with the aim of evidencing anomalies closely associated to the zones of major volcanic activity. On the island of Vulcano a profile across the fumaroles along the crater rim of the Fossa Cone was also carried out in order to have a direct relationship between fumarolic fracture migration and flow rate and SP anomaly space and time variations. The areal survey on the island of Ponza, which is considered an inactive area, is assumed as a reference test with which to compare the amplitude and pattern of the anomalies in the active areas. A tentative interpretation of the SP anomalies in volcanic areas is suggested in terms of electrokinetic phenomena, related to the movement of fluids of both volcanic and non-volcanic origin.

  15. Screening criteria of volcanic hazards aspect in the NPP site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Siwhan


    Studies have been conducted on the completeness of regulation in Indonesia particularly on volcanic hazards aspects in the evaluation of nuclear power plant site. Volcanic hazard aspect needed to identify potential external hazards that may endanger the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. There are four stages for evaluating volcanic hazards, which are initial assessment, characterization sources of volcanic activity in the future, screening volcanic hazards and assessment of capable volcanic hazards. This paper discuss the third stage of the general evaluation which is the screening procedure of volcanic hazards. BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 2 Year of 2008 has only one screening criteria for missile volcanic phenomena, so it required screening criteria for other hazard phenomena that are pyroclastic flow density; lava flows; avalanche debris materials; lava; opening hole new eruptions, volcano missile; tsunamis; ground deformation; and hydrothermal system and ground water anomaly. (author)

  16. Venus - Volcanic features in Atla Region (United States)


    This Magellan image from the Atla region of Venus shows several types of volcanic features and superimposed surface fractures. The area in the image is approximately 350 kilometers (217 miles) across, centered at 9 degrees south latitude, 199 degrees east longitude. Lava flows emanating from circular pits or linear fissures form flower-shaped patterns in several areas. A collapse depression approximately 20 kilometers by 10 kilometers (12 by 6 miles) near the center of the image is drained by a lava channel approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) long. Numerous surface fractures and graben (linear valleys) criss-cross the volcanic deposits in north to northeast trends. The fractures are not buried by the lavas, indicating that the tectonic activity post-dates most of the volcanic activity.

  17. Direito, estado e poder: poulantzas e o seu confronto com Kelsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Motta


    Full Text Available A Teoria do Estado, no campo da Ciência Política, viveu momentos de crise, em particular na passagem dos anos 1980 para os 1990, quando algumas correntes intelectuais apontavam que o Estado-nação e as instituições estatais deixariam de ocupar um papel central como objetos de análise. O presente artigo vai de encontro a essa posição e visa a estabelecer uma análise comparativa de dois dos mais sistemáticos autores que trataram do conceito de Estado moderno e da relação deste com o Direito moderno: Hans Kelsen e Nicos Poulantzas. O ponto de partida é a analogia estabelecida entre ambos por David Easton, em seu artigo O sistema político sitiado pelo Estado, que identifica a obra marxista de Poulantzas com a teoria sistêmica e normativa de Kelsen sobre o Direito e o Estado. De fato, paradoxalmente, Poulantzas converge em muitos aspectos com Kelsen quando critica o pensamento liberal (ao qual Kelsen é filiado e quando define que o Estado de Direito seria a antítese dos estados autoritários. Mas, a despeito dessas convergências, as diferenças entre Poulantzas e Kelsen demarcam duas formas distintas no trato teórico e político sobre os conceitos de Direito e Estado. Para Kelsen, o Estado é impermeável, não havendo contradições e fissuras internas, enquanto, para Poulantzas, o Estado é definido como um campo estratégico de lutas, permeado de micropolíticas e de contradições. O artigo é composto de uma introdução, seguida por duas seções que sistematizam as principais definições de Kelsen e Poulantzas sobre o papel do Estado e do Direito modernos, além de uma conclusão, que demarca os aspectos convergentes e divergentes entre os dois autores

  18. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  19. Medición del comercio intraindustrial Colombia - Estados Unidos 1995-2005


    Caicedo Marulanda, Carolina


    Este documento analiza la existencia de comercio intraindustrial entre Colombia y Estados Unidos, usando la información contenida en la base de datos BACI del CEPII para el periodo comprendido entre 1995 y 2005. La pertinencia de establecer una medición de los flujos de comercio intraindustrial entre Colombia y Estados Unidos radica fundamentalmente en la importancia relativa que representa Estados Unidos como socio comercial para Colombia. El comercio bilateral entre Colombia y Estados c...

  20. Variational data assimilation of satellite observations to estimate volcanic ash emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.


    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of volcanic ash, which can pose hazard to human and animal health, land transportation, and aviation safety. Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion (VATD) models are critical tools to provide advisory information and timely volcanic ash forecasts. Due to the

  1. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.


    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  2. Groundwater characteristics and problems in volcanic rock terrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.


    Volcanic rock formations, each with their own particular hydrogeological characteristics, occur in circumstances that cover a multiplicity of situations. These range from permeable porous rock formations to permeable fissured formations and include all types of intermediate situation between the two. The type of volcanism, distance from the source of emission, age, alteration processes and tectonics are all factors which determine their behaviour. Volcanic formations usually constitute a single aquifer system, even though this may be very heterogeneous and may locally be separated into clearly defined subunits. At times, formations may be hundreds of metres thick and are fairly permeable almost throughout. As a rule, volcanic material does not yield directly soluble salts to the water that flows through it. Mineralization of the water is due to the concentration of rainfall and the hydrolysis of silicates as a result of CO 2 being absorbed from the atmosphere and the ground, or as a result of volcanism itself. Cationic grouping is usually closely correlated to that of the rock formation in which the chemical composition is formed. Most environmental isotope and radioisotope techniques may be used, and at times are of unquestionable value. However, the existence of evaporation in the soil with possible isotopic fractionation, the effects of marked relief, the dilution of dissolved carbon by volcanic carbon and isotopic exchange brought about by volcanic carbon, etc., should be taken into account before valid conclusions are drawn. The paper uses examples taken from existing studies, mainly those being carried out in the Canary Islands (Spain). (author). 98 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.


    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  4. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A.; Wells, S.; Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K.; Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.


    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report

  5. X-ray microanalysis of volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, S L; Buse, B


    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated the disruptive nature of high-level volcanic ash emissions to the world's air traffic. The chemistry of volcanic material is complex and varied. Different eruptions yield both compositional and morphological variation. Equally a single eruption, such as that in Iceland will evolve over time and may potentially produce a range of volcanic products of varying composition and morphology. This variability offers the petrologist the opportunity to derive a tracer to the origins both spatially and temporally of a single particle by means of electron microbeam analysis. EPMA of volcanic ash is now an established technique for this type of analysis as used in tephrachronology. However, airborne paniculate material may, as in the case of Eyjafjallajökull, result in a particle size that is too small and too dispersed for preparation of standard EPMA mounts. Consequently SEM-EDS techniques are preferred for this type of quantitative analysis . Results of quantitative SEM-EDS analysis yield data with a larger precision error than EPMA yet sufficient to source the original eruption. Uncoated samples analyzed using variable pressure SEM yield slightly poorer results at modest pressures.

  6. Formation and evolution of mesozoic volcanic basins in Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingpu


    The author mainly discusses the principle model for the formation and the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic Belt, and describes the distinct evolution features between the internal and external sites of volcanic basins, the natural relation between the down-warped, down-faulted, collapse volcanic basins and volcanic domes, the relationship between the formation of inter layered fractured zones of the volcanic cover and the evolution of volcanic basins

  7. Petrogeochemistry of Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoguang; Li Ziying; Wei Sanyuan; Qi Da'neng


    Through the discussion on petrogeochemistry of Later Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan Basin in Manzhouli area, combined with field observation and the predecessors' study, its magma evolution,genesis and diagenetic structural environment are discussed, and some suggestion are provided for the further work. Basaltic magma in this area is believed to be derived from mantle with incompatible elements which were later participated by some crustal materials. It is a partially melting product of mantle by early metasomatized fluid under lithosphere extension. Through petrogeochemical analysis of the volcanics and the contrast to the adjacent uranium-producing volcanics, it is concluded that this region has structural environment to form magma evolution series which are more favorable for volcanic hydrothermal-type uranium and polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  8. Superficie Específica y Estado Vital de la Materia


    J. Hernando Ordoñez


    Se propone reemplazar el término de materia viva por el de estado vital de la materia por considerarlo adecuado, pues la materia es la misma, lo que cambia es su estado. Se estudia la relación entre la superficie específica y el estado vital de la materia. Constante del estado vital y el valor crítico de la superficie específica. Qué es la fuerza de inducción vital? Diferenciación funcional de las células. Cómo regula la unidad biológica su superficie específica? La materia que piens...

  9. El rol del Estado en el Derecho Internacional Privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben B. Santos Belandro


    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción. El Estado como instrumento de la racionalidad jurídica. Primer contragolpe en favor de la restauración de los valores irreflexivos: Savigny. La racionalidad jurídica al servicio del Estado: el neo-territorialismo rioplatense. Segundo contragolpe contra el racionalismo formal: el materialismo de Quintín Alfonsín. El reconocimiento de otras formas de racionalidad descartan al Estado como el único intérprete. ¿Y el futuro?

  10. Fluids in volcanic and geothermal systems (United States)

    Sigvaldason, Gudmundur E.

    Mineral buffers control the composition of most volatile components of magmas and dissolved species in geothermal fluids. The only element which occurs in significant quantities in volcanic and geothermal fluids and is not controlled by mineral buffers is chlorine. It is argued that in absence of marine influence, geothermal fluids reflect the chlorine content of associated magmatic fluids. The chlorine content of oceanic volcanic rocks has a positive correlation with elements, which are believed to indicate a heterogenous source region. Since the source is generally believed to be the Earth's mantle, the implication is that the mantle is heterogenous with regard to chlorine and other volatiles. Such heterogeneities would have important consequences for genesis and distribution of ore. All major magma types of the oceanic environment occur in Iceland. Their spatial distribution is closely related to a volcanotectonic pattern, suggesting crustal control. A geophysical model of crustal accretion in a rift zone is used in conjunction with classical petrology to predict geochemical processes in a rift zone crust. The model has two kinematic parameters-drift rate and subsidence rate-which combined describe trajectories of mass particles deposited on the surface. When considering in conjunction with thermal gradients of the rift zone a series of metamorphic reactions and chemical fractionation processes are bound to occur, eventually resulting in a layering of the oceanic crust. The physical parameters result in a derived variable, rift zone residence time, which depends on the width of a rift zone. Long residence times in a wide rift zone lead to multistage recycling of material. Other properties of the model, based on geometric arrangement of productive fissure swarms within a rift zone, explain off-rift volcanism as directly related to rift zone processes, either as plate trapped magmatic domains or a transgressive thermal anomaly into an older crust. Off

  11. La responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado legislador en el ámbito tributario


    Pérez Bernabeu, Begoña


    La responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado es un instituto básico en un Estado de Derecho, extendiéndose a los tres poderes del Estado: Legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial. En la actualidad existe un elevado grado de consenso en nuestro país al afirmar que el reconocimiento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado legislador reside en el apartado 3 del artículo 9 de nuestra Constitución. En el ámbito tributario este instituto reviste una especial importancia habida cuenta de l...

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues (United States)

    Robock, Alan


    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  13. Acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Soto


    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo consiste en determinar las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado previstas en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. La metodología utilizada es la investigación documental, sustentada en el método analítico y la técnica del análisis de contenido. Las fuentes para la recolección de información atienden a tres ámbitos: constitucional, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. Se concluye que la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado es un sistema de acepciones entendido como valor superior, principio general del derecho público, deber constitucional del Estado en ejercicio de cualquier función pública, derecho subjetivo público de fuerza, rango o valor constitucional, garantía constitucional perteneciente al particular o administrado,integrante de cualquier sociedad democrática y de justicia, para exigir por vía administrativa o jurisdiccional la indemnización de daños y perjuicios, materiales y morales, causados en su situación jurídica -derecho subjetivo e interés legítimo o interés jurídico actual- o en sus bienes muebles o inmuebles imputables al funcionamiento, normal o anormal, de los entes y órganos del Estado.El Tribunal Supremo de Justicia en Sala Político-Administrativa establece una doctrina jurisprudencial iuspublicista sobre las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado. El calificativo iuspublicista obedece a la circunstancia de que la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 constituye el instrumento normativo contentivo de las determinadas acepciones o significados.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  15. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir


    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  16. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.


    Volcanic eruptions on the deep sea floor have traditionally been assumed to be non-explosive as the high-pressure environment should greatly inhibit steam-driven explosions. Nevertheless, occasional evidence both from (generally slow-) spreading axes and intraplate seamounts has hinted at explosive activity at large water depths. Here we present evidence from a submarine field of volcanic cones and pit craters called Charles Darwin Volcanic Field located at about 3600 m depth on the lower southwestern slope of the Cape Verdean Island of Santo Antão. We examined two of these submarine volcanic edifices (Tambor and Kolá), each featuring a pit crater of 1 km diameter, using photogrammetric reconstructions derived from ROV-based imaging followed by 3D quantification using a novel remote sensing workflow, aided by sampling. The measured and calculated parameters of physical volcanology derived from the 3D model allow us, for the first time, to make quantitative statements about volcanic processes on the deep seafloor similar to those generated from land-based field observations. Tambor cone, which is 2500 m wide and 250 m high, consists of dense, probably monogenetic medium to coarse-grained volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks that are highly fragmented, probably as a result of thermal and viscous granulation upon contact with seawater during several consecutive cycles of activity. Tangential joints in the outcrops indicate subsidence of the crater floor after primary emplacement. Kolá crater, which is 1000 m wide and 160 m deep, appears to have been excavated in the surrounding seafloor and shows stepwise sagging features interpreted as ring fractures on the inner flanks. Lithologically, it is made up of a complicated succession of highly fragmented deposits, including spheroidal juvenile lapilli, likely formed by spray granulation. It resembles a maar-type deposit found on land. The eruption apparently entrained blocks of MORB-type gabbroic country rocks with

  17. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars. (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  18. Miocene volcanism in the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: Relationship to geodynamic processes in the Transcarpathian Basin (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Seghedi, Ioan; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Pécskay, Zoltán; Jurje, Maria


    We present the first comprehensive study of Miocene volcanic rocks of the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone (OGVZ), Romania, which are exposed in the eastern Transcarpathian Basin (TB), within the Eastern Alpine-Western Carpathian-Northern Pannonian (ALCAPA) block. Collision between the ALCAPA block and Europe at 18-16 Ma produced the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. This was followed by clockwise rotation and an extensional regime forming core complexes of the separated TB fragment. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, including Srsbnd Nd isotopic compositions and Ksbnd Ar ages, we distinguish three types of volcanic activity in the OGVZ: (1) early Miocene felsic volcanism that produced caldera-related ignimbrites in the Gutâi Mountains (15.4-14.8 Ma); (2) widespread middle-late Miocene intermediate/andesitic volcanism (13.4-7.0 Ma); and (3) minor late Miocene andesitic/rhyolitic volcanism comprising the Oraşu Nou rhyolitic volcano and several andesitic-dacitic domes in the Oaş Mountains (11.3-9.5 Ma). We show that magma evolution in the OGVZ was controlled by assimilation-fractional crystallization and magma-mixing processes within an interconnected multi-level crustal magmatic reservoir. The evolution of volcanic activity within the OGVZ was controlled by the geodynamics of the Transcarpathian Basin. The early felsic and late intermediate Miocene magmas were emplaced in a post-collisional setting and were derived from a mantle source region that was modified by subduction components (dominantly sediment melts) and lower crust. The style of volcanism within the eastern TB system exhibits spatial variations, with andesitic composite volcanoes (Gutâi Mountains) observed at the margins, and isolated andesitic-rhyolitic monogenetic volcanoes (Oaş Mountains) in the center of the basin.

  19. Fenomenologia da depressão estado-limite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Bin

    Full Text Available Depois que o conceito de borderline ou de “estadolimite” foi constituído, seu emprego se generalizou rapidamente na psiquiatria contemporânea. Esse conceito está edificado inicialmente na fronteira entre as psicoses esquizofrênicas e as neuroses. Na psicanálise, a psicogênese do estado-limite foi principalmente formulada em termos de teoria de relação de objeto. Supõe-se que os doentes estado-limite fracassaram, na sua primeira infância, ao integrar suficientemente, nas relações, sua imagem do eu à imagem primordial do objeto materno. Neste trabalho, postulando a clivagem como o transtorno gerador, é fornecido um fundamento teórico para o parentesco – suposto primeiramente do ponto de vista puramente clínico – entre o estado-limite e a esquizofrenia.

  20. O Estado cristão em Thomas Hobbes

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    Daniel Artur Emidio Branco


    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como finalidade a investigação do pensamento do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679, mais precisamente a relação entre Igreja e Estado, valendo-se de suas obras, em especial Leviatã (1651. Com o título O Estado Eclesiástico em Thomas Hobbes, o artigo busca mostrar como as conclusões de Hobbes acerca do papel da Igreja no Estado são relevantes para o século XXI. A concepção de Evangelho de Cristo como um reino de outro mundo, a natureza privada da fé, o pontificado do soberano como aquele que se posiciona está entre Deus e os homens, a união entre Lei Mosaica e Lei Natural e a união entre Igreja e Estado são os delimitadores do grande tema, que busca levar o leitor contemporâneo ao conhecimento das conclusões de Hobbes e, assim, considerar a aplicação das mesmas a sua geração.

  1. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.


    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  2. Global time-size distribution of volcanic eruptions on Earth. (United States)

    Papale, Paolo


    Volcanic eruptions differ enormously in their size and impacts, ranging from quiet lava flow effusions along the volcano flanks to colossal events with the potential to affect our entire civilization. Knowledge of the time and size distribution of volcanic eruptions is of obvious relevance for understanding the dynamics and behavior of the Earth system, as well as for defining global volcanic risk. From the analysis of recent global databases of volcanic eruptions extending back to more than 2 million years, I show here that the return times of eruptions with similar magnitude follow an exponential distribution. The associated relative frequency of eruptions with different magnitude displays a power law, scale-invariant distribution over at least six orders of magnitude. These results suggest that similar mechanisms subtend to explosive eruptions from small to colossal, raising concerns on the theoretical possibility to predict the magnitude and impact of impending volcanic eruptions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( -7 events per year. Bounding probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Arnargosa Valley and Crater Flat. The results of simulation modeling are used to assess the sensitivity of the disruption probability for the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain site. A new section on modeling of radiological releases associated with surface and subsurface magmatic activity has been added to chapter 6. The modeling results are consistent with past total system performance assessments that show future volcanic and magmatic events are not significant components of repository performance and volcanism is not a priority issue for performance assessment studies

  4. Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scollo


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of a project ongoing at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. The objective is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present by multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite, visual and thermal cameras, and three radar disdrometers able to detect ash dispersal and fallout. Forecasting is performed by using automatic procedures for: i downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii running models of tephra dispersal, iii plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing field data collected after the end of recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring system. The system was tested on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007 successfully. The potentiality use of monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, in a way to prevent threats to aviation from volcanic ash, is finally discussed.

  5. Apuntes sobre las instituciones y los programas de desarrollo rural en México. Del Estado benefactor al Estado neoliberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Herrera Tapia


    Full Text Available El artículo realiza un análisis descriptivo de los programas de desarrollo rural en México en el marco de los dos grandes modelos políticoeconómicos: el Estado benefactor y el Estado neoliberal. El primero modelo caracterizado por una mayor intervención en la economía y en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales, y el segundo, caracterizado por una menor presencia del Estado y una mayor participación de la iniciativa privada. Se enfatiza el nacimiento de la planeación en México y su mecánica de intervención en el medio rural, así como los principales contenidos teóricos, metodológicos y de gestión social de los programas de desarrollo concebidos para atender a la población rural.

  6. Repertórios de interação estado-sociedade em um estado heterogêneo: a experiência na Era Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Abers


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a combinação de rotinas de interação do Estado com os movimentos sociais na construção de políticas públicas durante o governo Lula em três setores de políticas: desenvolvimento agrário, política urbana e segurança pública. O argumento central é que, em um contexto caracterizado por uma permeabilidade inédita do Estado, movimentos sociais e atores estatais experimentaram criativamente padrões históricos de interação Estado-sociedade. Sob o mote da "participação da sociedade civil", movimentos sociais e atores estatais recorreram a um repertório de interação diversificado, que incluiu a participação institucional, protestos, ocupação de cargos na burocracia pública e relações personalizadas, com ênfase variada a depender dos padrões pretéritos de relação Estado-sociedade em cada setor.

  7. Global volcanic earthquake swarm database and preliminary analysis of volcanic earthquake swarm duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. McNutt


    Full Text Available Global data from 1979 to 1989 pertaining to volcanic earthquake swarms have been compiled into a custom-designed relational database. The database is composed of three sections: 1 a section containing general information on volcanoes, 2 a section containing earthquake swarm data (such as dates of swarm occurrence and durations, and 3 a section containing eruption information. The most abundant and reliable parameter, duration of volcanic earthquake swarms, was chosen for preliminary analysis. The distribution of all swarm durations was found to have a geometric mean of 5.5 days. Precursory swarms were then separated from those not associated with eruptions. The geometric mean precursory swarm duration was 8 days whereas the geometric mean duration of swarms not associated with eruptive activity was 3.5 days. Two groups of precursory swarms are apparent when duration is compared with the eruption repose time. Swarms with durations shorter than 4 months showed no clear relationship with the eruption repose time. However, the second group, lasting longer than 4 months, showed a significant positive correlation with the log10 of the eruption repose period. The two groups suggest that different suites of physical processes are involved in the generation of volcanic earthquake swarms.

  8. Volcanic deformation in the Andes (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.


    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  9. Monitoring the Sumatra volcanic arc with InSAR (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Hong, S.; Amelung, F.


    The Sumatra volcanic arc is the result of the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Sunda plate. The arc consists of 35 known volcanic centers, subaerials on the west coast of the Sumatra and Andaman Islands and submarines between these islands. Six active centers are known in the Sumatra volcanic arc. Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Here we present a satellite-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the Sumatra volcanic arc using ALOS data. Spanning the years 2007 to beginning of 2009, our survey reveals the background level of activity of the 35 volcanoes. We processed data from 40 tracks (24 in descending orbit and 16 in ascending orbit) to cover the whole Sumatra arc. In the first results five of these six known active centers show no sign of activity: Dempo, Kaba, Marapi, Talang and Peuet. The remaining active volcano, Mount Kerinci, has an ambiguous signal. We used pair-wise logic and InSAR time series of the available ALOS data to determine if the observed InSAR signal is caused by ground deformation or by atmospheric delays.

  10. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan


    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do.

  11. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.


    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  12. Eruptive and environmental processes recorded by diatoms in volcanically-dispersed lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Harper, Margaret A.; Pledger, Shirley A.; Smith, Euan G. C.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Wilson, Colin J. N.


    Late Pleistocene diatomaceous sediment was widely dispersed along with volcanic ash (tephra) across and beyond New Zealand by the 25.4 ka Oruanui supereruption from Taupo volcano. We present a detailed analysis of the diatom populations in the Oruanui tephra and the newly discovered floras in two other eruptions from the same volcano: the 28.6 ka Okaia and 1.8 ka Taupo eruptions. For comparison, the diatoms were also examined in Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Our study demonstrates how these microfossils provide insights into the lake history of the TVZ since the Last Glacial Maximum. Morphometric analysis of Aulacoseira valve dimensions provides a useful quantitative tool to distinguish environmental and eruptive processes within and between individual tephras. The Oruanui and Okaia diatom species and valve dimensions are highly consistent with a shared volcanic source, paleolake and eruption style (involving large-scale magma-water interaction). They are distinct from lacustrine sediments sourced elsewhere in the TVZ. Correspondence analysis shows that small, intact samples of erupted lake sediment (i.e., lithic clasts in ignimbrite) contain heterogeneous diatom populations, reflecting local variability in species composition of the paleolake and its shallowly-buried sediments. Our analysis also shows a dramatic post-Oruanui supereruption decline in Cyclostephanos novaezelandiae, which likely reflects a combination of (1) reorganisation of the watershed in the aftermath of the eruption, and (2) overall climate warming following the Last Glacial Maximum. This decline is reflected in substantially lower proportions of C. novaezelandiae in the 1.8 ka Taupo eruption deposits, and even fewer in post-1.8 ka sediments from modern (Holocene) Lake Taupo. Our analysis highlights how the excellent preservation of siliceous microfossils in volcanic tephra may fingerprint the volcanic source region and retain a valuable record

  13. Estado actual de la programación del riego en limonero mediante medidas del estado hídrico


    Moreno, F.; Ortuño, M.F.; García-Orellana, Y.; Alarcón, J.J.; Conejero, W.; Nicolás, E.; Fernández, J.E.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Torrecillas, A.


    En el presente trabajo se realiza una visión sobre aspectos relativos a la utilización de medidas continuas del estado hídrico del limonero en la programación del riego. Para ello, se analizó, la sensibilidad de distintos indicadores del estado hídrico medidos de forma continua o discontinua en las plantas, su significado fisiológico, la obtención de niveles de referencia de los indicadores y los primeros resultados sobre programación de riego. Peer Reviewed

  14. Estados de mal epiléptico na sindrome Delennox-Gastaut: aspectos terapeuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Speciali


    Full Text Available Foram descritas as condutas terapêuticas utilizadas nos estados de mal epiléptico, convulsivos e não convulsivos, observados em 14 pacientes com síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut. Verificou-se relação temporal entre aparecimento de estado de mal epiléptico e início de tratamento com clonazepam e difenilhidantoina; a retirada dessas medicações foi seguida pelo desaparecimento dos estados de mal. Indicou-se a possibilidade de tratamento dos estados de mal epiléptico modificando-se o esquema terapêutico administrado por via oral, reservando-se o tratamento parenteral para os estados com comprometimento progressivo da consciência e/ou dos distúrbios neurovegetativos.

  15. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents. (United States)

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P


    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  16. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.


    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  17. Consumo energético-protéico e estado nutricional de crianças menores de cinco anos, no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil


    Menezes,Risia Cristina Egito de; Osório,Mônica Maria


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo de energia e proteínas e associá-lo ao estado nutricional de crianças menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 948 crianças menores de cinco anos, no Estado de Pernambuco. O consumo alimentar foi registrado utilizando o método recordatório de 24 horas. Para análise de energia e proteína foram utilizadas as Dietary Reference Intakes como referência, verificando-se o consumo mediano e a prevalência de inadequação. O estado nutricional foi avaliado utilizand...

  18. Deriving spatial patterns from a novel database of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Benbakkar, Mhammed; Kervyn, Matthieu


    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) is situated within the western branch of the East-African Rift. The geochemistry and petrology of its' volcanic products has been studied extensively in a fragmented manner. They represent a unique collection of silica-undersaturated, ultra-alkaline and ultra-potassic compositions, displaying marked geochemical variations over the area occupied by the VVP. We present a novel spatially-explicit database of existing whole-rock geochemical analyses of the VVP volcanics, compiled from international publications, (post-)colonial scientific reports and PhD theses. In the database, a total of 703 geochemical analyses of whole-rock samples collected from the 1950s until recently have been characterised with a geographical location, eruption source location, analytical results and uncertainty estimates for each of these categories. Comparative box plots and Kruskal-Wallis H tests on subsets of analyses with contrasting ages or analytical methods suggest that the overall database accuracy is consistent. We demonstrate how statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and subsequent cluster analysis allow the identification of clusters of samples with similar major-element compositions. The spatial patterns represented by the contrasting clusters show that both the historically active volcanoes represent compositional clusters which can be identified based on their contrasted silica and alkali contents. Furthermore, two sample clusters are interpreted to represent the most primitive, deep magma source within the VVP, different from the shallow magma reservoirs that feed the eight dominant large volcanoes. The samples from these two clusters systematically originate from locations which 1. are distal compared to the eight large volcanoes and 2. mostly coincide with the surface expressions of rift faults or NE-SW-oriented inherited Precambrian structures which were reactivated during rifting. The lava from the Mugogo

  19. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica


    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  20. The volcanism of the western part of the Los Frailes Meseta (Bolivia): a representative example of the Andean volcanism since the Upper Oligocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, L.; Jimenez, N.


    The Los Frailes Meseta (Bolivia) is one of the large tertiary ignimbritic fields of the inner volcanic arc from Central Andes (Central Volcanic Zone. CVZ), in contact zone between the Altiplano to the west and the Eastern Cordillera to the east. Field observations and mineralogical and geochemical studies (major and trace elements) lead to distinguish two types of volcanism in the western border to the Meseta. During the Middle Miocene and Pliocene, the volcanic activity can be subdivided into three pyroclastic emission cycles, the Larco, Coroma and Pliocene ignimbrites, the first two being separated by the Quechua 2 orogeny. All these ignimbrites are very similar and correspond to peraluminous rhyolites to rhyodacites. In the studies area, the Coroma cycle is the only one where an ignimbrite-less evolved resurgent dome association can be observed. Beside these ignimbrites, isolated small lava flows and domes overlay and/or intrude all the other formations. They are meta-aluminous lavas with a shoshonitic affinity. A quaternary age can be attributed to his second volcanism. These two volcanic types are well-known in the CVZ and are related to the different deformation stages, either compressional or extensional, which occur alternately in the Cordillera since 26 Ma. (authors). 61 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.


    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  2. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.


    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  3. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan


    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do. PMID:27063141

  4. Radon gas as a tracer for volcanic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.


    Radon emissions from volcanic systems have been under investigation for several decades. Soil gas and groundwater radon activities have been used to map faults and to characterize geothermal systems, and measurements of atmospheric radon and radon daughter concentrations have been used to estimate the volume of magma chambers feeding active eruptions. Several studies have also shown that temporal variations in radon concentration have been associated with the onset of volcanic eruptions or changes in the rates or character of an eruption. Some of these studies have been able to clearly define the cause of the radon anomalies but others have proposed models of radon emission and transport that are not well supported by the known physical and chemical processes that occur in a volcanic system. In order to better characterize the processes that control radon activities in volcanic systems, it is recommended that future radon monitoring programs attempt to maintain continuous recording of radon activities; individual radon measurements should be made over the shortest time intervals possible that are consistent with acceptable counting statistics and geophysical, meteorological, and hydrological parameters should be measured in order to better define the physical processes that affect radon activities in volcanic systems. (author). 63 refs

  5. Production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons by volcanic eruptions on early Mars. (United States)

    Segura, Antígona; Navarro-González, Rafael


    Methane and other larger hydrocarbons have been proposed as possible greenhouse gases on early Mars. In this work we explore if volcanic processes may have been a source for such molecules based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Geologic evidence and numerical simulations indicate that explosive volcanism was widely distributed throughout Mars. Volcanic lightning is typically produced in such explosive volcanism. Therefore this geologic setting was studied to determine if lightning could be a source for hydrocarbons in volcanic plumes. Volcanic lightning was simulated by focusing a high-energy infrared laser beam inside of a Pyrex reactor that contained the proposed volcanic gas mixture composed of 64% CH(4), 24% H(2), 10% H(2)O and 2% N(2), according to an accretion model and the nitrogen content measured in Martian meteorites. The analysis of products was performed by gas chromatography coupled to infrared and mass spectroscopy. Eleven hydrocarbons were identified among the products, of which acetylene (C(2)H(2)) was the most abundant. A thermochemical model was used to determine which hydrocarbons could arise only from volcanic heat. In this case, acetylene and ethylene are formed at magmatic temperatures. Our results indicate that explosive volcanism may have injected into the atmosphere of early Mars approximately 6 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of acetylene, and approximately 2 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of 1,3-butadiyne, both produced by volcanic lightning, approximately 5 x 10(11) g yr(-1) of ethylene produced by volcanic heat, and 10(13) g yr(-1) of methane.

  6. Estado de Exceção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Matos Souza


    Full Text Available

    Abordaremos duas obras de Giorgio Agamben - Homo Sacer (2002 e Estado de Exceção (2004. Nas duas obras a noção-chave é a de exceção, definida em relação à vida “política” dos indivíduos, mas na primeira (2002 interessa a exceção identificada à vida nua dos “súditos”, enquanto a segunda (2004 volta-se mais ao Estado, em sua dimensão biopolítica e (ahistórica. Recorreremos a Thomas Hobbes e Carl Schmitt a fim de melhor compreender o autor, indicando que, além da dívida para com Hobbes, sua idéia de exceção e a crítica ao estado de direito deve muito a Carl Schmitt.

  7. Strike-slip pull-apart process and emplacement of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Aijin; Guo Lingzhi; Shu Liangshu


    Xiangshan volcanic basin is one of the famous uranium-producing volcanic basins in China. Emplacement mechanism of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin is discussed on the basis of the latest research achievements of deep geology in Xiangshan area and the theory of continental dynamics. The study shows that volcanic activity in Xiangshan volcanic basin may be divided into two cycles, and its emplacement is controlled by strike-ship pull-apart process originated from the deep regional faults. Volcanic apparatus in the first cycle was emplaced in EW-trending structure activated by clockwise strike-slipping of NE-trending deep fault, forming the EW-trending fissure-type volcanic effusion belt. Volcanic apparatus in the second cycle was emplaced at junction points of SN-trending pull-apart structure activated by sinistral strike-slipping of NE-trending deep faults and EW-trending basement faults causing the center-type volcanic magma effusion and extrusion. Moreover, the formation mechanism of large-rich uranium deposits is discussed as well

  8. Volcanic gas emissions and degassing dynamics at Ubinas and Sabancaya volcanoes; implications for the volatile budget of the central volcanic zone (United States)

    Moussallam, Yves; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Peters, Nial; Apaza, Fredy; Schipper, C. Ian; Curtis, Aaron; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Masias, Pablo; Boichu, Marie; Bauduin, Sophie; Barnie, Talfan; Bani, Philipson; Giudice, Gaetano; Moussallam, Manuel


    Emission of volcanic gas is thought to be the dominant process by which volatiles transit from the deep earth to the atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions, remain poorly constrained, and volcanoes of Peru are entirely absent from the current global dataset. In Peru, Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes are by far the largest sources of volcanic gas. Here, we report the first measurements of the compositions and fluxes of volcanic gases emitted from these volcanoes. The measurements were acquired in November 2015. We determined an average SO2 flux of 15.3 ± 2.3 kg s- 1 (1325-ton day- 1) at Sabancaya and of 11.4 ± 3.9 kg s- 1 (988-ton day- 1) at Ubinas using scanning ultraviolet spectroscopy and dual UV camera systems. In-situ Multi-GAS analyses yield molar proportions of H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S and H2 gases of 73, 15, 10 1.15 and 0.15 mol% at Sabancaya and of 96, 2.2, 1.2 and 0.05 mol% for H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S at Ubinas. Together, these data imply cumulative fluxes for both volcanoes of 282, 30, 27, 1.2 and 0.01 kg s- 1 of H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S and H2 respectively. Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes together contribute about 60% of the total CO2 emissions from the Central Volcanic zone, and dominate by far the total revised volatile budget of the entire Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes.

  9. Nature and origin of secondary mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern, Nevada (United States)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David M.; Chenevey, Michael J.


    The following subject areas are covered: (1) genetic, spectral, and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery relationship between desert varnish and tertiary volcanic host rocks, southern Nevada; (2) reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada, using multispectral thermal infrared imagery; (3) interregional comparisons of desert varnish; and (4) airborne scanner (GERIS) imagery of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada.

  10. Pakistán: Estado Fallido, débil o colapsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego


    Full Text Available Desde que se convirtiera en un Estado independiente en 1947, Pakistán ha arrastrado una serie de lastres que han limitado su desarrollo como Estado. Entre otros problemas podemos destacar como una composición étnica muy heterogénea, especialmente en el el norte y este del país, o el tráfico de drogas extendido por todo el país. Estas circunstancias han llevado a Pakistán a las principales indices de estados fallidos.

  11. Estado e controle nas prisões


    Batista, Analía Soria


    Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa d...

  12. Compositional Differences between Felsic Volcanic rocks from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks suggest that fractional crystallization from differing basic parents accompanied by a limited assimilation (AFC) was the dominant process controlling the genesis of the MER felsic volcanic rocks. Keywords: Ethiopia; Northern Main Ethiopian Rift; Bimodal ...

  13. Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Scott, D.H.


    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1

  14. Observations of volcanic plumes using small balloon soundings (United States)

    Voemel, H.


    Eruptions of volcanoes are very difficult to predict and for practical purposes may occur at any time. Any observing system intending to observe volcanic eruptions has to be ready at any time. Due to transport time scales, emissions of large volcanic eruptions, in particular injections into the stratosphere, may be detected at locations far from the volcano within days to weeks after the eruption. These emissions may be observed using small balloon soundings at dedicated sites. Here we present observations of particles of the Icelandic Grimsvotn eruption at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany in the months following the eruption and observations of opportunity of other volcanic particle events. We also present observations of the emissions of SO2 from the Turrialba volcano at San Jose, Costa Rica. We argue that dedicated sites for routine observations of the clean and perturbed atmosphere using small sounding balloons are an important element in the detection and quantification of emissions from future volcanic eruptions.

  15. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  16. The monogenetic Bayuda Volcanic Field, Sudan - New insights into geology and volcanic morphology (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Borah, Suranjana B.; Lenhardt, Sukanya Z.; Bumby, Adam J.; Ibinoof, Montasir A.; Salih, Salih A.


    The small monogenetic Bayuda Volcanic Field (BVF; 480 km2), comprising at least 53 cinder cones and 15 maar volcanoes in the Bayuda desert of northern Sudan is one of a few barely studied volcanic occurrences of Quaternary age in Sudan. The exact age of the BVF and the duration of volcanic activity has not yet been determined. Furthermore, not much is known about the eruptional mechanisms and the related magmatic and tectonic processes that led to the formation of the volcanic field. In the framework of a larger project focusing on these points it is the purpose of this contribution to provide a first account of the general geology of the BVF volcanoes as well as a first description of a general stratigraphy, including a first description of their morphological characteristics. This was done by means of fieldwork, including detailed rock descriptions, as well as the analysis of satellite images (SRTM dataset at 30 m spatial resolution). The BVF cinder cones are dominated by scoracious lapilli tephra units, emplaced mainly by pyroclastic fallout from Strombolian eruptions. Many cones are breached and are associated with lava flows. The subordinate phreatomagmatism represented by maar volcanoes suggests the presence of ground and/or shallow surface water during some of the eruptions. The deposits constituting the rims around the maar volcanoes are interpreted as having mostly formed due to pyroclastic surges. Many of the tephra rings around the maars are underlain by thick older lava flows. These are inferred to be the horizons where rising magma interacted with groundwater. The existence of phreatomagmatic deposits may point to a time of eruptive activity during a phase with wetter conditions and therefore higher groundwater levels than those encountered historically. This is supported by field observations as well as the morphological analysis, providing evidence for relatively high degrees of alteration of the BVF volcanoes and therefore older eruption ages as

  17. ¿Cuándo un estado es un estado? Explorando Puntlandia, Somalia | When is a State a State?: Exploring Puntland, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin DOORNBOS


    Full Text Available Este fragmento se escribió en un contexto, que puede seguir pareciendo familiar hoy día, en el que varios estados africanos estaban atravesando diversas crisis. Martin Doornbos advierte de que este fenómeno no es homogéneo y que cada estado estaba entonces en una fase diferente de crisis, con unas circunstancias y características propias. El Estado de Somalia se encontraba en un momento de estancamiento. Se trata así de un estado fallido en el que, no obstante, parece que han ido surgiendo elementos que podríamos denominar estatales. Por eso este capítulo se va a centrar en el caso de Puntlandia, una región somalí en la que se ha producido este fenómeno. Se analizará así cuándo se puede considerar que un estado efectivamente es un estado, y si Puntlandia realmente cumple las condiciones fundamentales para ser considerado de esta manera. También surgirá la pregunta de si el camino seguido por Puntlandia puede servir como guía para una Somalia unida en el futuro. This fragment was written in a context, which may seem familiar nowadays, where a number of African States were experiencing different crisis. Martin Doornbos advises us that these phenomena were not homogenous and that each state was in a different stage of crisis with independent circumstances and characteristics. Somalia was in a period of stagnation. It is a failed State in which elements of stateness nevertheless seem to reappear. For this reason this chapter concentrates on the case of Puntland, a Somali region where this phenomenon is taking place. It will analyze when a State is a State and if Puntland complies with the fundamental conditions that make it possible for it to be considered one. It also asks us whether the path followed by Puntland could serve as a guide for a unified Somalia in the future.

  18. Critical review of a new volcanic eruption chronology (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph


    Sigl. et al. (2015, Nature) present historical evidence for 32 volcanic eruptions to evaluate their new polar ice core 10-Be chronology - 24 are dated within three years of sulfur layers in polar ice. Most of them can be interpreted as weather phenomena (Babylonia: disk of sun like moon, reported for only one day, e.g. extinction due to clouds), Chinese sunspot reports (pellet, black vapor, etc.), solar eclipses, normal ice-halos and coronae (ring, bow, etc.), one aurora (redness), red suns due to mist drops in wet fog or fire-smoke, etc. Volcanic dust may facilitate detections of sunspots and formation of Bishop's ring, but tend to inhibit ice-halos, which are otherwise often reported in chronicles. We are left with three reports possibly indicating volcanic eruptions, namely fulfilling genuine criteria for atmospheric disturbances due to volcanic dust, e.g. bluish or faint sun, orange sky, or fainting of stars for months (BCE 208, 44-42, and 32). Among the volcanic eruptions used to fix the chronology (CE 536, 626, 939, 1257), the reports cited for the 930s deal only with 1-2 days, at least one reports an eclipse. In the new chronology, there is a sulfur detection eight years after the Vesuvius eruption, but none in CE 79. It may appear surprising that, from BCE 500 to 1, all five northern sulfur peaks labeled in figure 2 in Sigl et al. are systematically later by 2-4 years than the (corresponding?) southern peaks, while all five southern peaks from CE 100 to 600 labeled in figure 2 are systematically later by 1-4 years than the (corresponding?) northern peaks. Furthermore, in most of their six strongest volcanic eruptions, temperatures decreased years before their sulfur dating - correlated with weak solar activity as seen in radiocarbon, so that volcanic climate forcing appears dubious here. Also, their 10-Be peaks at CE 775 and 994 are neither significant nor certain in dating.

  19. Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Stratospheric Ozone Recovery (United States)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.


    The effects of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer associated with the Mt. Pinatubo volcano and future volcanic eruptions on the recovery of the ozone layer is studied with an interactive two-dimensional photochemical model. The time varying chlorine loading and the stratospheric cooling due to increasing carbon dioxide have been taken into account. The computed ozone and temperature changes associated with the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 agree well with observations. Long model runs out to the year 2050 have been carried out, in which volcanoes having the characteristics of the Mount Pinatubo volcano were erupted in the model at 10-year intervals starting in the year 2010. Compared to a non-volcanic run using background aerosol loading, transient reductions of globally averaged column ozone of 2-3 percent were computed as a result of each of these eruptions, with the ozone recovering to that computed for the non-volcanic case in about 5 years after the eruption. Computed springtime Arctic column ozone losses of from 10 to 18 percent also recovered to the non-volcanic case within 5 years. These results suggest that the long-term recovery of ozone would not be strongly affected by infrequent volcanic eruptions with a sulfur loading approximating Mt. Pinatubo. Sensitivity studies in which the Arctic lower stratosphere was forced to be 4 K and 10 K colder resulted in transient ozone losses of which also recovered to the non-volcanic case in 5 years. A case in which a volcano five times Mt. Pinatubo was erupted in the year 2010 led to maximum springtime column ozone losses of 45 percent which took 10 years to recover to the background case. Finally, in order to simulate a situation in which frequent smaller volcanic eruptions result in increasing the background sulfate loading, a simulation was made in which the background aerosol was increased by 10 percent per year. This resulted in a delay of the recovery of column ozone to 1980 values of more than 10 years.

  20. Volcanic Ash Data Assimilation System for Atmospheric Transport Model (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Shimbori, T.; Sato, E.; Tokumoto, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.


    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has two operations for volcanic ash forecasts, which are Volcanic Ash Fall Forecast (VAFF) and Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA). In these operations, the forecasts are calculated by atmospheric transport models including the advection process, the turbulent diffusion process, the gravitational fall process and the deposition process (wet/dry). The initial distribution of volcanic ash in the models is the most important but uncertain factor. In operations, the model of Suzuki (1983) with many empirical assumptions is adopted to the initial distribution. This adversely affects the reconstruction of actual eruption plumes.We are developing a volcanic ash data assimilation system using weather radars and meteorological satellite observation, in order to improve the initial distribution of the atmospheric transport models. Our data assimilation system is based on the three-dimensional variational data assimilation method (3D-Var). Analysis variables are ash concentration and size distribution parameters which are mutually independent. The radar observation is expected to provide three-dimensional parameters such as ash concentration and parameters of ash particle size distribution. On the other hand, the satellite observation is anticipated to provide two-dimensional parameters of ash clouds such as mass loading, top height and particle effective radius. In this study, we estimate the thickness of ash clouds using vertical wind shear of JMA numerical weather prediction, and apply for the volcanic ash data assimilation system.

  1. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G.C.


    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities. ?? 2008.

  2. Pacific seamount volcanism in space and time (United States)

    Hillier, J. K.


    Seamounts constitute some of the most direct evidence about intraplate volcanism. As such, when seamounts formed and into which tectonic setting they erupted (i.e. on-ridge or off-ridge) are a useful reflection of how the properties of the lithosphere interact with magma generation in the fluid mantle beneath. Proportionately few seamounts are radiometrically dated however, and these tend to be recently active. In order to more representatively sample and better understand Pacific seamount volcanism this paper estimates the eruption ages (tvolc) of 2706 volcanoes via automated estimates of lithospheric strength. Lithospheric strength (GTRrel) is deduced from the ratio of gravity to topography above the summits of volcanoes, and is shown to correlate with seafloor age at the time of volcanic loading (Δt) at 61 sites where radiometric constraints upon Δt exist. A trend of fits data for these 61, and with seafloor age (tsf) known, can date the 2706 volcanoes; tvolc = tsf - Δt. Widespread recurrences of volcanism proximal to older features (e.g. the Cook-Austral alignment in French Polynesia) suggest that the lithosphere exerts a significant element of control upon the location of volcanism, and that magmatic throughput leaves the lithosphere more susceptible to the passage of future melts. Observations also prompt speculation that: the Tavara seamounts share morphological characteristics and isostatic compensation state with the Musicians, and probably formed similarly; the Easter Island chain may be a modern analogy to the Cross-Lines; a Musicians - South Hawaiian seamounts alignment may be deflecting the Hawaiian hotspot trace.

  3. Stratigraphical sequence and geochronology of the volcanic rock series in caifang basin, south jiangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xunsheng; Wu Jianhua


    The late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in Jiangxi constitute two volcanic belts: the northern is Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series belong to one volcano cycle and named Wuyi group which is subdivided into three formations (Shuangfengling formation, Ehuling formation and Shixi formation); the southern is Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series in Caifang basin which locates on Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt also belong to only one volcano cycle. It can be subdivided into two lithology and lithofacies units (upper and lower): the lower unit consists of sedimentary rocks and associated with a subordinate amount of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt-deposit facies which is the product of early volcanic stage; the upper unit is mostly composed of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt facies that is the volcanic eruption product. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of rhyolite? which locates at the top of the upper unit is 130.79 ± 0.73) Ma. According to the new International Stratigraphic Chart, the boundary of Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma, so the age shows that the geologic period of Caifang volcanic rocks series is early Early Cretaceous epoch. On the basis of lithological correlation, lithofacies and stratigraphic horizon analysis, the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin fall under Wuyi group, and the lower unit could be incorporated into Shuangfengling formation, the upper unit could be incorporated into Ehuling formation. The subdivision of sequence and the determination of geochronology of the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin provide some references for the study of the late Mesozoic volcanic rocks series of the Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt. (authors)

  4. Volcanism at 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, United States (United States)

    Rivera, Tiffany A.; Furlong, Ryan; Vincent, Jaime; Gardiner, Stephanie; Jicha, Brian R.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Lippert, Peter C.


    Rhyolitic volcanism in the Yellowstone Volcanic Field has spanned over two million years and consisted of both explosive caldera-forming eruptions and smaller effusive flows and domes. Effusive eruptions have been documented preceding and following caldera-forming eruptions, however the temporal and petrogenetic relationships of these magmas to the caldera-forming eruptions are relatively unknown. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar dates for four small-volume eruptions located on the western rim of the second-cycle caldera, the source of the 1.300 ± 0.001 Ma Mesa Falls Tuff. We supplement our new eruption ages with whole rock major and trace element chemistry, Pb isotopic ratios of feldspar, and paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses. Eruption ages for the effusive Green Canyon Flow (1.299 ± 0.002 Ma) and Moonshine Mountain Dome (1.302 ± 0.003 Ma) are in close temporal proximity to the eruption age of the Mesa Falls Tuff. In contrast, our results indicate a period of volcanism at ca 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, including the eruption of the Bishop Mountain Flow (1.458 ± 0.002 Ma) and Tuff of Lyle Spring (1.450 ± 0.003 Ma). These high-silica rhyolites are chemically and isotopically distinct from the Mesa Falls Tuff and related 1.3 Ma effusive eruptions. The 40Ar/39Ar data from the Tuff of Lyle Spring demonstrate significant antecrystic inheritance, prevalent within the upper welded ash-flow tuff matrix, and minimal within individual pumice. Antecrysts are up to 20 kyr older than the eruption, with subpopulations of grains occurring every few thousand years. We interpret these results as an indicator for the timing of magmatic pulses into a growing magmatic system that would ultimately erupt the Tuff of Lyle Spring, and which we more broadly interpret as the tempo of crustal accumulation associated with bimodal magmatism. We propose a system whereby chemically, isotopically, and temporally distinct, isolated small-volume magma batches are

  5. The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes : Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, I.A.


    The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes occurred within the Okataina Volcanic Centre at c. 21 000 and 18 000 yr B.P., respectively. The widespread rhyolitic pumice fall deposits of Te Rere Ash (volume 5 km 3 ) and Okareka Ash (6 km 3 ) are only rarely exposed in near-source areas, and locations of their vent areas have been uncertain. New exposures and petrographic and chemical analyses show that the Te Rere episode eruptions occurred from multiple vents, up to 20 km apart, on the Haroharo linear vent zone. The Okareka episode eruptions occurred from vents since buried beneath the Tarawera volcanic massif. Eruption of the rhyolitic Okareka pumice fall was immediately preceded by a small basaltic scoria eruption, apparently from vents close to those for the following rhyolite eruptions. Dacitic mixed pumices scattered within the rhyolite pumice layers immediately overlying the scoria were formed by mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas. The Te Rere and Okareka pyroclastic eruptions were both followed by extrusion of voluminous rhyolite lavas. These eruptive episodes mark the commencement of growth of the present-day Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Volcanic Rocks and Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  7. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann


    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  8. Centroamérica: el estado de las ciencias sociales.


    Torres Rivas, Edelberto


    Este artículo trata sobre los estados de las ciencias sociales en Centroamérica; por el cual el autor aborda temas como: El posmodernismo, crisis de la pérdida del sentido ortodoxo , El Marxismo, estudios sobre la democracia, revoluciones, estados fallidos y paralelos todos estos relacionados a países centroamericanos.

  9. El Estado regulador en el Perú


    Parodi Trece, Carlos


    Durante el gobierno de Alberto Fujimori se han dado cambios significativos en las instituciones del Estado. ¿Cuál es el sentido de todos estos cambios? ¿Reflejan fundamentalmente una estrategia de consolidación en el poder por parte de Alberto Fujimori? ¿Son más bien el resultado de la estrategia de las clases económicas dominantes para explotar mejor los recursos nacionales? o ¿son instituciones que reflejan un proceso de democratización del Estado? La contribución a la exploració...

  10. Investigación cualitativa: estado del arte


    Reina Vanegas, Falon Carolina


    Las autoras producen y ponen en circulación un estado del arte sobre la investigación social cualitativa, con los objetivos específicos de: elaborar un marco conceptual sobre lo que es un estado del arte; exponer el proceso metodológico empleado para su construcción; establecer un marco histórico sobre la producción y circulación de material investigativo; describir las fuentes documentales consultadas, según su localización y posibles líneas de trabajo; y concluir acerca de los hallazgos de ...

  11. Geochemical evidence for waning magmatism and polycyclic volcanism at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.V.; Crowe, B.M.


    This paper reports that petrologic and geochemical studies of basaltic rocks in the Yucca Mountain region are currently focused on understanding the evolution of volcanism in the Crater Flat volcanic field and the mechanisms of polycyclic volcanic field and the mechanisms of polycyclic volcanism at the Lathrop Wells volcanic center, the youngest center in the Crater Flat volcanic field. Geochemical and petrologic data indicate that the magma chambers which supplied the volcanic centers at Crater Flat became situated at greater crustal depths as the field evolved. Deep magma chambers may be related to a waning magma flux that was unable to sustain upper crustal magma conduits and chambers. Geochemical data from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center indicate that eruptive units identified from field and geomorphic relationships are geochemically distinct. The geochemical variations cannot be explained by fractional crystallization of a single magma batch, indicating that several magma batches were involved in the formation of the Lathrop Wells center. Considering the low magma flux in the Yucca Mountain region in the Quaternary, the probability of several magma batches erupting essentially simultaneously at Lathrop Wells is considered remote

  12. What, When, Where, and Why of Secondary Hawaiian Hotspot Volcanism (United States)

    Garcia, M. O.; Ito, G.; Applegate, B.; Weis, D.; Swinnard, L.; Flinders, A.; Hanano, D.; Nobre-Silva, I.; Bianco, T.; Naumann, T.; Geist, D.; Blay, C.; Sciaroni, L.; Maerschalk, C.; Harpp, K.; Christensen, B.


    Secondary hotspot volcanism occurs on most oceanic island groups (Hawaii, Canary, Society) but its origins remain enigmatic. A 28-day marine expedition used multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery to map the extent of submarine volcanic fields around the northern Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Niihau and Kaula), and the JASON2 ROV to sample many volcanoes to characterize the petrology, geochemistry (major and trace elements, and isotopes) and ages of the lavas from these volcanoes. Our integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical study attempts to examine the what (compositions and source), where (distribution and volumes), when (ages), and why (mechanisms) of secondary volcanism on and around the northern Hawaiian Islands. A first-order objective was to establish how the submarine volcanism relates in space, time, volume, and composition to the nearby shield volcanoes and their associated onshore secondary volcanism. Our surveying and sampling revealed major fields of submarine volcanoes extending from the shallow slopes of these islands to more than 100 km offshore. These discoveries dramatically expand the volumetric importance, distribution and geodynamic framework for Hawaiian secondary volcanism. New maps and rock petrology on the samples collected will be used to evaluate currently proposed mechanisms for secondary volcanism and to consider new models such as small-scale mantle convection driven by thermal and melt-induced buoyancy to produce the huge volume of newly discovered lava. Our results seem to indicate substantial revisions are needed to our current perceptions of hotspot dynamics for Hawaii and possibly elsewhere.

  13. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff


    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  14. Volcanic unrest and hazard communication in Long Valley Volcanic Region, California (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McNutt, Stephen R.


    The onset of volcanic unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, in 1980 and the subsequent fluctuations in unrest levels through May 2016 illustrate: (1) the evolving relations between scientists monitoring the unrest and studying the underlying tectonic/magmatic processes and their implications for geologic hazards, and (2) the challenges in communicating the significance of the hazards to the public and civil authorities in a mountain resort setting. Circumstances special to this case include (1) the sensitivity of an isolated resort area to media hype of potential high-impact volcanic and earthquake hazards and its impact on potential recreational visitors and the local economy, (2) a small permanent population (~8000), which facilitates face-to-face communication between scientists monitoring the hazard, civil authorities, and the public, and (3) the relatively frequent turnover of people in positions of civil authority, which requires a continuing education effort on the nature of caldera unrest and related hazards. Because of delays associated with communication protocols between the State and Federal governments during the onset of unrest, local civil authorities and the public first learned that the U.S. Geological Survey was about to release a notice of potential volcanic hazards associated with earthquake activity and 25-cm uplift of the resurgent dome in the center of the caldera through an article in the Los Angeles Times published in May 1982. The immediate reaction was outrage and denial. Gradual acceptance that the hazard was real required over a decade of frequent meetings between scientists and civil authorities together with public presentations underscored by frequently felt earthquakes and the onset of magmatic CO2 emissions in 1990 following a 11-month long earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera. Four fatalities, one on 24 May 1998 and three on 6 April 2006, underscored the hazard posed by the CO2

  15. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman


    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  17. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo


    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  18. Atmospheric dispersion simulations of volcanic gas from Miyake Island by SPEEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Furuno, Akiko; Terada, Hiroaki; Umeyama, Nobuaki; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Chino, Masamichi


    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is advancing the study for prediction of material circulation in the environment to cope with environmental pollution, based on SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of SPEEDI), which are originally developed aiming at real-time prediction of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive substances accidentally released from nuclear facility. As a part of this study, dispersion simulation of volcanic gas erupted from Miyake Island is put into practice. After the stench incident at the west Kanto District on 28 August 2000 caused by volcanic gas from Miyake Island, the following simulations dealing with atmospheric dispersion of volcanic gas from Miyake Island have been carried out. (1) Retrospective simulation to analyze examine the mechanism of the transport of high concentration volcanic gas to the west Kanto District on 28 August and to estimate the release amount of volcanic gas. (2) Retrospective simulation to analyze the mechanism of the transport of volcanic gas to Tokai and Kansai districts in a case of stench incident on 13 September. (3) Automated real-time simulation from the acquisition of meteorological data to the output of figures for operational prediction of the transport of volcanic gas to Tokai and Kanto districts. This report describes the details of these studies. (author)

  19. La relación entre capacidad y autoridad en el Estado: La construcción de un Estado ‘Excepcionalista’ en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade


    Full Text Available The Relation between the State’s Capacity and Authority: The Construction of an ‘Exceptionalist State’In this paper we posit that the trajectory of structural-economic transformations in Ecuador between 2008 and 2014 can be understood from the perspective of state theory. Specifically, we argue that strengthening state authority in Ecuador has come at the expense of state capacities: by positioning the state in a place of ‘exceptional authority’, governmental actions sidelined the development of formal and informal networks between state and non-state actors, such as industrialists. Furthermore, we show that state capacities have been further undermined by internal divisions within bureaucratic structures and an eclectic process of leadership formation at the level of the state’s bureaucracy. Combined, these processes have resulted in a hybrid state form: a state with high degrees of authority that coexist with low levels of institutional and organizational capacity – a state form we have termed an ‘Exceptionalist State’.Resumen:En este artículo sostenemos que un entendimiento de la transformación de las capacidades y estructuras productivas de la economía ecuatoriana entre 2008 y 2014, puede darse desde el ángulo de la teoría del Estado. Específicamente, argumentamos que el fortalecimiento de la autoridad del Estado en Ecuador en el período analizado se ha dado a expensas del desarrollo de sus capacidades. Al posicionar al Estado en un lugar de ‘autoridad excepcional’, el gobierno central minó el desarrollo de redes formales en informales entre actores estatales y no-estatales, como la clase industrial. Así mismo, demostramos que las capacidades del Estado durante este período se han visto debilitadas por divisiones internas ligadas a eclécticos procesos de formación de liderazgos en la burocracia estatal. Estos procesos han resultado en la formación de un tipo de Estado híbrido que hemos denominado el ‘Estado

  20. Volcanic hazards of North Island, New Zealand-overview (United States)

    Dibble, R. R.; Nairn, I. A.; Neall, V. E.


    In October 1980, a National Civil Defence Planning Committee on Volcanic Hazards was formed in New Zealand, and solicited reports on the likely areas and types of future eruptions, the risk to public safety, and the need for special precautions. Reports for eight volcanic centres were received, and made available to the authors. This paper summarises and quantifies the type and frequency of hazard, the public risk, and the possibilities for mitigation at the 7 main volcanic centres: Northland, Auckland, White Island, Okataina, Taupo, Tongariro, and Egmont. On the basis of Recent tephrostratigraphy, eruption probabilities up to 20% per century (but commonly 5%), and tephra volumes up to 100 km 3 are credible.

  1. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah


    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  2. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures (United States)

    Costa, Antonio


    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  3. Improving global detection of volcanic eruptions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower


    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose an ever-present threat to human populations around the globe, but many active volcanoes remain poorly monitored. In regions where ground-based monitoring is present the effects of volcanic eruptions can be moderated through observational alerts to both local populations and service providers, such as air traffic control. However, in regions where volcano monitoring is limited satellite-based remote sensing provides a global data source that can be utilised to provide near-real-time identification of volcanic activity. This paper details a volcanic plume detection method capable of identifying smaller eruptions than is currently feasible, which could potentially be incorporated into automated volcanic alert systems. This method utilises daily, global observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on NASA's Aura satellite. Following identification and classification of known volcanic eruptions in 2005–2009, the OMI SO2 data, analysed using a logistic regression analysis, permitted the correct classification of volcanic events with an overall accuracy of over 80 %. Accurate volcanic plume identification was possible when lower-tropospheric SO2 loading exceeded ∼ 400 t. The accuracy and minimal user input requirements of the developed procedure provide a basis for incorporation into automated SO2 alert systems.

  4. Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations: Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    To provide guidance on the protection of nuclear installations against the effects of volcanoes, the IAEA published in 2012 IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-21, Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. SSG-21 addresses hazards relating to volcanic phenomena, and provides recommendations and general guidance for evaluation of these hazards. Unlike seismic hazard assessments, models for volcanic hazard assessment have not undergone decades of review, evaluation and testing for suitability in evaluating hazards at proposed nuclear installations. Currently in volcanology, scientific developments and detailed methodologies to model volcanic phenomena are evolving rapidly.This publication provides information on detailed methodologies and examples in the application of volcanic hazard assessment to site evaluation for nuclear installations, thereby addressing the recommendations in SSG-21. Although SSG-21 develops a logical framework for conducting a volcanic hazard assessment, this publication demonstrates the practicability of evaluating the recommendations in SSG-21 through a systematic volcanic hazard assessment and examples from Member States. The results of this hazard assessment can be used to derive the appropriate design bases and operational considerations for specific nuclear installations

  5. The relational of Mesozoic volcanism to uranium mineralization in Guyuan-Hongshanzi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rengui; Xu Zhe; Yu Zhenqing; Jiang Shan; Shen Kefeng


    Based on the time of Mesozoic volcanism,the characteristic of major and trace element, and REE pattern of the volcanic rocks in Guyuan-Hongshanzi area, The Mesozoic volcanism can be divided into the early cycle and later cycle during the Early Cretaceous, and it's magma series is classified in two sub-series, one is alkaline series of trachyte dominated and another is subalkaline series of rhyolite dominated. The relations between Mesozoic volcanism and uranium mineralization is mainly shown in four aspects: (1) Uranium mineralization controlled by the coexist of two magma series; (2) Uranium mineralization controlled by superhypabyssal porphyry body in later cycle volcanism during the Early Cretaceous; (3) The porphyry body close to uranium mineralization,bearing the genesis characteristics of crust-mantle action; and (4) High Si and K content in the chemical composition of the mineralization volcanic rocks. (authors)

  6. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Tjiputra


    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  7. Lunar cryptomaria: Physical characteristics, distribution, and implications for ancient volcanism (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.


    Cryptomaria, lunar volcanic deposits obscured by crater and basin impact ejecta, can provide important information about the thermal and volcanic history of the Moon. The timing of cryptomare deposition has implications for the duration and flux of mare basalt volcanism. In addition, knowing the distribution of cryptomaria can provide information about mantle convection and lunar magma ocean solidification. Here we use multiple datasets (e.g., M3, LOLA, LROC, Diviner) to undertake a global analysis to identify the general characteristics (e.g., topography, surface roughness, rock abundance, albedo, etc.) of lunar light plains in order to better distinguish between ancient volcanic deposits (cryptomaria) and impact basin and crater ejecta deposits. We find 20 discrete regions of cryptomaria, covering approximately 2% of the Moon, which increase the total area covered by mare volcanism to 18% of the lunar surface. Comparisons of light plains deposits indicate that the two deposit types (volcanic and impact-produced) are best distinguished by mineralogic data. On the basis of cryptomaria locations, the distribution of mare volcanism does not appear to have changed in the time prior to its exposed mare basalt distribution. There are several hypotheses explaining the distribution of mare basalts, which include the influence of crustal thickness, mantle convection patterns, asymmetric distribution of source regions, KREEP distribution, and the influence of a proposed Procellarum impact basin. The paucity of farside mare basalts means that multiple factors, such as crustal thickness variations and mantle convection, are likely to play a role in mare basalt emplacement.

  8. Clima do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Martinelli


    Full Text Available Os fenômenos da atmosfera em contato com a superfície da Terra, portanto, de alto interesse para a sociedade humana, são estudados pela climatologia. Têm com fonte essencial a meteorologia.Ao abordar tais fenômenos trava-se contato com duas noções essenciais: a de tempo e de clima. São estados da atmosfera. Enquanto o tempo é uma combinação passageira, o clima resulta de condições que perduram por um período mais longo. Interessa, particularmente, o clima, por considerar estados mais duráveis...

  9. Backprojection of volcanic tremor (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.


    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  10. 129I in volcanic fluids: Testing for the presence of marine sediments in the Central American volcanic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Glen; Fehn, Udo


    The long half-life and the geochemical behavior of the 129 I system suggest that this cosmogenic radioisotope can contribute significantly to the understanding of processes associated with subduction zones and volcanic arc systems. Because iodine is not incorporated into igneous rocks, the age-signal associated with 129 I permits the determination of the origin of volatiles within arc volcanic systems. We report here results of a study to test the application of 129 I in fluids collected from hotsprings, crater lakes, fumaroles and geothermal wells from the Central American volcanic arc. Both the Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua and the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica show 129 I/I ratios consistent with magmatic contributions from subducted marine pelagic sediments (minimum iodine ages of 25-30 Ma). In addition, several wells provide iodine isotopic ratios indicative of an older end-member, presumably located in the shallow crust (minimum iodine age = 65 Ma)

  11. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Silvina; Petrinovic, Ivan [CONICET -IBIGEO. Museo de Cs. Naturales, Universidad de Salta, Mendoza 2 (4400), Salta (Argentina)], E-mail:


    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  12. El estado del arte: una metodología de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricelly Gómez Vargas


    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende mostrar los principales hallazgos acerca del concepto de estado del arte, luego de la revisión y análisis de textos de las bases de datos de cuatro principales universidades de Medellín, que cuentan con programa de psicología, a la luz de un diseño cualitativo e interpretativo, de tipo documental, el cual giró en torno a las siguientes categorías de análisis: definición del estado del arte, historia del estado del arte, propósitos-objetivos-fines del estado del arte, método-técnicas-estrategias, concepciones-teorías y teóricos o representantes. El proceso de investigación tuvo como objetivo principal establecer el concepto del estado del arte en una muestra documental. Entre las conclusiones se destaca que el estado del arte es una metodología de investigación cualitativo-documental de carácter crítico-interpretativa que revisa los estados producidos por las personas en su representación bibliográfica, conformada por tres fases: 1 planeación y diseño, 2 gestión y análisis, 3 formalización y elaboración. Los instrumentos de matriz bibliográfica y matriz analítica de contenido son de gran utilidad para esta metodología.

  13. Scaling properties of planetary calderas and terrestrial volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez


    Full Text Available Volcanism plays an important role in transporting internal heat of planetary bodies to their surface. Therefore, volcanoes are a manifestation of the planet's past and present internal dynamics. Volcanic eruptions as well as caldera forming processes are the direct manifestation of complex interactions between the rising magma and the surrounding host rock in the crust of terrestrial planetary bodies. Attempts have been made to compare volcanic landforms throughout the solar system. Different stochastic models have been proposed to describe the temporal sequences of eruptions on individual or groups of volcanoes. However, comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for volcano formation and eruption and more specifically caldera formation remains elusive. In this work, we propose a scaling law to quantify the distribution of caldera sizes on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Io, as well as the distribution of calderas on Earth depending on their surrounding crustal properties. We also apply the same scaling analysis to the distribution of interevent times between eruptions for volcanoes that have the largest eruptive history as well as groups of volcanoes on Earth. We find that when rescaled with their respective sample averages, the distributions considered show a similar functional form. This result implies that similar processes are responsible for caldera formation throughout the solar system and for different crustal settings on Earth. This result emphasizes the importance of comparative planetology to understand planetary volcanism. Similarly, the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions are independent of the type of volcanism or geographical location.

  14. Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the respiratory toxicity of volcanic ash in vitro (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David E.; Ayris, Paul M.; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.


    Human exposure to inhalable volcanic ash particles following an eruption is a health concern, as respirable-sized particles can potentially contribute towards adverse respiratory health effects, such as the onset or exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although there is substantial information on the mineralogical properties of volcanic ash that may influence its biological reactivity, knowledge as to how external factors, such as air pollution, contribute to and augment the potential reactivity is limited. To determine the respiratory effects of volcanic particle interactions with anthropogenic pollution and volcanic gases we will experimentally assess: (i) physicochemical characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to respiratory toxicity; (ii) the effects of simultaneously inhaling anthropogenic pollution (i.e. diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) and volcanic ash (of different origins); (iii) alteration of volcanic ash toxicity following interaction with volcanic gases. In order to gain a first understanding of the biological impact of the respirable fraction of volcanic ash when inhaled with DEP in vitro, we used a sophisticated 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier. The multi-cellular system was exposed to DEP [0.02 mg/mL] and then exposed to either a single or repeated dose of well-characterised respirable volcanic ash (0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 hours using a pseudo-air liquid interface approach. Cultures were subsequently assessed for adverse biological endpoints including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and (pro)-inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the combination of DEP and respirable volcanic ash at sub-lethal concentrations incited a significant release of pro-inflammatory markers that was greater than the response for either DEP or volcanic ash, independently. Further work is planned, to determine if

  15. Golpes de Estado

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    Roberto Cortazar


    Full Text Available Por golpes de Estado se ha entendido generalmente un acto subversivo tendiente al cambio de régimen de gobierno o a la deposición de un magistrado supremo, acto que suelen llevar a cabo, en nombre de un partido, los politicos que anhelan de buena o mala fe verificar la transformación en un momento dado, después de propiciar el terreno por medio de la oposición.

  16. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive


    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  17. Sr isotopes at Copahue Volcanic Center, Neuquen, Argentina: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, E.; Ostera, H.A.; Cagnoni, M.C


    The Copahue Volcanic Center is located in the Cordillera Principal, at 38 L.S., in the Argentina- Chilean border. Detailed geological, geochronological and structural studies were carried out during the last decade (Pesce, 1989; Delpino y Bermudez, 1993; Linares et al., 1995, 1999; Folguera y Ramos, 2000; among others). We present Sr isotopes data on the main units of the Volcanic Center, coupled with a major element geochemistry, to constrain the evolution of the volcanic center (au)

  18. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis. (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël


    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. The Earth System Science Pathfinder VOLCAM Volcanic Hazard Mission (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.


    The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.

  20. K-Ar age of the Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Tohoku area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konda, Tadashi; Ueda, Yoshio.


    The absolute age of the Tertiary volcanic rocks in Tohoku area has been estimated by K-Ar method. The results are: (1) in case of the volcanic rocks of Monzen-Aikawa stage, 32.8 - 38.5 m.y.B.P., (2) in case of the volcanic rocks of Nozaki-Daijima stage, 22.0 - 25.1 m.y.B.P., (3) in case of the volcanic rocks of Nishikurosawa stage, 15.5 - 16.5 m.y.B.P., (4) in case of the volcanic rocks of Onnagawa stage, 12.6 - 14.8 m.y.B.P., (5) in case of the volcanic rocks of Funakawa stage, 9.6 - 11.3 m.y.B.P., and (6) in case of the volcanic rocks of Kitaura stage, 6.9 - 9.0 m.y.B.P. The samples used are such as biotite and whole rocks. The eruption periods in Tertiary volcanic activities presumed by K-Ar method are geologically significant. In the measurements made on the same system of samples under same conditions, there was difference in the K-Ar ages between the Monzen-Aikawa and the Nozaki-Daijima stages, and it was significantly noteworthy. It is indicated that the volcanic rock activities in the former stage had took place before those in the latter stage. In the Tohoku arc of northern Japan, the simultaneity in initial volcanic activities is not seen in the direction across the arc. (J.P.N.)

  1. Progress in Near Real-Time Volcanic Cloud Observations Using Satellite UV Instruments (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Vicente, G.; Hughes, E. J.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.


    Volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions can wreak havoc in many parts of the world, as exemplified by the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland, which caused widespread disruption to air traffic and resulted in economic impacts across the globe. A suite of satellite-based systems offer the most effective means to monitor active volcanoes and to track the movement of volcanic clouds globally, providing critical information for aviation hazard mitigation. Satellite UV sensors, as part of this suite, have a long history of making unique near-real time (NRT) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash (aerosol Index) in volcanic clouds to supplement operational volcanic ash monitoring. Recently a NASA application project has shown that the use of near real-time (NRT,i.e., not older than 3 h) Aura/OMI satellite data produces a marked improvement in volcanic cloud detection using SO2 combined with Aerosol Index (AI) as a marker for ash. An operational online NRT OMI AI and SO2 image and data product distribution system was developed in collaboration with the NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution. Automated volcanic eruption alarms, and the production of volcanic cloud subsets for multiple regions are provided through the NOAA website. The data provide valuable information in support of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration goal of a safe and efficient National Air Space. In this presentation, we will highlight the advantages of UV techniques and describe the advances in volcanic SO2 plume height estimation and enhanced volcanic ash detection using hyper-spectral UV measurements, illustrated with Aura/OMI observations of recent eruptions. We will share our plan to provide near-real-time volcanic cloud monitoring service using the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS).

  2. Volcanic sulfur degassing and the role of sulfides in controlling volcanic metal emissions (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Liu, E.


    Volcanoes emit prodigious quantities of sulfur and metals, their behaviour inextricably linked through pre-eruptive sulfide systematics and through degassing and speciation in the volcanic plume. Fundamental differences exist in the metal output of ocean island versus arc volcanoes, with volcanoes in Hawaii and Iceland outgassing large fluxes of gaseous and particulate chalcophiles; and arc volcanoes' plumes, in contrast, enriched in Zn, Cu, Tl and Pb. Metals and metalloids partition into a magmatic vapor phase from silicate melt at crustal pressures. Their abundance in magmatic vapor is influenced strongly by sulfide saturation and by the composition of the magmatic vapor phase, particularly with respect to chloride. These factors are highly dependent on tectonic setting. Metal outgassing is controlled by magma water content and redox: deep saturation in vapor and minimal sulfide in arc basalts yields metal-rich vapor; shallow degassing and resorption of sulfides feeds the metal content of volcanic gas in ocean islands. We present a detailed study of the sulfide systematics of the products of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun basaltic fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland) to illustrate the interplay between late water and sulfur outgassing; sulfide saturation and breakdown; and metal partitioning into a vapor phase. Sulfide globules, representing quenched droplets of an immiscible sulfide liquid, are preserved within erupted tephra. Sulfide globules in rapidly quenched tephra are preserved within both matrix glass and as inclusions in crystals. The stereologically-corrected 3D size distribution of sulfide globules ranges from importance in supplying sulfur and metals to the atmosphere during eruption.

  3. Estado de conhecimento e questões do campo científico

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    Marilia Costa Morosini


    Full Text Available texto objetiva desvelar questões sobre a construção de Estados de Conhecimento na área da Educação e apontar posições teóricas fundamentadoras dessas questões com vista à prática de pesquisa articulada à realidade nacional. Parte de tematizações encima de experiências, ao longo de quatro anos, em um curso de pós-graduação de excelência. Identifica categorias de análise na perspectiva do campo cientifico (Bourdieu: Políticas públicas do Estado-nação e da área disciplinar; Finalidades do Estado de Conhecimento para a ruptura de pré-conceitos (Quivy e Capenhoudt; Qualidade interna do Estado de Conhecimento (Lovitts marcado pela originalidade; e Metodologia de aprendizagem colaborativa. Conclui pela complexidade da produção de um Estado de Conhecimento decorrente das inúmeras inter-relações sócio-científicas e resgata sua importância para a inserção no campo cientifico e na área do objeto de pesquisa.

  4. Las relaciones especiales de sujeción entre el Estado y sus funcionarios

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    Luis Eduardo Ardila Quiroz


    Full Text Available Este escrito hace alusión a relaciones que existe entre el Estado y sus funcionarios, desde la obediencia en Grecia, hasta la connotación que adquiere el servidor público en el Estado Social de Derecho; y a su vez, las de estos para con sus asociados, pues bien sabido es que quienes sostienen al Estado y a todo el personal necesario para la exteriorización de aquel, son quienes pagan impuestos y contribuyen para que el presupuesto de gastos en bienes y servicios lleguen a buen puerto.Así como existen obligaciones por parte del Estado, también existen deberes que cumplir por parte de quienes lo habitan, por eso es de obligatorio cumplimiento, so pena de incurrir en un delito, el pago de contribuciones a favor del Estado, pero para que las erogaciones por parte del Estado hacia su población tengan la teleología o el fin propuesto, es necesario de una buena administración, si ello no acontece, se pierde la filosofía de las buenas maneras.

  5. Conflicto armado colombiano, estado mínimo y utopías

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    Boris Salazar


    Full Text Available Se recurre al enfoque de Robert Nozick (Anarquía, Estado y Utopía, para analizar la situación actual del Estado colombianos. Nozick se basa en la teoría económica para representar a los grupo como competidores en un mercado que vende protección y que resulta, de manera contraintuitiva, en un monopolio. En Colombia, muchos sienten que las cuestiones de vida o muerte no pasan por el Estado y que han de atenerse a la oferta de protección de distintas agencias armadas para intentar, mediantes ensayos e interacciones con ellas y con el Estado, cierto orden social local. El artículo propone alternativas conjeturables sobre el tipo de arden que podría resultado de confrontaciones violentas no ajenas a la utopía.

  6. Role of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Climate Impacts of Stratospheric Volcanic Injections (United States)

    Legrande, Allegra N.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.


    The climate impact of a volcanic eruption is known to be dependent on the size, location and timing of the eruption. However, the chemistry and composition of the volcanic plume also control its impact on climate. It is not just sulfur dioxide gas, but also the coincident emissions of water, halogens and ash that influence the radiative and climate forcing of an eruption. Improvements in the capability of models to capture aerosol microphysics, and the inclusion of chemistry and aerosol microphysics modules in Earth system models, allow us to evaluate the interaction of composition and chemistry within volcanic plumes in a new way. These modeling efforts also illustrate the role of water vapor in controlling the chemical evolution, and hence climate impacts, of the plume. A growing realization of the importance of the chemical composition of volcanic plumes is leading to a more sophisticated and realistic representation of volcanic forcing in climate simulations, which in turn aids in reconciling simulations and proxy reconstructions of the climate impacts of past volcanic eruptions. More sophisticated simulations are expected to help, eventually, with predictions of the impact on the Earth system of any future large volcanic eruptions.

  7. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.


    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  8. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.


    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  9. Toward Assessing the Causes of Volcanic Diversity in the Cascades Arc (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Kent, A. J.; Abers, G. A.; Pitcher, B.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Schmandt, B.


    A fundamental unanswered question in subduction system science is the cause of the observed diversity in volcanic arc style at an arc-segment to whole-arc scale. Specifically, we have yet to distinguish the predominant mantle and crustal processes responsible for the diversity of arc volcanic phenomenon, including the presence of central volcanoes vs. dispersed volcanism; episodicity in volcanic fluxes in time and space; variations in magma chemistry; and differences in the extent of magmatic focusing. Here we present a thought experiment using currently available data to estimate the relative role of crustal magmatic processes in producing the observed variations in Cascades arc volcanism. A compilation of available major element compositions of Quaternary arc volcanism and estimates of eruptive volumes are used to examine variations in the composition of arc magmas along strike. We then calculate the Quaternary volcanic heat flux into the crust, assuming steady state, required to produce the observed distribution of compositions via crystallization of mantle-derived primitive magmas vs. crustal melting using experiment constraints on possible liquid lines of descent and crustal melting scenarios. For pure crystallization, heat input into the crust scales with silica content, with dacitic to rhyolite compositions producing significantly greater latent heat relative to basalts to andesites. In contrast, the heat required to melt lower crustal amphibolite decreases with increasing silica and is likely provided by the latent heat of crystallization. Thus we develop maximum and minimum estimates for heat added to the crust at a given SiO2 range. When volumes are considered, we find that the average Quaternary volcanic heat flux at latitudes south of South Sister to be more than twice that to the north. Distributed mafic volcanism produces only a quarter to half the heat flux calculated for the main edifices at a given latitude because of their lesser eruptive volumes

  10. Study on the Effect of Straw Fiber on the Performance of Volcanic Slag Concrete (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Liu, Xi-xu


    In this paper, the effects of straw fiber on the working performance, mechanical properties and frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete were studied. The experimental results show that the straw fiber is subjected to surface carbonization treatment and mixed into the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete. The flexural strength and fracture pressure ratio of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete are improved obviously Improved volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete brittleness improves toughness. Carbonized straw fiber greatly improves the frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete. So that the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete freeze-thaw cycle can reach 300 times.

  11. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis


    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  12. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.


    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  13. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis. (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis


    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  14. Local to global: a collaborative approach to volcanic risk assessment (United States)

    Calder, Eliza; Loughlin, Sue; Barsotti, Sara; Bonadonna, Costanza; Jenkins, Susanna


    Volcanic risk assessments at all scales present challenges related to the multitude of volcanic hazards, data gaps (hazards and vulnerability in particular), model representation and resources. Volcanic hazards include lahars, pyroclastic density currents, lava flows, tephra fall, ballistics, gas dispersal and also earthquakes, debris avalanches, tsunamis and more ... they can occur in different combinations and interact in different ways throughout the unrest, eruption and post-eruption period. Volcanoes and volcanic hazards also interact with other natural hazards (e.g. intense rainfall). Currently many hazards assessments consider the hazards from a single volcano but at national to regional scales the potential impacts of multiple volcanoes over time become important. The hazards that have the greatest tendency to affect large areas up to global scale are those transported in the atmosphere: volcanic particles and gases. Volcanic ash dispersal has the greatest potential to directly or indirectly affect the largest number of people worldwide, it is currently the only volcanic hazard for which a global assessment exists. The quantitative framework used (primarily at a regional scale) considers the hazard at a given location from any volcano. Flow hazards such as lahars and floods can have devastating impacts tens of kilometres from a source volcano and lahars can be devastating decades after an eruption has ended. Quantitative assessment of impacts is increasingly undertaken after eruptions to identify thresholds for damage and reduced functionality. Some hazards such as lava flows could be considered binary (totally destructive) but others (e.g. ash fall) have varying degrees of impact. Such assessments are needed to enhance available impact and vulnerability data. Currently, most studies focus on physical vulnerability but there is a growing emphasis on social vulnerability showing that it is highly variable and dynamic with pre-eruption socio

  15. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.


    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  16. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark


    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  17. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health]. (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan


    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures.

  18. Scientific Drilling in a Central Italian Volcanic District

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    Paola Montone


    Full Text Available The Colli Albani Volcanic District, located 15 km SE of Rome (Fig. 1, is part of the Roman Magmatic Province, a belt of potassic to ultra-potassic volcanic districts that developed along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin since Middle Pleistocene time (Conticelli and Peccerillo, 1992; Marra et al., 2004; Giordano et al., 2006 and references therein. Eruption centers are aligned along NW-SE oriented majorextensional structures guiding the dislocation of Meso-Cenozoic siliceous-carbonate sedimentary successions at the rear of the Apennine belt. Volcanic districts developed in structural sectors with most favorable conditions for magma uprise. In particular, the Colli Albani volcanism is located in a N-S shear zone where it intersects the extensional NW- and NE-trending fault systems. In the last decade, geochronological measurements allowed for reconstructions of the eruptive history and led to the classification as "dormant" volcano. The volcanic history may be roughly subdivided into three main phases marked by different eruptive mechanisms andmagma volumes. The early Tuscolano-Artemisio Phase (ca. 561–351 ky, the most explosive and voluminous one, is characterized by five large pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions. After a ~40-ky-long dormancy, a lesser energetic phase of activity took place (Faete Phase; ca. 308–250 ky, which started with peripheral effusive eruptions coupled with subordinate hydromagmatic activity. A new ~50-ky-long dormancypreceded the start of the late hydromagmatic phase (ca. 200–36 ky, which was dominated by pyroclastic-surge eruptions, with formation of several monogenetic or multiple maars and/or tuff rings.

  19. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  20. Libertad religiosa y Estado Constitucional

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    Samuel Abad Yupanqui


    Full Text Available El presente articulo pretende examinar la evolución del debate constitucional sobre las relaciones Estado–Iglesia en nuestro pais, el actual diseno de estas relaciones a partir de lo dispuesto por el texto constitucional vigente y el Acuerdo suscrito con la Iglesia Catolica en julio de 1980, asi como los alcances de un proyecto de ley que pretende regular la libertad e igualdad religiosas. Asumiendo tal perspectiva recordaremos algunos antecedentes constitucionales que nos muestran por donde se ha encaminado el debate; y examinaremos los principios que orientan la relacion Iglesia-Estado, desde un enfoque de derechos fundamentales y en el marco de la indispensable afirmacion de un Estado Constitucional de Derecho. Ello es particularmente relevante en un pais como el nuestro en donde determinadas concepciones religiosas pretenden establecerse como unico parametro para la adopcion de aquellas politicas publicas respecto a las cuales la Iglesia tiene una posicion definida.

  1. Considerations on comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation planning of volcanic ash-fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshida, Kiyoshi


    Volcanic ash-fall is inevitable hazard throughout Japan, and causes wide range of effects due to its physical and chemical properties. Nuclear power plants in Japan face the necessity to assess the risk from volcanic ash-fall. Risk assessment of the volcanic ash-fall should include engineering solution and mitigation planning as well as the ash-fall hazard. This report points out the characteristics for reducing the various effects of volcanic ash-fall as follows. Large-scale eruptions produce prominent volcanic ash-falls that can approach power plants at a great distance. Aftermath hazards of ash-fall events, such as remobilization of fine ash particles and generation of lahars, require further assessments. The kind and extent of damages becomes greater whenever ash is wet. Wet ash requires separate assessments in contrast to dry ash. The mitigation and recovery measures at power plants involve quick cleanup operations of volcanic ash. Those operations should be prepared through comprehensive risk assessment, and by cooperation with authorities, during pre-eruption repose period. The comprehensive assessment for volcanic ash-fall hazards, however, has yet to be conducted. Development of risk communication method may result in increased implementation mitigation planning. Numerical analysis of the ash-fall hazards provides quantitative data on particle motions that can be used in the risk assessment. In order to implement the quantitative assessment method, the verification on the effect of ambient air condition to the altitude of volcanic ash cloud is necessary. We need to develop a three-dimensional model of volcanic ash cloud, and calculate motions of ash clouds under multiple conditions of ambient air. (author)

  2. The Western Arabian intracontinental volcanic fields as a potential UNESCO World Heritage site (United States)

    Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.


    UNESCO promotes conservation of the geological and geomoprhological heritage through promotion of protection of these sites and development of educational programs under the umbrella of geoparks among the most globally significant ones labelled as UNESCO Global Geoparks. UNESCO also maintains a call to list those natural sites that provide universal outstanding values to demonstrate geological features or their relevance to our understanding the evolution of Earth. Volcanoes currently got a surge in nomination to be UNESCO World Heritage sites. Volcanic fields in the contrary fell in a grey area of nominations as they represents the most common manifestation of volcanism on Earth hence they are difficult to view as having outstanding universal values. A nearly 2500-km long 300-km wide region of dispersed volcanoes located in the Western Arabian Penninsula mostly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia form a near-continuous location that carries universal outstanding value as one of the most representative manifestation of dispersed intracontinental volcanism on Earth to be nominated as an UNESCO World Heritage site. The volcanic fields formed in the last 20 Ma along the Red Sea as group of simple basaltic to more mature and long-lived basalt to trachyte-to-rhyolite volcanic fields each carries high geoheritage values. While these volcanic fields are dominated by scoria and spatter cones and transitional lava fields, there are phreatomagmatic volcanoes among them such as maars and tuff rings. Phreatomagmatism is more evident in association with small volcanic edifices that were fed by primitive magmas, while phreatomagmatic influences during the course of a larger volume eruption are also known in association with the silicic eruptive centres in the harrats of Rahat, Kishb and Khaybar. Three of the volcanic fields are clearly bimodal and host small-volume relatively short-lived lava domes and associated block-and-ash fans providing a unique volcanic landscape commonly not

  3. Size limits for rounding of volcanic ash particles heated by lightning (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W.; Genareau, Kimberly; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Volcanic ash particles can be remelted by the high temperatures induced in volcanic lightning discharges. The molten particles can round under surface tension then quench to produce glass spheres. Melting and rounding timescales for volcanic materials are strongly dependent on heating duration and peak temperature and are shorter for small particles than for large particles. Therefore, the size distribution of glass spheres recovered from ash deposits potentially record the short duration, high-temperature conditions of volcanic lightning discharges, which are hard to measure directly. We use a 1-D numerical solution to the heat equation to determine the timescales of heating and cooling of volcanic particles during and after rapid heating and compare these with the capillary timescale for rounding an angular particle. We define dimensionless parameters—capillary, Fourier, Stark, Biot, and Peclet numbers—to characterize the competition between heat transfer within the particle, heat transfer at the particle rim, and capillary motion, for particles of different sizes. We apply this framework to the lightning case and constrain a maximum size for ash particles susceptible to surface tension-driven rounding, as a function of lightning temperature and duration, and ash properties. The size limit agrees well with maximum sizes of glass spheres found in volcanic ash that has been subjected to lightning or experimental discharges, demonstrating that the approach that we develop can be used to obtain a first-order estimate of lightning conditions in volcanic plumes.

  4. Gerardo Molina y el Estado providente

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    Cataño , Gonzalo


    Full Text Available En este ensayo Gonzalo Cataño examina la visión del Estado del notable pensador y dirigente socialista colombiano, Gerardo Molina. Ofrece una breve información biográfica y comenta su enfoque sobre las funciones del aparato estatal. Aunque en la exposición predomina un tono crítico, muestra que las limitaciones de un analista inteligente de los asuntos públicos son más instructivas que las consideraciones correctas de un comentarista trivial de la política. En este trabajo se denomina por Estado providente ¿conocido también como asistencial o de bienestar¿ al que garantiza niveles mínimos de ingreso, salud, alimentación, vivienda, educación y trabajo, como derecho político y no como beneficencia.

  5. Volcanic risk perception in the Campi Flegrei area (United States)

    Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.


    The Campi Flegrei which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the Campi Flegrei area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the Campi Flegrei Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received

  6. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping


    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  7. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions? (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.


    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  8. Geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Miocene-Pliocene volcanism and tectonics in the Palaoco and Fortunoso volcanic fields, Mendoza Region, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo J.


    New 40Ar/39Ar analyses constrain the formation of the volcanic succession of Sierra de Palaoco in the present back-arc of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), near 36°S, to the Late Miocene and assigns them to the Huincán II Formation. The composition of major and trace elements, Sr, Nd and P...

  9. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Löffler


    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry–climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg – Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  10. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences (United States)

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew


    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  11. Unexpected HIMU-type late-stage volcanism on the Walvis Ridge (United States)

    Homrighausen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Wartho, J.-A.; Hauff, F.; Portnyagin, M.; Werner, R.; van den Bogaard, P.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.


    Volcanic activity at many oceanic volcanoes, ridges and plateaus often reawakens after hiatuses of up to several million years. Compared to the earlier magmatic phases, this late-stage (rejuvenated/post-erosional) volcanism is commonly characterized by a distinct geochemical composition. Late-stage volcanism raises two hitherto unanswered questions: Why does volcanism restart after an extended hiatus and what is the origin of this volcanism? Here we present the first 40Ar/39Ar age and comprehensive trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data from seamounts located on and adjacent to the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic ocean basin. The Walvis Ridge is the oldest submarine part of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track and is famous as the original type locality for the enriched mantle one (EM I) end member. Consistent with the bathymetric data, the age data indicates that most of these seamounts are 20-40 Myr younger than the underlying or nearby Walvis Ridge basement. The trace element and isotope data reveal a distinct compositional range from the EM I-type basement. The composition of the seamounts extend from the St. Helena HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/204Pb mantle with radiogenic Pb isotope ratios) end member to an enriched (E) Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (MORB) type composition, reflecting a two-component mixing trend on all isotope diagrams. The EMORB end member could have been generated through mixing of Walvis Ridge EM I with normal (N) MORB source mantle, reflecting interaction of Tristan-Gough (EM I-type) plume melts with the upper mantle. The long volcanic quiescence and the HIMU-like geochemical signature of the seamounts are unusual for classical hotspot related late-stage volcanism, indicating that these seamounts are not related to the Tristan-Gough hotspot volcanism. Two volcanic arrays in southwestern Africa (Gibeon-Dicker Willem and Western Cape province) display similar ages to the late-stage Walvis seamounts and also have HIMU-like compositions

  12. Suprema Corte de Justicia de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprema Corte de Justicia Estados Unidos de Norte América


    Full Text Available INFORME DEL INSTITUTO DE DERECHO INTERNACIONAL PUBLICO.AUTOS: ESTADOS UNIDOS (Apelante v./ HUMBERTO ALVAREZ MACHAINLOS HECHOS.Un ciudadano mejicano fue secuestrado por la fuerza (en su país y transportado en un avión particular a los E.E.U.U. donde fue arrestado bajo acusación de haber participado en el rapto y asesinato, cometidos en Méjico, de un agente del Departamento para el Control de la Droga de los Estados Unidos (D.E.A. y su acompañante. (... 

  13. La migración México-Estados unidos


    Santibañez Romellón, Jorge


    Note portant sur l'auteur TIJUANA: AVANT DE PASSER LA FRONTIÈRE EN BUS, DESTINATION LOS ANGELES(CLICHÉ: ANNICK TRÉGUER). INTRODUCCION La migracion de mexicanos hacia y desde los Estados Unidos es un proceso esencialmente social, económico, laboral y cultural que involucra a millones de mexicanos en México y en los Estados Unidos. El propósito de este breve documento es el de aportar una visión general de este importante proceso en lo que toca a la migración laboral, desde una perspectiva act...

  14. Division of volcanic activity cycles in the late mesozoic in South Jiangxi and North Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinglong; Wu Jianhua


    Based on stratigraphical unconformity, rock association, fossil assemblage, isotope age and tectonic features, the volcanic activity in late Mesozoic in south Jiangxi and north Guandong can be divided into four cycles: Yutian volcanic activity cycle, Lianhuazhai volcanic activity cycle. Banshi volcanic activity cycle and Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle. Yutian volcanic cycle which occurs in middle Jurassic epoch is the bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Lianhuazhai volcanic cycle which occurs in late Jurassic epoch is unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite. Banshi volcanic cycle occurs from the late stage of early Cretaceous to the early stage of late Cretaceous epoch. There are two types of rock associations related to this cycle: unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite or basalt and bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle which occurred in late stage of late Cretaceous epoch is the unimodal rock association composed of basalt which is the interlayer of the red sedimentary series

  15. Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid onto Volcanic Ash Soils:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Mon


    Full Text Available The quantification of the linear adsorption coefficient (Kd for soils plays a vital role to predict fate and transport of pesticides in the soil-water environment. In this study, we measured Kd values for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D adsorption onto Japanese volcanic ash soils with different amount of soil organic matter (SOM in batch experiments under different pH conditions. All measurements followed well both linear and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Strong correlations were found between measured Kd values and pH as well as SOM. The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. Based on the data, a predictive Kd equation for volcanic ash soils, log (Kd = 2.04 - 0.37 pH + 0.91 log (SOM, was obtained by the multiple regression analysis. The predictive Kd equation was tested against measured 2,4-D sorption data for other volcanic ash soils and normal mineral soils from literature. The proposed Kd equation well predicted Kd values for other volcanic ash soils and slightly over- or under-predicted Kd values for normal mineral soils. The proposed Kd equation performed well against volcanic ash soils from different sites and countries, and is therefore recommended for predicting Kd values at different pH and SOM conditions for volcanic ash soils when calculating and predicting 2,4-D mobility and fate in soil and groundwater.

  16. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.


    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  17. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations. (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe


    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  18. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions (United States)


    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  19. Mapping Intraplate Volcanic Fields: A Case Study from Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Dietterich, H. R.


    Continental intraplate mafic volcanoes are typically small-volume (200 volcanic fields proposed to be active worldwide during the Holocene. Their small individual eruption volumes make any hazards low, however their high prevalence offsets this by raising the risk to populations and infrastructure. The western Arabian Plate hosts at least 15 continental, intra-plate volcanic fields that stretch >3,000 km south to north from Yemen to Turkey. In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkali basalt volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of 180,000 km2. With a total volume of 20,000 km3, Harrat Rahat in western Saudi Arabia is one of the largest of these volcanic fields. Our study focused on mapping the northern third of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field using a multidisciplinary approach. We have discriminated >200 individual eruptive units, mainly basaltic lava flows throughout Harrat Rahat that are distinguished through a combination of field observations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. We have compiled these results into a high-resolution geologic map, which provides new information about the timing, compositions, and eruptive processes of Quaternary volcanism in Harrat Rahat. For example, prior mapping and geochronology undertaken during the 1980s suggested that the majority of mafic and silicic volcanics erupted during the Miocene and Pliocene, whereas several of the youngest-appearing lava flows were interpreted to be Neolithic ( 7,000 to 4,500 years BP) to post-Neolithic. New mapping and age-constrained stratigraphic relations indicate that all exposed volcanic units within the northern third of Harrat Rahat erupted during the Pleistocene, with the exception of a single Holocene eruption in 1256 AD. This new multidisciplinary mapping is critical for understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat, timescales of

  20. Direito, estado e poder: poulantzas e o seu confronto com Kelsen


    Luiz Eduardo Motta


    A Teoria do Estado, no campo da Ciência Política, viveu momentos de crise, em particular na passagem dos anos 1980 para os 1990, quando algumas correntes intelectuais apontavam que o Estado-nação e as instituições estatais deixariam de ocupar um papel central como objetos de análise. O presente artigo vai de encontro a essa posição e visa a estabelecer uma análise comparativa de dois dos mais sistemáticos autores que trataram do conceito de Estado moderno e da relação deste com o Direito mode...

  1. Holocene volcanism of the upper McKenzie River catchment, central Oregon Cascades, USA (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Conrey, Richard M.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Champion, Duane E.; Amidon, William H.


    To assess the complexity of eruptive activity within mafic volcanic fields, we present a detailed geologic investigation of Holocene volcanism in the upper McKenzie River catchment in the central Oregon Cascades, United States. We focus on the Sand Mountain volcanic field, which covers 76 km2 and consists of 23 vents, associated tephra deposits, and lava fields. We find that the Sand Mountain volcanic field was active for a few decades around 3 ka and involved at least 13 eruptive units. Despite the small total volume erupted (∼1 km3 dense rock equivalent [DRE]), Sand Mountain volcanic field lava geochemistry indicates that erupted magmas were derived from at least two, and likely three, different magma sources. Single units erupted from one or more vents, and field data provide evidence of both vent migration and reoccupation. Overall, our study shows that mafic volcanism was clustered in space and time, involved both explosive and effusive behavior, and tapped several magma sources. These observations provide important insights on possible future hazards from mafic volcanism in the central Oregon Cascades.

  2. The use of Remote Sensing for the Study of the Relationships Between Tectonics and Volcanism (United States)

    Chorowicz, J.; Dhont, D.; Yanev, Y.; Bardintzeff, J.


    Observations of geometric relationships between tectonics and volcanism is a fruitful approach in geology. On the one hand analysis of the distribution and types of volcanic vents provides information on the geodynamics. On the other hand tectonic analysis explains the location of volcanics vents. Volcanic edifices often result from regional scale deformation, forming open structures constituting preferred pathways for the rise of magmas. Analysis of the shape and the distribution of vents can consequently provide data on the regional deformation. Remote sensing imagery gives synoptic views of the earth surface allowing the analysis of landforms of still active tectonic and volcanic features. Shape and distribution of volcanic vents, together with recent tectonic patterns are best observed by satellite data and Digital Elevation Models than in the field. The use of radar scenes for the study of the structural relationships between tectonic and volcanic features is particularly efficient because these data express sensitive changes in the morphology. In various selected areas, we show that volcanic edifices are located on tension fractures responsible for fissure eruptions, volcanic linear clusters and elongate volcanoes. Different types of volcanic emplacements can be also distinguished such as tail-crack or horse-tail features, and releasing bend basins along strike-slip faults. Caldera complexes seem to be associated to horse-tail type fault terminations. At a regional scale, the distribution of volcanic vents and their relationships with the faults is able to explain the occurrence of volcanism in collisional areas.

  3. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition (United States)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma composition and mineralogy will directly relate to the increased dissolved element concentration of exposed waters. The measured effects on aqueous solutions will aid in evaluation of impacts to marine and freshwater systems exposed to volcanic deposits.

  4. Estado nacional, globalización y democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alcides Valenzuela Pérez


    Full Text Available La definición de Estado nacional que Hans Kelsen expone en su obra clásica del pensamiento jurídico Teoría general del Derecho y del Estado lo caracteriza como organización política, que crea una comunidad nacional con el objeto de ejercer el poder político en el marco de un orden normativo válido para un espacio territorial delimitado, mediante el cual, se garantiza el principio de autodeterminación de un pueblo y su complemento necesario: la soberanía. Sin embargo, con motivo de los procesos de globalización, en particular, globalización de la economía de mercado, las decisiones más importantes que afectan al Estado se toman en los organismos económicos internacionales como el Fondo Monetario Internacional o el Banco Mundial, con lo cual, los principios de autodeterminación y de soberanía propios de la clásica definición del Estado nacional son puestos en cuestión y se han convertido en una mera ficción. Ante esa realidad, la idea de una sociedad cosmopolita, postulada por Kant hace ya más de doscientos años, retoma su vigencia, salvo que ahora, a la distancia histórica, la propuesta kantiana debe ser implementada por la democratización de los procesos de constitución de un nuevo orden mundial. El presente artículo explora la posibilidad de fortalecer la democracia gracias a una reconstrucción de los principios de la Ilustración, aplicados a una sociedad cosmopolita mediante la práctica del poder comunicativo de los ciudadanos que, suponemos, producirá el desencadenamiento de las libertades comunicativas en el horizonte teórico propuesto por Habermas.

  5. Analysis of volcanic tephra as a material of environment (United States)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.; Fang, X.; Xiaoli, P.; Chmielewská, E.


    Tephra is a fragmental material produced by volcanic eruption. Here, volcanic tephra deposit from the northeast of China was used for our study. Samples of unaltered tephra are usually composed of feldspar, glass, pyroxene, and olivine. Moreover, these volcanic alteration products also contain Fe oxides, phylosilicates, sulfates, and amorphous Al-Si-bearing material. Six different samples of tephra obtained were analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. A typical Mössbauer spectrum of tephra consists of magnetic and non-magnetic components (magnetic component represents about 11% and non-magnetic component about 89% of spectral area). According to the structural composition, it may be supposed that the magnetic component can be assigned to titanomagnetite. Non-magnetic components contain two quadrupole doublets (Fe2+ species) and one doublet containing Fe3+. According to the measured values of Mössbauer spectra, the first two doublets are very similar with pyroxene, olivine and the third to phylosilicate, aluminosilicate or iron oxide of FeO type. Recently, volcanic tephra was applied as an ecological substance. Special solution was proposed for tephra utilization, especially for phosphate removal from contaminated water.

  6. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.


    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  7. Permeability of volcanic rocks to gas and water (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Reuschlé, T.; Farquharson, J. I.; Baud, P.


    The phase (gas or liquid) of the fluids within a porous volcanic system varies in both time and space. Laboratory experiments have shown that gas and water permeabilities can differ for the same rock sample, but experiments are biased towards rocks that contain minerals that are expected react with the pore fluid (such as the reaction between liquid water and clay). We present here the first study that systematically compares the gas and water permeability of volcanic rocks. Our data show that permeabilities to argon gas and deionised water can differ by a factor between two and five in two volcanic rocks (basalt and andesite) over a confining pressure range from 2 to 50 MPa. We suggest here that the microstructural elements that offer the shortest route through the sample-estimated to have an average radius 0.1-0.5 μm using the Klinkenberg slip factor-are accessible to gas, but restricted or inaccessible to water. We speculate that water adsorption on the surface of these thin microstructural elements, assumed here to be tortuous/rough microcracks, reduces their effective radius and/or prevents access. These data have important implications for fluid flow and therefore the distribution and build-up of pore pressure within volcanic systems.

  8. Role of Social Media and Networking in Volcanic Crises and Communication (United States)

    Sennert, S.; Klemetti, E. W.; Bird, D. K.


    The growth of social media as a primary and often preferred news source has led to the rapid dissemination of information about volcanic eruptions and potential volcanic crises as they begin, evolve, and end. This information comes from a variety of sources: news organisations, emergency management personnel, individuals (both members of the public and official representatives), and volcano monitoring agencies. Once posted, this information is easily shared, increasing the reach to a much broader population than more traditional forms of media, such as radio and newspapers. The onset and popularity of social media as a vehicle for dissemination of eruption information points toward the need to systematically incorporate social media into the official channels that volcano observatories use to distribute activity statements, forecasts, and images. We explore two examples of projects that collect/disseminate information regarding volcanic crises and eruptive activity via social media sources; the Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report (WVAR), which summarizes new and on-going volcanic activity globally and on a weekly basis, and Eruptions, a blog that discusses eruptions as well as other volcanic topics. Based on these experiences, recommendations are made to volcanic observatories in relation to the use of social media as a communication tool. These recommendations include: using social media as a two-way dialogue to communicate and receive information directly from the public and other sources; stating that the social media account is from an official source; and posting types of information that users want to see such as images, videos, and figures.

  9. Acidic volcanic rock and its potential as an objective for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Torres, R.; Yza Dominguez, R.; Chavez Aguirre, R.; Constantino, H.E.S.E.


    The geographical distribution of recent Mexican volcanic rocks is continuous; the older formations are dispersed in isolated outcrops. Continental volcanic events, acidic and basal, took place in the Caenozoic, Mesozoic and Palaeozoic; basic submarine volcanism predominated in the Mesozoic, Palaeozoic and late Precambrian. Access to the Sierra Madre Occidental, a circum-Pacific mountain range covered by rhyolitic rocks, is limited, which restricts the sections studied. Calderas, sources of volcanic emission and preliminary litho-stratigraphic sections have been delimited on the eastern edge of the range. Subduction by the ocean magmatized the continent from the Permian onwards, extravasating and depositing cyclically various magmata through inverted and normal cortical throws. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Chihuahua) section consists of epiclastic and pyroclastic rocks. A calcareous conglomerate is overburdened by alternate basal tuffs and imbricates, forming five units. In the uraniferous district of the Sierra Pena Blanca the hydrothermal alteration argillitized both components of the ''Nopal'' formation. Primary minerals (pitchblende) are found together with silicification. Leaching favours secondary mineralization (uranium silicates) associated with opals. After extrapolation of the features, the following are considered worth-while objectives: the faces, offsets and prolongations of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the southern volcanic mesetas south of the Mexican Transcontinental Rift. Similar objectives of Mesozoic or Palaeozoic age exist in central and southern Mexico. Possible objectives for uranium are: the acidic volcanic rock of the southern and south-western United States of America, the circum-Pacific acidic volcanic rocks of North America and the acidic volcanic mesetas of Central America and in the Andes. (author)

  10. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  11. Combining probabilistic hazard assessment with cost-benefit analysis to support decision making in a volcanic crisis from the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Jolly, Gill; Lindsay, Jan; Howe, Tracy; Marzocchi, Warner


    One of the main challenges of modern volcanology is to provide the public with robust and useful information for decision-making in land-use planning and in emergency management. From the scientific point of view, this translates into reliable and quantitative long- and short-term volcanic hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Because of the complexity in characterizing volcanic events, and of the natural variability of volcanic processes, a probabilistic approach is more suitable than deterministic modeling. In recent years, two probabilistic codes have been developed for quantitative short- and long-term eruption forecasting (BET_EF) and volcanic hazard assessment (BET_VH). Both of them are based on a Bayesian Event Tree, in which volcanic events are seen as a chain of logical steps of increasing detail. At each node of the tree, the probability is computed by taking into account different sources of information, such as geological and volcanological models, past occurrences, expert opinion and numerical modeling of volcanic phenomena. Since it is a Bayesian tool, the output probability is not a single number, but a probability distribution accounting for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. In this study, we apply BET_VH in order to quantify the long-term volcanic hazard due to base surge invasion in the region around Auckland, New Zealand's most populous city. Here, small basaltic eruptions from monogenetic cones pose a considerable risk to the city in case of phreatomagmatic activity: evidence for base surges are not uncommon in deposits from past events. Currently, we are particularly focussing on the scenario simulated during Exercise Ruaumoko, a national disaster exercise based on the build-up to an eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field. Based on recent papers by Marzocchi and Woo, we suggest a possible quantitative strategy to link probabilistic scientific output and Boolean decision making. It is based on cost-benefit analysis, in which all costs

  12. Sedimentary response to volcanic activity in the Okinawa Trough since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋富清; 李安春; 李铁刚


    To investigate the relationship between volcanic activity and sediment record on regional and temporal scales,158 surface sediment samples were collected from the East China Sea Shelf to the northern Okinawa Trough (OT),and two cores recovered in the northern and southern OT,respectively.Mineralogy,grain-size,and geochemical analyses of those samples show that:1) volcanic glass,volcanic-type pyroxene,hypersthenes,and magnetite increase in sediment influenced by volcanic activity;2) sediment grain sizes (and...

  13. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 21, 2008 ... fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ... the main mineral in volcanic ash responsible for causing silicosis. The F ... volcanic ash with little or no attention to the < 4 µm.

  14. Global Volcanism on Mercury at About 3.8 Ga (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W., III; Hauck, S. A., II; Murchie, S. L.; Solomon, S. C.


    Smooth plains occupy c. 27% of the surface of Mercury. Embayment relations, spectral contrast with surroundings, and morphologic characteristics indicate that the majority of these plains are volcanic. The largest deposits are located in Mercury's northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern plains (NP) and the Caloris interior and exterior plains (with the latter likely including basin material). Both the NP and Caloris deposits are, within statistical error, the same age (~3.8-3.9 Ga). To test whether this age reflects a period of global volcanism on Mercury, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for four smooth plains units in the planet's southern hemisphere interpreted to be volcanic. Two deposits are situated within the Beethoven and Tolstoj impact basins; two are located close to the Debussy and the Alver and Disney basins, respectively. Each deposit hosts two populations of craters, one that postdates plains emplacement and one that consists of partially to nearly filled craters that predate the plains. This latter population indicates that some time elapsed between formation of the underlying basement and plains volcanism, though we cannot statistically resolve this interval at any of the four sites. Nonetheless, we find that the age given by the superposed crater population in each case is ~3.8 Ga, and crater density values are consistent with those for the NP and Caloris plains. This finding supports a global phase of volcanism near the end of the late heavy bombardment of Mercury and may indicate a period of widespread partial melting of Mercury's mantle. Notably, superposition relations between smooth plains, degraded impact structures, and contractional landforms suggest that by this time interior cooling had already placed Mercury's lithosphere in horizontal compression, tending to inhibit voluminous dike-fed volcanism such as that inferred responsible for the NP. Most smooth plains units, including the Caloris plains and our

  15. Interaction between climate, volcanism, and isostatic rebound in Southeast Alaska during the last deglaciation (United States)

    Praetorius, Summer; Mix, Alan; Jensen, Britta; Froese, Duane; Milne, Glenn A.; Wolhowe, Matthew; Addison, Jason A.; Prahl, Fred


    Observations of enhanced volcanic frequency during the last deglaciation have led to the hypothesis that ice unloading in glaciated volcanic terrains can promote volcanism through decompression melting in the shallow mantle or a reduction in crustal magma storage time. However, a direct link between regional climate change, isostatic adjustment, and the initiation of volcanism remains to be demonstrated due to the difficulty of obtaining high-resolution well-dated records that capture short-term climate and volcanic variability traced to a particular source region. Here we present an exceptionally resolved record of 19 tephra layers paired with foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and alkenone paleotemperatures from marine sediment cores along the Southeast Alaska margin spanning the last deglacial transition. Major element compositions of the tephras indicate a predominant source from the nearby Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF). We constrain the timing of this regional eruptive sequence to 14.6–13.1 ka. The sudden increase in volcanic activity from the MEVF coincides with the onset of Bølling–Allerød interstadial warmth, the disappearance of ice-rafted detritus, and rapid vertical land motion associated with modeled regional isostatic rebound in response to glacier retreat. These data support the hypothesis that regional deglaciation can rapidly trigger volcanic activity. Rapid sea surface temperature fluctuations and an increase in local salinity (i.e., δ18Osw) variability are associated with the interval of intense volcanic activity, consistent with a two-way interaction between climate and volcanism in which rapid volcanic response to ice unloading may in turn enhance short-term melting of the glaciers, plausibly via albedo effects on glacier ablation zones.

  16. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.


    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  17. Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies: 1992--1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The annual report of the Center for Volcanic Studies (CVTS) contains a series of papers, reprints and a Master of Science thesis that review the progress made by the CVTS between October 1, 1992 and February 1, 1994. During this period CVTS staff focused on several topics that have direct relevance to volcanic hazards related to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These topics include: (1) polygenetic/polycyclic volcanism in Crater Flat, Nevada; (2) the role of the mantle during crustal extension; (3) the detailed geology of Crater Flat, Nevada; (4) Pliocene volcanoes in the Reveille Range, south-central Nevada; (5) estimating the probability of disruption of the proposed repository by volcanic eruptions. This topic is being studied by Dr. C.H. Ho at UNLV. The report contains copies of these individual papers as they were presented in various conference proceedings

  18. Taquicardias supraventriculares. Estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alfonso Gándara Ricardo


    El tratamiento de las taquicardias supraventriculares dependerá del estado hemodinámico del paciente, el cual definirá el requerimiento de terapia eléctrica o tratamiento médico. Se debe hacer una selección adecuada de los pacientes que requieren estudio electrofisiológico y ablación.

  19. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.


    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  20. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  1. Ciudadania y Estado Del Bienestar: La Inmigracion Femenina en Espana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adelantado


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE El Estado del Bienestar es un modelo institucional típico del desarrollo del estado-nación en Europa Occidental a lo largo del siglo XX. Es sucesor del Estado liberal decimonónico y se le atribuyen como finalidades propias conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades y la redistribución de recursos mediante un conjunto de políticas sociales. EI desarrollo del EB muestra la correspondencia entre la intensidad de los derechos y el tipo de asalarización de la fuerza de trabajo según clase, sexo y origen geográfico: sistemáticamente se observa que los hombres han disfrutado de más derechos que las mujeres y ambos que los y las inmigrantes. En ese contexto, el objeto de este trabajo consiste en averiguar la relación que vincula los derechos de ciudadanía con las desigualdades de clase-género-inmigración, relaci6n esta menos estudiada, sobre lodo en relación aI Estado deI Bienestar en Espanã.

  2. Ciudadania y Estado del Bienestar: La Inmigracion Femenina en Espana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adelantado


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE El Estado del Bienestar es un modelo institucional típico del desarrollo del estado-nación en Europa Occidental a lo largo del siglo XX. Es sucesor del Estado liberal decimonónico y se le atribuyen como finalidades propias conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades y la redistribución de recursos mediante un conjunto de políticas sociales. EI desarrollo del EB muestra la correspondencia entre la intensidad de los derechos y el tipo de asalarización de la fuerza de trabajo según clase, sexo y origen geográfico: sistemáticamente se observa que los hombres han disfrutado de más derechos que las mujeres y ambos que los y las inmigrantes. En ese contexto, el objeto de este trabajo consiste en averiguar la relación que vincula los derechos de ciudadanía con las desigualdades de clase-género-inmigración, relación esta menos estudiada, sobre lodo en relación aI Estado deI Bienestar en Espanã.

  3. The volcanic rocks construction of the late paleozoic era and uranium mineralization in Beishan area of Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhengchang; Luo Xiaoqiang


    Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Beishan area are the favorable constructions of hydrothermal type and volcanic type deposit. From the distribution of volcanic rocks, the volcanic compositions, the volcanic facies, volcanic eruption method and rhythm, chemical and trace elements compositions, and so on, it discusses the characteristics of the Late Devonian volcanic construction in this area and its relationship with uranium mineralization, analyzes the role of volcanic ore-control mechanism, and summarizes uranium ore forming regularity of volcanic construction in Late Paleozoic. (authors)

  4. Applying geophysical surveys for studying subsurface geology of monogenetic volcanic fields: the example of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field (NE of Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel


    Improving knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of monogenetic volcanoes and the relationship with the subsurface geology is an important task. We applied high-precision geophysical techniques that are self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography, for the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field, which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Previous geophysical studies carried out in the same area at a less detailed scale were aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. Self-potential study allowed identifying key areas where electrical resistivity tomography could be conducted. Dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones were identified through the generation of resistivity models. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These studies show that previous alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Furthermore, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area can be controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural, and hydrogeological features underneath these monogenetic volcanoes. This study was partially funded by the Beca Ciutat d'Olot en Ciències Naturals and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO").

  5. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs. (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido


    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  6. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.


    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Estado Confusional Agudo nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos


    Santos, L; Alcântara, J


    As alterações do comportamento frequentemente observadas em doentes internados nas unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), podem ser adequadamente designadas, na maioria das vezes, por estado confusional agudo, o qual se caracteriza por: flutuação do estado de vigília, distúrbio do ciclo vigília-sono, défice de atenção e concentração, desorganização do pensamento, manifestado entre outras formas por discurso incoerente, distúrbios da percepção sob a forma de ilusões e/ou alucinações, desorient...

  8. El gasto militar del Estado costarricense, 1821-1870.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Corella Ovares


    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina la relación entre los gastos militares del Estado costarricense y la conformación de una Hacienda Pública, durante las primeras cinco décadas de vida independiente. Durante ese período se dio un crecimiento importante de las fuerzas militares, y en consecuencia de los recursos económicos asignados a éstas por parte de las autoridades. La construcción de los mecanismos para obtener, administrar y gastar  esos recursos económicos favoreció la consolidación del Estado moderno en Costa Rica.

  9. Volcanic influence on centennial to millennial Holocene Greenland temperature change. (United States)

    Kobashi, Takuro; Menviel, Laurie; Jeltsch-Thömmes, Aurich; Vinther, Bo M; Box, Jason E; Muscheler, Raimund; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Pfister, Patrik L; Döring, Michael; Leuenberger, Markus; Wanner, Heinz; Ohmura, Atsumu


    Solar variability has been hypothesized to be a major driver of North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations through the Holocene along with orbitally induced insolation change. However, another important climate driver, volcanic forcing has generally been underestimated prior to the past 2,500 years partly owing to the lack of proper proxy temperature records. Here, we reconstruct seasonally unbiased and physically constrained Greenland Summit temperatures over the Holocene using argon and nitrogen isotopes within trapped air in a Greenland ice core (GISP2). We show that a series of volcanic eruptions through the Holocene played an important role in driving centennial to millennial-scale temperature changes in Greenland. The reconstructed Greenland temperature exhibits significant millennial correlations with K + and Na + ions in the GISP2 ice core (proxies for atmospheric circulation patterns), and δ 18 O of Oman and Chinese Dongge cave stalagmites (proxies for monsoon activity), indicating that the reconstructed temperature contains hemispheric signals. Climate model simulations forced with the volcanic forcing further suggest that a series of large volcanic eruptions induced hemispheric-wide centennial to millennial-scale variability through ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. Therefore, we conclude that volcanic activity played a critical role in driving centennial to millennial-scale Holocene temperature variability in Greenland and likely beyond.

  10. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C


    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  11. Medio ambiente, mercado y Estado


    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo


    La fuerza del mercado frente a las falencias del Estado, como factores que explican las barreras para el desarrollo de la vacuna sintética contra la malaria en Colombia y la falta de control a las causas antrópicas del ecosidio de los chigüiros en el desierto de muerte del Casanare

  12. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo


    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo Medina


    Full Text Available La globalización económica ha determinado una redefinición del papel del Estado, que de intervencionista y prestador pasa a regulador y garante de la prestación, determinando una adaptación del régimen jurídico aplicable por los Estados nacionales y propiciando la creación de un nuevo orden en el ámbito global, que pone en entredicho la capacidad actual de las organizaciones políticas de las sociedades para cumplir con los cometidos del Estado social, cuya vía de resolución parece ser la calidad del sistema regulatorio.

  14. Seismic equivalents of volcanic jet scaling laws and multipoles in acoustics (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Aldridge, David F.


    We establish analogies between equivalent source theory in seismology (moment-tensor and single-force sources) and acoustics (monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles) in the context of volcanic eruption signals. Although infrasound (acoustic waves volcanic eruptions may be more complex than a simple monopole, dipole or quadrupole assumption, these elementary acoustic sources are a logical place to begin exploring relations with seismic sources. By considering the radiated power of a harmonic force source at the surface of an elastic half-space, we show that a volcanic jet or plume modelled as a seismic force has similar scaling with respect to eruption parameters (e.g. exit velocity and vent area) as an acoustic dipole. We support this by demonstrating, from first principles, a fundamental relationship that ties together explosion, torque and force sources in seismology and highlights the underlying dipole nature of seismic forces. This forges a connection between the multipole expansion of equivalent sources in acoustics and the use of forces and moments as equivalent sources in seismology. We further show that volcanic infrasound monopole and quadrupole sources exhibit scalings similar to seismicity radiated by volume injection and moment sources, respectively. We describe a scaling theory for seismic tremor during volcanic eruptions that agrees with observations showing a linear relation between radiated power of tremor and eruption rate. Volcanic tremor over the first 17 hr of the 2016 eruption at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, obeyed the linear relation. Subsequent tremor during the main phase of the eruption did not obey the linear relation and demonstrates that volcanic eruption tremor can exhibit other scalings even during the same eruption.

  15. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dating of altered glassy volcanic rocks: the Dabi Volcanics, P.N.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; McDougall, I.


    K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages have been determined for altered submarine tholeiitic and boninite (high-Mg andesite) lavas from the Dabi Volcanics, Cape Vogel Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar whole rock total fusion and plateau ages identify a Late Paleocene age for the tholeiitic lavas (58.9 +- 1.1 Ma), and also for the boninitic lavas (58.8 +- 0.8 Ma). Apparent K-Ar ages for the same samples range from 27.2 +- 0.7 to 63.9 +- 4.5 Ma, and young K-Ar ages for glassy boninites are probably due to variable radiogenic 40 Ar( 40 Ar*) loss. These new ages effectively reconcile previously ambiguous age data for the Dabi Volcanics, and indicate contemporaneous tholeiitic and boninitic volcanism occurring in southeast PNG during the Late Paleocene. Smectites, developed as alteration products after glass in oceanic lavas commonly do not retain 39 Ar during or subsequent to irradiation, but in some cases may contain 40 Ar*. The results are discussed. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Óscar


    Full Text Available Pyroclastic deposits produced by the domes collapse (resurgence of a caldera collapse, at the west of the Honda Grande creek (Paipa, Boyacá-Colombia were related by INGEOMINAS. These deposits fill the valleys of Olitas, Calderitas and a creek at the south of the Alto de los Volcanes reaching distances near to 3 km from the focus between the Alto de los Volcanes and El Mirador Hill.The flows were modeled using 3D Software (Sheridan and Kover, 1996. A volcanic simulation was done obtaining the height and morphology of the volcanic edifice before the collapse during the last eruptive event.

  17. Pincio y los Estados Unidos que no son los Estados Unidos


    Zangrilli, Franco


    Lo neofantástico en Tommaso Pincio se distingue de lo fantástico posmoderno de nuestros escritores. Se basa en la realidad estadounidense contemporánea; la introduce en un proceso de elaboraciones enfáticas, mezclas, transfiguraciones, y la convierte en el símbolo de otro mundo, de un planeta extraño. Pincio llega a esta operación creativa gracias a su conocimiento de las tradiciones y de las costumbres, de la historia, de la cultura y de la literatura de los Estados Unidos. De todo eso quier...

  18. Crime e castigo nos Estados Unidos: de Nixon a Clinton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o crescimento exponencial do número de detentos ocorrido nos Estados Unidos a partir de meados dos anos 70. Procura mostrar que esse crescimento não corresponde a um aumento da criminalidade, mas à conjugação de três séries causais, quais sejam: o declínio do "ideal de reabilitação" dos prisioneiros, a instrumentalização do medo da violência pelos políticos e pela mídia e a função de mecanismo de controle racial assumido pelo sistema penal americano. Em suma, a hiperflação carcerária revela a contraface do enfraquecimento do Estado de Bem-Estar Social e a sua substituição por um Estado penal.

  19. Volcanic rises on Venus: Geology, formation, and sequence of evolution (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Smrekar, S. E.


    Large centers of volcanism on Venus are concentrated primarily in the equatorial region of the planet and are associated with regional topographic rises. Analysis of both radar images and geophysical data suggest that these uplands are sites of mantle upwelling. Magellan radar imaging provides a globally contiguous data set from which the geology of these regions is evaluated and compared. In addition, high resolution gravity data currently being collected provide a basis to assess the relationship between these uplands and processes in the planet's interior. Studies of the geology of the three largest volcanic highlands (Beta Regio, Atla Regio, Western Eistla Regio) show them to be distinct, having a range of volcanic and tectonic characteristics. In addition to these large areas, a number of smaller uplands are identified and are being analyzed (Bell Regio, Imdr Regio, Dione Regio (Ushas, Innini, and Hathor Montes), and Themis Regio). To understand better the mechanisms by which these volcanic rises form and evolve, we assess their geologic and geophysical characteristics.

  20. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu


    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  1. Research on petrologic, geochemical characteristics and genesis of volcanic rocks in Dachangsha basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Sanyuan


    On the basis of research on petrologic, geochemical characteristics and isotope composition of volcanic rocks in Dachangsha basin, the author concludes that the volcanic rocks formed from magma of different genesis and depth are double-cycle effusive. It is proposed that the magma forming the intermediate-basic volcanics of the first cycle comes from the mixing of the partial melting of the deep crust and mantle, and the intermediate-acidic volcanics of the secondary cycle are derived from the remelting of the upper crust

  2. Las actividades militares de los buques de guerra de terceros Estados en los espacios marítimos de soberanía o jurisdicción del Estado ribereño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Franco García


    Full Text Available La presencia estatal en la mar, se hace ostensible fundamentalmente a través de los buques de guerra, cuyo particular régimen jurídico, condiciona su modo de ser y estar en dicho medio. Además, hace necesario conciliar el ejercicio de las actividades militares llevadas a efecto por los buques de guerra pertenecientes a terceros Estados, con los derechos que ostentan los Estados ribereños en los espacios marítimos sometidos a su soberanía o jurisdicción. La cuestión relativa a la conformidad o no a Derecho de las actividades militares desarrolladas por los buques de guerra de terceros Estados en las aguas interiores, el mar territorial, y la zona económica exclusiva del Estado ribereño dista mucho de ser pacífica en la doctrina y en la práctica internacional. Los usos militares del mar por terceros Estados, cuando se proyectan sobre las aguas interiores y el mar territorial del Estado ribereño, aparecen limitados por el ejercicio de la soberanía por parte de este último, en dichas aguas. Sin embargo, en la zona económica exclusiva del ribereño, partiendo del silencio que guarda en este punto la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, las actividades militares realizadas por otros Estados, han de considerarse internacionalmente legítimas, de manera que, sólo resultarían ilegítimas si, atendiendo al supuesto concreto planteado, aquéllas contravinieran alguna de sus disposiciones

  3. Boophilus microplus: estado actual de la resistencia a los acaricidas en la frontera México Estados Unidos y su impacto en la relación comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón González Sáenz Pardo


    Full Text Available Se aborda la importancia de las exportaciones de ganado bovino en pie a los Estados Unidos de América, destacando el valor comercial que representa para México la entrada de divisas por 700 millones USD anuales por este concepto. La comercialización de ganado se ve frenada por barreras no arancelarias, tales como la tuberculosis (TB, brucelosis y las garrapatas. Se ha formado un grupo binacional de expertos para tratar estos temas. En el tema de garrapatas se han establecido sistemas de colaboración entre ambos países para la identificación de especies de garrapatas y la rastreabilidad de los casos que sean cuarentenados, desde la línea fronteriza hasta su origen en los diferentes estados mexicanos. Se generó un Proyecto de la Franja Fronteriza para la erradicación de la garrapata Boophilus en los estados mexicanos limítrofes con el estado de Texas, consistente en la identificación de predios infestados, tratamientos ixodicidas e inspección del ganado para exportación a los Estados Unidos. Se discuten las acciones que ambos países están llevando a cabo para la erradicación de garrapata Boophilus en la frontera y para evitar la llegada de ganado con garrapatas a las estaciones cuarentenarias de exportación. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de reforzar y mejorar estos programas.

  4. Pseudotachylyte formation in volcanic conduits: Montserrat vs. Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Petrakova, L.; Ferk, A.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Ferri, F.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Seismogenic fracture and faulting may result in non-equilibrium frictional melting of rock, which upon cooling and recrystallisation forms pseudotachylyte. In volcanic environments, the transition from endogenous to exogenous growth can be attributed to a shift in magma rheology into the brittle regime, and thus the ascent of high-viscosity magma can form discrete shear zones, comparable to tectonic faults, along conduit margins. Pseudotachylytes have, until now, rarely been noted in exogenous volcanic materials and seldom in active volcanic environments. This is despite the simultaneous occurrence of high pressures and differential stresses, which make high-viscosity magmas ideal candidates for the occurrence of frictional melting. Here, we compare the chemical, thermal, magnetic and structural properties of two candidate volcanic pseudotachylytes; one from Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and one from Mount St. Helens (USA). Additionally, we present data from a set of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on the host materials of these natural pseudotachylytes in which melting was induced after just 10's of centimeters of slip at realistic extrusion velocities (0.4 - 1.6 ms-1) and low normal stresses (0.5-2 MPa). After 1-2 meters of slip a continuous melt layer formed, at which point friction decreased and the fault zone displayed slip-weakening behaviour. For volcanic conduits, this would facilitate temporarily elevated slip rates, or an increase in extrusion rate, and could cause transitions in dome morphology and eruption style. This study demonstrates that shear fracturing in magma or sliding along conduit margins can readily result in frictional melting. The conspicuous absence of pseudotachylytes in active volcanic environments is likely the result of exceptionally high background temperatures which precipitate near-equilibrium melting, thereby obviating one of the characteristic signatures of pseudotachylyte - glassy protomelts formed by selective melting of

  5. El Estado Islámico: Catalizador del irredentismo kurdo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Garzón García


    Full Text Available Con su aparición, el Estado Islámico se consolida como una amenaza de carácter internacional y se convierte en el elemento pivote de la reestructuración de las relaciones internacionales, la configuración de nuevas alianzas y ciertamente en el impulsor de escenarios anteriormente poco presumibles con relación al Medio Oriente, entre ellos se establece como uno de los componentes catalizadores del irredentismo kurdo y su proyecto estatal e independentista. La reaparición de los kurdos en la esfera internacional potenciada por el estado Islámico, al ser en un principio el único grupo con capacidad de enfrentarlos, genera tensiones en la región pues la consolidación del Kurdistán alteraría la estructura territorial de cuatro Estados particularmente y sus relaciones políticas y comerciales, impactando directamente en la relativa estabilidad que ha imperado en el siglo XXI.

  6. Estado epiléptico, consideraciones sobre manejo y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solari B. Francesca, Dra.


    Full Text Available El estado epiléptico es una emergencia médica. Existen diversas definiciones de estado epiléptico y clasificaciones según etiología, tipo de crisis y respuesta a terapia. En esta revisión, se adopta la variable tiempo como fundamental en el manejo del paciente. Otro concepto que se resalta, es la sospecha frente a pacientes graves o con ciertas patologías, la posibilidad de presentar estado epiléptico no convulsivo, ya que la identificación de este, podría mejorar el manejo del paciente grave. Las benzodiacepinas siguen siendo la terapia de primera línea, con una muy buena tasa de respuesta, cuanto más precoz se adopte la terapia. Se discuten diferentes terapias de segunda línea (fenitoína, fenobarbital, valproato, levetiracetam y midazolam y se mencionan aquellas de tercera línea, tanto farmacológicas como otras (dieta cetogénica, inmunosupresores, corticoides y cirugía.

  7. Collateral variations between the concentrations of mercury and other water soluble ions in volcanic ash samples and volcanic activity during the 2014-2016 eruptive episodes at Aso volcano, Japan (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Sudo, Yasuaki; Nagamatsu, Yoshizumi


    During 2014-2016, the Aso volcano, located in the center of the Kyushu Islands, Japan, erupted and emitted large amounts of volcanic gases and ash. Two episodes of the eruption were observed; firstly Strombolian magmatic eruptive episodes from 25 November 2014 to the middle of May 2015, and secondly phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptive episodes from September 2015 to February 2016. Bulk chemical analyses on total mercury (Hg) and major ions in water soluble fraction in volcanic ash fall samples were conducted. During the Strombolian magmatic eruptive episodes, total Hg concentrations averaged 1.69 ± 0.87 ng g- 1 (N = 33), with a range from 0.47 to 3.8 ng g- 1. In addition, the temporal variation of total Hg concentrations in volcanic ash varied with the amplitude change of seismic signals. In the Aso volcano, the volcanic tremors are always observed during eruptive stages and quiet interludes, and the amplitudes of tremors increase at eruptive stages. So, the temporal variation of total Hg concentrations could provide an indication of the level of volcanic activity. During the phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptive episodes, on the other hand, total Hg concentrations in the volcanic ash fall samples averaged 220 ± 88 ng g- 1 (N = 5), corresponding to 100 times higher than those during the Strombolian eruptive episode. Therefore, it is possible that total Hg concentrations in volcanic ash samples are largely varied depending on the eruptive type. In addition, the ash fall amounts were also largely different among the two eruptive episodes. This can be also one of the factors controlling Hg concentrations in volcanic ash.

  8. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby. (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo


    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  9. Influence of mesostasis in volcanic rocks on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Tiecher, Francieli


    Mesostasis material present in the interstices of volcanic rocks is the main cause of the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concretes made with these rock aggregates. Mesostasis often is referred to as volcanic glass, because it has amorphous features when analyzed by optical microscopy. However, this study demonstrates that mesostasis in the interstitials of volcanic rocks most often consists of micro to cryptocrystalline mineral phases of quartz, feldspars, and clays. Mesostasis has been identified as having different characteristics, and, thus, this new characterization calls for a re-evaluation of their influence on the reactivity of the volcanic rocks. The main purpose of this study is to correlate the characteristics of mesostasis with the AAR in mortar bars containing basalts and rhyolites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of mesostasis in volcanic rocks on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Tiecher, Francieli; Dal Molin, Denise Carpena Coitinho; Gomes, Má rcia Elisa Boscato; Hasparyk, Nicole Pagan; Monteiro, Paulo José Meleragno


    Mesostasis material present in the interstices of volcanic rocks is the main cause of the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concretes made with these rock aggregates. Mesostasis often is referred to as volcanic glass, because it has amorphous features when analyzed by optical microscopy. However, this study demonstrates that mesostasis in the interstitials of volcanic rocks most often consists of micro to cryptocrystalline mineral phases of quartz, feldspars, and clays. Mesostasis has been identified as having different characteristics, and, thus, this new characterization calls for a re-evaluation of their influence on the reactivity of the volcanic rocks. The main purpose of this study is to correlate the characteristics of mesostasis with the AAR in mortar bars containing basalts and rhyolites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism. (United States)

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.


    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  12. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua (United States)

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.


    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  13. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.


    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  14. Depleted arc volcanism in the Alboran Sea and shoshonitic volcanism in Morocco: geochemical and isotopic constraints on Neogene tectonic processes (United States)

    Gill, R. C. O.; Aparicio, A.; El Azzouzi, M.; Hernandez, J.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bourgois, J.; Marriner, G. F.


    Samples of volcanic rocks from Alborán Island, the Alboran Sea floor and from the Gourougou volcanic centre in northern Morocco have been analyzed for major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes to test current theories on the tectonic geodynamic evolution of the Alboran Sea. The Alborán Island samples are low-K tholeiitic basaltic andesites whose depleted contents of HFS elements (˜0.5×N-MORB), especially Nb (˜0.2×N-MORB), show marked geochemical parallels with volcanics from immature intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc basins. Several of the submarine samples have similar compositions, one showing low-Ca boninite affinity. 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios fall in the same range as many island-arc and back-arc basin samples, whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (on leached samples) are somewhat more radiogenic. Our data point to active subduction taking place beneath the Alboran region in Miocene times, and imply the presence of an associated back-arc spreading centre. Our sea floor suite includes a few more evolved dacite and rhyolite samples with ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 up to 0.717 that probably represent varying degrees of crustal melting. The shoshonite and high-K basaltic andesite lavas from Gourougou have comparable normalized incompatible-element enrichment diagrams and Ce/Y ratios to shoshonitic volcanics from oceanic island arcs, though they have less pronounced Nb deficits. They are much less LIL- and LREE-enriched than continental arc analogues and post-collisional shoshonites from Tibet. The magmas probably originated by melting in subcontinental lithospheric mantle that had experienced negligible subduction input. Sr-Nd isotope compositions point to significant crustal contamination which appears to account for the small Nb anomalies. The unmistakable supra-subduction zone (SSZ) signature shown by our Alboran basalts and basaltic andesite samples refutes geodynamic models that attribute all Neogene volcanism in the Alboran domain to decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Garzón Vallejo


    Full Text Available El estudio de la obra de Alexis de Tocqueville suele destacar la compatibilidad entre la religión y la democracia. A partir de la experiencia que conoció de primera mano en los Estados Unidos, y que plasmó en La democracia en América, este planteamiento es funcional a su pretensión de iluminar el contexto político francés post-revolucionario. Este artículo se propone leer a Tocqueville a la luz de la realidad político-religiosa contemporánea, para sugerir que, en este autor del siglo XIX se encuentran esbozados los elementos teóricos más significativos de la laicidad como diseño constitucional del Estado esto es: la separación entre la Iglesia y el Estado; y el reconocimiento de la persona como fundamento de tal diseño constitucional. La perspectiva tocquevilleana conjuga los enfoques sociológico, jurídico y filosófico político, aportando claves de interpretación del denominado Estado laico.

  16. Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the Central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, A.; Burr, J.; Montero, W.; Morales, L.D.; Alvarado, G.E.


    Long sublinear ridges and related scarps located at the base of large volcanic structures are frequently interpreted as normal faults associated with extensional regional stress. In contrast, the ridges bordering the Central Costa Rica volcanic range (CCRVR) are the topographic expression of hanging wall asymmetric angular anticlines overlying low-angle thrust faults at the base of the range. These faults formed by gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of the range due to the weight of the volcanic edifices and were perhaps triggered by the intrusion of magma over the past 20,000 years. These anticlines are hypothesized to occur along the base of the volcano, where the thrust faults ramp up toward the sea bottom. Ridges and scarps between 2,000 and 5,000 m below sea level are interpreted as the topographic expression of these folds. The authors further suggest that the scarps of the CCRVR and valid scaled terrestrial analogs of the perimeter scarp of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. They suggest that the crust below Olympus Mons has failed under the load of the volcano, triggering the radial slumping of the flanks of the volcano on basal thrusts. The thrusting would have, in turn, formed the anticlinal ridges and scarps that surround the edifice. The thrust faults may extend all the way to the base of the Martian crust (about 40 km), and they may have been active until almost the end of the volcanic activity. They suggest that gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of volcanoes is a process common to most large volcanic edifices. In the CCRVR this slumping of the flanks is a slow intermittent process, but it could evolve to rapid massive avalanching leading to catastrophic eruptions. Thus monitoring of uplift and displacement of the folds related to the slump tectonics could become an additional effective method for mitigating volcanic hazards

  17. Role of crustal assimilation and basement compositions in the petrogenesis of differentiated intraplate volcanic rocks: a case study from the Siebengebirge Volcanic Field, Germany (United States)

    Schneider, K. P.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Kasper, H. U.; Münker, C.; Froitzheim, N.


    The Siebengebirge Volcanic Field (SVF) in western Germany is part of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province. Amongst these volcanic fields, the relatively small SVF comprises the entire range from silica-undersaturated mafic lavas to both silica-undersaturated and silica-saturated differentiated lavas. Owing to this circumstance, the SVF represents a valuable study area representative of intraplate volcanism in Europe. Compositions of the felsic lavas can shed some new light on differentiation of intraplate magmas and on the extent and composition of potential crustal assimilation processes. In this study, we provide detailed petrographic and geochemical data for various differentiated SVF lavas, including major and trace element concentrations as well as Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions. Samples include tephriphonolites, latites, and trachytes with SiO2 contents ranging between 53 and 66 wt%. If compared to previously published compositions of mafic SVF lavas, relatively unradiogenic 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf coupled with radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb lead to the interpretation that the differentiated volcanic rocks have assimilated significant amounts of lower crustal mafic granulites like the ones found as xenoliths in the nearby Eifel volcanic field. These crustal contaminants should possess unradiogenic 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf, radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, and highly radiogenic 207Pb/204Pb compositions requiring the presence of ancient components in the central European lower crust that are not sampled on the surface. Using energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallisation (EC-AFC) model calculations, differentiation of the SVF lithologies can be modelled by approximately 39-47 % fractional crystallisation and 6-15 % crustal assimilation. Notably, the transition from silica-undersaturated to silica-saturated compositions of many felsic lavas in the SVF that is difficult to account for in closed-system models is also well explained by

  18. Estado em crise: breve análise, vista sob a perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro Medeiros


    Full Text Available O Estado está em constante mutação. No futuro,tanto poderá ser mantido, ainda que reformulado, em face daflexibilização do conceito de soberania, como desaparecer,absorvido por entes de caráter supranacional. Aglobalização, insere-se nesse contexto. Com o Brasil nãopoderá ser diferente, devendo avançar a integração sócioeconômica no Mercosul, ou ceder espaço à formação da Alca.De qualquer sorte, pelo exaurimento do Neoliberalismo,impõe-se a formação de um novo Estado, de resgate dadimensão humana: o Estado Neosocial.

  19. Enhanced ice sheet melting driven by volcanic eruptions during the last deglaciation. (United States)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; Pausata, Francesco S R; Lea, James M; Mair, Douglas W F; Wohlfarth, Barbara


    Volcanic eruptions can impact the mass balance of ice sheets through changes in climate and the radiative properties of the ice. Yet, empirical evidence highlighting the sensitivity of ancient ice sheets to volcanism is scarce. Here we present an exceptionally well-dated annual glacial varve chronology recording the melting history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at the end of the last deglaciation (∼13,200-12,000 years ago). Our data indicate that abrupt ice melting events coincide with volcanogenic aerosol emissions recorded in Greenland ice cores. We suggest that enhanced ice sheet runoff is primarily associated with albedo effects due to deposition of ash sourced from high-latitude volcanic eruptions. Climate and snowpack mass-balance simulations show evidence for enhanced ice sheet runoff under volcanically forced conditions despite atmospheric cooling. The sensitivity of past ice sheets to volcanic ashfall highlights the need for an accurate coupling between atmosphere and ice sheet components in climate models.

  20. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; hide


    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  1. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  2. Braverman, o Estado e a "administração consensual"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gurgel

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir o papel do Estado, no plano da economia capitalista, a partir do capítulo sobre esse tema, do livro Trabalho e capital monopolista, de Harry Braverman. Inicialmente, o texto analisa e atualiza os quatro ângulos ou dimensões apontadas por Braverman, quanto ao papel do Estado: o consumo, a internacionalização do capital, a assistência social e a prestação de serviços básicos. Em seguida, identifica outras dimensões que não foram destacadas pelo teórico norte-americano e, então, avança em direção à contemporaneidade, levantando três novas funções que emergiram da crise geral dos anos 1970 e 1980 e da crise aberta em 2008. O estudo é realizado por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e da consulta a documentos técnicos, além de periódicos. A conclusão é de que o papel do Estado em face do capitalismo contemporâneo elevou-se a um grau em que as fronteiras entre o público e o privado estão desaparecendo sob um novo caráter do Estado. Esse novo caráter, marcado pela estreita vinculação entre os governos e as empresas, inclui o abandono da distinção entre valor público e valor privado, impulsiona a transformação de todos os valores em mercadoria e torna obsoleto o debate sobre intervenção e tamanho do Estado.

  3. Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption. (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan M; Cordonnier, Benoit; Schipper, C Ian; Tuffen, Hugh; Baumann, Tobias S; Feisel, Yves


    Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ∼0.8 km 3 . Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ∼20-200 m and overpressures (∼1-10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.

  4. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swanson 1967; Macdonald 1967; Long and Wood. Keywords. Deccan Traps; lava flows; volcanism; isotherm; cooling history. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 115, No. ...... Kilauea Volcanic island of Hawaii; J. Geophys. Res. 103. 27,303–27,323. Lightfoot ...

  5. Dispersion of the Volcanic Sulfate Cloud from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption (United States)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Colarco, Peter R.; Newman, Paul A.


    We simulate the transport of the volcanic cloud from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo with the GEOS-5 general circulation model. Our simulations are in good agreement with observational data. We tested the importance of initial condition corresponding to the specific meteorological situation at the time of the eruption by employing reanalysis from MERRA. We found no significant difference in the transport of the cloud. We show how the inclusion of the interaction between volcanic sulfate aerosol and radiation is essential for a reliable simulation of the transport of the volcanic cloud. The absorption of long wave radiation by the volcanic sulfate induces a rising of the volcanic cloud up to the middle stratosphere, combined with divergent motion from the latitude of the eruption to the tropics. Our simulations indicate that the cloud diffuses to the northern hemisphere through a lower stratospheric pathway, and to mid- and high latitudes of the southern hemisphere through a middle stratospheric pathway, centered at about 30 hPa. The direction of the middle stratospheric pathway depends on the season. We did not detect any significant change of the mixing between tropics and mid- and high latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

  6. Effects of heat-flow and hydrothermal fluids from volcanic intrusions on authigenic mineralization in sandstone formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolela Ahmed


    Full Text Available Volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity have modified the diagenetic minerals. In the Ulster Basin, UK, most of the authigenic mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sandstones pre-dated tertiary volcanic intrusions. The hydrothermal fluids and heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions did not affect quartz and feldspar overgrowths. However, clay mineral-transformation, illite-smectite to illite and chlorite was documented near the volcanic intrusions. Abundant actinolite, illite, chlorite, albite and laumontite cementation of the sand grains were also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The abundance of these cementing minerals decreases away from the volcanic intrusions.In the Hartford Basin, USA, the emplacement of the volcanic intrusions took place simultaneous with sedimentation. The heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity related to the volcanics modified the texture of authigenic minerals. Microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz developed rather than overgrowths and crystals near the intrusions. Chlorite clumps and masses were also documented with microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz. These features are localized near the basaltic intrusions. Laumontite is also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The reservoir characteristics of the studied sandstone formations are highly affected by the volcanic and hydrothermal fluids in the Hartford and the Ulster Basin. The porosity dropped from 27.4 to zero percent and permeability from 1350 mD to 1 mD.

  7. Areal and time distributions of volcanic formations on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katterfeld, G.N.; Vityaz, V.I.


    The analysis of igneous rock distribution has been fulfilled on the basis of the geomorphological map of Mars at scale 1:5,000,000, according to data obtained from interpretation of 1:2,000,000 scale pictures of Mariner 9, Mars 4, Mars 5, Viking 1 and 2. Areological areas are listed as having been distinguished as the stratigraphic basis for a martian time scale. The area of volcanic eruptions and the number of eruptive centers are calculated on 10 x 10 deg cells and for each areological eras. The largest area of eruptive happening at different times is related with Tharsis tectonic uplift. The study of distribution of igneous rock area and volcanic centers number on 10 deg sectors and zones revealed the concentration belts of volcanic formations

  8. Areal and time distributions of volcanic formations on Mars (United States)

    Katterfeld, G. N.; Vityaz, V. I.


    The analysis of igneous rock distribution has been fulfilled on the basis of the geomorphological map of Mars at scale 1:5,000,000, according to data obtained from interpretation of 1:2,000,000 scale pictures of Mariner 9, Mars 4, Mars 5, Viking 1 and 2. Areological areas are listed as having been distinguished as the stratigraphic basis for a martian time scale. The area of volcanic eruptions and the number of eruptive centers are calculated on 10 x 10 deg cells and for each areological eras. The largest area of eruptive happening at different times is related with Tharsis tectonic uplift. The study of distribution of igneous rock area and volcanic centers number on 10 deg sectors and zones revealed the concentration belts of volcanic formations.

  9. K-Ar chronological study of the quaternary volcanic activity in Shin-etsu Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Shimizu, Satoshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru.


    In order to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns in arc volcanism, 55 K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks from 17 volcanoes in Shin-etsu Highland, central Japan were determined. In addition, life spans, volume of erupted materials and eruption rates of each volcano were estimated. Graphical analysis demonstrates that volume of ejecta varies proportionately with both life span and eruption rate, and that there is no significant correlation between eruption rate and distance from the volcanic front. The life span of each volcano in this Highland is less than 0.6 m.y. In the central Shiga and southern Asama area, the volcanism started at 1 Ma and is still active. However the former had a peak in the activity at around 0.5 Ma, while the latter is apparently most intense at present. Northern Kenashi area has the volcanism without peak in 1.7 - 0.2 Ma, though the activity within a volcanic cluster or chain in central Japan lasts generally for 1 m.y. or less with a peak. (author)

  10. La Percepción como un Estado Pseudo-Onírico Modulado por los Sentidos


    Rodolfo R. Llinás


    Un punto fundamental en nuestra apreciación de la función del sistema nervioso central concierne las similitudes y diferencias que existen entre el estado de vigilia y el estado de ensueños. Efectivamente, desde el punto de vista del sistema tálamo cortical estos dos estados tienen un mecanismo de implementación intrínseco común y por lo tanto pueden considerarse, en ese sentido, como fundamentalmente equivalentes.

    Si se demuestra que el estado de vigilia es el prod...

  11. Estado de mal epiléptico en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagón Valdez


    Full Text Available El estado de mal epiléptico es una emergencia médica en la cual se presentan crisis epilépticas por 30 minutos o más de actividad continua, o bien dos o más crisis consecutivas sin recuperación completa de la conciencia entre las mismas. Actualmente se considera que una crisis epiléptica convulsiva o no, que dure más de 5 minuto se deberá considerar un estado de mal epiléptico. Se han utilizado diversos fármacos para el tratamiento de esta patología y sus secuelas. Hay un consenso generalizado en que se debe realizar un manejo agresivo para disminuir su morbi-mortalidad, sin olvidarse que la causa del estado de mal es importante para su manejo, control y sus secuelas.

  12. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.


    Active volcanism on Io has been monitored during the nominal Galileo satellite tour from mid 1996 through late 1997. The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment was able to observe many manifestations of this active volcanism, including (1) changes in the color and albedo of the surface, (2) active airborne plumes, and (3) glowing vents seen in eclipse. About 30 large-scale (tens of kilometers) surface changes are obvious from comparison of the SSI images to those acquired by Voyager in 1979. These include new pyroclastic deposits of several colors, bright and dark flows, and caldera-floor materials. There have also been significant surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission itself, such as a new 400-km-diameter dark pyroclastic deposit around Pillan Patera. While these surface changes are impressive, the number of large-scale changes observed in the four months between the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979 suggested that over 17 years the cumulative changes would have been much more impressive. There are two reasons why this was not actually the case. First, it appears that the most widespread plume deposits are ephemeral and seem to disappear within a few years. Second, it appears that a large fraction of the volcanic activity is confined to repeated resurfacing of dark calderas and flow fields that cover only a few percent of Io's surface. The plume monitoring has revealed 10 active plumes, comparable to the 9 plumes observed by Voyager. One of these plumes was visible only in the first orbit and three became active in the later orbits. Only the Prometheus plume has been consistently active and easy to detect. Observations of the Pele plume have been particularly intriguing since it was detected only once by SSI, despite repeated attempts, but has been detected several times by the Hubble Space Telescope at 255 nm. Pele's plume is much taller (460 km) than during Voyager 1 (300 km) and much fainter at visible wavelengths. Prometheus-type plumes (50

  13. Lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol layer after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi.


    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser

  14. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi


    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Arenas Granada


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la ansiedad–estado en tres fases de competencia deportiva (clasificatoria, semifinal y final e identificar diferencias entre el género, delegaciones y experiencia deportiva, fue empleada la escala de ansiedad–estado del Inventario de Ansiedad Estado y Rasgo (IDARE/STAI, para lo cual se obtuvo un total de 173 datos (clasificatoria, n= 98; semifinal, n=43; final n= 32 en una muestra intencional de hombres y mujeres voleibolistas representantes de seis instituciones universitarias. Estudio empírico cuantitativo, de alcance longitudinal y análisis estadístico no paramétrico. Los resultados permitieron establecer la correlación positiva y significativa entre las fases de competencia y los niveles de ansiedad–estado, se observaron diferencias significativas en el género, en función al promedio general y la fase clasificatoria; con mayores puntajes de ansiedad–estado por parte de las mujeres. Los promedios de las fases no establecieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, como tampoco se observó en las delegaciones, ni en la experiencia deportiva. Sin embargo, se destaca la importancia de la experiencia deportiva como variable a considerar en las demandas de la competencia deportiva. Los resultados son discutidos y direccionados a la instauración de programas de entrenamiento psicológico, así como el desarrollo de nuevos trabajos en esta línea.

  16. Timing the evolution of a monogenetic volcanic field: Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico (United States)

    Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Martin Del Pozzo, A. L.; Layer, P. W.; Benowitz, J. A.; Nieto-Torres, A.


    The unique nature of monogenetic volcanism has always raised questions about its origin, longevity and spatial distribution. Detailed temporal and spatial boundaries resulted from a morphometric study, mapping, relative dating, twenty-four new 40Ar/39Ar dates, and chemical analyses for the Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico. Based on these results the monogenetic cones were divided into four groups: (1) Peñón Monogenetic Volcanic Group (PMVG); (2) Older Chichinautzin Monogenetic Volcanic Group (Older CMVG); (3) Younger Chichinautzin Monogenetic Volcanic Group (Younger CMVG) and (4) Sierra Santa Catarina Monogenetic Volcanic Group (SSC). The PMVG cover the largest area and marks the northern and southern boundaries of this field. The oldest monogenetic volcanism (PMVG; 1294 ± 36 to 765 ± 30 ka) started in the northern part of the area and the last eruption of this group occurred in the south. These basaltic-andesite cones are widely spaced and are aligned NE-SW (N60°E). After this activity, monogenetic volcanism stopped for 527 ka. Monogenetic volcanism was reactivated with the birth of the Tezoyuca 1 Volcano, marking the beginning of the second volcanic group (Older CMVG; 238 ± 51 to 95 ± 12 ka) in the southern part of the area. These andesitic to basaltic andesite cones plot into two groups, one with high MgO and Nb, and the other with low MgO and Nb, suggesting diverse magma sources. The eruption of the Older CMVG ended with the eruption of Malacatepec volcano and then monogenetic volcanism stopped again for 60 ka. At 35 ka, monogenetic volcanism started again, this time in the eastern part of the area, close to Popocatépetl volcano, forming the Younger CMVG (<35 ± 4 ka). These cones are aligned in an E-W direction. Geochemical composition of eruptive products of measured samples varies from basalts to dacites with low and high MgO. The Younger CMVG is considered still active since the last eruptions took place <2 ka. The SSC (132 ± 70 to 2 ± 56 ka

  17. Volcanic ash activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in murine and human macrophages (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Schnurr, Max; Dingwell, Donald B.; Duewell, Peter


    Volcanic ash is a heterogeneous mineral dust that is typically composed of a mixture of amorphous (glass) and crystalline (mineral) fragments. It commonly contains an abundance of the crystalline silica (SiO2) polymorph cristobalite. Inhalation of crystalline silica can induce inflammation by stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic receptor complex that plays a critical role in driving inflammatory immune responses. Ingested material results in the assembly of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 with subsequent secretion of the interleukin-1 family cytokine IL-1β. Previous toxicology work suggests that cristobalite-bearing volcanic ash is minimally reactive, calling into question the reactivity of volcanically derived crystalline silica, in general. In this study, we target the NLRP3 inflammasome as a crystalline silica responsive element to clarify volcanic cristobalite reactivity. We expose immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages of genetically engineered mice and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano as well as representative, pure-phase samples of its primary componentry (volcanic glass, feldspar, cristobalite) and measure NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We demonstrate that respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash induces the activation of caspase-1 with subsequent release of mature IL-1β in a NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent manner. Macrophages deficient in NLRP3 inflammasome components are incapable of secreting IL-1β in response to volcanic ash ingestion. Cellular uptake induces lysosomal destabilization involving cysteine proteases. Furthermore, the response involves activation of mitochondrial stress pathways leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Considering ash componentry, cristobalite is the most reactive pure-phase with other components inducing only low-level IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation mediated by inhaled ash and its potential relevance in chronic pulmonary

  18. Estados del Bienestar y globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Graciela Cabeza


    Full Text Available La dificultad con la que nos encontramos cuando queremos definir Estado de Bienestar es considerable, ya que es un concepto muy generalizado que se utiliza para indicar varias acciones o actitudes del Estado, entre ellas la intención de redistribución del ingreso para ayudar a los más pobres. Es por ello que en este ensayo intentaremos reflexionar sobre el concepto mismo de Estado de Bienestar para poder abordar luego su evolución y su actual crisis. También el concepto de globalización comparte las características citadas previamente ya que se usa para denominar demasiadas cosas, pero aquí lo entendemos como interconexiones económicas, sociales, culturales y políticas, las redes conformadas por todo este entramado de fenómenos sociales y los procesos que muchas veces trascienden las fronteras nacionales. El propósito es relacionar estas interconexiones y procesos con la crisis del Estado de Bienestar y su posible transformación.___________________ABSTRACT:Difficulty when we want to define Welfare State is considerable, because is a concept very generalized that is used to indicate several actions or attitudes of the State, among them the redistribution intention to help poorest. It is for that reason that in this test we will try to reflect on the same concept of Welfare State to be able to soon approach its evolution and its present crisis. Also the globalization concept shares the characteristics mentioned since it is used to denominate too many things, but we understand it here like economic, social, cultural and political interconnections, the networks conformed by all this built the framework for of social phenomena and the processes that often extend the national borders. The intention is to relate these interconnections and processes to the crisis of the Welfare State  and their possible transformation.

  19. Estados Nación, Globlalización y Crisis

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    Joan Miguel Tejedor Estupiñán


    Full Text Available es necesario replantear el papel de los estados naciones y las políticas que implementa y dar paso a nuevos pactos sociales que constituyan un estado de bienestar, igualdad, seguridad, democracia y soberanía donde se respeten los derechos de los seres humanos, los sociales, económicos, culturales y del medio ambiente en las distintas naciones y regiones del planeta. Dicho pacto debe estar construido en común acuerdo y respeto entre las mayorías y las minorías de las naciones.

  20. Radon in active volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avino, R.; Capaldi, G.; Pece, R.


    The paper presents the preliminary data dealing with the variations in time of the radiogenic gas radon in soils and waters of many active volcanic areas of Southern Italy. The greatest differences in Rn content of the investigated volcanic areas are: Ischia and Campi Flegrei, which have more Rn than Vesuvio and Volcano, both in soils and in waters. The thermalized waters of Ischia are enriched in Rn 15 times with respect to soils, while in the other areas soils and underground waters have comparable Rn contents

  1. Fission-track ages of Neogene and Quaternary volcanic ashes in south of Osaka, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takuo; Nakagawa, Yonosuke; Danhara, Tohru.


    A calculation method is proposed for the fission-track ages of zircon crystals in volcanic material. In this method, it is checked whether the spontaneous fission-track number of respective zircon crystals follows the Poisson distribution. If it does, the age is calculated by population method with all crystals, and if not, only with those crystals following the Poisson distribution, eliminating abnormal crystals. Extraneous zircon crystals are thus excluded and crystals with spontaneous fission-track number zero are not ignored. The following ages were obtained: Tamateyama volcanic ash in the Nijo group, 14.0 +- 0.6 Ma; pink volcanic ash in the Osaka group, 1.0 +- 0.2 Ma; Matsuo volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 1.5 +- 0.4 Ma; pumice volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.3 +- 0.4 Ma; Asashiro volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.9 +- 0.6 Ma. (Mori, K.)

  2. El tránsito del Estado social de derecho al Estado constitucional de derechos y justicia: su implicación en la garantía jurisdiccional de los derechos sociales


    Mancero Carrillo, Paul Hernán


    El presente tiene como propósitos analizar el cambio de modelo de Estado que trajo la Constitución del 2008, (Estado Constitucional de Derechos y Justicia), a diferencia de lo que estableció la Constitución de 1998, (Estado Social de Derecho), y en función de la transformación de este principio rector, evidenciar los avances en materia de derechos constitucionales, sus principios de aplicación, así como la protección judicial de los mismos, dando especial énfasis en los derecho...

  3. Some aspects of volcanic ash layers in the Central Indian Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, N.P.; Banerjee, R.; Borole, D.V.; Gupta, S.M.

    Intercalated volcanic ash layers in two deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Basin (CIB) are examined for the possibility of an in situ source of suboceanic volcanism. An in situ source has been predicated based on the bottom...

  4. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.


    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.


    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  6. Nano-volcanic Eruption of Silver (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Kang; Nagao, Shijo; Yokoi, Emi; Oh, Chulmin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Shih-Guei; Suganuma, Katsuaki


    Silver (Ag) is one of the seven metals of antiquity and an important engineering material in the electronic, medical, and chemical industries because of its unique noble and catalytic properties. Ag thin films are extensively used in modern electronics primarily because of their oxidation-resistance. Here we report a novel phenomenon of Ag nano-volcanic eruption that is caused by interactions between Ag and oxygen (O). It involves grain boundary liquation, the ejection of transient Ag-O fluids through grain boundaries, and the decomposition of Ag-O fluids into O2 gas and suspended Ag and Ag2O clusters. Subsequent coating with re-deposited Ag-O and the de-alloying of O yield a conformal amorphous Ag coating. Patterned Ag hillock arrays and direct Ag-to-Ag bonding can be formed by the homogenous crystallization of amorphous coatings. The Ag “nano-volcanic eruption” mechanism is elaborated, shedding light on a new mechanism of hillock formation and new applications of amorphous Ag coatings.

  7. MUNDIALIZACIÓN IMPERIALISTA: Estados nacionales y soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Monal


    Full Text Available La globaiización como un proceso histórico real. La presente etapa de la globalización está intimamente relacionada con la nueva fase del imperialismo. Por lo tanto, para cumprender la globalización tiene que ser vista dentro del marco del imperialismo contemporáneo. Contrariamente a ciertas creencias, la política no queda rezagada en relación con ia economia, ni tampoco ei Estado nacional se ha hecho marginal con ei presente proceso de la giobalización capitalista. Algunas de sus prerrogativas tradicionales han quedado disminuidas, peru nuevas funciones surgen y otras son incrementadas; una de estas últimas es que la globalización necesita la acción del Estado para su realización.

  8. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.


    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  9. A Conceptual Model of Future Volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, California - With an Emphasis on Understanding Local Volcanic Hazards (United States)

    Molisee, D. D.; Germa, A.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.


    Medicine Lake Volcano (MLV) is most voluminous of all the Cascade Volcanoes ( 600 km3), and has the highest eruption frequency after Mount St. Helens. Detailed mapping by USGS colleagues has shown that during the last 500,000 years MLV erupted >200 lava flows ranging from basalt to rhyolite, produced at least one ash-flow tuff, one caldera forming event, and at least 17 scoria cones. Underlying these units are 23 additional volcanic units that are considered to be pre-MLV in age. Despite the very high likelihood of future eruptions, fewer than 60 of 250 mapped volcanic units (MLV and pre-MLV) have been dated reliably. A robust set of eruptive ages is key to understanding the history of the MLV system and to forecasting the future behavior of the volcano. The goals of this study are to 1) obtain additional radiometric ages from stratigraphically strategic units; 2) recalculate recurrence rate of eruptions based on an augmented set of radiometric dates; and 3) use lava flow, PDC, ash fall-out, and lahar computational simulation models to assess the potential effects of discrete volcanic hazards locally and regionally. We identify undated target units (units in key stratigraphic positions to provide maximum chronological insight) and obtain field samples for radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar) and petrology. Stratigraphic and radiometric data are then used together in the Volcano Event Age Model (VEAM) to identify changes in the rate and type of volcanic eruptions through time, with statistical uncertainty. These newly obtained datasets will be added to published data to build a conceptual model of volcanic hazards at MLV. Alternative conceptual models, for example, may be that the rate of MLV lava flow eruptions are nonstationary in time and/or space and/or volume. We explore the consequences of these alternative models on forecasting future eruptions. As different styles of activity have different impacts, we estimate these potential effects using simulation

  10. Contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas expendidas en mercados del estado Lara. Venezuela




    Para determinar la contaminación de lechugas con enteroparásitos, se analizaron 100 muestras (50 lechuga americana y 50 lechuga romana) cultivadas en tres lugares distintos, Timotes y Bailadores (estado Mérida) y Chejendé (estado Trujillo) y expendidas en cuatro mercados diferentes del estado Lara: Terepaima, Cabudare, Las Trinitarias y Central. Las lechugas fueron procesadas según la técnica de Álvarez et al, modificada, detectando contaminación en el 29% de las muestras (16 LA y 13 LR) iden...

  11. Delineation of a volcanic ash body using electrical resistivity profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Ludvigson, Greg; Miller, Richard D; Mayer, Lindsay; Haj, Adel


    Four lines of electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) were performed to define the extent of a shallow Quaternary volcanic ash deposit being mined in the United States. Inversion results of ERP proved suitable for defining the thickness and lateral extent of the volcanic ash deposit at this testing site. These interpretations were confirmed by shallow borehole drilling. The model sensitivity information indicates that inverted models possess sufficient resolving power down to a depth of 7 m and are fairly consistent in terms of horizontal resolution along the four ERP lines. The bottom of most of the volcanic ash deposit in the study area is less than 7 m in depth. Based on synthesis of the ERP and drill information, the limits of the mineable ash bed resources were clearly defined. Moreover, by integrating the ERP results with a minimal number of optimally placed borings, the volume of the volcanic ash deposit was established at a lesser cost, and with greater accuracy than would be possible with a traditionally designed grid drilling programme

  12. Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves. (United States)

    Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E


    Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.

  13. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  14. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.


    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  15. Soil CO2 flux baseline in an urban monogenetic volcanic field: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Mazot, Agnès; Smid, Elaine R.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Lindsay, Jan


    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a dormant monogenetic basaltic field located in Auckland, New Zealand. Though soil gas CO2 fluxes are routinely used to monitor volcanic regions, there have been no published studies of soil CO2 flux or soil gas CO2 concentrations in the AVF to date or many other monogenetic fields worldwide. We measured soil gas CO2 fluxes and soil gas CO2 concentrations in 2010 and 2012 in varying settings, seasons, and times of day to establish a baseline soil CO2 flux and to determine the major sources of and controlling influences on Auckland's soil CO2 flux. Soil CO2 flux measurements varied from 0 to 203 g m-2 day-1, with an average of 27.1 g m-2 day-1. Higher fluxes were attributed to varying land use properties (e.g., landfill). Using a graphical statistical approach, two populations of CO2 fluxes were identified. Isotope analyses of δ13CO2 confirmed that the source of CO2 in the AVF is biogenic with no volcanic component. These data may be used to assist with eruption forecasting in the event of precursory activity in the AVF, and highlight the importance of knowing land use history when assessing soil gas CO2 fluxes in urban environments.

  16. Volcanic Infrasound - A technical topic communicated in an entertaining way (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac


    Volcanic Infrasound is a 9-minute film about using infrasound waves to detect and measure volcanic eruptions as they unfold. The film was made by an interdisciplinary team of filmmakers and scientists for a general audience. The movie explains the basic facts of using infrasound to detect volcanic activity, and it also shows volcano researchers as they install infrasound sensors in a natural reserve in the middle of the city. This is the first in a series of films that seek to address natural hazards of relevance to Singapore, a country shielded from violent hazards. This presentation reviews the science communication techniques and assumptions used to develop and produce this entertaining scientific documentary short. Trailer:

  17. Smelters as Analogs for a Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Benjamin


    The distribution of trace radionuclides in secondary metal smelters provides an analog for spent fuel released from packages during a volcanic eruption. The fraction of the inventory of a radionuclide that would be released into the air in a volcanic eruption is called the dust partitioning factor. In consequence analyses of a volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, a value of one has been used for this parameter for all elements. This value is too high for the refractory elements. Reducing the dust partitioning factor for refractory elements to a value equal to the fraction of the magma that becomes ash would still yield conservative estimates of how much radioactivity would be released in an eruption

  18. Volcanic spreading forcing and feedback in geothermal reservoir development, Amiata Volcano, Italia (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Allocca, Carmine; Delcroix, Carlo; Micheli, Luigi; Vercellino, Alberto; Grieco, Giovanni


    We made a stratigraphic, structural and morphologic study of the Amiata Volcano in Italy. We find that the edifice is dissected by intersecting grabens that accommodate the collapse of the higher sectors of the volcano. In turn, a number of compressive structures and diapirs exist around the margin of the volcano. These structures create an angular drainage pattern, with stream damming and captures, and a set of lakes within and around the volcano. We interpret these structures as the result of volcanic spreading of Amiata on its weak substratum, formed by the late Triassic evaporites (Burano Anhydrites) and the Middle-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous clayey chaotic complexes (Ligurian Complex). Regional doming created a slope in the basement facilitating the outward flow and spreading of the ductile layers forced by the volcanic load. We model the dynamics of spreading with a scaled lubrication approximation of the Navier Stokes equations, and numerically study a set of solutions. In the model we include simple functions for volcanic deposition and surface erosion that change the topography over time. Scaling indicates that spreading at Amiata could still be active. The numerical solution shows that, as the central part of the edifice sinks into the weak basement, diapiric structures of the underlying formations form around the base of the volcano. Deposition of volcanic rocks within the volcano and surface erosion away from it both enhance spreading. In addition, a sloping basement may constitute a trigger for spreading and formation of trains of adjacent diapirs. As a feedback, the hot hydrothermal fluids decrease the shear strength of the anhydrites facilitating the spreading process. Finally, we observe that volcanic spreading has created ideal heat traps that constitute todays' exploited geothermal fields at Amiata. Normal faults generated by volcanic spreading, volcanic conduits, and direct contact between volcanic rocks (which host an extensive fresh

  19. Razón de Estado y razones del Estado, (Decimas Conferencias Aranguren

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    Díaz, Elías


    Full Text Available As against bad «reasons of state», both past and present, a number of good reasons of state are put forward here as sound demands for times to come. One of the aims we try to attain is a necessary theoretical and practical retrieval of politics along with culture and ethics in the public field. As against the prevailing untrammelled power of economics -in particular its purportedly one version, namely «scientific capitalism» and the quite lopsided globalization- it becomes mandatory to completely take into account the view-point of general interests (both national and transnational, universal; and, within that framework, legitimate individual interests, mainly those of broad social sections least endowed with bargaining leverage and resources. The ground for those good reasons of state (and reasons, too, for a civil society critically harmonized with the state lies in an ethics of enlightened values of freedom, equality and brotherhood (solidarity, as well as of such security as stems from social cohesion (a conjunction of justice and efficiency.

    Frente a la mala «Razón de Estado», del pasado y del presente, se alegan aquí algunas de las posibles y potenciales buenas razones del Estado, también como exigencias válidas para el futuro. Con ello se pretende coadyuvar a una imprescindible recuperación teórica y práctica de la política y, con ella, de la cultura y de la ética en el espacio público. Ante el actual poder omnimodo e «incontrolado» de la economía, de su versión pretendidamente única, la del «capitalismo científico» y la muy desigual «globalización», se hace necesario tomar completamente en serio la perspectiva de los intereses generales (nacionales y transnacionales, universales: y, dentro de ellos, los legítimos intereses individuales y, en especial, los de aquellos amplios sectores sociales dotados de muchos menos poderes y posibilidades. La ética de los valores ilustrados de libertad, igualdad

  20. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy) (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara


    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  1. Review of the petrology of the Auckland Volcanic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.E.M.; McGee, L.E.; Lindsay, J.M.


    Research has long shown that the petrology of suites of volcanic rock can be used to define and understand the fundamental parameters of the magmatic systems that feed volcanoes. The geochemistry of volcanic rocks provides information about the nature of the source rocks, depths and amounts of melting, the processes that act on magmas as they rise to the surface and, most importantly, the rates of these processes. In turn, the answers to fundamental petrological questions can provide input to important questions concerning volcano hazard scenarios and hazard mitigation challenges. The multi-disciplinary DEVORA research programme, launched in 2008, is a GNS Science-University of Auckland collaboration with the aim of DEtermining VOlcanic Risk in Auckland. One of its main themes is the development of an integrated geological model for the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) by investigating the physical controls on magma generation, ascent and eruption though detailed structural and petrological investigations. A key data set underpinning this theme is a comprehensive geochemical database for the rocks of the AVF. This report, Review of the Petrology of the Auckland Volcanic Field, is a synthesis and commentary of all petrological and geochemical data currently available for the AVF. It represents one of several reports carried out as part of the 'synthesis' phase of DEVORA, whereby existing data from previous work is collated and summarised, so that gaps in current knowledge can be appropriately addressed. In this report we utilise published and unpublished sources to summarise the petrological data available up to May 2009, and identify where new data and approaches will improve our understanding of the magmatic system which feeds the field. (author). 53 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 1875 Los Estados de la costa y el conflicto político con Santiago Pérez

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    Dayana Angélica Rueda Cáceres


    Full Text Available Durante el periodo federal colombiano, a los Estados Soberanos de Panamá, Bolívar y Magdalena, se les identificó como Estados costeños, Estados del Norte o Estados del Atlántico. Panamá mantuvo fuertes vínculos con los demás Estados costeños auxiliándolos con material bélico, hombres y dinero en caso que fue necesario en las destinas contiendas ocurridas durante el periodo de 1855 - 1885. En el presente artículo se intenta a través de los acontecimientos políticos y bélicos de 1875, señalar, la participación de las Fuerzas del Estado soberano de Panamá en esta contienda y la relación u alianza político militar que mantuvieron los denominados Estados costeños.2 Dado que 1875 es un año bastante agitado, nos centraremos en el descontento de los Estados de la Costa con el Presidente de la Unión, Santiago Pérez, quien, según los primeros, buscaba favorecer tanto en campaña como en las urnas, la candidatura de Aquileo Parra como su sucesor frente a la emblemática figura del recién llegado al país Rafael Núñez, después de 10 años de ausencia.

  3. “Points requiring elucidation” about Hawaiian volcanism: Chapter 24 (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique


    Hawaiian volcanoes, which are easily accessed and observed at close range, are among the most studied on the planet and have spurred great advances in the geosciences, from understanding deep Earth processes to forecasting volcanic eruptions. More than a century of continuous observation and study of Hawai‘i's volcanoes has also sharpened focus on those questions that remain unanswered. Although there is good evidence that volcanism in Hawai‘i is the result of a high-temperature upwelling plume from the mantle, the source composition and dynamics of the plume are controversial. Eruptions at the surface build the volcanoes of Hawai‘i, but important topics, including how the volcanoes grow and collapse and how magma is stored and transported, continue to be subjects of intense research. Forecasting volcanic activity is based mostly on pattern recognition, but determining and predicting the nature of eruptions, especially in serving the critical needs of hazards mitigation, require more realistic models and a greater understanding of what drives eruptive activity. These needs may be addressed by better integration among disciplines as well as by developing dynamic physics- and chemistry-based models that more thoroughly relate the physiochemical behavior of Hawaiian volcanism, from the deep Earth to the surface, to geological, geochemical, and geophysical data.

  4. Spatio-volumetric hazard estimation in the Auckland volcanic field (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark S.


    The idea of a volcanic field `boundary' is prevalent in the literature, but ill-defined at best. We use the elliptically constrained vents in the Auckland Volcanic Field to examine how spatial intensity models can be tested to assess whether they are consistent with such features. A means of modifying the anisotropic Gaussian kernel density estimate to reflect the existence of a `hard' boundary is then suggested, and the result shown to reproduce the observed elliptical distribution. A new idea, that of a spatio-volumetric model, is introduced as being more relevant to hazard in a monogenetic volcanic field than the spatiotemporal hazard model due to the low temporal rates in volcanic fields. Significant dependencies between the locations and erupted volumes of the observed centres are deduced, and expressed in the form of a spatially-varying probability density. In the future, larger volumes are to be expected in the `gaps' between existing centres, with the location of the greatest forecast volume lying in the shipping channel between Rangitoto and Castor Bay. The results argue for tectonic control over location and magmatic control over erupted volume. The spatio-volumetric model is consistent with the hypothesis of a flat elliptical area in the mantle where tensional stresses, related to the local tectonics and geology, allow decompressional melting.

  5. Unzen volcanic rocks as heat source of geothermal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masao; Sugiyama, Hiromi


    Only a few radiometric ages have been reported so far for the Unzen volcanic rocks. In this connection, in order to clarify the relation between volcanism and geothermal activity, fission track ages of zircon seperated from the Unzen volcanic rocks in western Kyushu have been dated. Since all the rocks are thought to be young, the external surface re-etch method was adopted. The results are that the age and standard error of the basal volcaniclastic rocks of the Tatsuishi formation are 0.28 +- 0.05 Ma and 0.25 +- 0.05 Ma. The next oldest Takadake lavas range from 0.26 to 0.20 Ma. The Kusenbudake lavas fall in a narrow range from 0.19 to 0.17 Ma. The latest Fugendake lavas are younger than 0.07 Ma.In conclusion, the most promising site for geothermal power generation is the Unzen hot spring field because of its very high temperature. After that, comes the Obama hot spring field because of the considerable high temperature chemically estimated. In addition, the northwestern area of the Unzen volcanic region will be promising for electric power generation in spite of no geothermal manifestations, since its volcanos are younger than 0.2 Ma. (14 figs, 14 tabs, 22 refs)

  6. Meteorological Controls on Local and Regional Volcanic Ash Dispersal. (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P; Phillips, Jeremy C; Renfrew, Ian A; Barclay, Jenni; Hogg, Andrew; Jenkins, Susanna F; Robertson, Richard; Pyle, David M


    Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows. We focus on an archetypal volcanic setting, Soufrière, St Vincent, and use the exceptional historical records of the 1902 and 1979 eruptions to challenge our simulations. We find that the evolution and characteristics of ash deposition on St Vincent and nearby islands can be accurately simulated when the wind shear associated with the trade wind inversion and topographically-forced flows are represented. The wind shear plays a primary role and topographic flows a secondary role on ash distribution on local to regional scales. We propose a new explanation for the downwind ash deposition maxima, commonly observed in volcanic eruptions, as resulting from the detailed forcing of mesoscale meteorology on the ash plume.

  7. Estados Unidos: do Iraque ao Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes


    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca analisar os recentes temas recorrentes na política externa norte-americana, caracterizada pela “guerra contra o terror”, e seus impactos para a agenda a ser discutida na vindoura visita do presidente dos Estados Unidos, Geoge W. Bush, ao Brasil.

  8. Self-potential anomalies preceding tectonic and volcanic crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patella, D.


    In this paper I consider a possible physical mechanism capable of explaining self-potential anomalies, which are currently observed on the ground surface prior to tectonic and volcanic activities. A rock cracking-fluid diffusion-charge polarization model is described. The electrical charge polarization is assumed to be the electrokinetic effect due to invasion of fluid into new fissures, which open inside a stressed rock material because of dilatancy, in the case of tectonic activity, and of the rising of a magma intrusion in the case of volcanic activity. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  9. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden (United States)

    Pyle, David M.


    Understanding of volcanic activity and its impacts on the atmosphere has evolved in discrete steps, associated with defining eruptions. The eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia, in August 1883 was the first whose global reach was recorded through observations of atmospheric phenomena around the world (Symons 1888). The rapid equatorial spread of Krakatau's ash cloud revealed new details of atmospheric circulation, while the vivid twilights and other optical phenomena were soon causally linked to the effects of particles and gases released from the volcano (e.g. Stothers 1996, Schroder 1999, Hamilton 2012). Later, eruptions of Agung, Bali (1963), El Chichón, Mexico (1982) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991) led to a fuller understanding of how volcanic SO2 is transformed to a long-lived stratospheric sulfate aerosol, and its consequences (e.g. Meinel and Meinel 1967, Rampino and Self 1982, Hoffman and Rosen 1983, Bekki and Pyle 1994, McCormick et al 1995). While our ability to track the dispersal of volcanic emissions has been transformed since Pinatubo, with the launch of fleets of Earth-observing satellites (e.g. NASA's A-Train; ESA's MetOp) and burgeoning networks of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (e.g. lidar and sun-photometers; infrasound and lightning detection systems), there have been relatively few significant eruptions. Thus, there have been limited opportunities to test emerging hypotheses including, for example, the vexed question of the role of 'smaller' explosive eruptions in perturbations of the atmosphere—those that may just be large enough to reach the stratosphere (of size 'VEI 3', Newhall and Self 1982, Pyle 2000). Geological evidence, from ice-cores and historical eruptions, suggests that small explosive volcanic eruptions with the potential to transport material into the stratosphere should be frequent (5-10 per decade), and responsible for a significant proportion of the long-term time-averaged flux of volcanic sulfur into the stratosphere

  10. Optimal likelihood-based matching of volcanic sources and deposits in the Auckland Volcanic Field (United States)

    Kawabata, Emily; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Wang, Ting


    In monogenetic volcanic fields, where each eruption forms a new volcano, focusing and migration of activity over time is a very real possibility. In order for hazard estimates to reflect future, rather than past, behavior, it is vital to assemble as much reliable age data as possible on past eruptions. Multiple swamp/lake records have been extracted from the Auckland Volcanic Field, underlying the 1.4 million-population city of Auckland. We examine here the problem of matching these dated deposits to the volcanoes that produced them. The simplest issue is separation in time, which is handled by simulating prior volcano age sequences from direct dates where known, thinned via ordering constraints between the volcanoes. The subproblem of varying deposition thicknesses (which may be zero) at five locations of known distance and azimuth is quantified using a statistical attenuation model for the volcanic ash thickness. These elements are combined with other constraints, from widespread fingerprinted ash layers that separate eruptions and time-censoring of the records, into a likelihood that was optimized via linear programming. A second linear program was used to optimize over the Monte-Carlo simulated set of prior age profiles to determine the best overall match and consequent volcano age assignments. Considering all 20 matches, and the multiple factors of age, direction, and size/distance simultaneously, results in some non-intuitive assignments which would not be produced by single factor analyses. Compared with earlier work, the results provide better age control on a number of smaller centers such as Little Rangitoto, Otuataua, Taylors Hill, Wiri Mountain, Green Hill, Otara Hill, Hampton Park and Mt Cambria. Spatio-temporal hazard estimates are updated on the basis of the new ordering, which suggest that the scale of the 'flare-up' around 30 ka, while still highly significant, was less than previously thought.

  11. Estimating volume of deposits associated with landslides on volcanic landscapes in the SW flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, Puebla-Veracruz

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    Gabriel Legorreta Paulín


    dangerous situation for more than 360 000 people living on the southern flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, where landslides along the hillslopes and the river system threaten towns like Cordova, Orizaba, Rio Blanco, Nogales and Ciudad Mendoza. Today the most common and dangerous landslides are associated with unconsolidated volcanic deposits and heavy seasonal rains. In this paper, the cause, distribution, and link between landslides and the volcanic landscape relief susceptibility are analyzed. Similarly, the volume of displaced material is estimated in order to characterize the landslide instability in volcanic terrains. The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano is selected to describe and analyze susceptible areas of gravitational processes. The study area allows to show a systematic methodology for landslide mapping and volume calculation in areas with scarce information. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis. In the first stage, background information is collected to provide context and establish a generalized characterization of landslide processes, landsforms and volumes within the study area. Background information includes the following maps: topographic, geologic, land use, climate, slope, slope curvature, contributing area, flow direction, saturation, reclassified hypsomety, reclassified slope, and morphography. By retrieval and on-off switching of the background information in the GIS, a base map is created to assist in the digitizing of landslides. The base map and the theoretical aspects of the geomorphological mapping help to develop a conceptual base of support for mapping landslides. Landslides are digitized directly into a geographic information system (GIS, and in parallel, a spatial geodatabase of landslides attributes (eg. size, volume, activity, landslide type, etc. is constructed. Previous landslide mapping in the study area is verified and new landslides are added to the landslide

  12. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Mangan

    Full Text Available Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  13. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets. (United States)

    Mangan, T P; Atkinson, J D; Neuberg, J W; O'Sullivan, D; Wilson, T W; Whale, T F; Neve, L; Umo, N S; Malkin, T L; Murray, B J


    Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  14. Bioavailability and cellular effects of metals on Lumbricus terrestris inhabiting volcanic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Andre; Soto, Manu; Cunha, Regina; Marigomez, Ionan; Rodrigues, Armindo


    Whether the radial thickness (RT) of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) reflects the bioavailability of metals in soils was investigated in two areas, one with active volcanism (Furnas) and another with no volcanic activity since 3 million years ago (Santa Maria), in the Azores. Metal contents in soil samples and earthworms from the two areas were analyzed. Autometallography and measurements of the RT were performed in the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium. Earthworms from the active volcanic area demonstrated lower RT of chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium as well as higher levels of bioavailable metals, especially Zn and Cd. Comparison of bioavailable metal contents between both areas suggests a higher risk for uptake of potentially toxic metals in the active volcanic area than in the non-active volcanic area, which is reflected by the lower RT of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium in the former. - In earthworms, differences in the chloragogenous tissue morphometry may be related to the bioavailability of metals in soils

  15. Volcanic hazards and public response (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.


    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M de Melo e Castro


    Full Text Available Guimarães Rosa, numa carta a João Condé publicada no Jornal de Letras e Artes de 21 de Julho de 1946 deixou esta sugestão: "Mas,ainda haveria mais, se possível (sonhar é fácil, João Condé, realizar é que são elas ...: além dos estados líquidos e sólidos, porque não tentartrabalhar a língua em estado gasoso?!"Nesta comunicação tratarei de averiguar o que possa ser o estado gasosoda língua quer sob o ponto de vista físico quer sob o ponto de vista metafórico.Sob o ponto de vista físico devem ser considerados dois momentos: o daciência geralmente divu lgada na época em que Guimarães Rosa fez essasugestão, c o da atua l ciência do Caos, tendo em consideração os movimentosbrownianos das moléculas descritos na teoria cin ética dos gases.Sob o ponto de vista metafórico, o uso de uma terminologia interd isciplinar,à luz dos referidos conceitos da ciência, pode contribu ir para delinearuma possível concepção linguística que esteja de acordo com aprática c o uso criativo diferenciados da língua portuguesa, não só noBrasil c em Portugal, mas também nos países africanos de língua portuguesa, configurando-se ass im uma possível teoria cinética da língua.

  17. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores (United States)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.


    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  18. DSCOVR/EPIC observations of SO2 reveal dynamics of young volcanic eruption clouds (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Taylor, S.; Fisher, B. L.; Li, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Prata, F. J.


    Volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash have been measured by ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) sensors on US and European polar-orbiting satellites since the late 1970s. Although successful, the main limitation of these observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) is poor temporal resolution (once per day at low latitudes). Furthermore, most currently operational geostationary satellites cannot detect SO2, a key tracer of volcanic plumes, limiting our ability to elucidate processes in fresh, rapidly evolving volcanic eruption clouds. In 2015, the launch of the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provided the first opportunity to observe volcanic clouds from the L1 Lagrange point. EPIC is a 10-band spectroradiometer spanning UV to near-IR wavelengths with two UV channels sensitive to SO2, and a ground resolution of 25 km. The unique L1 vantage point provides continuous observations of the sunlit Earth disk, from sunrise to sunset, offering multiple daily observations of volcanic SO2 and ash clouds in the EPIC field of view. When coupled with complementary retrievals from polar-orbiting UV and IR sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), we demonstrate how the increased observation frequency afforded by DSCOVR/EPIC permits more timely volcanic eruption detection and novel analyses of the temporal evolution of volcanic clouds. Although EPIC has detected several mid- to high-latitude volcanic eruptions since launch, we focus on recent eruptions of Bogoslof volcano (Aleutian Islands, AK, USA). A series of EPIC exposures from May 28-29, 2017, uniquely captures the evolution of SO2 mass in a young Bogoslof eruption cloud, showing separation of SO2- and ice-rich regions of the cloud. We show how analyses of these sequences of EPIC SO2 data can elucidate poorly understood processes in transient eruption

  19. Thermal effects of massive CO2 emissions associated with subduction volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    Large volumes of CO₂ are emitted during volcanic activity at convergent plate boundaries, not only from volcanic centers. Their C isotopic signature indicates that this CO₂ is mainly derived from the decarbonation of subducted limestones or carbonated metabasalts, not as often admitted from magma

  20. Monitoring diffuse volcanic degassing during volcanic unrests: the case of Campi Flegrei (Italy). (United States)

    Cardellini, C; Chiodini, G; Frondini, F; Avino, R; Bagnato, E; Caliro, S; Lelli, M; Rosiello, A


    In volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems, diffuse CO 2 degassing may constitute the primary mode of volcanic degassing. The monitoring of CO 2 emissions can provide important clues in understanding the evolution of volcanic activity especially at calderas where the interpretation of unrest signals is often complex. Here, we report eighteen years of CO 2 fluxes from the soil at Solfatara of Pozzuoli, located in the restless Campi Flegrei caldera. The entire dataset, one of the largest of diffuse CO 2 degassing ever produced, is made available for the scientific community. We show that, from 2003 to 2016, the area releasing deep-sourced CO 2 tripled its extent. This expansion was accompanied by an increase of the background CO 2 flux, over most of the surveyed area (1.4 km 2 ), with increased contributions from non-biogenic source. Concurrently, the amount of diffusively released CO 2 increased up to values typical of persistently degassing active volcanoes (up to 3000 t d -1 ). These variations are consistent with the increase in the flux of magmatic fluids injected into the hydrothermal system, which cause pressure increase and, in turn, condensation within the vapor plume feeding the Solfatara emission.

  1. Months between rejuvenation and volcanic eruption at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming (United States)

    Till, Christy B.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Boyce, Jeremy W


    Rejuvenation of previously intruded silicic magma is an important process leading to effusive rhyolite, which is the most common product of volcanism at calderas with protracted histories of eruption and unrest such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Valles, USA. Although orders of magnitude smaller in volume than rare caldera-forming super-eruptions, these relatively frequent effusions of rhyolite are comparable to the largest eruptions of the 20th century and pose a considerable volcanic hazard. However, the physical pathway from rejuvenation to eruption of silicic magma is unclear particularly because the time between reheating of a subvolcanic intrusion and eruption is poorly quantified. This study uses geospeedometry of trace element profiles with nanometer resolution in sanidine crystals to reveal that Yellowstone’s most recent volcanic cycle began when remobilization of a near- or sub-solidus silicic magma occurred less than 10 months prior to eruption, following a 220,000 year period of volcanic repose. Our results reveal a geologically rapid timescale for rejuvenation and effusion of ~3 km3 of high-silica rhyolite lava even after protracted cooling of the subvolcanic system, which is consistent with recent physical modeling that predict a timescale of several years or less. Future renewal of rhyolitic volcanism at Yellowstone is likely to require an energetic intrusion of mafic or silicic magma into the shallow subvolcanic reservoir and could rapidly generate an eruptible rhyolite on timescales similar to those documented here.

  2. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of passive and eruptive volcanic SO2 emissions (United States)

    Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Prata, Fred; Telling, Jennifer


    Periodic injections of sulfur gas species (SO2, H2S) into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions are among the most important, and yet unpredictable, drivers of natural climate variability. However, passive (lower tropospheric) volcanic degassing is the major component of total volcanic emissions to the atmosphere on a time-averaged basis, but is poorly constrained, impacting estimates of global emissions of other volcanic gases (e.g., CO2). Stratospheric volcanic emissions are very well quantified by satellite remote sensing techniques, and we report ongoing efforts to catalog all significant volcanic SO2 emissions into the stratosphere and troposphere since 1978 using measurements from the ultraviolet (UV) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS; 1978-2005), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI; 2004 - present) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS; 2012 - present) instruments, supplemented by infrared (IR) data from HIRS, MODIS and AIRS. The database, intended for use as a volcanic forcing dataset in climate models, currently includes over 600 eruptions releasing a total of ~100 Tg SO2, with a mean eruption discharge of ~0.2 Tg SO2. Sensitivity to SO2 emissions from smaller eruptions greatly increased following the launch of OMI in 2004, but uncertainties remain on the volcanic flux of other sulfur species other than SO2 (H2S, OCS) due to difficulty of measurement. Although the post-Pinatubo 1991 era is often classified as volcanically quiescent, many smaller eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 3-4) since 2000 have injected significant amounts of SO2 into the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS), peaking in 2008-2011. We also show how even smaller (VEI 2) tropical eruptions can impact the UTLS and sustain above-background stratospheric aerosol optical depth, thus playing a role in climate forcing on short timescales. To better quantify tropospheric volcanic degassing, we use ~10 years of operational SO2 measurements by OMI to identify the

  3. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.W.


    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10 -9 /km 2 /y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10 -7 /y

  4. Observations of the loss of stratospheric NO2 following volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, William G.


    Observations of stratospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) have been made following major eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pintatubo volcanoes. Midlatitude abundances of NO2 and NO were reduced by as much as 70% in the months following the appearance of the volcanic aerosols as compared to volcanically quite periods. There are heterogeneous reactions which could occur on the volcanic aerosols to convert NO2 into HNO3 but no commensurate increase in HNO3 column amounts was observed at the times of NO2 decrease.

  5. Io After Galileo A New View of Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C


    Jupiter’s moon Io is the Solar System’s most exotic satellite. Active volcanism on Io was discovered from observations by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979, confirming a possibility suggested from theoretical studies of Io’s orbit. Our knowledge of Io’s volcanism, composition, and space environment were significantly increased as a result of observations by the Galileo spacecraft from 1996 through 2001. The end of the Galileo mission in 2003 makes this an ideal time to summarize the new results in a book as no book has ever been written about Jupiter’s volcanic moon, Io.

  6. Geochemical and geochronological constrains on the Chiang Khong volcanic rocks (northwestern Thailand) and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Feng, Qinglai; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Monjai, Denchok


    Volcanic rocks in northwestern Thailand exposed dominantly in the Chiang Khong area, are commonly considered to be genetically linked to the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The volcanic rocks consist mainly of andesitic to rhyolitic rocks and are traditionally mapped as Permian-Triassic sequences. Our zircon U-Pb geochronological results show that two andesitic samples (TL-1-B and TL-31-B), are representative of the Doi Yao volcanic zone, and give a mean weighted age of 241.2±4.6 Ma and 241.7±2.9 Ma, respectively. The rhyolitic sample (TL-32-B1) from the Doi Khun Ta Khuan volcanic zone erupted at 238.3±3.8 Ma. Such ages indicate that Chiang Khong volcanic rocks erputed during the early Middle Triassic period. Seven samples from the Doi Yao and Doi Khun Ta Khuan zones exhibit an affinity to arc volcanics. Three rhyolitic samples from the Chiang Khong area have a geochemical affinity to both arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks. The Chiang Khong arc volcanic rocks can be geochemically compared with those in the Lampang area in northern Thailand, also consistent with those in Jinghong area of southwestern Yunnan. This indicates that the Chiang Rai arc-volcanic zone might northwardly link to the Lancangjiang volcanic zone in southwestern China.

  7. Geochemistry of the volcanic dome in the Municipality of Iza, Boyaca Department, geodynamic interpretation and comparison with Neogene volcanism of the Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesga, Ana Maria; Jaramillo, Jose


    This work has as purpose to offer new analytic data, supplemented the available ones until the present regarding the volcanic rocks of the region of Iza, (Boyaca); in the same way, the development of a new approach, as for determining if exists a direct connection with other volcanic deposits geographically near to the study area, using descriptive statistical methods. It was realized a characterization geochemistry for 12 samples gathered in the area, where were analyzed big elements, smaller and traces and using diagrams of characterization for effusive rocks, it is corroborated that these possess an alkaline likeness of riolitic composition. Besides the use of normalized diagrams whose abundances of elements of strong electrostatic field (HFSE) as the Nb and Zr, and elements of big ionic radio (LILE) in this case the Rb, they allowed to this rocks characteristic of ambient coalitional. On the other hand, with the obtained results of the statistical analyses, the existent relationship settled down between two geographically places near, as are it volcanic bodies of Los Naranjos and those of Paipa. As for of Iza, it was found that relationship doesn't exist some with another volcanic body among the studied sectors, probably due the alteration hydrothermal that presents the dome of Iza.

  8. O Estado (de Bem-Estar Social como Ator do Desenvolvimento: Uma História das Ideias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky


    Full Text Available Reconstruímos neste artigo uma história das ideias, abstratas ou incorporadas em práticas concretas, da ação estatal voltada ao desenvolvimento, da concepção de "Estados-poder" a "Estados de Bem-Estar", seguindo o fluxo e o refluxo de argumentos em favor da intervenção. Justificativas de intervenção baseadas na necessidade de superar descontinuidades econômicas são contrapostas a argumentos que apontam os riscos e antídotos da captura do Estado por interesses privados, bem como à abordagem mais ampla ao desenvolvimento de Amartya Sen. Experiências nacionais de desenvolvimento e de Estado de Bem-Estar Social são também rastreadas, como "ideias incorporadas". Identificamos uma defesa da intervenção do Estado que integra os campos econômico, político e social e aponta a democracia e o Estado de Bem-Estar como temas emergentes no discurso do desenvolvimento.

  9. Annually resolved southern hemisphere volcanic history from two Antarctic ice cores (United States)

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Thompson, Lonnie G.


    The continuous sulfate analysis of two Antarctic ice cores, one from the Antarctic Peninsula region and one from West Antarctica, provides an annually resolved proxy history of southern semisphere volcanism since early in the 15th century. The dating is accurate within ±3 years due to the high rate of snow accumulation at both core sites and the small sample sizes used for analysis. The two sulfate records are consistent with each other. A systematic and objective method of separating outstanding sulfate events from the background sulfate flux is proposed and used to identify all volcanic signals. The resulting volcanic chronology covering 1417-1989 A.D. resolves temporal ambiguities about several recently discovered events. A number of previously unknown, moderate eruptions during late 1600s are uncovered in this chronology. The eruption of Tambora (1815) and the recently discovered eruption of Kuwae (1453) in the tropical South Pacific injected the greatest amount of sulfur dioxide into the southern hemisphere stratosphere during the last half millennium. A technique for comparing the magnitude of volcanic events preserved within different ice cores is developed using normalized sulfate flux. For the same eruptions the variability of the volcanic sulfate flux between the cores is within ±20% of the sulfate flux from the Tambora eruption.

  10. Geochronological constraints on Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanism in South Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.J.; Cooper, A.F.; Palin, J.M.; Nathan, S.


    Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentation in South Westland, New Zealand, is recorded in the Otumotu Formation, Tauperikaka Coal Measures, Whakapohai Sandstone, Arnott Basalt, Buttress Conglomerate, and Tokakoriri Formation, originally named and mapped by Nathan in 1977. Within this stratigraphic sequence, the name Buttress Conglomerate was used to describe volcanic conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points that contained rounded clasts of plagioclasephyric intermediate volcanic rocks. Stratigraphically, the volcanic conglomerate at Porphyry Point forms sharp contacts with the underlying Arnott Basalt (Haumurian) and overlying Tokakoriri Formation (Teurian). The volcanic conglomerate at Buttress Point, however, is entirely fault-bounded. Clasts from each unit were collected and U-Pb zircon dated using the TIMS and ELA-ICP-MS methods. A trachyandesite clast collected at Buttress Point gives an age of 96.9 ± 1.6 Ma, whereas a rhyolite clast collected at Porphyry Point gives an age of 61.4 ± 0.8 Ma. Petrological, geochemical, and stratigraphic data suggest that erosion of the clasts closely followed volcanism, and that these ages accurately reflect the depositional ages of the conglomerates. Conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points have been formally renamed the Porphyry Point Member of the Tokakoriri Formation and the Buttress Point Conglomerate, respectively. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Estimating Losses from Volcanic Ash in case of a Mt. Baekdu Eruption (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong


    We will present the preliminary result of economic losses in South Korea in case of a Mt. Baedu eruption. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption to South Korea and help government prepare for the volcanic disasters. In particular, the economic impact from volcanic ash is estimated given the distance from Mt. Baedu to South Korea. In order to scientifically estimate losses from volcanic ash, we need volcanic ash thickness, inventory database, and damage functions between ash thickness and damage ratios for each inventory item. We use the volcanic ash thickness calculated by other research groups in Korea, and they estimated the ash thickness for each eruption scenario using average wind fields. Damage functions are built using the historical damage data in the world, and inventory database is obtained from available digital maps in Korea. According to the preliminary results, the economic impact from volcanic ash is not significant because the ash is rarely deposited in South Korea under general weather conditions. However, the ash can impact human health and environment. Also worst case scenarios can have the significant economic impacts in Korea, and may result in global issues. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  12. Los "intelectuales" y el Estado Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de “intelectual” es difícil de definir y sin duda se debate constantemente. Sin embargo, es importante reflexionar sobre él a fin de comprender su significado y los problemas que implica. Sea como fuere, a un Estado autoritario “moderno” se le supone una única ideología que tiene que difundirse por medio de una propaganda bien organizada, proceso en el que los intelectuales desempeñan un papel significativo. El “Nuevo Estado” de Salazar encaja en esta categoría y sin duda el conocimiento acerca de sus “intelectuales” es fundamental. En este artículo, el objetivo es proporcionar algunos ejemplos interesantes de “intelectuales” o de simples “funcionarios políticos” con inclinación intelectual a fin de indicar el sentido y complejidad de un estudio con una dimensión distinta sobre este asunto. A este fin han sido seleccionadas tres personalidades responsables de la actividad ideológica y cultural de gran relieve en el Estado de Salazar: António Ferro, João Ameal y Costa Brochado. Palabras clave: Estado Novo; Authotitarianism; Salazar, António de Oliveira; Intellectuals; Ferro, António; Brochado, Idalino da Costa; Ameal, João. ABSTRACT: The concept of the “intellectual” is difficult to define and undoubtedly constantly debated. It is nevertheless important to reflect on it in order to understand its meaning and the problems involved with it. Be that as it may, a “modern” authoritarian State presumes a single ideology which has to be diffused by means of well-organised propaganda, in which process “intellectuals” play a significant role. Salazar’s “New State” fits this category and, undoubtedly, knowledge about its “intellectuals” is fundamental. The objective in this article is to provide some interesting examples of “intellectuals” or simple “political functionar- ies” with an intellectual bent so as to indicate the sense and complexity of a study of a

  13. Estrategias de desarrollo en áreas deprimidas de Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Clarke


    Full Text Available El proceso de globalización de la economía ha ocasionado cambios en la localización de las empresas y en la demanda de trabajo, agravando los problemas sociales y disminuyendo los ingresos tributarios de algunas localidades de los Estados Unidos. Desde hace algunos años, los gobiernos subnacionales de los Estados Unidos han tomado la iniciativa de diseñar y poner en marcha estrategias para enfrentar esta situación. Inicialmente, el énfasis se puso en atraer empresas localizadas en otras regiones, "robando" así empleo y tributos a otros estados y localidades. Posteriormente, fueron imponiéndose enfoques empresariales, más interesados en promover los esfuerzos económicos locales, en apoyar a las firmas e iniciativas dedicadas a las actividades de alta tecnología e investigación y desarrollo y en mejorar el clima de negocios y la capacidad de las empresas existentes para ajustar sus procesos productivos. En este artículo se describe en detalle estos cambios y se los relaciona con el contexto político y económico de los estados y localidades. Además, mediante el análisis de conglomerados, se identifican seis grupos de ciudades estadounidenses que han puesto en marcha estrategias "empresariales" de distinto corte.

  14. Volcanic Ash Impacts on Air Traffic from the 2009 Mt. Redoubt Eruption (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Matus, A. V.; Hudnall, L. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Haynes, J. A.; Pippin, M. R.


    The dispersion of volcanic ash during the March 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt created the potential for major problems for aviation. Mt. Redoubt is located 110 km west-southwest of Alaska Airlines hub in Anchorage. It last erupted in 1990 and caused an estimated $101 million cost to the aviation industry (Waythomas, 1998). This study was conducted to assist in improving warning systems, policy and procedures for addressing the impact of volcanic ash on aviation. The study had two primary components. First, the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion was determined through analysis of synoptic meteorological conditions and satellite imagery. Second, impacts on aviation from the volcanic ash dispersion were investigated. OMI SO2 column measurements were employed to assess the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion of volcanic ash. To accomplish this, OMI data were assimilated with CALIPSO backscatter profiles, geopotential height plots, and HYSPLIT forward model trajectories. Volcanic Ash Advisories were compared to airport and pilot reports to assess aviation impacts. The eruption produced a complex dispersion of volcanic ash. Volcanic ash altitudes estimated for 23 March 2009 indicate that the majority of the plume remained at approximately 8 km, although reports indicate that the initial plume may have reached as high as18 km (60,000 ft). A low pressure system which passed over the eruption area appears to have entrained most of the ash at approximately 8 km, however the CALIPSO satellite indicates that dispersion also extended to 10 km and 16 km. Atmospheric patterns suggest dispersion at approximately 3 km near Hudson Bay. Analysis of 25 March 2009 indicates that much of the ash plume was dispersed at higher altitudes, where CALIPSO data locates the stratospheric ash plume at approximately 14 km above mean sea level. By the time the eruptions had subsided in April, Alaska Airlines had cancelled 295 flights and disrupted the flights of over 20,000 passengers. This

  15. Estimation of the rate of volcanism on Venus from reaction rate measurements (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.


    Laboratory rate data for the reaction between SO2 and calcite to form anhydrite are presented. If this reaction rate represents the SO2 reaction rate on Venus, then all SO2 in the Venusian atmosphere will disappear in 1.9 Myr unless volcanism replenishes the lost SO2. The required volcanism rate, which depends on the sulfur content of the erupted material, is in the range 0.4-11 cu km of magma erupted per year. The Venus surface composition at the Venera 13, 14, and Vega 2 landing sites implies a volcanism rate of about 1 cu km/yr. This geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of two discordant geophysically estimated rates is correct. It also suggests that Venus may be less volcanically active than the earth.

  16. Volcanic eruption crisis and the challenges of geoscience education in Indonesia (United States)

    Hariyono, E.; Liliasari, Tjasyono, B.; Madlazim


    The study aims was to describe of the profile of geoscience education conducted at the institution of teacher education for answer challenges of volcanic eruption crisis in Indonesia. The method used is descriptive analysis based on result of test and interview to 31 students of physics pre-service teachers about volcanoes through field study. The results showed that the students have a low understanding of volcanic material and there are several problems associated with the volcanoes concept. Other facts are geoscience learning does not support to the formation of geoscience knowledge and skills, dominated by theoretical studies and less focused on effort to preparing students towards disasters particularly to the volcanic eruption. As a recommendation, this require to restructuring geoscience education so as relevant with the social needs. Through courses accordingly, we can greatly help student's physics prospective teacher to improve their participations to solve problems of volcanic eruption crisis in the society.

  17. Decade of stratospheric sulfate measurements compared with observations of volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Lazrus, A.L.; Gandrud, B.W.


    Sulfate aerosol concentrations in the stratosphere have been measured for 11 years (1971--1981) using portions of filters collected by the Department of Energy's High Altitude Sampling Program. Data collected seasonally at altitudes between 13 km and 20 km spanning latitudes from 75 0 N to 51 0 S are reported. These data are compared with the reported altitudes of volcanic eruption plumes during the same decade. From this comparison it is concluded that (1) several unreported volcanic eruptions or eruptions to altitudes higher than reported did occur during the decade, (2) the e-fold removal time for sulfate aerosol from the stratosphere following the eruption of Volcan Fuego in 1974 was 11.2 +- 1.2 months, (3) the volcanic contribution to the average stratospheric sulfate concentration over the decade was greater than 50%, and (4) there may be evidence for an anthropogenic contribution to stratospheric sulfate that increases at the rate of 6 to 8% per year

  18. La teoría de la justicia en el estado natural y en el estado político, según Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aranda Fraga


    Full Text Available El contractualismo explica y justifica el fundamento y la posibilidad de la sociedad a partir de un pacto entre seres libres e iguales. Según Hobbes, los hombres, antes de pactar entre sí, vivían en un estado de guerra de todos contra todos, por tanto carente de justicia. Tampoco había leyes, ni propiedad, ni civilización alguna. En concreto, no existían los derechos, y por tanto era imprescindible buscar una solución eficaz. Deciden por mutuo acuerdo nombrar un garante de sus derechos y obligaciones; entonces nace el Estado y sólo a partir de ese momento queda instaurada la justicia.

  19. Diffuse Helium Emission as a Precursory Sign of Volcanic Unrest (United States)

    Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sumino, H.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Barrancos, J.; Nolasco, D.; Padilla, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Hernandez, I.; Calvo, D.; Peraza, M.; Nagao, K.


    Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island, the youngest and smallest of the Canary Islands, was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of October 12 a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic crisis of the island, reaching 30 kg

  20. El Estado de bienestar: algunas propuestas de financiación


    Hernández Rotllan, Eduard


    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar si el actual estado del bienestar en España es sostenible a largo plazo. ¿Que iniciativas debemos adoptar para salvar el estado de bienestar? ¿De qué forma reformamos el sistema fiscal español para disponer de una fiscalidad justa y suficiente, con la que obtengamos una estabilidad en los ingresos públicos que acabe con el fraude y la elusión en el pago de los impuestos?

  1. Was there a volcanic eruption off Vietnam in AD 608? (United States)

    Khoo, T. T.

    In the Sui-shu (Annals of the Sui Dynasty, 581-618), there is a record that returning envoys of the Chinese court to a state in northeastern Malay peninsula had in April-June AD 608 reached the state of Lin-i where for a whole day's sail the air around the vessel was yellowish and fetid. Lin-i was located at the southern end of the Annam Highlands chain and it is interpreted here that the phenominon reported could be due to a volcanic eruption in the Poulo Cecir-Ile des Cendres-Veteran volcanic islands group near the area. During the months of May to June the winds of the southwest monsoon, too, blow from the volcanic area toward the southern end of the Annam Highlands.

  2. Volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io and its relation to interior processes (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher


    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System and offers insight into processes of tidal heating, melt generation, and magma ascent. Investigating these processes contributes to a better understanding of Io's geologic history, internal structure, and tidal dissipation mechanisms, as well as to understanding similar processes operating on other tidally-heated worlds (e.g., Europa, Enceladus, and some exoplanets). Four recent developments provide new observational constraints that prompt re-examination of the relationships between Io's surficial geology and interior structure. These developments include: (1) completion of the first 1:15,000,000 scale geologic map of Io based on a synthesis of Voyager and Galileo data; (2) re-interpretation of Galileo magnetometer data, which suggests that Io has a globally continuous subsurface magma ocean; (3) new global surveys of the power output from volcanic centers on Io; and (4) identification of an offset between volcano concentrations and surface heat flux maxima predicted by solid body tidal heating models. In this study, the spatial distributions of volcanic hotspots and paterae on Io are characterized using distance-based clustering techniques and nearest neighbor statistics. Distance-based clustering results support a dominant role for asthenospheric heating within Io, but show a 30-60° eastward offset in volcano concentrations relative to locations of predicted surface heat flux maxima. The observed asymmetry in volcano concentrations, with respect to the tidal axis, cannot be explained by existing solid body tidal heating models. However, identification of a global magma ocean within Io raises the intriguing possibility that a fluid tidal response—analogous to the heating of icy satellites by fluid tidal dissipation in their liquid oceans—may modify Io's thermal budget and locations of enhanced volcanism. The population density of volcanoes is greatest near the equator, which also

  3. ¿Remesas a la baja para el estado de Michoacán?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jonathan Orozco García


    Full Text Available El tema de las remesas en un contexto mundial no es nuevo, este ha existido desde nuestra antigüedad con el origen de las migraciones de la humanidad, sin embargo hoy en día con la globalización y gracias a la carencia y crisis por las que pasa en general el mundo y más algunos países como lo son México, India y China se ha visto aún más marcado, ya que los países de destino de todos estos migrantes como lo es Estados de Unidos de América siendo este el principal receptor, han generado diversos problemas, desde el incremento del empleo informal, problemas políticos generando así reformas en sus constituciones, sociales, económicos, sin embargo, y en caso contrario, para los países que de los cuales migran estas persona, tal es el caso de México se vuelve en cierta medida un ingreso no presupuestado para las económicas internas de sus estados, Michoacán es de los principales estados que en gran medida depende de esta remesa enviada por sus compatriotas, esto se puedo observar después de la crisis del 2008, en donde la caída de las remeses para el año 2009 bajaron en promedio del 25%, afectando la propia estabilidad del estado, por eso es indispensable realizar una proyección para los año venideros, es de suma importancia analizar si las remesas para el estado de Michoacán van a la baja, ya que bajo este supuesto el estado podrá tomar las medidas necesarias públicas para contrarrestar su baja o en caso contrario canalizar adecuadamente el gasto por los michoacanos.

  4. Volcanic Plume Impact on the Atmosphere and Climate: O- and S-Isotope Insight into Sulfate Aerosol Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Martin


    Full Text Available The impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate has been studied over the last decades and the role played by sulfate aerosols appears to be major. S-bearing volcanic gases are oxidized in the atmosphere into sulfate aerosols that disturb the radiative balance on earth at regional to global scales. This paper discusses the use of the oxygen and sulfur multi-isotope systematics on volcanic sulfates to understand their formation and fate in more or less diluted volcanic plumes. The study of volcanic aerosols collected from air sampling and ash deposits at different distances from the volcanic systems (from volcanic vents to the Earth poles is discussed. It appears possible to distinguish between the different S-bearing oxidation pathways to generate volcanic sulfate aerosols whether the oxidation occurs in magmatic, tropospheric, or stratospheric conditions. This multi-isotopic approach represents an additional constraint on atmospheric and climatic models and it shows how sulfates from volcanic deposits could represent a large and under-exploited archive that, over time, have recorded atmospheric conditions on human to geological timescales.

  5. Production of more durable and sustainable concretes using volcanic scoria as cement replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Swaidani, A. M.


    The objective of the study is to investigate strength and durability-related properties of volcanic scoria-based cements. Compressive and tensile strength development of mortars and concretes containing volcanic scoria with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35% was investigated. Water permeability, chloride penetrability and porosity of concretes cured for 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days were also examined. Results revealed that volcanic scoria could be suitable for making blended cements. The strength of mortar/concrete containing volcanic scoria was lower than that of plain cement mortar/concrete at all ages. However, at 90 day curing, the strengths of volcanic scoria-based mortars/concretes were comparable to those of plain cement. In addition, water permeability, chloride penetrability and porosity of scoria-based concretes were much lower than those of plain concrete. Further, the results were statistically analysed and estimation equations have been developed to predict the studied properties. SEM/EDX analysis was employed, as well. [es

  6. Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years. (United States)

    Sigl, M; Winstrup, M; McConnell, J R; Welten, K C; Plunkett, G; Ludlow, F; Büntgen, U; Caffee, M; Chellman, N; Dahl-Jensen, D; Fischer, H; Kipfstuhl, S; Kostick, C; Maselli, O J; Mekhaldi, F; Mulvaney, R; Muscheler, R; Pasteris, D R; Pilcher, J R; Salzer, M; Schüpbach, S; Steffensen, J P; Vinther, B M; Woodruff, T E


    Volcanic eruptions contribute to climate variability, but quantifying these contributions has been limited by inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings. Here we resolve these inconsistencies and show that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. Our results are based on new records of atmospheric aerosol loading developed from high-resolution, multi-parameter measurements from an array of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores as well as distinctive age markers to constrain chronologies. Overall, cooling was proportional to the magnitude of volcanic forcing and persisted for up to ten years after some of the largest eruptive episodes. Our revised timescale more firmly implicates volcanic eruptions as catalysts in the major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions in Eurasia and Mesoamerica while allowing multi-millennium quantification of climate response to volcanic forcing.

  7. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.


    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy of some volcanic glasses from the Pampa Region, Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragovi-Badler, C.; Labenski, F.


    Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to the study of volcanic glasses and closely associated clay minerals which were carefully separated from the sediments of the Pampa Region. The parameters of volcanic glass samples show the presence of a high content of Fe 2+ in octahedral coordination and some Fe 3+ in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. No remarcable difference was found comparing with a 'pure' volcanic glass sample taken as a reference. In the clay samples the only clay mineral found was illite. (author) 7 refs

  9. The Dilemmas of Risk-Sensitive Development on a Small Volcanic Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Wilkinson


    Full Text Available In the Small Islands Developing State (SIDS of St Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean, the most destructive disasters in terms of human casualties have been the multiple eruptions of La Soufrière volcano situated in the north of St Vincent. Despite this major threat, people continue to live close to the volcano and national development plans do not include risk reduction measures for volcanic hazards. This paper examines the development options in volcanic SIDS and presents a number of conundrums for disaster risk management on the island of St Vincent. Improvements in monitoring of volcanic hazards and ongoing programmes to enhance communications systems and encourage community preparedness planning have increased awareness of the risks associated with volcanic hazards, yet this has not translated into more risk-informed development planning decisions. The current physical development plan in fact promotes investment in infrastructure in settlements located within the zone designated very high-hazard. However, this is not an anomaly or an irrational decision: severe space constraints in SIDS, as well as other historical social and economic factors, limit growth and options for low-risk development. Greater attention needs to be placed on developing measures to reduce risk, particularly from low-intensity hazards like ash, limiting where possible exposure to volcanic hazards and building the resilience of communities living in high-risk areas. This requires planning for both short- and longer-term impacts from renewed activity. Volcanic SIDS face multiple hazards because of their geography and topography, so development plans should identify these interconnected risks and options for their reduction, alongside measures aimed at improving personal preparedness plans so communities can learn to live with risk.

  10. Mercury and Iodine systematics of volcanic arc fluids (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.; Fehn, U.; Lu, Z.


    The mantle has low Mercury and Iodine concentrations, but these elements occur in volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids at ppb (Hg) and ppm (Iodine) levels. Possibly, the Hg and Iodine concentrations in volcanic fluids reflect subducted sediment sources in arc magmas. Iodine is a biophilic element, and I129/I values indicate that subducted sediment (especially organic matter) is an important Iodine source for arc magmas. It is uncertain if this is true for Hg as well, although in the surface environment Hg is commonly associated with organic matter. We present 60 new analyses of Hg and I in fluids from volcanoes in Central America, New Zealand, Japan, and the Cascades. A first assessment suggests that Iodine is released to some degree in the early stage of subduction in the forearc, whereas Hg may be released largely below the main volcanic arc. Isotope and trace element signatures of volcanic rocks of the investigated volcanoes show no simple correlation with Hg or Iodine abundances. The acid hot spring fluids of Copahue volcano (Argentina) carried ~ 200 ppt Hg in January 1999, ~80 ppt Hg in March 2008, and 90 ppt Hg in the crater lake in March 1997. The dissolved Hg fluxes from the Copahue hydrothermal system are ~300 gr Hg/year in 1999 and ~130 gr Hg/year in 2008. The bulk hydrothermal Hg flux (particle bound+dissolved) in 2008 was ~ 350 gr Hg/year. The potential Mercury evasion from these hydrothermal spring fluids into the air has not yet been incorporated in these estimates.

  11. Seismic tremors and magma wagging during explosive volcanism. (United States)

    Jellinek, A Mark; Bercovici, David


    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies from about 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz (refs 1-4). Before major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with increased gas flux and related ground deformation. Volcanic tremor is thus of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or 'wag' against the restoring 'gas-spring' force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma-wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, which explains the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as is often observed.

  12. Characterizing Volcanic Eruptions on Venus: Some Realistic (?) Scenarios (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Grinspoon, D. H.


    When Pioneer Venus arrived at Venus in 1978, it detected anomalously high concentrations of SO2 at the top of the troposphere, which subsequently declined over the next five years. This decline in SO2 was linked to some sort of dynamic process, possibly a volcanic eruption. Observations of SO2 variability have persisted since Pioneer Venus. More recently, scientists from the Venus Express mission announced that the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument had measured varying amounts of SO2 in the upper atmosphere; VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) measured no similar variations in the lower atmosphere (ESA, 4 April, 2008). In addition, Fegley and Prinn stated that venusian volcanoes must replenish SO2 to the atmosphere, or it would react with calcite and disappear within 1.9 my. Fegley and Tremain suggested an eruption rate on the order of approx 1 cubic km/year to maintain atmospheric SO2; Bullock and Grinspoon posit that volcanism must have occurred within the last 20-50 my to maintain the sulfuric acid/water clouds on Venus. The abundance of volcanic deposits on Venus and the likely thermal history of the planet suggest that it is still geologically active, although at rates lower than Earth. Current estimates of resurfacing rates range from approx 0.01 cubic km/yr to approx 2 cubic km/yr. Demonstrating definitively that Venus is still volcanically active, and at what rate, would help to constrain models of evolution of the surface and interior, and help to focus future exploration of Venus.

  13. El Estado de Excepción en la Legislación Ecuatoriana: Caso.- Estado de Excepción en la Función Judicial


    Carvallo Coellar, Verónica


    El Estado de Excepción como Institución Jurídica es abordado desde las definiciones doctrinarias, legales y constitucionales, una vez concluido este estudio se conoce el alcance de éste instrumento en la realidad nacional. En aquel contexto, se analiza el alcance del Decreto Ejecutivo 872 de la Declaratoria de Estado de Excepción en la Función Judicial y los efectos jurídicos que se desprendieron del mismo. En consecuencia, se determina la constitucionalidad del Decreto así como los c...

  14. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar and K-Ar dating of altered glassy volcanic rocks: the Dabi Volcanics, P. N. G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra. Dept. of Geology); McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences)


    K-Ar and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar ages have been determined for altered submarine tholeiitic and boninite (high-Mg andesite) lavas from the Dabi Volcanics, Cape Vogel Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar whole rock total fusion and plateau ages identify a Late Paleocene age for the tholeiitic lavas (58.9 +- 1.1 Ma), and also for the boninitic lavas (58.8 +- 0.8 Ma). Apparent K-Ar ages for the same samples range from 27.2 +- 0.7 to 63.9 +- 4.5 Ma, and young K-Ar ages for glassy boninites are probably due to variable radiogenic /sup 40/Ar(/sup 40/Ar*) loss. These new ages effectively reconcile previously ambiguous age data for the Dabi Volcanics, and indicate contemporaneous tholeiitic and boninitic volcanism occurring in southeast PNG during the Late Paleocene. Smectites, developed as alteration products after glass in oceanic lavas commonly do not retain /sup 39/Ar during or subsequent to irradiation, but in some cases may contain /sup 40/Ar*. The results are discussed.

  15. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  16. Recurrence Rate and Magma Effusion Rate for the Latest Volcanism on Arsia Mons, Mars (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob A.; Wilson, James A.; Connor, Charles B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Kiyosugi, Koji


    Magmatism and volcanism have evolved the Martian lithosphere, surface, and climate throughout the history of Mars. Constraining the rates of magma generation and timing of volcanism on the surface clarifies the ways in which magma and volcanic activity have shaped these Martian systems. The ages of lava flows on other planets are often estimated using impact crater counts, assuming that the number and size-distribution of impact craters per unit area reflect the time the lava flow has been on the surface and exposed to potential impacts. Here we show that impact crater age model uncertainty is reduced by adding stratigraphic information observed at locations where neighboring lavas abut each other, and demonstrate the significance of this reduction in age uncertainty for understanding the history of a volcanic field comprising 29 vents in the 110-kilometer-diameter caldera of Arsia Mons, Mars. Each vent within this caldera produced lava flows several to tens of kilometers in length; these vents are likely among the youngest on Mars, since no impact craters in their lava flows are larger than 1 kilometer in diameter. First, we modeled the age of each vent with impact crater counts performed on their corresponding lava flows and found very large age uncertainties for the ages of individual vents, often spanning the estimated age for the entire volcanic field. The age model derived from impact crater counts alone is broad and unimodal, with estimated peak activity in the field around 130Ma (megaannum, 1 million years). Next we applied our volcano event age model (VEAM), which uses a directed graph of stratigraphic relationships and random sampling of the impact crater age determinations to create alternative age models. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create 10,000 possible vent age sets. The recurrence rate of volcanism is calculated for each possible age set, and these rates are combined to calculate the median recurrence rate of all simulations. Applying this

  17. A regra do Jogo: relação entre estado e terceiro setor


    Amorim, Amanda Florense Alves; Mendes, Josiete da Silva; Pereira, Layse Maria Leite; Cavalcante, Carlos Eduardo


    Este estudo analisa as relações interorganizacionais entre o Estado (Governo do Estado da Paraíba) e organizações não governamentais dos direitos das mulheres. Trata-se de um estudo de campo, qualitativo, descritivo usando um roteiro semi-estruturado e análise de conteúdo categórico. As categorias de análise são: rede de valor de ONG e o modelo de PARTS (jogadores, valores adicionais, regras, táticas e escopo). Também foi avaliada a influência da criação da Secretaria de Estado das Mulheres e...



    Assaid Dermínio, Marina


    Este trabalho tem por objetivo abordar as variações fonéticas (sotaque) da língua portuguesa, especificamente, no estado de Minas Gerais- Brasil. O estudo mostra que devido à localização geográfica dentro do território brasileiro, o sotaque dos falantes varia de acordo com a região, haja vista que o estado de Minas Gerais faz fronteira com mais seis outros estados, sendo eles: Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, e Espírito Santo. O trabalho abordará o fato de que cada...

  19. Crustal Structure of the Tengchong Intra-plate Volcanic Area (United States)

    Qian, Rongyi; Tong, Vincent C. H.


    We here provide an overview of our current understanding of the crustal structure of Tengchong in southwest China, a key intra-plate volcanic area along the Himalayan geothermal belt. Given that there is hitherto a lack of information about the near-surface structure of intra-plate volcanic areas, we present the first seismic reflection and velocity constraints on the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanoes. Our near-surface seismic images reveal the existence of dome-shaped seismic reflectors (DSRs) in the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanic clusters in Tengchong. The two DSRs are both ~2 km wide, and the shallowest parts of the DSRs are found at the depth of 200-300 m. The velocity model shows that the shallow low-velocity layer (<4 km/s) is anomalously thick (~1 km) in the region where the DSRs are observed. The presence of DSRs indicates significant levels of intra-plate magmatism beneath the along-axis gap separating two volcano clusters. Along-axis gaps between volcano clusters are therefore not necessarily an indicator of lower levels of magmatism. The seismic images obtained in this technically challenging area for controlled-source seismology allow us to conclude that shallow crustal structures are crucial for understanding the along-axis variations of magmatism and hydrothermal activities in intra-plate volcanic areas.

  20. Constraining Transient Climate Sensitivity Using Coupled Climate Model Simulations of Volcanic Eruptions

    KAUST Repository

    Merlis, Timothy M.; Held, Isaac M.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Zeng, Fanrong; Horowitz, Larry W.


    Coupled climate model simulations of volcanic eruptions and abrupt changes in CO2 concentration are compared in multiple realizations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The change in global-mean surface temperature (GMST) is analyzed to determine whether a fast component of the climate sensitivity of relevance to the transient climate response (TCR; defined with the 1%yr-1 CO2-increase scenario) can be estimated from shorter-time-scale climate changes. The fast component of the climate sensitivity estimated from the response of the climate model to volcanic forcing is similar to that of the simulations forced by abrupt CO2 changes but is 5%-15% smaller than the TCR. In addition, the partition between the top-of-atmosphere radiative restoring and ocean heat uptake is similar across radiative forcing agents. The possible asymmetry between warming and cooling climate perturbations, which may affect the utility of volcanic eruptions for estimating the TCR, is assessed by comparing simulations of abrupt CO2 doubling to abrupt CO2 halving. There is slightly less (~5%) GMST change in 0.5 × CO2 simulations than in 2 × CO2 simulations on the short (~10 yr) time scales relevant to the fast component of the volcanic signal. However, inferring the TCR from volcanic eruptions is more sensitive to uncertainties from internal climate variability and the estimation procedure. The response of the GMST to volcanic eruptions is similar in GFDL CM2.1 and GFDL Climate Model, version 3 (CM3), even though the latter has a higher TCR associated with a multidecadal time scale in its response. This is consistent with the expectation that the fast component of the climate sensitivity inferred from volcanic eruptions is a lower bound for the TCR.

  1. Constraining Transient Climate Sensitivity Using Coupled Climate Model Simulations of Volcanic Eruptions

    KAUST Repository

    Merlis, Timothy M.


    Coupled climate model simulations of volcanic eruptions and abrupt changes in CO2 concentration are compared in multiple realizations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The change in global-mean surface temperature (GMST) is analyzed to determine whether a fast component of the climate sensitivity of relevance to the transient climate response (TCR; defined with the 1%yr-1 CO2-increase scenario) can be estimated from shorter-time-scale climate changes. The fast component of the climate sensitivity estimated from the response of the climate model to volcanic forcing is similar to that of the simulations forced by abrupt CO2 changes but is 5%-15% smaller than the TCR. In addition, the partition between the top-of-atmosphere radiative restoring and ocean heat uptake is similar across radiative forcing agents. The possible asymmetry between warming and cooling climate perturbations, which may affect the utility of volcanic eruptions for estimating the TCR, is assessed by comparing simulations of abrupt CO2 doubling to abrupt CO2 halving. There is slightly less (~5%) GMST change in 0.5 × CO2 simulations than in 2 × CO2 simulations on the short (~10 yr) time scales relevant to the fast component of the volcanic signal. However, inferring the TCR from volcanic eruptions is more sensitive to uncertainties from internal climate variability and the estimation procedure. The response of the GMST to volcanic eruptions is similar in GFDL CM2.1 and GFDL Climate Model, version 3 (CM3), even though the latter has a higher TCR associated with a multidecadal time scale in its response. This is consistent with the expectation that the fast component of the climate sensitivity inferred from volcanic eruptions is a lower bound for the TCR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moran Leal


    Full Text Available A finales de la década de los 70 empieza a manifestarse en Venezuela la crisis del modelo de desarrollo, consistente en una grave situación económica, un gran déficit fiscal, problemas de gobernabilidad, así como elementos de fragmentación social, agudizados en la década de los 90 por los programas de estabilización económica. Por ello, desde 1984 se inicia el proceso de reforma del Estado, cuyos factores predominantes han sido la modernización política, la descentralización, la disminución del Estado social y los requerimientos de una mayor participación de la sociedad civil. Dentro del proceso de descentralización, iniciado en 1989, las gobernaciones promueven políticas de apoyo a las organizaciones de la economía social. El presente trabajo pretende caracterizar la política de la gobernación del estado Zulia dirigida a ese sector durante el periodo 1989-2000, a partir del enfoque de las políticas públicas, con una perspectiva crítico-descriptiva del proceso, por tratarse de una primera aproximación al objeto de estudio. Se construye un enfoque operativo sobre la definición de la economía social, su papel y su significación en los procesos de formulación económica y redefinición del Estado. Se avanza en la caracterización de las organizaciones estudiadas (microempresas, cooperativas y organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONGs, para luego puntualizar las estrategias políticas de los gobiernos. Se concluye, de manera parcial, en la descripción del proceso de formulación de políticas, donde ha predominado la visión utilitaria del sector, sin trascender los procesos organizativos reales que impulsen de manera significativa a estas organizaciones, para que impacten en la economía regional y nacional.

  3. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.


    Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt ( - 8 to 10 - 10 as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes

  4. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.


    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  5. Deuterium values from volcanic glass: A paleoelevation proxy for Oregon's Cascade Range (United States)

    Carlson, T. B.; Bershaw, J. T.


    Hydrated volcanic glass has been used as a proxy to constrain Cenozoic paleoclimate across many of the world's mountain ranges. However, there are concerns that volcanic glass may not preserve the isotopic composition of syndepositional meteoric water. The Cascades are an excellent location to study the validity of hydrated volcanic glass as a paleoenvironmental proxy for several reasons. Moisture is derived from a single oceanic source and falls as orographic precipitation in the Cascades, leading to a characteristic altitude effect, or inverse relationship between elevation and the isotopic composition of meteoric water (δD). In addition, past studies have inferred uplift of the Cascades and an increase in the rain shadow effect since the Eocene through independent methods such as changing fossil assemblages, and other isotopic proxies including carbonates and fossil teeth. In this study, δD values of two hydrated tuff samples are compared: one prior to ( 29 Ma) and one following ( 5 Ma) the onset of High Cascade volcanism. The isotopic composition of these samples are interpreted in the context of modern water across the range to understand the potential of volcanic glass as a proxy for paleoelevation in the Pacific Northwest.

  6. Visualizing Volcanic Clouds in the Atmosphere and Their Impact on Air Traffic. (United States)

    Gunther, Tobias; Schulze, Maik; Friederici, Anke; Theisel, Holger


    Volcanic eruptions are not only hazardous in the direct vicinity of a volcano, but they also affect the climate and air travel for great distances. This article sheds light on the Grímsvötn, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, and Nabro eruptions in 2011. The authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of Nabro's sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. The results here were developed for the 2014 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest, which centers around the fusion of multiple satellite data modalities to reconstruct and assess the movement of volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol emissions. Using data from three volcanic eruptions that occurred in the span of approximately three weeks, the authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. This video provides animations of the reconstructed ash clouds.

  7. Relocating San Miguel Volcanic Seismic Events for Receiver Functions and Tomographic Models (United States)

    Patlan, E.; Velasco, A. A.; Konter, J.


    The San Miguel volcano lies near the city of San Miguel, El Salvador (13.43N and -88.26W). San Miguel volcano, an active stratovolcano, presents a significant natural hazard for the city of San Miguel. Furthermore, the internal state and activity of volcanoes remains an important component to understanding volcanic hazard. The main technology for addressing volcanic hazards and processes is through the analysis of data collected from the deployment of seismic sensors that record ground motion. Six UTEP seismic stations were deployed around San Miguel volcano from 2007-2008 to define the magma chamber and assess the seismic and volcanic hazard. We utilize these data to develop images of the earth structure beneath the volcano, studying the volcanic processes by identifying different sources, and investigating the role of earthquakes and faults in controlling the volcanic processes. We will calculate receiver functions to determine the thickness of San Miguel volcano internal structure, within the Caribbean plate. Crustal thicknesses will be modeled using calculated receiver functions from both theoretical and hand-picked P-wave arrivals. We will use this information derived from receiver functions, along with P-wave delay times, to map the location of the magma chamber.

  8. Linking Volcanism and Gas Release from the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province to the PETM: Challenges and Updates (United States)

    Svensen, H.; Jones, M. T.; Jerram, D. A.; Planke, S.; Kjoberg, S.; Schmid, D. W.; Iyer, K.; Tegner, C.


    The main phase of the development of the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province took place about 56 Ma and coincides with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The volcanic activity was characterized by voluminous flood basalts, large plutonic complexes, sub-marine eruptions, widespread tephra deposition, and emplacement of sills and dikes along the continental margins of Norway, Greenland, Ireland, and the UK. Here we review the style and tempo of volcanism during this important period of Earth's history and discuss the sources and volumes of the carbon gases emitted to the ocean and atmosphere. Moreover, we present new data and models from 1) West Greenland showing the impact on sill intrusions on gas generation from heated Cretaceous mudstones, 2) a 3D seismic survey of gas release structures offshore Norway, and 3) Paleocene-Eocene tephra layers from Svalbard and Denmark. Gas migrated out of the contact aureoles by either explosive venting or by slower seepage towards the seafloor as demonstrated by 3D seismic data. Some of the gas was permanently trapped (dry gas and CO2-rich gas) in the source rocks and aureoles. Combined with high-precision zircon ages and a time model for the PETM, our approach may give robust fluxes that can explain both the onset and the body of the PETM.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kite, E. S.; Manga, M.; Gaidos, E.


    We provide estimates of volcanism versus time for planets with Earth-like composition and masses 0.25-25 M + , as a step toward predicting atmospheric mass on extrasolar rocky planets. Volcanism requires melting of the silicate mantle. We use a thermal evolution model, calibrated against Earth, in combination with standard melting models, to explore the dependence of convection-driven decompression mantle melting on planet mass. We show that (1) volcanism is likely to proceed on massive planets with plate tectonics over the main-sequence lifetime of the parent star; (2) crustal thickness (and melting rate normalized to planet mass) is weakly dependent on planet mass; (3) stagnant lid planets live fast (they have higher rates of melting than their plate tectonic counterparts early in their thermal evolution), but die young (melting shuts down after a few Gyr); (4) plate tectonics may not operate on high-mass planets because of the production of buoyant crust which is difficult to subduct; and (5) melting is necessary but insufficient for efficient volcanic degassing-volatiles partition into the earliest, deepest melts, which may be denser than the residue and sink to the base of the mantle on young, massive planets. Magma must also crystallize at or near the surface, and the pressure of overlying volatiles must be fairly low, if volatiles are to reach the surface. If volcanism is detected in the 10 Gyr-old τ Ceti system, and tidal forcing can be shown to be weak, this would be evidence for plate tectonics.

  10. Volcanoes of México: An Interactive CD-ROM From the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Kimberly, P.; Calvin, C.; Luhr, J. F.; Kysar, G.


    The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program is nearing completion of an interactive CD-ROM, the Volcanoes of México. This CD is the second in a series sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies to collate Smithsonian data on Quaternary volcanism as a resource for the geothermal community. It also has utility for those concerned with volcanic hazard and risk mitgation as well as an educational tool for those interested in Mexican volcanism. We acknowledge the significant contributions of many Mexican volcanologists to the eruption reports, data, and images contained in this CD, in particular those contributions of the Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), the Colima Volcano Observatory of the University of Colima, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Volcanoes of México CD has a format similar to that of an earlier Smithsonian CD, the Volcanoes of Indonesia, but also shows Pleistocene volcanic centers and additional data on geothermal sites. A clickable map of México shows both Holocene and Pleistocene volcanic centers and provides access to individual pages on 67 volcanoes ranging from Cerro Prieto in Baja California to Tacaná on the Guatemalan border. These include geographic and geologic data on individual volcanoes (as well as a brief paragraph summarizing the geologic history) along with tabular eruption chronologies, eruptive characteristics, and eruptive volumes, when known. Volcano data are accessible from both geographical and alphabetical searches. A major component of the CD is more than 400 digitized images illustrating the morphology of volcanic centers and eruption processes and deposits, providing a dramatic visual primer to the country's volcanoes. Images of specific eruptions can be directly linked to from the eruption chronology tables. The Volcanoes of México CD includes monthly reports and associated figures and tables cataloging volcanic activity in M

  11. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity (United States)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil


    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  12. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo


    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  13. Estado del bienestar y salud pública, una relación que debe ser actualizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Benavides


    Full Text Available La salud de las personas ha mejorado a lo largo del siglo xx, al mismo tiempo que se consolidaba el Estado del bienestar. Este trabajo explora la relación actual del Estado del bienestar y la salud pública. Las funciones esenciales de la salud pública se ejercen como parte del Estado, y su principal reto en la actualidad es conseguir que la salud sea protegida y promocionada en las diferentes políticas públicas, entre otras las de empleo. Los resultados de los estudios que valoran el efecto sobre la salud de los distintos tipos de Estado del bienestar son contradictorios, pero cuando se valora el impacto de políticas concretas, como por ejemplo el subsidio de desempleo, los resultados son positivos y consistentes. Sin embargo, la actual crisis del Estado del bienestar dificulta su continuidad, en gran medida por los cambios en el mercado de trabajo, con empleos más flexibles e inseguros.

  14. A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.


    The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2) and toxic trace metals (e.g., mercury). It is also a required input for atmospheric chemistry and climate models, since it impacts the tropospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, a major climate-forcing species. Despite its significance, an inventory of passive volcanic degassing is very difficult to produce, due largely to the patchy spatial and temporal coverage of ground-based SO2 measurements. We report here the first volcanic SO2 emissions inventory derived from global, coincident satellite measurements, made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite in 2005-2015. The OMI measurements permit estimation of SO2 emissions from over 90 volcanoes, including new constraints on fluxes from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. On average over the past decade, the volcanic SO2 sources consistently detected from space have discharged a total of ~63 kt/day SO2 during passive degassing, or ~23 ± 2 Tg/yr. We find that ~30% of the sources show significant decadal trends in SO2 emissions, with positive trends observed at multiple volcanoes in some regions including Vanuatu, southern Japan, Peru and Chile.

  15. Geologic Mapping, Volcanic Stages and Magmatic Processes in Hawaiian Volcanoes (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.


    The concept of volcanic stages arose from geologic mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes. Subaerial Hawaiian lava successions can be divided generally into three constructional phases: an early (shield) stage dominated by thin-bedded basaltic lava flows commonly associated with a caldera; a later (postshield) stage with much thicker bedded, generally lighter colored lava flows commonly containing clinopyroxene; calderas are absent in this later stage. Following periods of quiescence of a half million years or more, some Hawaiian volcanoes have experienced renewed (rejuvenated) volcanism. Geological and petrographic relations irrespective of chemical composition led to the identification of mappable units on Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii, which form the basis for this 3-fold division of volcanic activity. Chemical data have complicated the picture. There is a growing tendency to assign volcanic stage based on lava chemistry, principally alkalicity, into tholeiitic shield, alkalic postshield, and silica undersaturated rejuvenation, despite the evidence for interbedded tholeiitic and alkalic basalts in many shield formations, and the presence of mildly tholeiitic lavas in some postshield and rejuvenation formations. A consistent characteristic of lava compositions from most postshield formations is evidence for post-melting evolution at moderately high pressures (3-7 kb). Thus, the mapped shield to postshield transitions primarily reflect the disappearance of shallow magma chambers (and associated calderas) in Hawaiian volcanoes, not the earlier (~100 ka earlier in Waianae Volcano) decline in partial melting that leads to the formation of alkalic parental magmas. Petrological signatures of high-pressure evolution are high-temperature crystallization of clinopyroxene and delayed crystallization of plagioclase, commonly to <3 % MgO. Petrologic modeling using pMELTS and MELTS algorithms allows for quantification of the melting and fractionation conditions giving

  16. Using Digital Cameras to Detect Warning Signs of Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Girona, T.; Huber, C.; Trinh, K. T.; Protti, M.; Pacheco, J. F.


    Monitoring volcanic outgassing is fundamental to improve the forecasting of volcanic eruptions. Recent efforts have led to the advent of new methods to measure the concentration and flux of volcanic gases with unprecedented temporal resolution, thus allowing us to obtain reliable high-frequency (up to 1 Hz) time series of outgassing activity. These high-frequency methods have shown that volcanic outgassing can be periodic sometimes (with periodicities ranging from 101 s to 103 s), although it remains unknown whether the spectral features of outgassing reflect the processes that ultimately trigger volcanic unrest and eruptions. In this study, we explore the evolution of the spectral content of the outgassing activity of Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) using digital images (with digital brightness as a proxy for the emissions of water vapor [Girona et al., 2015]). Images were taken at 1 km distance with 1 Hz sampling rate, and the time period analyzed (from April 2016 to April 2017) is characterized by episodes of quiescent outgassing, ash explosions, and sporadic eruptions of ballistics. Our preliminary results show that: 1) quiescent states of Turrialba volcano are characterized by outgassing frequency spectra with fractal distribution; 2) superimposed onto the fractal frequency spectra, well-defined pulses with period around 100 s emerge hours to days before some of the eruptions of ballistics. An important conclusion of this study is that digital cameras can be potentially used in real-time volcano monitoring to detect warning signs of eruptions, as well as to better understand subsurface processes and track the changing conditions below volcanic craters. Our ongoing study also explores the correlation between the evolution of the spectral content of outgassing, infrasound data, and shallow seismicity. Girona, T., F. Costa, B. Taisne, B. Aggangan, and S. Ildefonso (2015), Fractal degassing from Erebus and Mayon volcanoes revealed by a new method to monitor H2O

  17. El gasto militar en el Estado de Bolívar 1859-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Pardo Bueno


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo, estudio la evolución del gasto militar en el Estado de Bolívar, entre los años de 1859 y 1886, durante los gobiernos del liberalismo radical en los Estados Unidos de Colombia. Para ello, compilé a través de la Gaceta de Bolívar y otros documentos oficiales, los presupuestos públicos anuales del Estado, centrando mi interés en analizar el gasto en el departamento administrativo de la milicia. Mi objetivo principal es mostrar, cómo las políticas del liberalismo radical se enfocaron en la descentralización fiscal y militar, con el fin de fortalecer a los poderes locales, cediéndole a las élites regionales el control y la administración de los recursos del Estado de Bolívar y de su milicia. Para lograr este objetivo, indagué por las formas de financiación de la milicia del Estado y los gastos internos para su funcionamiento, dando cuenta de la escasa partida presupuestal para pagar sueldos, material de guerra, educación y sanidad militar, lo que conllevó a que en la práctica la milicia estatal reclamara de la sociedad a través de recursos privados, las expropiaciones y los empréstitos, los rubros necesarios para su organización y funcionamiento.

  18. Karl Marx vis-à-vis Max Weber: perspectiva comparada das visões acerca do Estado

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    Felippe Ramos


    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a distinção analítica entre Marx e Weber, em relação ao tema do Estado. A hipótese é de que ambos os autores, a despeito do que pode parecer à primeira vista, estavam imbuídos da impossibilidade de um Estado impessoal, o que remete, em última instância, à politização do Estado. O que parece claro na visão de Marx é, contudo, obscurecido pela construção metodológica (e epistemológica de Weber, com base na busca constante da objetividade do conhecimento, a partir de uma ciência que se afasta do engajamento político e da importância das categorias analíticas da burocracia e racionalização. Essa dificuldade de construir uma análise crítica da proposta weberiana pode ser esclarecida, contudo, constituindo uma análise do Estado, em oposição à esfera de legitimação do Estado moderno que se encontra claramente na burocracia, cuja característica maior é a impessoalidade, a partir da descrição de suas instâncias de decisão – um elemento político sobre a burocracia. A análise marxiana do Estado classista, por sua vez, também precisa ter suas nuances analisadas de acordo com o próprio amadurecimento teórico do autor, que, em suas obras de análise de eventos históricos escritas tardiamente, torna complexa a classificação do Estado, demonstrando suas aporias e disputas internas, para além de sua visão inicialmente instrumental do Estado.

  19. La Percepción como un Estado Pseudo-Onírico Modulado por los Sentidos

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    Rodolfo R. Llinás


    Full Text Available

    Un punto fundamental en nuestra apreciación de la función del sistema nervioso central concierne las similitudes y diferencias que existen entre el estado de vigilia y el estado de ensueños. Efectivamente, desde el punto de vista del sistema tálamo cortical estos dos estados tienen un mecanismo de implementación intrínseco común y por lo tanto pueden considerarse, en ese sentido, como fundamentalmente equivalentes.

    Si se demuestra que el estado de vigilia es el producto de un mecanismo funcional intrínseco y fundamentalmente cerrado, como lo es el estado de ensueños, las implicaciones de tal hipótesis serían de gran trascendencia. Si tal fuere el caso, la principal diferencia entre el estado de ensueño y el de vigilia estaría dada por el grado de modulación que, a tal estado, le proporciona la activación sensorial.

    El estado de vigilia y los ensueños
    Los ensueños generalmente ocurren durante la etapa del “sueño paradójico” que se caracteriza por la aparición de atonía muscular y de movimientos oculares rápidos (rapid eye movements, o REM, de donde se deriva el nombre alterno de “sueño REM”. Sujetos despertados durante el sueño REM indican, con frecuencia, que estaban soñando y por lo tanto el sueño REM se usa como sinónimo para el estado de ensueños. Una de las diferencias más notorias entre los estados de vigilia y el de ensueños reside en el hecho, conocido universalmente, que la estimulación sensorial no genera, en el estado de ensueños, las consecuencias cognoscitivas que se encuentran en el estado de vigilia. Con respecto a las otras etapas del sueño, el sueño REM difiere de las otras etapas en que los umbrales sensoriales para el despertar son los más altos, salvo en la etapa IV2,3o de sueño más profundo.

    De interés aquí es el hallazgo de los potenciales evocados que se registran sobre el cráneo a estímulo sensorial durante el estado de vigilia y el

  20. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory: new capabilities for monitoring of volcanic activity at Canary Islands (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Vélez, E. J.; Soler, V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.


    The volcanic island of Lanzarote is located at the northeastern end of the Canary Islands. Together with Fuerteventura Island, Lanzarote constitutes the emergent part of the East Canary Ridge, which presents a NNE-SSW volcanic alignment. Last eruptive events took place in 1824 and during the period 1730-1736, which is the largest to occur in the archipelago and throw out about 1.3 km3 of volcanic materials. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory (LGL) was created in 1986 with the idea of making Lanzarote as a natural laboratory to carry out studies in order to acquire more knowledge about its origin, present status and evolution (Vieira et al., 1991; 2006). The LGL has a multidisciplinary scientific purpose and, among others, various objectives are devoted to investigate mass distribution in the Earth system and surface displacements associated to volcanic and/or seismic activity in the island. The influence of LGL is extended throughout the whole geographical area of Lanzarote, including small islands located at the north. The laboratory has 3 observing modules distributed along the island according to its infrastructure and scientific objectives, where more than 70 sensors are recording continuously gravity variations, ground deformations, sea level, seismic activity, meteorological parameters, etc. All these observations are supplemented by periodic measurement of geodetic and geophysical networks that allow us to make studies at local, insular and regional scales. The application of geodetic and geophysical techniques to identify geodynamic signals related to volcanic processes is then a permanent research activity of the laboratory. Nowadays, this fact becomes more interesting due to the ongoing volcanic eruption that is taking place in other island of the Canary Archipelago, El Hierro, since past July 2011. That is, the multidisciplinary research carry on up to now at the LGL allow us to apply multiparameter observations of different kinds of volcanic

  1. Ingresos laborales en México y Estados Unidos para migrantes temporales

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    Jaime LARA LARA


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es conocer el efecto de los ingresos laborales antes de la migración en los ingresos obtenidos por los migrantes en la economía de destino para el caso de los migrantes temporales mexicanos hacia Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron datos de la encuesta Emif Norte entre 1999 y 2009. Se observa una alta movilidad absoluta y relativa. Los ingresos por hora se multiplican por un factor de cuatro en la economía de destino, mientras que el efecto de un incremento de 10 por ciento en los ingresos en México aumenta en menos de uno por ciento los ingresos en Estados Unidos. Los resultados muestran que los ingresos laborales en México tienen poco poder predictivo en el desempeño laboral de los migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos.

  2. Nuevas políticas sociales y Estado social relacional.

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    Full Text Available Según el autor, las sociedades europeas siguen inspirando las políticas sociales en un código (estatal de inclusión ?al que aquí se denomina lib/lab (mezcla de liberalismo y laborismo? que en el pasado ha constituido un factor de progreso, pero que actualmente resulta cada vez más débil y obsoleto. Las políticas sociales encuentran límites estructurales en sus posibilidades de innovación porque están formuladas como compromisos entre Estado y mercado, utilizando al sector terciario para remediar los fracasos de los otros dos sectores. De hecho, los sistemas sociales gobernados por lógicas lib/lab se encaminan a una crisis irreversible. El documento ilustra las nuevas tendencias de configuración de las políticas sociales, que aquí se denominan "societarias ". Se caracterizan por dos novedades principales: primero, por el hecho de que confían la inclusión social a una ciudadanía compleja (concebida como entrelazamiento de ciudadanía estatal y ciudadanía societaria, en la cual poseen un papel primordial los sujetos colectivos de la sociedad civil; segundo, porque definen el Bienestar, los servicios y los derechos sociales mediante un código simbólico de tipo relacional. En términos de orden institucional, se trata de pasar a un "cuarto modelo de Estado del Bienestar", es decir, a un Estado social de cuarta generación, después de haber dejado atrás el paternalista, el asistencial y el intervencionista. El autor lo denomina Estado social relacional.

  3. Conexões transnacionais entre as mulheres de direita Brasil, Chile e Estados Unidos

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    Margaret Power


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância transnacional dos movimentos de mulheres contra João Goulart, no Brasil, e contra Salvador Allende, no Chile, e o impacto que tiveram sobre as mulheres conservadoras dos Estados Unidos. Para tanto, examina a ampla cobertura que a mídia, nos Estados Unidos, deu aos movimentos dessas mulheres, assim como as visitas que as mulheres anti-Goulart fizeram aos Estados Unidos após o golpe militar brasileiro de 1964. Ele explora vários casos em que mulheres conservadoras brasileiras e chilenas partilharam suas experiências e suas vitórias políticas com as mulheres da América do Norte, que, por sua vez, foram inspiradas por elas. O artigo desafia a literatura acerca das mulheres de direita nos Estados Unidos, que tem ignorado o impacto que as mulheres conservadoras do Brasil ou do Chile tiveram sobre os movimentos desse país.

  4. Ejection age of volcano rocks and trend of volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Keiichi


    This report is II-7 of an interim report on research and development of the Sunshine Project for 1986. This report considers on the trend of volcanic activities in the South of Kyushu area. K-Ar age measurement was newly made and reported. Age values obtained were 1.09 plus minus 0.21 Ma for Nagaoyama andesite, 1.33 plus minus 0.18 Ma for Nozato andesite, and 0.3 plus minus 0.1 Ma for Imuta volcanos. Including these age values, from the age values and their distribution of the volcanic rocks in the South Kyushu district, the following three districts were selected to represent the volcanic activities since the Pliocene Epoch. As these districts are mutually overwrapped, verification at these overwrapped districts are necessary. (4 figs, 1 tab, 12 refs)

  5. The InVEST Volcanic Concept Survey: Exploring Student Understanding about Volcanoes (United States)

    Parham, Thomas L., Jr.; Cervato, Cinzia; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Larsen, Michael; Hobbs, Jon; Stelling, Pete; Greenbowe, Thomas; Gupta, Tanya; Knox, John A.; Gill, Thomas E.


    Results from the Volcanic Concept Survey (VCS) indicated that many undergraduates do not fully understand volcanic systems and plate tectonics. During the 2006 academic year, a ten-item conceptual survey was distributed to undergraduate students enrolled in Earth science courses at five U.S. colleges and universities. A trained team of graders…

  6. Exploración conceptual de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado frente al desplazamiento forzado.


    López-Martínez, Miguel-Andrés


    El propósito central de la propuesta de investigación es responder a la siguiente pregunta: ¿la proliferación de respuestas teóricas al desplazamiento forzado, impulsada con la declaratoria del estado de cosas inconstitucional (ECI) en 2004, generó algún cambio en el paradigma de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado (REPE), que orientó al Consejo de Estado al definir la responsabilidad de las autoridades por desplazamiento forzado (DEFO), entre 2004 y 2010? Para lograrlo, comenzamos por ...

  7. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni


    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.

  8. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni


    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Valentine; F.V. Perry; S. Dartevelle


    Risk is the product of the probability and consequences of an event. Both of these must be based upon sound science that integrates field data, experiments, and modeling, but must also be useful to decision makers who likely do not understand all aspects of the underlying science. We review a decision framework used in many fields such as performance assessment for hazardous and/or radioactive waste disposal sites that can serve to guide the volcanological community towards integrated risk assessment. In this framework the underlying scientific understanding of processes that affect probability and consequences drive the decision-level results, but in turn these results can drive focused research in areas that cause the greatest level of uncertainty at the decision level. We review two examples of the determination of volcanic event probability: (1) probability of a new volcano forming at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and (2) probability that a subsurface repository in Japan would be affected by the nearby formation of a new stratovolcano. We also provide examples of work on consequences of explosive eruptions, within the framework mentioned above. These include field-based studies aimed at providing data for ''closure'' of wall rock erosion terms in a conduit flow model, predictions of dynamic pressure and other variables related to damage by pyroclastic flow into underground structures, and vulnerability criteria for structures subjected to conditions of explosive eruption. Process models (e.g., multiphase flow) are important for testing the validity or relative importance of possible scenarios in a volcanic risk assessment. We show how time-dependent multiphase modeling of explosive ''eruption'' of basaltic magma into an open tunnel (drift) at the Yucca Mountain repository provides insight into proposed scenarios that include the development of secondary pathways to the Earth's surface. Addressing volcanic risk within a decision

  10. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes. (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B


    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  11. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Heemink, A.; Lu, S.; Segers, A.; Weber, K.; Lin, H.X.


    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain,

  12. Estado, mujeres y género : discursos que construyen identidades


    Villamediana Carro, Virginia Patricia


    La problemática central que planteo en esta investigación es que los discursos de género de las personas que laboran para el estado pueden influir en la construcción de identidades de género que ayuden a ratificar o a modificar estereotipos discriminatorios. Las visiones hegemónicas de cómo “deben” ser los sujetos son transmitidas en una relación educacional desde las instancias de poder a la sociedad civil (Gramsci, 1971: 350); entre estas instancias se encuentran: el estado, la iglesia, el...

  13. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias


    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  14. Spain as an emergency air traffic hub during volcanic air fall events? Evidence of past volcanic ash air fall over Europe during the late Pleistocene (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Ortiz, José E.; Torres, Trino; Lowe, John J.; Menzies, Martin A.


    Past volcanic eruptions often leave visible ash layers in the geological record, for example in marine or lake sedimentary sequences. Recent developments, however, have shown that non-visible volcanic ash layers are also commonly preserved in sedimentary deposits. These augment the record of past volcanic events by demonstrating that past ash dispersals have been more numerous and widely disseminated in Europe than previously appreciated. The dispersal ‘footprints' of some large late Pleistocene European eruptions are examined here in the light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For example, the Vedde Ash which was erupted from Iceland around 12 thousand years ago, delivered distal (and non-visible) glass deposits as far south as Switzerland and as far east as the Ural Mountains in Russia, with an overall European distribution remarkably similar to the dominant tracks of the recent Eyjafjallajökull plumes. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption has demonstrated that relatively small amounts of distal volcanic ash in the atmosphere can seriously disrupt aviation activity, with attendant economic and other consequences. It has raised fundamental questions about the likelihood of larger or more prolonged volcanic activity in the near future, and the possibility of even more serious consequences than those experienced recently. Given that there are several other volcanic centres that could cause such disruption in Europe (e.g. Campania and other volcanic centres in Italy; Aegean volcanoes), a key question is whether there are parts of Europe less prone to ash plumes and which could therefore operate as emergency air traffic hubs during times of ash dispersal. Although not generated to answer this question, the recent geological record might provide a basis for seeking the answer. For example, four palaeo-records covering the time frame of 8 - 40 Ka BP that are geographically distributed across Spain have been examined for non-visible distal ash content. All four have

  15. Espiritismo: Educação e Estado Laico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cesar Isaia


    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca o posicionamento do discurso espírita francês do século XIX frente à educação. O discurso espírita é enfocado a partir de fontes históricas organizacionais, importantes para a compreensão da sua importância frente a outros agentes produtores de significados sociais, como o estado e as demais religiões. O posicionamento do Espiritismo francês frente à educação é enfocado relacionando-o com sua luta pela laicização do estado e da sociedade na França do período pós-revolucionário. Desta forma vamos encontrar um posicionamento não apenas favorável à laicização, mas que, principalmente a partir da segunda metade do século XIX, vai estreitar laços com os adversários da Igreja Católica. A questão era a luta contra o papel ainda de destaque da Igreja Católica no terreno educacional, mesmo no período pós-revolucionário. De maneira saliente vamos ter a relação entre Espiritismo e Maçonaria, ambos defendendo um estado, uma sociedade e uma educação laica para a França.

  16. Sediment transport dynamics in steep, tropical volcanic catchments (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Solano Rivera, Vanessa; Granados Bolaños, Sebastian; Brenes Cambronero, Liz; Sánchez Murillo, Ricardo; Geris, Josie


    How volcanic landforms in tropical mountainous regions are eroded, and how eroded materials move through these mostly steep landscapes from the headwaters to affect sediment fluxes are critical to water resources management in their downstream rivers. Volcanic landscapes are of particular importance because of the short timescales (transform. Owing to volcanism and seismic activity, landslides and other mass movements frequently occur. These processes are amplified by high intensity precipitation inputs resulting in significant, but natural runoff, erosion and sediment fluxes. Sediment transport is also directly linked to carbon and solute export. However, knowledge on the sediment sources and transport dynamics in the humid tropics remains limited and their fluxes largely unquantified. In order to increase our understanding of the dominant erosion and sediment transport dynamics in humid tropical volcanic landscapes, we conducted an extensive monitoring effort in a pristine and protected (biological reserve Alberto Manuel Brenes, ReBAMB) tropical forest catchment (3.2 km2), located in the Central Volcanic Cordillera of Costa Rica (Figure 1A). Typical for tropical volcanic and montane regions, deeply incised V-form headwaters (Figure 1B) deliver the majority of water (>70%) and sediments to downstream rivers. At the catchment outlet (Figure 1C) of the San Lorencito stream, we established high temporal resolution (5min) water quantity and sediment monitoring (turbidity). We also surveyed the river network on various occasions to characterize fluvial geomorphology including material properties. We could show that the rainfall-runoff-sediment relationships and their characteristic hysteresis patterns are directly linked to variations in the climatic input (storm intensity and duration) and the size, form and mineralogy of the transported material. Such a relationship allowed us to gain the following insights: (i) periodic landslides contribute significant volumes of

  17. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.


    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  18. Shock Deformation and Volcanism across the Cretaceous - Transition. (United States)

    Huffman, Alan Royce


    The cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) transition remains one of the most controversial scientific topics in the geosciences. Geological and geophysical evidence associated with the K/T boundary have been used to argue that the extinctions were caused by meteor impact or volcanism. The goal of this study was to assess the viability of a volcanic model for the K/T transition. Comparison of natural and experimentally-shocked quartz and feldspar using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the optical and statistical character of shock-induced microstructures in volcanic rocks are different from both classic impact microstructures, and from the Raton K/T samples. A series of 31 high-explosive (HE) shock-recovery experiments at pressures to 25 GPa and temperatures to 750^circC were completed on samples of granite and quartzite. TEM and optical microscopy reveal that pre-shock temperature and pulse duration have a first-order effect on the development of shock-induced microstructures in quartz and feldspar. Application of the experimental results to natural shock-induced microstructures indicates that the volcanic microstructures are probably produced at elevated temperatures and shock pressures that do not exceed 15 GPa. The results also suggest that the Raton K/T deposits were produced at pressures below about 25 GPa. Analysis of samples from the K/T transition at DSDP Site 527 and correlations between biostratigraphy, isotopes, and the data from this study suggest that the decline in marine productivity over an extended period of time may be due to climate changes induced by basaltic volcanism. The eruption of the Deccan Traps is a viable mechanism for the K/T extinctions, and the correlation of flood basalts with every major biotic crisis in the last 250 Ma supports the link between these two phenomena. Eruption of flood basalts enriched in F, Cl, CO_2 , and SO_2, could disrupt the terrestrial ecosystem, and could produce effects

  19. A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari


    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowsto