WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatiles production smell

  1. Volatile S-nitrosothiols and the typical smell of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-03-09

    An unconventional approach to investigations into the identification of typical volatile emissions during illnesses gives rise to the proposal of a new class of cancer markers. Until now, cancer markers seem not to have been conclusively identified, though the obvious behavior of dogs points to their existence. The focus has been directed towards molecules containing sulfurous functionalities. Among such compounds, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are known to be involved in important physiological processes in living organisms and they are described as being typically elevated in cancer. Volatile SNOs (vSNOs) are proposed to be the source of the significant smell of cancer. Synthetic vSNOs are known to have lifetimes of between some minutes and several hours, which may be the main reason as to why they have been ignored until now, and also for the inability of analytics to detect them in vivo. Based on typical structures occurring in the volatile sulfur organics being emitted from human breath, four vSNOs have been synthesized and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Simulating the relatively fatty consistency of cancer tissue by diluting the samples in n-decane, surprisingly reduces their tendency to decompose to lifetimes of weeks even at room temperature. A sniffer dog was trained with the synthetic vSNOs, and the results of the tests indicate that synthetic and cancer smells are very similar or even the same. The findings can be a clue for further target-oriented systematic optimization of existing sensitive measurement methods to prove vSNOs as cancer emissions and finally establish future methods for cancer diagnosis based on screening for this new class of volatile illness markers.

  2. Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lydia K.; Wallen, Timothy W.; Moresco, Anneke; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Drea, Christine M.

    2016-06-01

    Members of the order Carnivora rely on urinary scent signaling, particularly for communicating about reproductive parameters. Here, we describe reproductive endocrine patterns in relation to urinary olfactory cues in a vulnerable and relatively unknown viverrid—the binturong ( Arctictis binturong). Female binturongs are larger than and dominate males, and both sexes engage in glandular and urinary scent marking. Using a large ( n = 33), captive population, we collected serum samples to measure circulating sex steroids via enzyme immunoassay and urine samples to assay volatile chemicals via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male binturongs had expectedly greater androgen concentrations than did females but, more unusually, had equal estrogen concentrations, which may be linked to male deference. Males also expressed a significantly richer array of volatile chemical compounds than did females. A subset of these volatile chemicals resisted decay at ambient temperatures, potentially indicating their importance as long-lasting semiochemicals. Among these compounds was 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is typically produced at high temperatures by the Maillard reaction and is likely to be responsible for the binturong's characteristic popcorn aroma. 2-AP, the only compound expressed by all of the subjects, was found in greater abundance in males than females and was significantly and positively related to circulating androstenedione concentrations in both sexes. This unusual compound may have a more significant role in mammalian semiochemistry than previously appreciated. Based on these novel data, we suggest that hormonal action and potentially complex chemical reactions mediate communication of the binturong's signature scent and convey information about sex and reproductive state.

  3. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    their attention away from smell – as skilled inattentive noses – in order to focus on their more important work. Intruding body odours breaching the uniform ‘scentless silence’ of the environment, however, provoked explicit handlings to avoid discomfort observed in the interaction between nurses and patients...... revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell...

  4. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  5. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Smell & Taste Smell & Taste Patient Health Information News media ... passages, or, at times, brain tumors. HOW DO SMELL AND TASTE WORK? Smell and taste belong to ...

  6. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  7. Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Rice

    Full Text Available Recent U.S. legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles.

  8. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  9. Smelling Phenomenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative consciousness arises at the sensory level of olfactory processing and pervades our experience of smells to the extent that qualitative character is maintained whenever we are aware of undergoing an olfactory experience. Building upon the distinction between Access and Phenomenal Consciousness the paper offers a nuanced distinction between Awareness and Qualitative Consciousness that is applicable to olfaction in a manner that is conceptual precise and empirically viable. Mounting empirical research is offered substantiating the applicability of the distinction to olfaction and showing that olfactory qualitative-consciousness can occur without awareness, but any olfactory state that we are aware of being in is always qualitative. Evidence that olfactory sensory states have a qualitatively character in the absence of awareness derives from research on mate selection, the selection of social preference for social interaction and acquaintances, as well as the role of olfactory deficits in causing affective disorders. Furthermore, the conservation of secondary processing measures of olfactory valence during olfactory imagery experiments provides verification that olfactory awareness is always qualitatively conscious - all olfactory consciousness smells phenomenal.

  10. 石蜡产品嗅味产生的原因及对策%The Reason and Countermeasure of Smells Flavor of Paraffin Wax Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    行红淼

    2012-01-01

    随着新的全精炼石蜡国家标准的颁布实施,对生产全精炼石蜡的嗅味提出了较高要求。国内不少企业生产全精炼石蜡时,嗅味无法满足质量要求,困扰着全精炼石蜡的生产。本文对石蜡嗅味产生原因进行了分析,特别分析了减压蒸馏、溶剂精制、溶剂脱蜡、石蜡加氢等石蜡工艺生产过程对石蜡嗅味的影响,指出了调整优化方向,提出生产末端利用白土精制进一步降低石蜡嗅味的措施,达到生产全精炼石蜡的目的。%The high request of smelling of the production whole refinement paraffin wax flavor was proposed with the promulgation implementation of new whole refinement paraffin wax standard in the nation. The smell flavor of whole refine- ment paraffin wax produced by many local business enterprises can not satisfy a quality request, and perplex whole refine- ment paraffin wax production. The reason of smelling flavor of paraffin wax was analyzed, espeliaffy the effelts of decom- pression to distil, refined melting agent, the melting agent wax and paraffin wax hydrogenation, etc. on the smell flavor of paraffin wax were proposed. Throngh changing the optimization direction, using white soil at the end of production to fur- ther reduce the smell flavor to achive the aim of whole refinement paraffin wax production.

  11. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Colours of Smell

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines perfume advertising within the overall context of theoretical approaches to the study of smell. Pointing out that smell is marked by a paucity of language, it proceeds to examine how smell is represented in perfume advertisements. Based on an analysis of more than 250 ads worldwide, the paper asks if there are any consistent relations between language, colours and smell materials, as well as between models’ poses, seasons, and classes of perfume (floral, oriental, woody, a...

  13. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial...

  14. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  15. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  16. Biomass torrefaction: modeling of volatile and solid product evolution kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard B; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a kinetics model for the evolution of the volatile and solid product composition during torrefaction conditions between 200 and 300°C. Coupled to an existing two step solid mass loss kinetics mechanism, this model describes the volatile release kinetics in terms of a set of identifiable chemical components, permitting the solid product composition to be estimated by mass conservation. Results show that most of the volatiles released during the first stage include highly oxygenated species such as water, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide, while volatiles released during the second step are composed primarily of lactic acid, methanol, and acetic acid. This kinetics model will be used in the development of a model to describe reaction energy balance and heat release dynamics.

  17. Sweet Smell of Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison Abbott; 秦艳艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Our ability to smell, known as "olfaction"①, is a potent② yet often neglected player in our sensory world, and a surprising 3% of our genes are dedicated to fine-tuning its subtleties③. T he Nobel Prize committee has now honored two scientists who have done most to determine just how we recognize and differentiate the scents of roses, wines,or of good or bad meat. Their work also helps explain how an evocative④ smell can take us back to a poignant⑤ time in our lives.

  18. Yeast That Smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Y Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental mechanism of olfactory receptor activation has been conserved from yeast to humans. Engineered yeast cells can smell some of the same odorants as humans can, which makes yeast an ideal model system for studying human olfaction. Furthermore, if engineered yeast cells are incorporated into sensory arrays, they can be used as biosensors or artificial noses.Keywords: Yeast, olfactory receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, biosensor, smellReceived: 31 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 6 August 2008, Accepted: 13 August 2008, Published online: 17 August 2008

  19. Why do our feet smell?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨路晴

    2008-01-01

    Every night when we take off our socks and shoes,our feet smell(发出气味).The problem begjns when bacteria(细菌)are attracted(吸引)to the sweat on your feet and start eating it.The bacteria’s excretion(排泄物)has a strong smell.It causes your feet to smell badly.

  20. Solvent desorption dynamic headspace sampling of fermented dairy product volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed based on solvent desorption dynamic headspace analysis for the identification and relative quantification of volatiles significant to the study of fermented dairy product aroma. Descriptions of applications of this method are presented including the measurement of diacetyl and acetoin in fermented milk, the evaluation of volatile-hydrocolloid interactions in dairy-based matrices, and the identification of volatiles in cheeses for canonical discriminative analysis. Advantages of this method include rapid analysis, minimal equipment investment, and the ability to analyze samples with traditional GC split/splitless inlet systems. Limitations of this method are that the sample must be in the liquid state and the inherent analytical limitation to those compounds that do not coelute with the solvent or solvent impurity peaks.

  1. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as

  2. Volatile compounds present in traditional meat products (charqui and longaniza sausage in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in five different commercial brands of charqui and longaniza sausages. Volatile compounds were extracted from some samples headspace using solid phase microextraction (SPME. The identification and quantification were made through the gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector (GS-MS. Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified in charqui samples and thirty-two volatile compounds in longaniza sausages. The chemical groups of the volatile compounds found in both the products were: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, furans, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Significant differences were found (p<0.05 in the volatile compounds among the brands of longaniza and charqui. A characteristic volatile compounds profile was not found in the analyzed products. However, an important percentage of the volatile compounds in charqui came from the lipid oxidation. In the case of longanizas sausages, volatile compounds come mainly from the carbohydrates fermentation and spices.

  3. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets.

  4. Occurence and dietary exposure of volatile and non-volatile N-Nitrosamines in processed meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    a high level of consumer protection Denmark obtains National low limits of the nitrite use in meat products. An estimation of the dietary exposure to volatile NAs (VNA) and non-volatile NAs (NVNA) is necessary when performing a risk assessment of the use of nitrite and nitrate for meat preservation.......Nitrite and nitrate have for many decades been used for preservation of meat. However, nitrite can react with secondary amines in meat to form N-Nitrosamines (NAs), many of which have been shown to be genotoxic1 . The use of nitrite therefore ought to be limited as much as possible. To maintain...

  5. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia plays an important role in the development of the post-irradiation hemorrhagic syndrome. Although destruction of platelet precursors in bone marrow is a major effect of high-dose radiation exposure, the effects of radiation on preformed platelets are unclear. The latter is also of concern with respect to blood-banking practices since platelets are often irradiated at doses in the range of 20-50 Gy before transfusions to prevent graft-versus-host disease. With increasing emphasis on allogenic and autologous bone-marrow transplantation, transfusions of irradiated platelets are likely to rise. Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets.

  6. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  7. Volatile compound profiling of Turkish Divle Cave cheese during production and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturkoglu-Budak, S; Gursoy, A; Aykas, D P; Koçak, C; Dönmez, S; de Vries, R P; Bron, P A

    2016-01-01

    The formation of volatile compounds in Turkish Divle Cave cheese produced in 3 different dairy farms was determined during production and ripening, revealing 110 compounds including acids, alcohols, ketones, esters, and terpenes. The presence and concentration of these volatile compounds varied betw

  8. Investigating the Energy Impact of Android Smells

    OpenAIRE

    Carette, Antonin; Ait Younes, Mehdi Adel; Hecht, Geoffrey; Moha, Naouel; Rouvoy, Romain

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Android code smells are bad implementation practices within Android applications (or apps) that may lead to poor software quality. These code smells are known to degrade the performance of apps and to have an impact on energy consumption. However, few studies have assessed the positive impact on energy consumption when correcting code smells. In this paper, we therefore propose a tooled and reproducible approach, called Hot-Pepper, to correct automatically code smells ...

  9. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between an apple or a pear or between chocolate and caramel are mostly differentiated by our ability ... can also present as a signal for other health problems including obesity, ... may have some benefit to improve the loss of smell include phentoxifylline, ...

  10. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  11. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the ... short-chain fatty acids and lactate (Ritzhaupt et al.,. 1998a,b; Muller et al., 2002; .... staining for MCT4 was visualized in strata spinosum and basale. In the ...

  12. Combination of real-value smell and metaphor expression aids yeast detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smell provides important information about the quality of food and drink. Most well-known for their expertise in wine tasting, sommeliers sniff out the aroma of wine and describe them using beautiful metaphors. In contrast, electronic noses, devices that mimic our olfactory recognition system, also detect smells using their sensors but describe them using electronic signals. These devices have been used to judge the freshness of food or detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. However, unlike information from gas chromatography, it is difficult to compare odour information collected by these devices because they are made for smelling specific smells and their data are relative intensities. METHODOLOGY: Here, we demonstrate the use of an absolute-value description method using known smell metaphors, and early detection of yeast using the method. CONCLUSIONS: This technique may help distinguishing microbial-contamination of food products earlier, or improvement of the food-product qualities.

  13. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv ‘Ceasar’ grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be useful tools in improving commercial production.

  14. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  15. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  16. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Most of the available data on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines (NA) in processed meat products have been generated in the 1980s and 1990s and especially data on the occurrence of non-volatile NA (NVNA) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the levels of volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and NVNA...... in processed meat products on the Danish market (N = 70) and for comparison also products on the Belgian market (N = 20). The effect of heat treatment on the NA levels, in selected samples, was also studied, in order to enable an evaluation of how preparation before consumption affects the levels of NA...... μg kg−1 for one Danish sample and two Belgian samples. Levels of up to 2000 and 4000 μg kg−1 of N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) an NVNA occurred in the Danish and the Belgian samples, respectively. The majority of the Danish processed meat products contain NVNA but also VNA occur...

  17. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and...

  18. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Garbeva, Paolina; Hordijk, Cornelis; Hundscheid, P J; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Van Agtmaal, Maaike; Kuramae, Eiko E; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.

  19. Production of volatile fatty acids from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and alkaline fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the potential of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from sewage by a combined high-loaded membrane bioreactor and sequencing batch fermenter. VFA production was optimized with respect to SRT and alkaline pH (pH 8–10). Application of pH shock to a value of 9 at the start of a s

  20. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Christensen, T; Olesen, P T; Granby, K

    2015-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern.

  1. Methods to assess secondary volatile lipid oxidation products in complex food matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, Betül

    A range of different methods are available to determine secondary volatile lipid oxidation products. These methods include e.g. spectrophotometric determination of anisidine values and TBARS as well as GC based methods for determination of specific volatile oxidation products such as pentanal...... and hexanal. Different extraction methods for extracting volatiles before GC analysis can be used, e.g static headspace, dynamic headspace and solid phase microextraction. Traditionally, dynamic headspace extraction has been performed manually. However, recently automated dynamic headspace methods have become...... available. This presentation will briefly discuss advantages and disadvantages of spectrophotometric methods versus GC- based methods. Moreover, the different extraction methods used for GC-based analysis will be discussed and examples on results obtained with SPME, the traditional and the automated dynamic...

  2. The physiological and ecological roles of volatile halogen production by marine diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Sun, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Sea-to-air halogen flux is known to have a major impact on catalytic ozone cycling and aerosol formation in the troposphere. The biological production of volatile organic (e.g. bromoform, diiodomethane) and reactive inorganic halogens (e.g. molecular iodine) is believed to play an important role in mediating halogen emissions from the marine environment. Marine diatoms in particular are known to produce the organic and inorganic volatile halogens at high rates in pelagic waters and sea-ice systems. The climate-induced changes in diatom communities that have already been observed and are expected to occur throughout the world's oceans as warming progresses are likely to alter sea-to-air halogen flux. However, we currently have insufficient understanding of the physiological and ecological functions of volatile halogen production to develop modelling tools that can predict the nature and magnitude of the impact. The results of a series of laboratory studies aimed at establishing the physiological and ecological role of volatile halogen production in two marine polar diatoms (Thalassiosira antarctica and Porosira glacialis) will be described in this presentation. We will focus on our work investigating how the activity of the haloperoxidases, a group of enzymes known to be involved in halogenation reactions in marine organisms, is altered by environmental conditions. This will involve exploring the antioxidative defence role proposed for marine haloperoxidases by showing specifically how halogenating activity varies with photosynthetic rate and changes in the ambient light conditions in the two model marine diatoms. We will also present results from our experiments designed to investigate how volatile halogen production is impacted by and influences diatom-bacterial interactions. We will discuss how improved mechanistic understanding like this could pave the way for future volatile halogen-ecosystem model development.

  3. Duff reaction on phenols: Characterization of non steam volatile products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Bhattacharya, J.

    New products having structures 1 and 2 have been characterized in the Duff reaction thymol arid carvacrol. These products have been identified as 2.6'-dithymylmethane 1 and 5.5' -dicarvacryl methane 2 respectively on the basis of spectral data...

  4. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Jensen, Bent Borg; Finster, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with sol......Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains...... significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS-group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant...

  5. Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2014-02-15

    Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ε-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ε-pinene) of significant added value.

  6. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  7. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the ...

  8. Involvement of a broccoli COQ5 methyltransferase in the production of volatile selenium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Kochian, Leon V; Li, Li

    2009-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments.

  9. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation. This effect was predicted by the degree of the preceding olfactory evaluative conditioning. Whole brain analysis of stimulus by stage interaction indicated differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and right angular gyrus to the conditioned versus the neutral person during the attribution phase only. These results suggest that negative smell associations do not simply induce a negative perception of the target person but rather bias the attribution style towards trait attributions. The fact that this bias was evident regardless of behavior valence suggests it may reflect enhanced psychological distance. Thus, the known observation of social rejection triggered by aversive smell may be driven by a shift in social attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Boric Acid on Volatile Products of Thermooxidative Degradation of Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Bukhareva, P. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The polymeric materials are characterized by high flammability. The use of flame retardants in order to reduce the flammability of polymers can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous products under fire conditions. In this work we studied the effect of boric acid on the volatile products of thermooxidative degradation of epoxy polymers. The comparative investigations were carried out on the samples of the unfilled epoxy resin and epoxy resin filled with a boric acid at percentage 10 wt. %. The analysis of the volatile decomposition products and thermal stability of the samples under heating in an oxidizing medium was performed using a thermal mass-spectrometric analysis. It is found that the incorporation of boric acid into the polymer matrix increases the thermal stability of epoxy composites and leads to a reduction in the 2-2.7 times of toxic gaseous products

  11. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated.

  12. The sense of smell in Odonata: an electrophysiological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2014-11-01

    Volatile chemicals mediate a great range of intra- and interspecific signalling and information in insects. Olfaction has been widely investigated mostly in Neoptera while the knowledge of this sense in most basal insects such as Paleoptera (Odonata and Ephemeroptera) is still poor. In the present study we show the results of an electrophysiological screening on two model species, Libellula depressa (Libellulidae) and Ischnura elegans (Coenagrionidae), representatives of the two Odonata suborders Anisoptera and Zygoptera, with the aim to deep the knowledge on the sense of smell of this insect order. The antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of these two species responded to the same 22 compounds (out of 48 chemicals belonging to different functional groups) encompassing mostly amines, carboxylic acids or aldehydes and belonging to green leaf volatiles, vertebrate related volatiles and volatiles emitted by standing waters bacteria. The properties of Odonata OSNs are very similar to those of ionotropic receptors (IRs) expressing OSNs in other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

    2008-07-01

    A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

  14. A National Test of Taste and Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the only national U.S. health survey that combines both in-person interviews with physical examinations. In ... Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste and ...

  15. A theoretical study of volatile fission products release from oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, M.C.; Paraschiv, A. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania); Grecu, V.V. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-11-01

    Treating the average volume grains as thermodynamically closed subsystems, a method to evaluate the volatile fission products migration at the grain boundary and their release in the void volume of the fuel elements is proposed. The method considers the phenomena of the intergranular bubble growth and interlinkage, grain growth and grain boundary resolution. Analytical solutions of the diffusion problem associated with the volatile fission products behaviour taking into account their direct yield from fission and from precursors simultaneously with the diffusion and decay, irradiation induced resolution and fuel grain growth, during a time-step varying irradiation history have also been derived. The results are very accurate and point out the strong effect of the boundary condition changes on the volatile fission products behaviour when the simultaneous effects of the intergranular bubble coalescence, the precursors, the irradiation induced resolution and grain growth are considered. Comparative analyses versus other similar models of the diffusion of only stable gas species of fission products are also presented. (orig.)

  16. Molecular identification of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from red wines and volatile phenol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, A; Lonvaud-Funel, A; du Toit, M

    2009-06-01

    The spoilage yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera can persist throughout the winemaking process and has the potential to produce off-flavours that affect the sensory quality of wine. The main objective of this study was to select different strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from red wines and to compare their volatile phenol production. From a collection of 63 strains, eight strains of B. bruxellensis were selected for volatile phenol production after the application of molecular techniques such as ISS-PCR, PCR-DGGE and REA-PFGE. All strains showed three large chromosomes of similar size with PFGE. However, unique restriction profiles of the chromosomes were visible after NotI digestion that clearly distinguished the strains. All strains were capable of producing large quantities of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, respectively in synthetic media. However, the diversity among strains for volatile phenol production differed between synthetic media and wine with regard to the maximum production levels of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. This study illustrated the diversity of B. bruxellensis strains that occur during winemaking.

  17. Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

  18. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  19. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  20. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake.

  1. Revisiting The Financial Volatility – Derivative Products Relationship On Euronext. Liffe Using A Frequency Domain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Daniel GOYEAU; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The present paper analyse the relationship between the volume of transactions with futures equity index products and the return volatility of their underlying assets. The study addresses the case of five stock markets, members of the Euronext.liffe: London, Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels and Lisbon. We employ a frequency domain analysis, using monthly data for the period 2001.09 – 2010.06, which allows us to identify the direction of the causality between the derivatives v...

  2. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Growth and volatile compound production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Perello, M C; de Revel, G; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2008-06-01

    Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis is a particularly troublesome wine spoilage yeast. This work was aimed at characterizing its behaviour in terms of growth and volatile compound production in red wine. Sterile red wines were inoculated with 5 x 10(3) viable cells ml(-1) of three B. bruxellensis strains and growth and volatile phenol production were followed for 1 month by means of plate counts and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. Maximum population levels generally attained 10(6)-10(7) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) and volatile phenol concentrations ranged from 500 to 4000 microg l(-1). Brettanomyces bruxellensis multiplication was also accompanied by the production of organic acids (from C(2) to C(10)), short chain acid ethyl-esters and the 'mousy off-flavour' component 2-acetyl-tetrahydropyridine. Different kinds of 'Brett character' characterized by distinct metabolic and sensory profiles can arise in wine depending on the contaminating strain, wine pH and sugar content and the winemaking stage at which contamination occurs. We identified new chemical markers that indicate wine defects caused by B. bruxellensis. Further insight was provided into the role of some environmental conditions in promoting wine spoilage.

  4. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  5. The Differential Role of Smell and Taste For Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longer-term effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people's eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

  6. Smell of danger: an analysis of LP-gas odorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.S.; Turk, A.

    1985-03-01

    LP-gas derives warning properties from the odorants ethyl mercaptan or thiophane. Laboratory tests have implied that the average person has the ability to smell the odors before leaking LP-gas reaches one-fifth its lower limit of flammability. Generally, however, laboratory tests ignore or discard persons with a poor sense of smell, especially the elderly and persons with certain types of hyposmia. Some persons who apparently can smell the warning agents when directed may otherwise fail to notice or identify them. Elderly men seem particularly vulnerable to instances of incidental anosmia and olfactory agnosia. Psychophysical testing of the warning agents has been rather unsophisticated. There exists neither a standard protocol for testing nor adequate specification of the perceptual properties that might make one warning agent better than another. Without such developments, improvement in warning agents will fail to occur. Possible improvements include increases in concentration, the use of blends to insure more uniform delivery of agent and, to decrease the perceptual vulnerability of relatively insensitive people, use of agents with favorable psychophysical (stimulus-response) functions and use of agents with favorable adaptation characteristics. Even without a change in existing products, it seems advisable to learn more about the vulnerability of LP-gas users and to employ educational means to reduce risks.

  7. Relationships between personality traits and attitudes toward the sense of smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lee, Suji; Cho, Sungeun

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory perception appears to be linked to personality traits. This study aimed to determine whether personality traits influence human attitudes toward sense of smell. Two-hundred participants’ attitudes toward their senses of smell and their personality traits were measured using two self-administered questionnaires: the Importance of Olfaction Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Demographics and olfactory function were also assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Gender-induced differences were present in attitudes toward sense of smell. Women participants were more dependent than men participants on olfactory cues for daily decision-making. In addition, as participants evaluated their own olfactory functions more positively, they relied more on olfactory information in everyday life. To determine a relationship between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell, Spearman partial correlation analyses were conducted, with controlling the factors that might influence attitudes with respect to sense of smell (i.e., gender and self-awareness of olfactory function) as covariates. Participants who scored high on the lie-scale (i.e., socially desirable and faking good), tended to use olfactory cues for daily decision-making related both to social communication and product purchase. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a significant association between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell. PMID:24348450

  8. Relationships between personality traits and attitudes toward the sense of smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lee, Suji; Cho, Sungeun

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory perception appears to be linked to personality traits. This study aimed to determine whether personality traits influence human attitudes toward sense of smell. Two-hundred participants' attitudes toward their senses of smell and their personality traits were measured using two self-administered questionnaires: the Importance of Olfaction Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Demographics and olfactory function were also assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Gender-induced differences were present in attitudes toward sense of smell. Women participants were more dependent than men participants on olfactory cues for daily decision-making. In addition, as participants evaluated their own olfactory functions more positively, they relied more on olfactory information in everyday life. To determine a relationship between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell, Spearman partial correlation analyses were conducted, with controlling the factors that might influence attitudes with respect to sense of smell (i.e., gender and self-awareness of olfactory function) as covariates. Participants who scored high on the lie-scale (i.e., socially desirable and faking good), tended to use olfactory cues for daily decision-making related both to social communication and product purchase. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a significant association between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell.

  9. Relationships between personality traits and attitudes toward the sense of smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok eSeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory perception appears to be linked to personality traits. This study aimed to determine whether personality traits influence human attitudes toward sense of smell. Two-hundred participants’ attitudes toward their senses of smell and their personality traits were measured using two self-administered questionnaires: the Importance of Olfaction Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R. Demographics and olfactory function were also assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Gender-induced differences were present in attitudes toward sense of smell. Women participants were more dependent than men participants on olfactory cues for daily decision-making. In addition, as participants evaluated their own olfactory functions more positively, they relied more on olfactory information in everyday life. To determine a relationship between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell, Spearman partial correlation analyses were conducted with controlling the factors that might influence attitudes with respect to sense of smell (i.e., gender and self-awareness of olfactory function as covariates. Participants who scoring high in lie-scale (i.e., socially desirable and faking good tended to use olfactory cues both for daily decision-making related to social communication and product purchase. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a significant association between personality traits and attitudes toward sense of smell.

  10. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    coefficients. Results and Discussion: Main results showed that real exchange rate volatility and export value of selected commodities are Co-integrated. The coefficient estimation of FMOLS and DOLS methods are equal and statically significant; so, these methods aren’t statically different and they showed that real exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on exported value for whole panel. However, the specific coefficient for each commodity showed contradictory behavior in short run and long run; for example real exchange rate fluctuation has a negative and significant impact on all the commodities; but, in short run this variable has a positive and significant impact on exported value. Moreover, based on estimated results it seems that fluctuation in exchange market has a greater impact on more valuable commodities like date. Conclusion: Considering the importance of agricultural product trade and in order to overcome mono-product economy, this study investigated long term and short term relation between export of grape, orange, date and exchange rate volatilities. To this aim, first the index of exchange volatility using generated autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH was calculated. In order to investigate the relation between exchange rate volatilities and export value of agricultural product, unit root test and cointegration test related to panel data were used during years 1971-2013. The results of model estimation showed that exchange rate volatilities in short term and long term have respectively positive and negative effects on the export value of orange, grape and date. In long term, the negative effects of Exchange rate volatilities on high-export-value products are more than its effects on low-export-value products. Based on the estimation results we can conclude that, in short run, exporters are willing to increase their interchange and gain profits of the volatility in exchange market; however, in long run exchange rate fluctuation has

  11. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  12. Verification of“Trend-Volatility Model”in Short-Term Forecast of Grain Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Chang-hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "trend-volatility model" in short-term forecasting of grain production potential was verified and discussed systematically by using the grain production data from 1949 to 2014, in 16 typical counties and 6 typical districts, and 31 provinces, of China. The results showed as follows:(1 Size of forecast error reflected the precision of short-term production potential, the main reason of large prediction error was a great amount of high yield farmlands were occupied in developed areas and a great increase of vegetable and fruit planted that made grain yield decreased in a short time;(2 The micro-trend amendment method was a necessary part of "trend-volatility model", which could involve the short-term factors such as meteorological factors, science and technology input, social factors and other effects, while macro-trend prediction could not. Therefore, The micro-trend amendment method could improve the forecast precision.(3 In terms of actual situation in recent years in China, the more developed the areas was, the bigger the volatility of short-term production potential was; For the short-term production potential, the stage of increasing-decreasing-recovering also existed in developed areas;(4 In the terms of forecast precision of short-terms production potential, the scale of national was higher than the scale of province, the scale of province was higher than the scale of district, the scale of district was higher than the scale of county. And it was large differences in precision between different provinces, different districts and different counties respectively, which was concerned to the complementarity of domestic climate and the ability of the farmland resistance to natural disasters.

  13. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  14. Production of volatile and sulfur compounds by ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains inoculated in Trebbiano must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePatrignani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wines, the presence of sulphur compounds is the resulting of several contributions among which yeast metabolism. The characterization of the starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs to be performed also taking into account this ability even if evaluated together with the overall metabolic profile. In this perspective, principal aim of this experimental research was the evaluation of the volatile profiles, throughout GC/MS technique coupled with solid phase micro extraction, of wines obtained throughout the fermentation of 10 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, the production of sulphur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame Photometric Detector. Specifically, the ten strains were inoculated in Trebbiano musts and the fermentations were monitored for 19 days. In the produced wines, volatile and sulphur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and their electronic nose profiles were evaluated.

  15. Detection of some volatile degradation products released during photoexposition of ranitidine in a solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Wielgomas, Bartosz

    2013-03-25

    Ranitidine (RAN) is on top of the list of prescribed drugs, due to its popularity as a selective H2-receptor antagonist, which efficiently decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. RAN is not stable both in a solid state and in a solution, which creates manufacturing problems, requires appropriate storage conditions, and results in a short drug shelf-life. The aim of this work was to study the emission of volatile degradation products generated during photoexposition of ranitidine hydrochloride in a solid state. Significant changes in volatile profile of irradiated RAN were detected using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Sixteen major peaks were noticed on the chromatograms of irradiated ranitidine and the structures of some compounds were elucidated, while the presence of acetaldoxime, thiazole, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide and 5-methylfurfural was confirmed by means of the analysis of the authentic standards.

  16. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer, but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products. Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing

  17. Formation of highly oxygenated low-volatility products from cresol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Schilling, Katherine A.; McVay, Renee C.; Lignell, Hanna; Coggon, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xuan; Wennberg, Paul O.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation of toluene produces ring-retaining products: cresol and benzaldehyde, and ring-opening products: bicyclic intermediate compounds and epoxides. Here, first- and later-generation OH oxidation products from cresol and benzaldehyde are identified in laboratory chamber experiments. For benzaldehyde, first-generation ring-retaining products are identified, but later-generation products are not detected. For cresol, low-volatility (saturation mass concentration, C* ˜ 3.5 × 104 - 7.7 × 10-3 µg m-3), first- and later-generation ring-retaining products are identified. Subsequent OH addition to the aromatic ring of o-cresol leads to compounds such as hydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy methyl benzoquinones and dihydroxy, trihydroxy, tetrahydroxy, and pentahydroxy toluenes. These products are detected in the gas phase by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and in the particle phase using offline direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Our data suggest that the yield of trihydroxy toluene from dihydroxy toluene is substantial. While an exact yield cannot be reported as authentic standards are unavailable, we find that a yield for trihydroxy toluene from dihydroxy toluene of ˜ 0.7 (equal to the reported yield of dihydroxy toluene from o-cresol; Olariu et al., 2002) is consistent with experimental results for o-cresol oxidation under low-NO conditions. These results suggest that even though the cresol pathway accounts for only ˜ 20 % of the oxidation products of toluene, it is the source of a significant fraction (˜ 20-40 %) of toluene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) due to the formation of low-volatility products.

  18. Study of the physicochemical properties of tulobuterol dry syrups using taste and smell sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Hironori; Murata, Isamu; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the taste and smell of Tulobuterol Dry Syrup (TB-DS) in its original form (formulation A) and generic form (formulations B and C) by means of gustatory sensation tests and taste and smell sensors. In addition, the physicochemical properties of the syrups in a solid state were compared. Evaluation of sweetness with a powdered sample revealed significant differences between formulation A and formulation B and between formulation B and formulation C. In contrast, the results of principal component analysis (PCA) with a taste sensor revealed differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) among formulations A, B, and C. Smell sensor measurement of powdered samples revealed differences in products in terms of only PC 1, but these results were not related to the results of gustatory sensation testing with a smell sensor. Measurement of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in the particle diameter and particle surface shape for each product. Formulation B had the strongest absorption in the near-infrared spectrum, followed by formulation A and then formulation C. Accordingly, differences in preparations were presumably caused by variations in manufacturing specifications, such as types of additives and their content and coating methods used. In other words, the characteristics of each product were revealed by evaluation of their physical properties, sensing of taste and smell, and human gustatory sensation tests.

  19. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  20. Microorganisms Associated with Volatile Organic Compound Production in Spoilt Mango Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu D. Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with the production of volatile compound in spoilt mango fruits sold in Sokoto town were isolated and identified. The organisms include seven species of bacteria and a species of yeast. These include Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus firmus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Morganella morganii, Paenibacillus alvei, Staphylococcus saccharolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida krusei respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eleven and sixteen volatile organic compound in the healthy and spoilt ripe mango fruits. Octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 1 – Butanol, 3 – methyl-, carbonate (2:1 and 3,7 – Dimethyl nonane were common to both healthy and spoilt fruits with the first three having higher concentration in healthy fruits than spoilt while the later had higher concentration in the spoilt. One methyl group of 3,3- Dimethyl hexane in healthy fruit was shifted to position two to yield 2,3-Dimethyl hexane in the spoilt fruits. 2,2-Dimethylbutane, Methyl(methyl-4-deoxy-2,3-di-O-methyl.beta.1-threo-hex-4-enopyranosid urinate, 3-(4-amino-phenyl-2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino-propionic acid, 2-Methyl-3-heptanone, 3,5-Nonadien-7-yn-2-ol, (E,E, Butanoic acid, 1,1-dimethylethyl ester, 1-methyl-3-beta.phenylethyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine, Pentanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl, ethyl ester (Vinyl 2,2-dimethylpentanoate, 4-Methyurazole, 1-Tridecyn- 4 – 9 – ol, 1-Hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane were unique to spoilt fruits. This study suggests that these unique volatile metabolites could be exploited as biomarkers to discriminate pathogens even when more than one disease is present thereby curbing post harvest loss during storage after further validation and the volatile organic compound could form the basis for constructing a metabolomics database for Nigeria.

  1. Asthma Drug May Help Kidney Patients Regain Sense of Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug May Help Kidney Patients Regain Sense of Smell Problem is common in chronic kidney disease and ... patients is a loss of the sense of smell, which could lead to an inadequate diet, researchers ...

  2. Poor Sense of Smell May Signal Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162068.html Poor Sense of Smell May Signal Alzheimer's Risk Testing looks for decreased olfactory sense, combined ... of smell may help predict their risk for Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests. The researchers included ...

  3. Volatilization of low vapor pressure--volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) during three cleaning products-associated activities: Potential contributions to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Bennett, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    There have been many studies to reduce ozone formation mostly from volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. However, the role of low vapor pressure (LVP)-VOCs from consumer products remains mostly unexplored and unaddressed. This study explores the impact of high production volume LVP-VOCs on ozone formation from three cleaning products-associated activities (dishwashing, clothes washing, and surface cleaning). We develop a model framework to account for the portion available for ozone formation during the use phase and from the down-the-drain disposal. We apply experimental studies that measured emission rates or models that were developed for estimating emission rates of organic compounds during the use phase. Then, the fraction volatilized (fvolatilized) and the fraction disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain) are multiplied by the portion available for ozone formation for releases to the outdoor air (fO3|volatilized) and down-the-drain (fO3|down-the-drain), respectively. Overall, for chemicals used in three specific cleaning-product uses, fvolatilized is less than 0.6% for all studied LVP-VOCs. Because greater than 99.4% of compounds are disposed of down the drain during the use phase, when combined with fO3|volatilized and fO3|down-the-drain, the portion available for ozone formation from the direct releases to outdoor air and the down-the-drain disposal is less than 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the impact of the studied LVP-VOCs on ozone formation is very sensitive to what occurs during the use phase and suggest the need for future research on experimental work at the point of use.

  4. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N

    2016-01-01

    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  5. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  6. Deposition of volatile fission products during commercial high-level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.S.; Carter, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    High-level waste from spent commercial PWR fuel was vitrified during the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP), conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1978 and 1979. The solidification equipment employed sintered metal filters and a conventional wet off-gas cleanup system to decontaminate the gases generated during waste processing. This report is a summary of a study completed under contract with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the fate of volatile fission products in the filters and off-gas system. The study objectives were to determine (1) the extent of volatile fission product deposition within the sintered metal filters, (2) the distribution of fission products in the off-gas system, and (3) the factors that control the distribution. Such information is needed for the design and operation of future waste immobilization systems. The scope of the study included identification, preparation, and microprobe analyses of suitable filter samples and radiochemical analyses of off-gas system samples. The report describes the methods of sample selection and gathering, the analytical methods and results, and the interpretations of the results. Relationships to vitrification system operations are defined and operating conditions to minimize problems recommended. 37 figures, 14 tables.

  7. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it ser

  8. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.

    2005-01-01

    to the problem-need specified in the beginning of the project, but producing a novel formulation (chemical product design) represents a method that results to a completely xylene-free process which is environmentally and economically more interesting than those generated via the more traditional process......Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption....... The last approach is somewhat different and is based on the so-called product engineering concept, i.e., in this case, a change of the formulation so that xylene is entirely eliminated from the process. It is shown that both the process and the product engineering approaches yield viable solutions...

  9. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  10. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  11. The Candy Smell Test in clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Boris R; Bertz-Duffy, Shannon; Faldum, Andreas; Trellakis, Sokrates; Stein, Bernhard; Renner, Bertold; Kobal, Gerd; Letzel, Stephan; Mann, Wolf J; Muttray, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The "Candy Smell Test" (CST) has been introduced as a new testing method for the evaluation of the human sense of smell. In contrast to other established orthonasal smell tests, the CST addresses the retronasal application of odors, typical for food aroma effects during mastication and swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CST in a clinical setting in patients with olfactory dysfunction and normal controls against the Sniffin' Sticks test. Furthermore, cutoff points for normal and pathological results in the CST should be determined. The olfactory performance of 96 patients presenting with olfactory disorders and 71 healthy controls was evaluated with the CST-comprised of 23 different aromatized smell candies and the extended Sniffin' Sticks test (threshold, discrimination, and identification). The control group was gender matched but included also younger persons. The tested subjects could easily understand the procedures and were motivated to participate. The CST correlated well with the Sniffin' Sticks for all tested subjects and for patients (n = 96) and controls (n = 71). The proposed cutoff value to differentiate normosmia from hyposmia in the CST was a score of <16 (i.e., 16 correctly identified odors) of 23. A score below 13 in the CST was the cutoff value for anosmia. The CST is an easy-to-handle reliable tool to investigate retronasal olfaction suited for clinical determination of normosmia, hyposmia, and ansomia. In addition, it can be used for investigation where self-application is necessary such as in large survey studies.

  12. Detecting Code Smells in Spreadsheet Formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Spreadsheets are used extensively in business processes around the world and just like software, spreadsheets are changed throughout their lifetime causing maintainability issues. This paper adapts known code smells to spreadsheet formulas. To that end we present a list of metrics by which we can de

  13. Wake up and Stop Smelling the Coffee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳

    2005-01-01

    The next time someone tells you to wake up and smell the coffee don't take it literally, instead go ahead and chuck2 your coffee making machine as a new study has revealed3 that having more than one cup of coffee a day increases the risk of heart disease and even one cup is ‘risky.'

  14. [Occupations and the sense of smell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikentscher, R; Seeber, H

    1989-02-01

    Olfactometric fitness examinations in relation to the place of work are required since the olfactory organ has support and protective functions. Smelling disorders result at work from trauma, hypersensitivity, acute and chronic intoxications, but most frequently from chemical and physical substances taken up by inhalation. They are different due to their expression (slight hyposmia till to anosmia, parosmia), latency, localization (respiratory, epithelial, nerval, central), and a combination with other disorders. In order to examine rhinologically the patient, the nasal mucosa has to be assessed. Its lesion does not necessarily correlate to the smell disorder. 475 patients were exposed to a total of 10 different substances or classes of substances. It was demonstrated that disorders of the whole nasal physiology can be caused by toxic and nontoxic substances, e.g. calcium carbide when taking effect for a longer period, even below their legally required "maximum absorption concentration". The treatment is started after ending the exposition. The expert's opinion is based on the clinical findings, a standardized investigation of smelling, the patient's history incl. the history of occupation, and an analysis of the place-of-work conditions. The degree of bodily defect is related to the single types of disorder. In case of a complete anosmia it is 20%. It is assumed that a growing number of occupation-related smell disorders become known and, hence, have to be assessed.

  15. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  16. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  17. Fungal volatile compounds induce production of the secondary metabolite Sodorifen in Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth; Jager, Victor de; Zühlke, Daniela; Wolff, Christian; Bernhardt, Jörg; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Ijcken, Wilfred van; Sleutels, Frank; Boer, Wietse de; Riedel, Katharina; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-04-13

    The ability of bacteria and fungi to communicate with each other is a remarkable aspect of the microbial world. It is recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as communication signals, however the molecular responses by bacteria to fungal VOCs remain unknown. Here we perform transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C exposed to VOCs emitted by the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum. We find that the bacterium responds to fungal VOCs with changes in gene and protein expression related to motility, signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and secondary metabolite production. Metabolomic analysis of the bacterium exposed to the fungal VOCs, gene cluster comparison, and heterologous co-expression of a terpene synthase and a methyltransferase revealed the production of the unusual terpene sodorifen in response to fungal VOCs. These results strongly suggest that VOCs are not only a metabolic waste but important compounds in the long-distance communication between fungi and bacteria.

  18. Initiation of smell function in patients with congenital hyposmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Abdelmeguid, Mona; Knöppel, Alexandra B

    2016-01-01

    Patients with congenital smell loss (hyposmia) are born without a sense of smell. They comprise two types. Type I patients have genetic abnormalities manifested by brain, gonadal and other somatic abnormalities. Type II patients have neither a family history of smell loss nor any somatic abnormalities. No systematic attempts to initiate smell function in Type II patients have been reported. Smell function was measured in 19 Type II congenital smell loss patients by both subjective responses and by olfactometry using measurements of detection and recognition thresholds, magnitude estimation and hedonics in response to four odors (pyridine, nitrobenzene, thiophene and amyl acetate) before and after treatment with oral theophylline, 200-800mg daily for periods of 2-36months with evaluation of smell function and serum theophylline measured at intervals of 2-6months. In 12 of the 19 Type II patients (63%) smell function was initiated for the first time and was quantitated by both subjective responses and by olfactometry. Initiation of smell function occurred after treatment with 200-800mg of oral theophylline for periods of 2-19months. This is the first systematic demonstration of initiation of smell in patients who were born without smell function. Oral theophylline presumably acts to increase both olfactory receptor growth, development and perpetuation and brain plasticity which enables them to recognize olfactory signals with initiation of olfactory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of two headspace sampling techniques for the analysis of off-flavour volatiles from oat based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognat, Claudine; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Stewart, Derek

    2012-10-01

    Two different headspace sampling techniques were compared for analysis of aroma volatiles from freshly produced and aged plain oatcakes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre and entrainment on Tenax TA within an adsorbent tube were used for collection of volatiles. The effects of variation in the sampling method were also considered using SPME. The data obtained using both techniques were processed by multivariate statistical analysis (PCA). Both techniques showed similar capacities to discriminate between the samples at different ages. Discrimination between fresh and rancid samples could be made on the basis of changes in the relative abundances of 14-15 of the constituents in the volatile profiles. A significant effect on the detection level of volatile compounds was observed when samples were crushed and analysed by SPME-GC-MS, in comparison to undisturbed product. The applicability and cost effectiveness of both methods were considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  1. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  2. [Volatile organic compounds in ready-to-eat fruits and vegetable products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetta, S; Capobianco, E; Sansebastiano, E

    2008-01-01

    An increased consumer demand for bagged prepared fruits and vegetables has recently occurred, these being ready-to-eat products. The different phases in the preparation of these products include cleaning, peeling, cutting, washing, drying and packaging. The quality, safety and shelf-life of ready-to-eat products is highly influenced by the washing process which is generally performed by soaking the vegetables in cold water containing disinfectants (usually sodium hypochlorite). We therefore evaluated the presence of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) in 70 samples of ready-to-eat products produced by 15 different establishments. Results showed that 54% of the products were contaminated by at least one halogenated VOC. Trialomethane was the most frequently detected contaminant and 50% of samples were found to contain chloroform. Contamination by other halogenated VOCs was less frequent. Also, there was variation in concentration values of contaminants between different establishments and different packages. No halogenated VOCs were found in products from only three of the 15 establishments included in the study.

  3. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  4. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  5. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced...... and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw−1 day−1 a MOE...

  6. Development of Taiwan Smell Identification Test: a quick office-based smell screening test for Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning-I; Lai, Jen-Tsung; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective smell tests not only identify levels of smelling ability but also provide information on changes in olfaction after treatment. Odor identification is strongly socially and culturally dependent; therefore, the odorants used in a smell identification test should be familiar to the test population. We developed this smell test for Taiwanese populations with two aims: the test odors should be familiar to Taiwanese and the test should be easily and quickly administered in a busy clinic. Additives that are familiar to Taiwanese people were selected for this smell identification test. Subsequently, the test was validated with the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (TC-UPSIT). Finally, this Taiwan Smell Identification Test (TWSIT) was implemented in daily clinical use, and cut-off points of "normosmia," "hyposmia," and "anosmia" were established. A total of 1000 subjects were included in the market survey to identify commonly recognized odors. Eight odorants with identification rate greater than 95% were selected. The TWSIT is an array of multiple-choice questions to select the odor. In addition, patient also reported the strength of the odor. The full score was 48. Thirty-seven patients simultaneously received both TWSIT and TC-UPSIT, and the correlation was high (r = 0.874). Based on the testing results of an additional 187 subjects, we concluded that scores of 47-48, 15-44, and 2-12 corresponded to normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia, respectively. Patients with scores falling in the gaps require retesting at a later time. The TWSIT is a quick, office-based, and useful odor identification tool for Taiwanese. The experience of developing a culturally specific olfaction test like the TWSIT can be applied in different countries and cultures.

  7. Smell training increases cognitive smell skills of wine tasters compared to the general healthy population. The WINECAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sanchez, F S; Alobid, I; Cantellas, S; Alberca, C; Guilemany, J M; Canals, J M; De Haro, J; Mullol, J

    2010-09-01

    Wine experts show higher accuracy than novices in selecting a wine that matches a sample. Only one study has compared wine experts with non-trained healthy controls on smell. The aim of this study was to compare the smell characteristics, both sensorial and cognitive, of wine tasters with Spanish healthy population using the Barcelona Smell Test-24. Wine tasters were tested for smell and compared with a control group of healthy volunteers, by tasting 20 odours and scoring smell detection, identification, intensity, irritability, freshness, pleasure and forced choice. Wine tasters performed significantly better on identification and forced choice than healthy controls. In addition, wine tasters perceived more odours as intense, but fewer as irritating than controls. Probably linked to smell education, wine tasters show better cognitive but not sensorial smell skills than a non-trained healthy population.

  8. [Evaluation of smell function changes in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Aylin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Karababa, Songül; Tuna, Selin Fulya; Özkurt, Fazil Emre; Yaman Yörük, Neval; Topçu, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the olfactory function changes among pregnant women in varying trimesters and non-pregnant women. Thirty-five healthy pregnant women and 14 non-pregnant women were included in the study. Volunteer pregnant women were divided into three subgroups including the first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester. All volunteers were tested with the smell bottle test battery. The content of the test was consistent with the Sniffin' sticks including three detailed olfactory function tests, namely olfactory threshold (OT), olfactory discrimination (OD), and olfactory identification (OI). Total results of these three tests were defined as TDI scores. TDI score and test scores of the pregnant women in the first trimester statistically significantly decreased compared to pregnant women in other trimesters and non-pregnant women (p0.05). The olfactory function changes are observed in women during pregnancy. In particular, decreased smell sensitivity in the first trimester returns to normal scores towards the end of pregnancy.

  9. Peripheral modulation of smell: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Mary T

    2013-01-01

    Despite studies dating back 30 or more years showing modulation of odorant responses at the level of the olfactory epithelium, most descriptions of the olfactory system infer that odorant signals make their way from detection by cilia on olfactory sensory neurons to the olfactory bulb unaltered. Recent identification of multiple subtypes of microvillar cells and identification of neuropeptide and neurotransmitter expression in the olfactory mucosa add to the growing body of literature for peripheral modulation in the sense of smell. Complex mechanisms including perireceptor events, modulation of sniff rates, and changes in the properties of sensory neurons match the sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to the external odorant environment, internal nutritional status, reproductive status, and levels of arousal or stress. By furthering our understanding of the players mediating peripheral olfaction, we may open the door to novel approaches for modulating the sense of smell in both health and disease.

  10. Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehshahri, S; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Moringaceae, a monogeneric family in Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), includes 14 species. One of them is Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori., a small tree, which grows in south east of Iran. Volatile constituents of seed coat and stem of M. peregrina were determined by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, extracts of seed and different cultured cells were analyzed by TLC and GC. Three volatile isothiocyanates including isopropyl isothiocyanate (4.2%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (< 0.1%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (92.9%) were found in the volatile oil of the stem , while only two volatile isothiocyanates namely isopropyl isothiocyanate (7.0%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (51.5%) were determined in the seed coat of the tree. For the first time, the callus and suspension cultures of M. peregrina were initiated and established successfully on Murashige and Skoog medium, containing plant growth hormones. Different precursors and elicitors were fed to the cultures to induce glucosinolates production. This is the first report of in vitro culture production of M. peregrina. There was no production of volatile isothiocyanates in M. peregrina callus and suspension cultures with different treatments.

  11. Smell and taste in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Reindl, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Schuster, Anna; Wolf, Petra; Hundt, Walter; Huber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by smell/taste tests, and to determine if disease activity or medication might influence the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients. In total, 59 IBD patients (37 Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were studied using "Sniffin' sticks" and "taste strips" for olfactory and gustatory tests, respectively, and compared to healthy controls and published normative data. Among IBD (CD and UC) patients, the values for odor threshold, but not for odor identification or discrimination, were significantly lower than that of the normative data. Further, these patients showed lower values than the normative taste values and the control group for all tastes, except sour; 57.6% of the IBD patients were hyposmic, while 30.5% were hypogeusic. Subjective self-assessments showed that the patients were not aware of their reduced olfactory/gustatory functions. There were no relevant differences in taste and smell abilities between the CD and UC patients. Disease activity and treatment did not influence the olfactory/gustatory functions. IBD (CD and UC) patients exhibited significant reductions in the olfactory and gustatory functions. Therefore, patients should be tested by smell/taste tests, in order to be adequately informed of their olfactory/gustatory functions and provided an understanding of how to overcome their limitations, and thus improve their quality of life.

  12. Communication between oocytes and somatic cells regulates volatile pheromone production in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Daniel H W; Choe, Andrea; Wu, Shannon Y; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-12-16

    Males of the androdioecious species Caenorhabditis elegans are more likely to attempt to mate with and successfully inseminate C. elegans hermaphrodites that do not concurrently harbor sperm. Although a small number of genes have been implicated in this effect, the mechanism by which it arises remains unknown. In the context of the battle of the sexes, it is also unknown whether this effect is to the benefit of the male, the hermaphrodite, or both. We report that successful contact between mature sperm and oocyte in the C. elegans gonad at the start of fertilization causes the oocyte to release a signal that is transmitted to somatic cells in its mother, with the ultimate effect of reducing her attractiveness to males. Changes in hermaphrodite attractiveness are tied to the production of a volatile pheromone, the first such pheromone described in C. elegans.

  13. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (pdried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  14. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-09-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, a VFA recovery efficiency of 98.3%, H2 of 18.4 mL and alkali production presented as pH of 12.64 were obtained using synthetic fermentation broth. The applied voltage, initial VFA concentrations and composition were affecting the VFA recovery. The energy balance revealed that net energy (5.20-6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition.

  16. Detecting and Refactoring Operational Smells within the Domain Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Radwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name System (DNS is one of the most important components of the Internet infrastructure. DNS relies on a delegation-based architecture, where resolution of names to their IP addresses requires resolving the names of the servers responsible for those names. The recursive structures of the inter dependencies that exist between name servers associated with each zone are called dependency graphs. System administrators' operational decisions have far reaching effects on the DNSs qualities. They need to be soundly made to create a balance between the availability, security and resilience of the system. We utilize dependency graphs to identify, detect and catalogue operational bad smells. Our method deals with smells on a high-level of abstraction using a consistent taxonomy and reusable vocabulary, defined by a DNS Operational Model. The method will be used to build a diagnostic advisory tool that will detect configuration changes that might decrease the robustness or security posture of domain names before they become into production.

  17. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon.

  18. IVO, a device for In situ Volatilization and On-line detection of products from heavy ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Duellmann, C E; Eichler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Jost, D T; Piguet, D; Türler, A

    2002-01-01

    A new gaschromatographic separation system to rapidly isolate heavy ion reaction products in the form of highly volatile species is described. Reaction products recoiling from the target are stopped in a gas volume and converted in situ to volatile species, which are swept by the carrier gas to a chromatography column. Species that are volatile under the given conditions pass through the column. In a cluster chamber, which is directly attached to the exit of the column, the isolated volatile species are chemically adsorbed to the surface of aerosol particles and transported to an on-line detection system. The whole set-up was tested using short-lived osmium (Os) and mercury (Hg) nuclides produced in heavy ion reactions to model future chemical studies with hassium (Hs, Z=108) and element 112. By varying the temperature of the isothermal section of the chromatography column between room temperature and -80 deg. C, yield measurements of given species can be conducted, yielding information about the volatility o...

  19. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  20. Effects of Ultrasonic and Acid Pretreatment on Food Waste Disintegration and Volatile Fatty Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglian Wu; Wanqian Guo∗; Shanshan Yang; Haichao Luo; Simai Peng; Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of ultrasonic and acid pretreatment on food waste ( FW) disintegration and volatile fatty acid ( VFA ) production. Single⁃factor experiments are carried out to obtain optimal conditions of individual ultrasonic and acid pretreatment, and response surface method ( RSM ) is applied to optimize the conditions of the combination of ultrasonic and acid ( UA) pretreatment. Results show that the optimal acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments conditions are individual pH 2, individual ultrasonic energy density of 1�0 W/mL and the combination of ultrasonic energy density1�11 W/mL and pH 1�43, respectively. Correspondingly, the maximum disintegration degrees ( DD) of 46�90%, 57�38% and68�83%are obtained by acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments, respectively. After optimizing pretreatment conditions, batch experiments are operated to produce VFA from raw and pretreated FW under anaerobic fermentation process. Both the maximum VFA production ( 976�17 mg COD/gVS) and VFA/SCOD ( 72�89%) are obtained with ultrasonic pretreatment, followed by UA pretreatment, non⁃pretreatment and acid pretreatment, respectively. This observation demonstrates that a higher acidity on acid and UA pretreatments inhibits the generation of VFA. Results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment is preferable to promote the disintegration degree of FW and VFA production.

  1. Effect of volatile fatty acids mixtures on the simultaneous photofermentative production of hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeña, René; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Buitrón, Germán

    2017-02-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria generate hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a mechanism for disposing of reducing equivalents generated during substrate consumption. However, both pathways compete for the reducing equivalents released from bacteria growing under certain substrates, thus the formation of hydrogen or PHB is detrimental to the formation of each other. The effect of mixtures of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on the formation of H2 and PHB was evaluated using Box-Behnken design. A bacterial community mainly constituted by Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as inoculum. It was observed that the three volatile fatty acids had a significant effect on the specific PHB production. However, only the propionic acid had a significant effect on the specific H2 production activity and the highest value was observed when acetate was the main component in the mixture. The maximum values for the specific PHB and hydrogen production rates were 16.4 mg-PHB/g-TSS/day and 391 mL-H2/g-TSS/day, respectively.

  2. Smell and Anosmia in the Aesthetic Appreciation of Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tafalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant defined the garden as a visual art and considered that smell plays no role in its aesthetic appreciation. If the Kantian thesis were right, then a person who has no sense of smell (who suffers from anosmia would not be impaired in his or her aesthetic appreciation of gardens. At the same time, a visually impaired person could not appreciate the beauty of gardens, although he or she could perceive them through hearing, smell, taste, and touch. In this paper I discuss the role of smell and anosmia in the aesthetic appreciation of gardens. I accept the Kantian idea that the appreciation of a garden is the appreciation of its form, but I also defend that, at least in some cases, smell can belong to the form of gardens and, consequently, the ability or inability to smell influences their aesthetic appreciation.

  3. Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Baines, K. H.; Ocampo, A. C.; Ivanov, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption of ocean circulation, which contributed to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. The crater size, meteoritic content of the K/T boundary clay, and impact models indicate that the Chicxulub crater was formed by a short period comet or an asteroid impact that released 0.7-3.4 x 10(31) ergs of energy. Impact models and experiments combined with estimates of volatiles in the projectile and target rocks predict that over 200 gigatons (Gt) each of SO2 and water vapor, and over 500 Gt of CO2, were globally distributed in the stratosphere by the impact. Additional volatiles may have been produced on a global or regional scale that formed sulfate aerosols rapidly in cooler parts of the vapor plume, causing an early, intense pulse of sulfuric acid rain. Estimates of the conversion rate of stratospheric SO2 and water vapor to sulfate aerosol, based on volcanic production of sulfate aerosols, coupled with calculations of diffusion, coagulation, and sedimentation, demonstrate that the 200 Gt stratospheric SO2 and water vapor reservoir would produce sulfate aerosols for 12 years. These sulfate aerosols caused a second pulse of acid rain that was global. Radiative transfer modeling of the aerosol clouds demonstrates (1) that if the initial rapid pulse of sulfate aerosols was global, photosynthesis may have been shut down for 6 months and (2) that for the second prolonged aerosol cloud, solar transmission dropped 80% by the end of first year and remained 50% below normal for 9 years. As a result, global average surface temperatures probably dropped between 5 degrees and 31 degrees K, suggesting that global near-freezing conditions may have been reached. Impact-generated CO2 caused less than 1 degree K greenhouse warming and therefore was insignificant compare

  4. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its adv...

  5. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its adv...

  6. Volatile organic compounds at oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver&nd...

  7. Smell identification in individuals at clinical high risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kelly Elizabeth; Evans, Elizabeth; Kayser, Jürgen; Ben-David, Shelly; Messinger, Julie; Bruder, Gerard; Malaspina, Dolores; Corcoran, Cheryl Mary

    2014-12-15

    Smell identification deficits exist in schizophrenia, and may be associated with its negative symptoms. Less is known about smell identification and its clinical correlates in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. We examined smell identification, symptoms and IQ in 71 clinical high-risk (CHR) subjects and 36 healthy controls. Smell identification was assessed using both the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT; Doty, R.L., Shaman, P., Kimmelman, C.P., Dann, M.S., 1984. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. Laryngoscope 94, 176-178) and its extracted 12-item Brief Smell Identification Test (Goudsmit, N., Coleman, E., Seckinger, R.A., Wolitzky, R., Stanford, A.D., Corcoran, C., Goetz, R.R., Malaspina, D., 2003. A brief smell identification test discriminates between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 120, 155-164). Smell identification did not significantly differ between CHR subjects and controls. Among CHR subjects, smell identification did not predict schizophrenia (N=19; 27%) within 2 years, nor was it associated with negative or positive symptoms. This is the third prospective cohort study to examine smell identification in CHR subjects, and overall, findings are inconclusive, similar to what is found for other disorders in adolescents, such as autism spectrum, attention deficit and anxiety disorders. Smell identification deficit may not have clear utility as a marker of emergent schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of a Broccoli COQ5 Methyltransferase in the Production of Volatile Selenium Compounds[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Kochian, Leon V.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments. PMID:19656903

  9. Refactoring for software design smells managing technical debt

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Girish; Sharma, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of design smells - indicators of common design problems - helps developers or software engineers understand mistakes made while designing, what design principles were overlooked or misapplied, and what principles need to be applied properly to address those smells through refactoring. Developers and software engineers may ""know"" principles and patterns, but are not aware of the ""smells"" that exist in their design because of wrong or mis-application of principles or patterns. These smells tend to contribute heavily to technical debt - further time owed to fix projects thought to b

  10. Comparison of Three Methods for Extraction of Volatile Lipid Oxidation Products from Food Matrices for GC-MS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, B.; Berner, Lis

    GC based methods are often used for determination of volatile oxidation products such as pentanal and hexanal. Different extraction methods for extracting volatiles before GC analysis can be used, e.g static headspace, dynamic headspace and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Traditionally, dynamic...... headspace extraction has been performed manually. Recently, automated dynamic headspace methods have become available. This presentation will summarize the principles of the different extraction methods. Moreover, results from fish oil, oil-in-water emulsion and milk obtained with SPME, manual dynamic...... headspace or automated dynamic headspace (TDU/DHS) extraction followed by GC-MS analysis will be compared. In all cases, concentrations of volatiles were quantified by calibration curves by addition of selected standards to oil, emulsion or milk. The results show that the linearity of calibration curves...

  11. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  14. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  15. Determination of volatile and non-volatile products of milk fermentation processes using capillary zone electrophoresis and solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Szumski, Michal; Maruska, Audrius; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the investigations was to develop analytical methods for the determination of selected volatile and non-volatile organic compounds numbering among the final products of milk fermentation. The analyzed compounds were as follows: biacetyl and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, citric, and lactic). The model yogurt was prepared under controlled conditions in our laboratory by addition of the selected bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) to the milk sample. The temperature, time, and stirring were controlled during the fermentation process. Factors considered in SPMPE-GC-FID method development included fiber exposure time, salt addition, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers, for example with PDMS, CAR/PDMS, PA, and PDMS/DVB coatings, were tested to obtain the highest recovery of the investigated compounds extracted from yogurt samples. Based on these preliminary experiments, qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of biacetyl were performed by SPME-GC-FID. Moreover, a capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of carboxylic acids in the yogurt samples. The buffer composition as well as deproteinization by acetonitrile were found to have a crucial effect on the analysis.

  16. Potential atmospheric production of small volatile organic compounds from soot oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, A.; Carpenter, L.; Daly, H.; Jones, C.

    2003-04-01

    oxidises the hydrophobic soot surface to produce a hydrophilic surface and low vapour pressure products are retained whilst small volatile products are evolved to the gas-phase. The latter provides a new route for the production of VOC components with significant POCPs.

  17. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production.

  18. Influence of growth regulators in biomass production and volatile profile of in vitro plantlets of Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Vanessa Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; Sato, Alice

    2009-07-22

    In vitro shoots of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were established, and the effects of the auxin indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and the cytokinins benzyladenine (BA), zeatin (ZEA), and kinetin (KIN) at 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 microM on rooting, biomass production, and volatile compounds production by these plants were investigated. The volatiles were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography. The highest biomass shoot growth was obtained with BA at 5.0 microM, while IAA at all concentrations tested achieved 100% rooting frequency. The three major compounds were gamma-terpinene (22.8-38.8%), p-cymene (13.8-27.9%), and thymol (6.5-29.0%). Quantitative changes of these compounds were observed in response to the effect of varying growth regulators concentrations in the culture medium. Growing Thymus vulgaris L. plants in media supplemented with IAA at 1.0 microM increased volatile compounds such as thymol by 315%. Nevertheless, the same major compounds were produced in all treatments and no qualitative changes were observed in the volatile profile of thyme plants.

  19. Nitric Oxide and Brassinosteroids Mediated Fungal Endophyte-Induced Volatile Oil Production Through Protein Phosphorylation Pathways in Atractylodes lancea Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Ren; Chuan-Chao Dai

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been isolated from almost every plant, infecting their hosts without causing visible disease symptoms, and yet have still proved to be involved in plant secondary metabolites accumulation. To decipher the possible physiological mechanisms of the endophytic fungus-host interaction, the role of protein phosphorylation and the relationship between endophytic fungus-induced kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) and brassinolide (BL) in endophyte-enhanced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets were investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Inoculation with the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 enhanced the activities of total protein phosphorylation, Ca2þ-dependent protein kinase, and volatile oil accumulation in A. lancea plantlets. The upregulation of protein kinase activity could be blocked by the BL inhibitor brassinazole. Furthermore, pretreatments with the NO-specific scavenger cPTIO significantly reduced the increased activities of protein kinases in A. lancea plantlets inoculated with endophytic fungus. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced fungus-induced NO production and volatile oil accumulation, but had barely no effect on the BL level. These data suggest that protein phosphorylation is required for endophyte-induced volatile oil production in A. lancea plantlets, and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and the NO pathway may occur and act as a downstream signaling event of the BL pathway.

  20. Olfaction: the physics of how smell works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jennifer C.

    2011-09-01

    Smell is a physical process used by us all, but fully understood by none. A physicist seeks to understand the mysterious phenomena of nature and so it is natural to apply physics to this problem. There is a reluctance in the field of olfactory science to explore the physical processes of fundamental interactions in odorant recognition because the system is complex. However, nature is often compliant to our simple models, and part of the art is to reduce the problem to a soluble one, and part of the beauty of science is often that the simple model with the simple answers give the right ones. This article reviews the applicability of some physical models to olfaction and looks in particular at one theory within the realm of olfactory science. This theory was first endorsed by Turin in 1996, that smell signalling may be based on a form of Inelastic Electron Tunnelling (IETS). This review looks at the mystery of olfaction and the physical principles that may unveil such mysterious phenomena.

  1. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  2. Screening of representative cider yeasts and bacteria for volatile phenol-production ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Nicolas; Coton, Monika; Desmarais, Cécile; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Guichard, Hugues; Barillier, Daniel; Coton, Emmanuel

    2011-10-01

    Representative cider microorganisms (47 yeast strains and 16 bacterial strains) were studied for their ability to produce volatile phenols in a synthetic medium simulating cider conditions and supplemented with the necessary precursors. The various strains were tested for cinnamoyl esterase activity and only Lactobacillus collinoides were able to hydrolyse chlorogenic acid. Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) activities were observed for 6 yeasts and 4 bacterial species allowing them to produce vinylphenols from hydroxycinnamic acids. On the other hand, 4 bacterial species exhibited phenolic acid reductase (PAR) activities leading to the formation of hydroxyphenylpropionic acids. Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomala and L. collinoides were able to produce 4-ethylcatechol (4-EC) and 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) from caffeic and p-coumaric acid, respectively, indicating that both species exhibit PAD and vinylphenol reductase (VPR) activities. In the experimental conditions used, the production of ethylphenols by L. collinoides was faster than the one observed for D. anomala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaporation release behavior of volatile fission products from liquid sodium pool to the inert cover gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, T.; Miyahara, S. [Oarai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oaraimachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In fuel failure of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, released volatile fission products (VFPs) such as iodine and cesium from the fuel will be dissolved into the liquid sodium coolant and transferred to the cover vaporization. In the cover gas system of the reactor, natural convection occurs due to temperature differences between the sodium pool and the gas phase. The release rates of VFPs together with sodium vaporization are considered to be controlled by the convection. In this study, three analytical models are developed and examined to calculate the transient release rates using the equilibrium partition coefficients of VFPs. The calculated release rates are compared with experimental results for sodium and sodium iodide. The release rate of sodium is closest to the calculation by the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The release rate of sodium iodide obtained from the experiment is between the release rates calculated by the model based on heat-and-mass transfer analogy and the Hill`s theory. From this study, it is confirmed that the realistic release rate of sodium is able to be calculated by the model based on the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The conservative release rate of sodium iodide is able to be calculated by the model based on the Hill`s theory using the equilibrium partition coefficient of sodium iodide. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  4. Volatile Reaction Products From Silicon-Based Ceramics in Combustion Environments Identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics and composites are prime candidates for use as components in the hot sections of advanced aircraft engines. These materials must have long-term durability in the combustion environment. Because water vapor is always present as a major product of combustion in the engine environment, its effect on the durability of silicon-based ceramics must be understood. In combustion environments, silicon-based ceramics react with water vapor to form a surface silica (SiO2) scale. This SiO2 scale, in turn, has been found to react with water vapor to form volatile hydroxides. Studies to date have focused on how water vapor reacts with high-purity silicon carbide (SiC) and SiO2 in model combustion environments. Because the combustion environment in advanced aircraft engines is expected to contain about 10-percent water vapor at 10-atm total pressure, the durability of SiC and SiO2 in gas mixtures containing 0.1- to 1-atm water vapor is of interest. The reactions of SiC and SiO2 with water vapor were monitored by measuring weight changes of sample coupons in a 0.5-atm water vapor/0.5-atm oxygen gas mixture with thermogravimetric analysis.

  5. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  6. The importance of smell in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilemany, José Maria; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin Santiago; Angrill, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Centellas, Silvia; Pujols, Laura; Berenguer, Joan; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Picado, César; Mullol, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the sense of smell in patients with bronchiectasis. Prospective controlled study was performed on 91 patients with bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis patients were sub-classified depending on: the presence of chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyps, and the bronchiectasis ethiology. Olfactory function was evaluated by means of the Barcelona Smell Test (BAST-24) olfactometry for detection, identification, and forced choice for the first and fifth cranial nerve dependent odours in comparison to a group of 120 healthy volunteers. Most patients with bronchiectasis (80.2%) satisfied EP(3)OS criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and 26.4% presented nasal polyps (NP). Smell detection, identification, and forced choice tests were significantly (p smell detection compared to both healthy controls and patients without CRS. Patients with both CRS and NP presented a significant (p smell detection and forced choice compared to patients with CRS and without NP. Patients with bronchiectasis and primary humoral immunodeficiency had a poorer smell detection (p smell with a higher impairment in patients with CRS, being maximal in patients with NP. Patients with immunodeficiency bronchiectasis showed high prevalence of CRS, and therefore marked impairment on the sense of smell. The mechanism could be explained through a mixed ethiology (obstruction/inflammation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the ne

  8. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; F.K.L. Spijkervet; R. Weissenbruch; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Vissink; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the

  9. The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating

  10. Preparation, properties and potential applications of a photocurable varnish with pleasant limonene smell

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarczyk Paulina; Wróblewska Agnieszka; Czech Zbigniew; Malko Mariusz Władysław; Rozwadowski Zbigniew; Markowska-Szczupak Agata

    2016-01-01

    Photocurable materials which are obtained on the basis of urethane acrylate resins are often used in the industry for the production varnishes or protective coatings. The main disadvantage which is connected with the utilization of these varnishes is their unpleasant smell during the process of production and curing. This work presents the photocurable varnish which was obtained on the basis of aliphatic urethane acrylate and R-(+)-limonene. The utilization of this raw materials allows to obt...

  11. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLVs are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1–5 TgC yr−1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  12. Production of volatile organic compounds in the culture of marine α-proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release halogens in the troposphere and in the stratosphere by photolysis and released halogens catalyze ozone depletion . In the ocean, macroalgae, phytoplankton, and bacteria are considered to be the main producers of VOCs. Recent investigations have shown that marine bacteria produce halomethanes such as chloromethane, bromomethane, and iodomethane. However, knowledge of aquatic VOC production, particularly through bacteria, is lacking. We studied the production of VOCs, including halomethanes, through the bacterium HKF-1. HKF-1 was isolated from brackish water in Sanaru Lake, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. The bacterium belongs to the α-proteobacteria. Bacteria were incubated in marine broth 2216 (Difco) added with KI and KIO3 (each at 0.02 μmol/L) at 25°C. VOCs in the gas phase above the cultured samples was determined using a dynamic headspace (GESTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C) at 0, 4, 7, 10 and 12 incubation days. In addition, the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured during the culture period. Measurement of VOCs showed that chloromethane, bromomethane, iodomethane, isoprene, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were produced in the culture of HKF-1. Dihalomethanes and trihalomethanes, such as dibromomethane, chloroiodomethane, bromoiodomethane, and tribromomethane, were not detected. Given that monohalomethanes and sulfur-containing VOCs were abundant in the culture, HKF-1 is one of the possible candidates as a producer of monohalomethane and sulfur-containing VOCs in marine environment, but not of di- or trihalomethanes.

  13. Factors Affecting Volatile Phenol Production During Fermentations with Pure and Mixed Cultures of Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Kosel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of ethanol, and hidroxycinnamic and vinylphenol precursors on the production of volatile phenols in fermentations of mixed and pure cultures of yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dekkera bruxellensis. Three different D. bruxellensis strains were examined and they all showed a unique volatile phenol production pattern in the fermentations of pure and mixed cultures. Generally, the results showed that in mixed culture fermentations less vinylphenols and more ethylphenols were produced in comparison with D. bruxellensis pure culture fermentations. Vinylphenol precursors significantly inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae and the production of ethylphenols. Nevertheless, it was found that D. bruxellensis genes encoding for enzymes coumaric acid decarboxylase (CAD and vinylphenol reductase (VPR are more responsive to vinylphenol precursors in comparison with hidroxycinnamic acids. Consequently, higher concentrations of vinylphenols in the cell were found to be more cytotoxic than hidroxycinnamic acids. In general, low ethanol concentrations induced higher production of volatile phenols by S. cerevisiae and D. bruxellensis. This was confirmed with the expression pattern of gene encoding for CAD of D. bruxellensis.

  14. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  15. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  16. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  17. Production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid by Enterobacter sp. T4384 using organic waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Deshpande, Tushar R; Chun, Jongsik; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-02-01

    In a study of hydrogen-producing bacteria, strain T4384 was isolated from rice field samples in the Republic of Korea. The isolate was identified as Enterobacter sp. T4384 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Enterobacter sp. T4384 grew at a temperature range of 10-45 degrees C and at an initial pH range of 4.5-9.5. Strain T4384 produced hydrogen at 0-6% NaCl by using glucose, fructose, and mannose. In serum bottle cultures using a complete medium, Enterobacter sp. T4384 produced 1,098 ml/l H2, 4.0 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid. In a pH-regulated jar fermenter culture with the biogas removed, 2,202 ml/l H2, 6.2 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid were produced, and the lag-phase time was 4.8 h. Strain T4384 metabolized the hydrolysate of organic waste for the production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid. The strain T4384 produced 947 ml/l H2, 3.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.2 g/l acetic acid from 6% (w/v) food waste hydrolysate; 738 ml/l H2, 4.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.8 g/l acetic acid from Miscanthus sinensis hydrolysate; and 805 ml/l H2, 5.0 g/l ethanol, and 0.7 g/l acetic acid from Sorghum bicolor hydrolysate.

  18. [How we smell and what it means to us: basic principles of the sense of smell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, I; Frasnelli, J; Croy, I

    2014-12-01

    The origins of the sense of smell lie in the perception of environmental molecules and go back to unicellular organisms such as bacteria. Odors transmit a multitude of information about the chemical composition of our environment. The sense of smell helps people and animals with orientation in space, warns of potential threats, influences the choice of sexual partners, regulates food intake and influences feelings and social behavior in general. The perception of odors begins in sensory neurons residing in the olfactory epithelium that express G protein-coupled receptors, the so-called olfactory receptors. The binding of odor molecules to olfactory receptors initiates a signal transduction cascade that converts olfactory stimuli into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to the olfactory bulb, the first relay center in the olfactory pathway, via the axons of the sensory neurons. The olfactory information is processed in the bulb and then transferred to higher olfactory centers via axons of mitral cells, the bulbar projection neurons. This review describes the mechanisms involved in peripheral detection of odorants, outlines the further processing of olfactory information in higher olfactory centers and finally gives an overview of the overall significance of the ability to smell.

  19. Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Possibility of Exposure to By-product Volatile Organic Compounds in Photolithography Processes in Semiconductor Manufacturing Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Jung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Hee; Yi, Gwang Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Park, Hae-Dong; Kim, Kab-Bae; Lee, In-Seop

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC)s originated from the chemicals used and/or derived from the original parental chemicals in the photolithography processes of semiconductor manufacturing factories. A total of four photolithography processes in 4 Fabs at three different semiconductor manufacturing factories in Korea were selected for this study. This study investigated the types of chemicals used and generated during the photolithography process of each Fab, and the concentration levels of VOCs for each Fab. A variety of organic compounds such as ketone, alcohol, and acetate compounds as well as aromatic compounds were used as solvents and developing agents in the processes. Also, the generation of by-products, such as toluene and phenol, was identified through a thermal decomposition experiment performed on a photoresist. The VOC concentration levels in the processes were lower than 5% of the threshold limit value (TLV)s. However, the air contaminated with chemical substances generated during the processes was re-circulated through the ventilation system, thereby affecting the airborne VOC concentrations in the photolithography processes. Tens of organic compounds were being used in the photolithography processes, though the types of chemical used varied with the factory. Also, by-products, such as aromatic compounds, could be generated during photoresist patterning by exposure to light. Although the airborne VOC concentrations resulting from the processes were lower than 5% of the TLVs, employees still could be exposed directly or indirectly to various types of VOCs.

  20. Effects of temperature on the production of hydrogen peroxide and volatile halocarbons by brackish-water algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Katarina; Choo, Kyung Sil; Pedersén, Marianne; Johansson, Gustav; Snoeijs, Pauli

    2003-10-01

    Marine algae produce volatile halocarbons, which have an ozone-depleting potential. The formation of these compounds is thought to be related to oxidative stress, involving H2O2 and algal peroxidases. In our study we found strong correlations between the releases of H2O2 and brominated and some iodinated compounds to the seawater medium, but no such correlation was found for CHCl3, suggesting the involvement of other formation mechanisms as well. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors on the production of volatile halocarbons by algae and in the present study we focused on the influence of temperature. Algae were sampled in an area of the brackish Baltic Sea that receives thermal discharge, allowing us to collect specimens of the same species that were adapted to different field temperature regimes. We exposed six algal species (the diatom Pleurosira laevis, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and four filamentous green algae, Cladophora glomerata, Enteromorpha ahlneriana, E. flexuosa and E. intestinalis) to temperature changes of 0-11 degrees C under high irradiation to invoke oxidative stress. The production rates, as well as the quantitative composition of 16 volatile halocarbons, were strongly species-dependent and different types of responses to temperature were recorded. However, no response patterns to temperature change were found that were consistent for all species or for all halocarbons. We conclude that the production of certain halocarbons may increase with temperature in certain algal species, but that the amount and composition of the volatile halocarbons released by algal communities are probably more affected by temperature-associated species shifts. These results may have implications for climatic change scenarios.

  1. Headspace-free setup of in vitro bioassays for the evaluation of volatile disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Dutt, Mriga; Escher, Beate I

    2013-11-18

    The conventional setup of in vitro bioassays in microplates does not prevent the loss of volatile compounds, which hampers the toxicological characterization of waterborne volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs). To minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals, we adapted four in vitro bioassays to a headspace-free setup using eight volatile organic compounds (four trihalomethanes, 1,1-dichloroethene, bromoethane, and two haloacetonitriles) that cover a wide range of air-water partition coefficients. The nominal effect concentrations of the test chemicals decreased by up to three orders of magnitude when the conventional setup was changed to a headspace-free setup for the bacterial cytotoxicity assay using bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The increase of apparent sensitivity correlated significantly with the air-water partition coefficient. Purge and trap GC/MS analysis revealed a reduced loss of dosed volatile compounds in the headspace free setup (78-130% of nominal concentration) compared to a substantial loss in the conventional set up (2-13% of the nominal concentration). The experimental effect concentrations converged with the headspace-free setup to the effect concentrations predicted by a QSAR model, confirming the suitability of the headspace-free approach to minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals. The analogue headspace-free design of the bacterial bioassays for genotoxicity (umuC assay) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation assay) increased the number of compounds detected as genotoxic or mutagenic from one to four and zero to two, respectively. In a bioassay with a mammalian cell line applied for detecting the induction of the Nrf-2-mediated oxidative stress response (AREc32 assay), the headspace-free setup improved the apparent sensitivity by less than one order of magnitude, presumably due to the retaining effect of the serum components in the medium, which is also reflected in the reduced aqueous concentrations of compounds. This

  2. Abnormality of taste and smell in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mussadiq; Deeb, Jacquie; Fernando, Marina; Noyce, Alastair; Visentin, Elisa; Findley, Leslie J; Hawkes, Christopher H

    2009-03-01

    Smell sense is impaired in classic Parkinson's disease (PD). An initial study found no change in taste threshold in non-demented PD subjects and pathological studies suggest that the first relay for taste, the nucleus of the solitary tract, is spared. We wished to determine if taste is abnormal in PD and whether it is associated with smell dysfunction. Taste threshold was estimated using the Rion electrogustometer and olfaction by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in 75 non-demented PD patients and 74 controls. There was a significant impairment of taste threshold and severe disorder of smell identification in the PD group. Age, duration of symptoms, disability, and smoking had no important effect on threshold measurement and there was no correlation between taste and smell dysfunction. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a provisional diagnosis of PD would be confirmed if smell or taste were abnormal; conversely, the diagnosis would merit review if both modalities were normal. Impaired taste appreciation was found in about 27% of patients with clinically defined PD. There were no important effects from age, disease severity or smell sense. Given the sparing of the first and second order taste neurones in PD, disorder of taste in PD most likely signifies involvement of the frontal operculum or orbitofrontal cortex, in keeping with advanced disease, although confounding by drug effects and changes in salivary constitution could not be excluded completely.

  3. An Eclipse Plugin to Support Code Smells Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pessoa, Tiago; Monteiro, Miguel Pessoa; Bryton, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Eradication of code smells is often pointed out as a way to improve readability, extensibility and design in existing software. However, code smell detection in large systems remains time consuming and error-prone, partly due to the inherent subjectivity of the detection processes presently available. In view of mitigating the subjectivity problem, this paper presents a tool that automates a technique for the detection and assessment of code smells in Java source code, developed as an Eclipse plug-in. The technique is based upon a Binary Logistic Regression model and calibrated by expert's knowledge. A short overview of the technique is provided and the tool is described.

  4. Method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography in daily practice

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Makhomet, Andrey A; Guguchkina, Tatiana I; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2016-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography (GC) is investigated from different sides including method testing on prepared standard solutions like cognac and brandy, different ethanol-water solutions and certified reference material CRM LGC5100 Whisky-Congeners. Analysis of obtained results of experimental study from four different laboratories shows that relative bias between the experimentally measured concentrations calculated in accordance with proposed method and the values of concentrations assigned during the preparation by gravimetric method for all analyzed compounds does not exceed 10 %. It is shown that relative response factors (RRF) between analyzed volatile compounds and ethanol do not depend on time of analysis and are constant for every model of GC. It is shown the possibility to use predetermined RRF in daily practice of testing laboratories and to implement this new method in the international s...

  5. TEACHING NOTE FOR CASE STUDY: “STRATEGIC DECISION-MAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: INNOVATION AND NEW PRODUCT INTRODUCTION DURING VOLATILE TIMES”

    OpenAIRE

    Maud Roucan-Kane; Michael Boehlje

    2009-01-01

    This teaching note accompanies the case study titled “Strategic Decision Making under Uncertainty: Innovation and New Product Introduction during Volatile Times” published under the reference: Boehlje, M. And M. Roucan-Kane, ”Strategic Decision Making under Uncertainty: Innovation and New Product Introduction during Volatile Times”, International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 12 (4), 2009. This case study outlines the strategic, marketing, and organizational issues facing the farm ...

  6. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles were...

  7. Production of volatile aroma compounds by bacterial strains isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetae, Pawinee; Bonnarme, Pascal; Spinnler, Henry E; Helinck, Sandra

    2007-10-01

    Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified using dynamic headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) appeared to be produced by the different bacteria on a casamino acid medium. Four out of eight species used in this study: B. linens, M. foliorum, P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showed a high flavouring potential. Among these four bacterial species, P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest varieties but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds having low olfactive thresholds such as sulphur compounds. Branched aldehydes, alcohols and esters were produced in large amounts by P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showing their capacity to breakdown the branched amino acids. This investigation shows that some common but rarely mentioned bacteria present on the surface of ripened cheeses could play a major role in cheese flavour formation and could be used to produce cheese flavours.

  8. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed m

  9. Emission of volatile organic compounds and production of secondary organic aerosol from stir-frying spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Liu, Qianyun; Li, Zijun; Huo, Lei; Chan, ManNin; Li, Xue; Zhou, Zhen; Chan, Chak K

    2017-12-01

    Cooking is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a potential source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) both indoors and outdoors. In this study, VOC emissions from heating corn oil and stir-frying spices (i.e. garlic, ginger, myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum (Sichuan pepper)) were characterized using an on-line membrane inlet vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). VOC emissions from heating corn oil were dominated by aldehydes, which were enhanced by factors of one order of magnitude when stir-frying spices. Stir-frying any of the spices studied generated large amounts of methylpyrrole (m/z 81). In addition, stir-frying garlic produced abundant dihydrohydroxymaltol (m/z 144) and diallyldisulfide (DADS) (m/z 146), while stir-frying ginger, myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum produced abundant monoterpenes (m/z 136) and terpenoids (m/z 152, 154). SOA formed from emissions of stir-frying spices through reactions with excess ozone in a flow reactor as well as primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions were characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). Stir-frying garlic and ginger generated similar POA concentrations to those from heating corn oil while stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum generated double the amount of emissions. No SOA was observed from stir-frying garlic and ginger. The rates of SOA production from stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum were 1.8μgmin(-1)gspice(-1) and 8.7μgmin(-1)gspice(-1), equivalent to 13.4% and 53.1% of their own POA emission rates, respectively. Therefore, the contribution of stir-frying spices to ambient organic aerosol levels is likely dominated by POA. The rates of total terpene emission from stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum were estimated to be 5.1μgmin(-1)gspice(-1) and 24.9μgmin(-1)gspice(-1), respectively. Our results suggest

  10. COMPARING GIBBS ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR AMMONIA VOLATILIZATIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS FOR POTATO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil drought, that can be enhanced by global warming increases ammonia (NH3 volatilization. This laboratory study was conducted with two soils: Krome Gravelly Loam (KGL from Florida and Warden Silt Loam (WSL from Washington State and two fertilizers: Ammonium sulfate [(NH42SO4] or ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3. Two water regimes including 20 and 80% Field Capacity (FC were used at 20°C which is the average temperature in the potato growing season in Washington State. The data demonstrated that variation in NH3 volatilization subject to different soil water regimes can be explained by changes in Gibbs free energy of Nitrogen (N fertilization in soils with varying water contents. The absolute values of Gibbs free energy of (NH42SO4 or NH4NO3 applied to soil at 20% FC soil water regime were 5-fold greater than at 80% FC. Accordingly, the equilibrium constant (K of deprotonation of ammonium ions in soil solutions at 20% FC was 3,000- or 50-fold greater than that at 80% FC for (NH42SO4 or NH4NO3, respectively. Nitrogen loss via NH3 volatilization was 4-to 7-fold greater at 20% FC than that at 80% FC. This study suggests potential acceleration of NH3 volatilization from soils under drought. Therefore, optimal water management is critical to mitigate NH3 volatilization from agricultural soils.

  11. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D.; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids.

  12. Preparation, properties and potential applications of a photocurable varnish with pleasant limonene smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarczyk Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photocurable materials which are obtained on the basis of urethane acrylate resins are often used in the industry for the production varnishes or protective coatings. The main disadvantage which is connected with the utilization of these varnishes is their unpleasant smell during the process of production and curing. This work presents the photocurable varnish which was obtained on the basis of aliphatic urethane acrylate and R-(+-limonene. The utilization of this raw materials allows to obtain the smelling coatings. The aim of this work were the studies on the influence of limonene molecules on the mechanical properties of the UV-cured coatings. These studies showed that the coatings with limonene molecules retain their properties, and are characterized by the very good adhesion, cohesion and high gloss. These kinds of varnishes can be applied for preparation of appropriate protective coatings on the surface of wood, metals, and nail plates. These protective coatings have not only pleasure smell but also can have the bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The studies performed with Escherichia coli ATCC29425 and Candida albicans confirmed these properties.

  13. Assessment of Smell Function in Syndromic Craniosynostosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Casey; Attlmayr, Bernhard; Dalton, Lucy; Upile, Navdeep; Xie, Carol; De, Su

    2016-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as premature fusion of the cranial suture lines and is part of a syndrome in 15% to 40% of the patients. There is limited literature available regarding these children's ability to smell. Most of them will undergo numerous surgical procedures, some of which may alter their sense of smell, potentially leading to significant social as well as safety implications. Ethical approval was obtained for this pilot study. Children with syndromic craniosynostosis were recruited and underwent anterior rhinoscopy, prior to performing a smell test utilizing the Sensonic pediatric Smell wheel. The results were compared to an age-matched control group. Eight children with syndromic craniosynostosis participated in the study. Of a possible total score of 11, their mean average score was 6.6 and the median was 6. In comparison, the mean average score for the control group was 7.5 and the median was 7. Although the study group was small, this pilot study demonstrates that children with syndromic craniosynostosis have a similar ability to identify smells to an age-matched cohort. Further research can now be undertaken to see whether or not midface advancement procedures affect these children's sense of smell.

  14. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  15. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts.

  16. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles were...... followed throughout a ripening period of three weeks. The staphylococci exhibited the fastest growth in sausages with a low inoculation level, whereas growth was only moderate in sausages with a high initial level. Analysis of volatiles showed that methyl-branched aldehydes and acids, phenylacetaldehyde, 2......-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide and dimethyltrisulphide were produced in higher amounts in sausages with a high inoculation level of S. carnosus, whercas a low inoculation level correlated with high amounts of diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters. The levels of most compounds increased over time...

  17. Effects of volatiles on melt production and reactive flow in the mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Magmatism in the Earth interior has a significant impact on its dynamic, thermal and compositional evolution. Experimental studies of petrology of mantle melting find that small concentrations of water and carbon dioxide have a significant effect on the solidus temperature and distribution of melting in the upper mantle. However, it has remained unclear what effect small fractions of deep, volatile-rich melts have on melting and melt transport in the shallow asthenosphere. We present a method to simulate the thermochemical evolution of the upper mantle in the presence of volatiles. The method is based on a novel, thermodynamically consistent framework for reactive, disequilibrium, multi-component melting/crystallisation. This is coupled with a system of equations representing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for a partially molten grain aggregate. Application of this method to upwelling-column models demonstrates that it captures leading-order features of hydrated and carbonated peridotite melting. ...

  18. Enzymatic production and emission of floral scent volatiles in Jasminum sambac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Paramita; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2017-03-01

    Floral scent composed of low molecular weight volatile organic compounds. The sweet fragrance of any evening blooming flower is dominated by benzenoid and terpenoid volatile compounds. Floral scent of Jasminum sambac (Oleaceae) includes three major benzenoid esters - benzylacetate, methylbenzoate, and methylsalicylate and three major terpene compounds viz. (E)-β-ocimene, linalool and α-farnesene. We analyzed concentrations and emission rates of benzenoids and terpenoids during the developmental stages of J. sambac flower. In addition to spatial emission from different floral parts, we studied the time-course mRNA accumulations of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the two representative genes of terpenoid pathway, namely 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and terpene synthase (TPS). Further, in vitro activities of several enzymes of phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway viz., PAL and acetyl-coenzyme A: benzylalcohol acetyltransferase (BEAT), S-adenosyl-l-methionine: benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase (BAMT) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine: salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) were studied. All the above enzyme activities along with the in vitro activities of DXR and TPS were found to follow a certain rhythm as observed in the emission of different benzenoid and terpenoid compounds. Linalool emission peaked after petal opening and coincided with maximal expression of JsTPS gene as evidenced from RT-PCR analyses (semi-quantitative). The maximum transcript accumulation of this gene was observed in flower petals, indicating that the petals of J. sambac flower play an important role as a major contributor of volatile precursors. The transcripts accumulation of JsDXR and JsTPS in different developmental stages and in different floral part showed that emissions of terpenoid volatiles in J. sambac flower are partially regulated at transcription levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrizia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romaniello, Rossana; Zambuto, Marianna; Calabretti, Antonella; Capece, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of > 50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells.

  20. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  1. NUCLEOTIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF NILE PERCH (LATES NILOTICUS FILLETS UNDER CHILLED STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kiri Amegovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation products of adenosine nucleotide and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN concentration provide means of ascertaining freshness of commercial fish products. A complementary sensory analysis has also been adopted by export markets for assessing the quality of fresh fish. Nucleotide breakdown products and TVBN was determined in fresh fillets from beach seined and gill netted Nile perch, a highly commercialized freshwater fish from Lake Victoria (Uganda, under chilled storage. Microbiological and sensory qualities were also evaluated. Total plate and Pseudomonas spp. counts positively correlated with TVBN. Basing on sensory, microbiological and biochemical attributes of the fillets, shelf-life of gill netted Nile perch was lower (13 days than that of the beach seined (17 days. Fillets of beach seined Nile perch have a better keeping quality than that of the gill netted.

  2. Optimization of volatile fatty acids and hydrogen production from Saccharina japonica: acidogenesis and molecular analysis of the resulting microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonsu; Kim, Woong; Park, Gwon Woo; Seo, Charles; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen from mixed anaerobic cultures of Saccharina japonica with respect to two independent variables: methanogenic inhibitor concentration and temperature. The effects of four methanogenic inhibitors on acidogenic processes were tested, and qualitative microbial analyses were carried out. Escherichia, Acinetobacter, and Clostridium were the most predominant genera in samples treated with chloroform (CHCl3), iodoform (CHI3), 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), or β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), respectively. RSM showed that the production of VFAs reached a peak of 12.5 g/L at 38.6 °C in the presence of 7.4 g/L β-CD; these were the conditions under which hydrogen production was also nearly maximal. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that shifts in the bacterial community population correlated with the concentrations of β-CD indicating that this compound effectively inhibited methanogens.

  3. Development of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for concurrent extraction of volatile fatty acids and biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Zaineb; Akimbomi, Julius; Vial, Christophe; Larroche, Christian; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Fontaine, Jean-Pierre

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study an externally-submerged membrane bioreactor for the cyclic extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) during anaerobic fermentation, combining the advantages of submerged and external technologies for enhancing biohydrogen (BioH2) production from agrowaste. Mixing and transmembrane pressure (TMP) across a hollow fiber membrane placed in a recirculation loop coupled to a stirred tank were investigated, so that the loop did not significantly modify the hydrodynamic properties in the tank. The fouling mechanism, due to cake layer formation, was reversible. A cleaning procedure based on gas scouring and backwashing with the substrate was defined. Low TMP, 10(4)Pa, was required to achieve a 3Lh(-1)m(-2) critical flux. During fermentation, BioH2 production was shown to restart after removing VFAs with the permeate, so as to enhance simultaneously BioH2 production and the recovery of VFAs as platform molecules.

  4. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAZIANO, Talita Signoreti; CALIL, Caroline Morini; SARTORATTO, Adilson; FRANCO, Gilson César Nobre; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; COGO-MÜLLER, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet) and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine. PMID:28076463

  5. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  6. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  7. A role for lung retention in the sense of retronasal smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Justus V.

    2015-01-01

    In olfaction, odors typically engage the lungs on the way to the nose to evoke retronasal smell. This is most notable when the lung has a first pass effect during smoking/vaping, but also upon exhaling after sniffing an odor. The lungs act as a sink for odors, which can both reduce the retronasal odor concentration and the odor mixture makeup. Lung retention is a simple measure that quantifies the effectiveness of the sink. Lung retention has been studied in the context of environmental toxicology and is known for many volatile organic compounds. Available data on human lung retention suggests that the lungs may have a large impact on odor perception, and that this may depend heavily on the specifics of active sampling such as sniffing, smoking and vaping. Suggestions are included for transient measures and models of lung retention. PMID:26557213

  8. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (......) and HS-CC. AV indicated sample degradations at 90 degrees C but only small alterations between 60 and 75 degrees C. HS-GC showed increasing response with temperature and rime. Purging at 75 degrees C for 45 min was selected as the preferred sampling condition for oxidized fish oil....

  9. Influence of environmental conditions on production of volatiles by Trichoderma atroviride in relation with the sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizzi, Viviana [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Picco, Anna Maria [Pavia University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Territorial Ecology and Environment, via S. Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Adriaens, Els; Lenoir, Joke [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    A Trichoderma atroviride strain was isolated from a water-damaged office and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction GC-MS. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to elucidate a possible relationship between MVOCs, produced by Trichoderma atroviride, and the Sick Building Syndrome. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar (MEA) than on wallpaper and plasterboard. Particular attention was dedicated to the volatile marker 6-pentyl-2-pyrone, a compound produced in high quantities on MEA, and its mucosal irritation potency was shown in a slug mucosal irritation assay. Some compounds characteristic for growth on specific building materials were detected, e.g. 2-ethylcyclopentanone, menthone, iso-menthone and trans-p-menth-2-en-7-ol on plasterboard and 4-heptanone and 1-octen-3-ol on wallpaper. Relative humidity and substrate had a more important effect on MVOC production than temperature. (author)

  10. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  11. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage.

  12. The effect of sugar concentration and temperature on growth and volatile phenol production by Dekkera bruxellensis in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Pagliara, Daniela; Piccininno, Tiziana; Tarantino, Francesco; Ciardulli, Wilma; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2008-11-01

    The wine spoilage yeast Dekkera bruxellensis was evaluated for the production of 4-ethylphenol under low concentrations (0.02-20 g L(-1)) of glucose and fructose in synthetic media. Measurable amounts of 4-ethylphenol were produced over 0.2 g L(-1) of each sugar. The yeast growth rate and amount of biomass formed increased from 0.2 to 20 g L(-1) of glucose or fructose, being accompanied by increasing production of 4-ethylphenol. In red wines, the production of 4-ethylphenol was only observed in the presence of growing populations of indigenous or inoculated strains of D. bruxellensis. The production rate of 4-ethylphenol varied between 22 and 93 mug day(-1) either with inoculated strains or wild populations in bottled wines. The production rate of 4-ethylphenol as a function of the increase in the number of cells varied from 349 to 1882 mug L(-1) per one log CFU mL(-1). The effect of temperature on cellular viability and 4-ethylphenol production was tested in red wines with indigenous or inoculated strains of D. bruxellensis. Incubation temperatures of 15, 20 and 25 degrees C allowed cellular growth and volatile phenol production. Increasing incubation temperatures to 36 degrees C induced full viability loss of 10 strains of D. bruxellensis within <12 h.

  13. The sense of smell in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfeld, Netta; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Flitman-Katzevman, Iveta; Paran, Daphna; Katz, Bat-sheva Porat; Kivity, Shaye; Langevitz, Pnina; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-05-01

    To assess the olfactory functions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and to examine the association between the sense of smell and disease activity and central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Olfactory functions in 50 SLE patients and 50 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test, the 3 stages of which are threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) of different odors. TDI scores were analyzed according to SLE disease activity and CNS involvement. In both the SLE and control groups, smell deficit correlated with male sex and older age. A decrease in the sense of smell was observed in SLE patients (46%) and controls (25%) (Psmell (anosmia) was documented only in SLE patients (10%). Total TDI scores and individual stages of smell correlated with SLE Disease Activity Index (Psmell in SLE patients compared with healthy subjects and that the decrease in the sense of smell among SLE patients correlates with disease activity and CNS involvement.

  14. Fast analysis of volatile organic compounds and disinfection by-products in drinking water using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niri, Vadoud H; Bragg, Leslie; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-08-08

    A fast method was developed for the extraction and analysis of volatile organic compounds, including disinfection by-products (DBPs), with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. A GC/time-of-flight (TOF)-MS instrument, which had fast acquisition rates and powerful deconvolution software, was used. Under optimum conditions total runtime was 45s. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including purgeable A and B compounds (listed in US Environmental Protection Agency method 624), were identified in standard water samples. Extraction times were 1min for more volatile compounds and 2min for less volatile compounds. The method was applied to the analysis of water samples treated under different disinfection processes and the results were compared with those from a liquid-liquid extraction method.

  15. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  16. Taste and smell dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Chan, Ada; Gabriel, Melissa; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Reduced or altered taste and smell function may occur as a side-effect of cancer therapy. This can lead to altered nutrient and energy intake. Some studies have suggested that taste and smell dysfunction can persist many years after treatment completion but this has not been previously assessed in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if taste and smell dysfunction is present in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Food preference and Quality of Life was also assessed. Fifty-one child cancer survivors (mean age: 19.69±7.09years), more than five years since treatment completion, (mean: 12.4years) were recruited from the long term follow-up clinics at two Sydney-based children's hospitals. Taste function was assessed using a 25 sample taste identification test comprising five concentrations each of sweet, salty, sour and bitter tastes and water. Smell function was assessed by determining the ability of participants to identify 16 common odorants. The participants' Quality of Life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia Cachexia scale and food preferences were assessed using a 94-item food liking tool. Taste dysfunction was found in 27.5% of participants (n=14), and smell dysfunction in 3.9% (n=2) of participants. The prevalence of taste dysfunction was higher than that seen in the non-cancer population. The child cancer survivors' appeared to "like" the less healthy food groups such as flavoured beverages, takeaway and snacks over healthier food groups such as vegetables and salad. No correlation was found between those with a taste dysfunction and their food "likes". A high level of taste dysfunction was found in CCS though there did not appear to be an issue with smell dysfunction. Further work is also needed to assess whether a taste dysfunction do play a role in the dietary habits of CCS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A computational microscope focused on the sense of smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de March, Claire A; Golebiowski, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we review studies of the protagonists of the perception of smell focusing on Odorant-Binding Proteins and Olfactory Receptors. We notably put forward studies performed by means of molecular modeling, generally combined with experimental data. Those works clearly emphasize that computational approaches are now a force to reckon with. In the future, they will certainly be more and more used, notably in the framework of a computational microscope meant to observe how the laws of physics govern the biomolecular systems originating our sense of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  19. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  20. Volatile organic compounds and metal leaching from composite products made from fiberglass-resin portion of printed circuit board waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-01-17

    This study focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metal leaching from three kinds of composite products made from fiberglass-resin portion (FRP) of crushed printed circuit board (PCB) waste, including phenolic molding compound (PMC), wood plastic composite (WPC), and nonmetallic plate (NMP). Released VOCs from the composite products were quantified by air sampling on adsorbent followed by thermal desorption and GC-MS analysis. The results showed that VOCs emitted from composite products originated from the added organic components during manufacturing process. Phenol in PMC panels came primarily from phenolic resin, and the airborne concentration of phenol emitted from PMC product was 59.4 ± 6.1 μg/m(3), which was lower than odor threshold of 100% response for phenol (180 μg/m(3)). VOCs from WPC product mainly originated from wood flour, e.g., benzaldehyde, octanal, and d-limonene were emitted in relatively low concentrations. For VOCs emitted from NMP product, the airborne concentration of styrene was the highest (633 ± 67 μg/m(3)). Leaching characteristics of metal ions from composite products were tested using acetic acid buffer solution and sulphuric acid and nitric acid solution. Then the metal concentrations in the leachates were tested by ICP-AES. The results showed that only the concentration of Cu (average = 893 mg/L; limit = 100 mg/L) in the leachate solution of the FRP using acetic acid buffer solution exceeded the standard limit. However, concentrations of other metal ions (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba, and Ni) were within the standard limit. All the results indicated that the FRP in composite products was not a major concern in terms of environmental assessment based upon VOCs tests and leaching characteristics.

  1. cAMP and cGMP in nasal mucus related to severity of smell loss in patients with smell dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, R I; Velicu, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate nasal mucus levels of cAMP and cGMP in patients with taste and smell dysfunction with respect to severity of their smell loss. cAMP and cGMP were measured in nasal mucus using a sensitive spectrophotometric 96 plate ELISA technique. Smell loss was measured in patients with taste and smell dysfunction by standardized psychophysical measurements of olfactory function and classified by severity of loss into four types from most severe to least severe such that anosmia > Type I hyposmia > Type II hyposmia > Type III hyposmia. Measurements of nasal mucus cyclic nucleotides and smell loss were made independently. As smell loss severity increased stepwise cAMP and cGMP levels decreased stepwise [cAMP, cGMP (in pmol/ml); anosmia - 0.004, 0.008: Type I hyposmia - 0.12+/-0.03, 0.10+/-0.03: Type II hyposmia - 0.15+/-0.02, 0.16+/-0.01: Type III hyposmia - 0.23+/-0.05, 0.20+/-0.15]. These results confirm the association of biochemical changes in cyclic nucleotides with systematic losses of smell acuity. These results confirm the usefulness of the psychophysical methods we defined to determine the systematic classification of smell loss severity. These changes can form the basis for the biochemical definition of smell loss among some patients with smell loss as well as for their therapy.

  2. Comparison of Three Methods for Extraction of Volatile Lipid Oxidation Products from Food Matrices for GC–MS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different collection methods; purge and trap, solid phase micro extraction and automated dynamic headspace/thermal desorption, all followed by GC–MS analysis used for the measurements of concentrations of volatile oxidation products in three different food...... matrices, namely oil, emulsion and milk. The linearity ranges of calibration curves obtained by the three different methods were compared for oil samples. Overall, the results showed that the three collection methods were comparable, although there were large differences in the linearity range...... of the calibration curves depending on the collection method. However, some challenges were observed for solid phase micro extraction and automated dynamic headspace/thermal desorption, namely, competition problems and overestimation of concentration by calibration curves, respectively. Based on the results, we...

  3. Hydroperoxide-lyase activity in mint leaves. Volatile C6-aldehyde production from hydroperoxy-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Mohamed; Drouet, Philippe; Legoy, Marie-Dominique

    2004-07-01

    The extraction of 13-hydroperoxide-lyase activity from mint leaves as well as its use for C6-aldehyde production was studied in this work. The enzyme cleaves 13(S)-hydroperoxy-C18 fatty acids into C6-aldehyde and C12-oxo-acid. Two mint species were tested: Mentha veridis and Mentha pulegium. The headspace injection method coupled to gas chromatography was used for volatile compound analysis. The optimal conditions for temperature and pH were, respectively, 15 and 7 degrees C. We also studied the specific synthesis of hexanal and hexenals respectively from 13(S)-hydroperoxy-linoleic acid and 13(S)-hydroperoxy-linolenic acid. Considerable quantities of aldehyde (up to 2.58 micromol) were produced after 15 min of cleavage reaction in 2 ml stirred at 100 rpm, especially in presence of extract of M. veridis. The conversion yields decreased from 52.5% as maximum to 3.3% when using initial hydroperoxide concentrations between 0.2 and 15 mM. An unsaturated aldehyde, the 3(Z)-hexenal was produced from 13(S)-hydroperoxy-linolenic acid. The 3(Z)-isomer was unstable and isomerized in part to 2(E)-hexenal. In this work, we observed a very limited isomerization of 3(Z)-hexenal to 2(E)-hexenal, since the reaction and the volatile purge were carried out successively in the same flask without delay or any contact with the atmosphere. These aldehydes contribute to the fresh green odor in plants and are widely used in perfumes and in food technology. Their importance increases especially when the starting materials are of natural biological origin as used in this work. GC-MS analysis allowed the identification of the products.

  4. Seeing smells: development of an optoelectronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Suslick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of an array of chemically-responsive dyes on a porous membrane and in its use as a general sensor for odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs is reviewed. These colorimetric sensor arrays (CSA act as an "optoelectronic nose" by using an array of multiple dyes whose color changes are based on the full range of intermolecular interactions. The CSA is digitally imaged before and after exposure and the resulting difference map provides a digital fingerprint for any VOC or mixture of odorants. The result is an enormous increase in discriminatory power among odorants compared to prior electronic nose technologies. For the detection of biologically important analytes, including amines, carboxylic acids, and thiols, high sensitivities (ppbv have been demonstrated. The array is essentially non-responsive to changes in humidity due to the hydrophobicity of the dyes and membrane.

  5. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β-CD addition (0.2 g/g TS performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β-CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18–3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  6. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  7. Development of volatile compounds during storage at various conditions of different lipid containing lip balm products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Horn, A. F.; Hyldig, Grethe

    Many lip balms contain various lipids to care and soften the lips. However, the content of these lipids even in small amounts increases the risk of oxidation when exposed to heat, light or other conditions with a pro-oxidative effect. The progress of oxidation can be affected by several factors...... volatile compounds with off-odours. This presentation will include results from a storage experiment on four lip balms stored between 14 and 84 days, under different conditions. The samples were exposed to heat (20°C, 40°C and 50°C), light (samples at 20°C) and iron (samples at 40°C). Samples were analysed......; the degree of unsaturation, the content of antioxidants and the quality of the raw materials. When stored in the homes of consumers the lip balms may be exposed to relatively high temperatures and light. Hence, especially lip balms sold in countries with a warm climate can undergo lipid oxidation and develop...

  8. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil.

  9. Think You Know How Smell Works? Sniff Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sandeepa; Stowers, Lisa

    2016-06-16

    The sense of smell is mediated by GPCRs in the odorant receptor (OR) family. Greer et al. report a new family of odor detectors, MS4As, that have similar cellular localization and chemodetection ability as ORs but are not GPCRs and follow a strikingly different logic of odor coding at the periphery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  11. Prevalence of smell loss in Parkinson's disease - A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haehner, A.; Boesveldt, S.; Berendse, H.W.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Fleischman, J.; Silburn, P.A.; Johnston, A.N.; Mellick, G.D.; Herting, B.; Reichmann, H.; Hummel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Previous data on the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) range from 45% to 90%. The present multicenter study aimed to provide data on the prevalence of smell loss in a large sample of PD patients from three independent populations. Olfactory sensitivity was tested in 400

  12. Evaluating the Lifespan of Code Smells using Software Repository Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: 16th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering (CSMR), 27-30 March 2012; doi:10.1109/CSMR.2012.79 An anti-pattern is a commonly occurring solution to a recurring problem that will typically negatively impact code quality. Code smells are considere

  13. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (cosmetics (n = 5); 8.4, 0.32 mg/g and products, respectively. The calculated median aggregate daily dermal exposure to D4 and D5 from multiple C&PCPs was approximately 100 times lower than the current NOAEL derived from chronic inhalation rat studies. © 2013.

  14. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow.

  15. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction.

  16. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in plastic products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Pajaro-Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastic materials are widely used in daily life. They contain a wide range of compounds with low molecular mass, including monomeric and oligomeric residues of polymerization, solvent-related chemicals residues, and various additives. Plastic products made of expanded polystyrene (EPS are currently employed as food containers. This study therefore sought to identify volatile organic compounds released by EPS from food packages and utensils used in Cartagena, Colombia. EPS-based plates, food and soup containers were subjected to various temperatures and released chemicals captured by solid phase microextraction, followed by on-column thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The results revealed the presence of at least 30 different compounds in the EPS-based products examined; the most frequently found were benzaldehyde, styrene, ethylbenzene and tetradecane. The release of these molecules was temperature-dependent. It is therefore advisable to regulate the use of EPS products which may be subjected to heating in order to protect human health by decreasing the exposure to these chemicals.

  17. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  18. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  19. Sensing marine biomolecules: smell, taste, and the evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto eMollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The usual definition of smell and taste as distance and contact forms of chemoreception, respectively, has resulted in the belief that, during the shift from aquatic to terrestrial life, odorant receptors (ORs were selected mainly to recognize airborne hydrophobic ligands, instead of the hydrophilic molecules involved in marine remote-sensing. This post-adaptive evolutionary scenario, however, neglects the fact that marine organisms 1 produce and detect a wide range of small hydrophobic and volatile molecules, especially terpenoids, and 2 contain genes coding for ORs that are able to bind those compounds. These apparent anomalies can be resolved by adopting an alternative, pre-adaptive scenario. Before becoming airborne on land, small molecules, almost insoluble in water, already played a key role in aquatic communication, but acting in contact forms of olfaction that did not require major molecular innovations to become effective at a distance in air. Rather, when air was invaded by volatile marine terpenoids, an expansion of the spatial range of olfaction was an incidental consequence rather than an adaptation.

  20. Sensing marine biomolecules: smell, taste, and the evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Ernesto; Fontana, Angelo; Roussis, Vassilios; Polese, Gianluca; Amodeo, Pietro; Ghiselin, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The usual definition of smell and taste as distance and contact forms of chemoreception, respectively, has resulted in the belief that, during the shift from aquatic to terrestrial life, odorant receptors (ORs) were selected mainly to recognize airborne hydrophobic ligands, instead of the hydrophilic molecules involved in marine remote-sensing. This post-adaptive evolutionary scenario, however, neglects the fact that marine organisms 1) produce and detect a wide range of small hydrophobic and volatile molecules, especially terpenoids, and 2) contain genes coding for ORs that are able to bind those compounds. These apparent anomalies can be resolved by adopting an alternative, pre-adaptive scenario. Before becoming airborne on land, small molecules, almost insoluble in water, already played a key role in aquatic communication, but acting in “contact” forms of olfaction that did not require major molecular innovations to become effective at a distance in air. Rather, when air was “invaded” by volatile marine terpenoids, an expansion of the spatial range of olfaction was an incidental consequence rather than an adaptation.

  1. Smell and taste function in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jessica E; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Kainer, Gad

    2010-08-01

    Loss of appetite and poor growth are common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and changes in smell and/or taste function may be responsible, but the hypothesis has not been proven. This aims of this prospective age- and gender-controlled study were to determine whether: (1) changes in smell and taste function occur in children with CKD; (2) smell or taste dysfunction are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); (3) there is an association between smell or taste loss and body mass index (BMI). The study cohort consisted of 72 children of whom 20 were CKD stage 3-5 patients, 12 were CKD stage 2 patients, 20 were clinical controls (CC) and 20 were healthy children (HC). The CKD patients and clinical controls were recruited from Sydney Children's Hospital and The Children's Hospital, Westmead, and healthy controls were recruited from a local school. Scores for each group from taste and smell chemosensory function tests were compared, and their relationship with renal function and BMI investigated. The CKD stage 3-5 group had a significantly lower taste identification score (85.6%, P children in the CKD stage 3-5 group exhibiting taste loss. Decreased taste function was associated with decreased eGFR (r = 0.43, P 0.9). Odour identification scores were not different; however, there was a positive relationship with BMI (r = 0.427, P = 0.006). We conclude that a loss of taste can occur in children with CKD and that when it occurs, it worsens as eGFR declines and is found early in kidney disease.

  2. Production of medium-chain volatile fatty acids by mixed ruminal microorganisms is enhanced by ethanol in co-culture with Clostridium kluyveri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermentative production of medium-chain (C5-C8) volatile fatty acids by the carboxylate platform has several potential advantages as a route to biofuel precursors. However, its practicality is limited by the relatively slow synthesis of these acids from shorter precursors (C2-C4) that accumulate dur...

  3. Do you smell what I smell? Genetic variation in olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Darren W

    2014-08-01

    The sense of smell is mediated by the detection of chemical odours by ORs (olfactory receptors) in the nose. This initiates a neural percept of the odour in the brain, which may provoke an emotional or behavioural response. Analogous to colour-blindness in the visual system, some individuals report a very different percept of specific odours to others, in terms of intensity, valence or detection threshold. A significant proportion of variance in odour perception is heritable, and recent advances in genome sequencing and genotyping technologies have permitted studies into the genes that underpin these phenotypic differences. In the present article, I review the evidence that OR genes are extremely variable between individuals. I argue that this contributes to a unique receptor repertoire in our noses that provides us each with a personalized perception of our environment. I highlight specific examples where known OR variants influence odour detection and discuss the wider implications of this for both humans and other mammals that use chemical communication for social interaction.

  4. The evolution of volatile production in C/2009 P1 (Garradd) during its 2011-2012 apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S.; Cordiner, M.; Villanueva, G.; Charnley, S.; Coulson, I.; Remijan, A.; DiSanti, M.; Mumma, M.; Szutowicz, S.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are likely to be the most pristine objects in our Solar System. They provide a record of the physical and chemical conditions in the protosolar nebula between about 5 and 40 au during the epoch when the distinct cometary populations were being assembled (Festou et al. 2004; Jewitt 2004; Mumma & Charnley 2011). Cometary nuclei today reside in (at least) two distinct reservoirs, the Oort Cloud (OC) and the Kuiper Belt (KB). Past observations have shown that comets appear to contain a mixture of products from both interstellar and nebular chemistries and could also have been important for initiating prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Although there are some differences, the volatile composition of cometary ices is generally similar to the inventory of molecules detected in the ices and gas of dense molecular clouds. Given the gradient in physical conditions expected across the proto-Solar nebula, chemical diversity in the comet population is to be expected. Here we report an analysis of long-term ground-based radio observations towards comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd is an OC comet that reached perihelion (at heliocentric distance R_h = 1.55 au) in late December 2011 and had its closest approach to the Earth on 5 March 2012. Like C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at 7.2 au, Garradd exhibited unusual activity at large R_h (8.68 au), displaying a 15'' diameter circular coma (IAUC 9062). It is well known that some comets exhibit volatile activity at large heliocentric distances, where water ice cannot sublime efficiently. Infrared (IRTF/CSHELL, Keck 2/NIRSPEC, and VLT/CRIRES) spectroscopy of Garradd showed clear CO (R1 & R2) emission near λ = 4.7 μ m (2150 cm^{-1}), as well as a suite of molecules (e.g., C_2H_6, CH_4, CH_3OH, H_2CO, HCN, C_2H_2, NH_3) that were also detected near or beyond R_h = 2 au (Villanueva et al. 2012; Paganini et al. 2012; DiSanti et al. 2014). We monitored the abundance of parent volatiles in

  5. Taste and Smell Disturbances in Patients with Gastroparesis and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadi, Alisha; Saadi, Mohammed; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P

    2017-07-30

    Patients with gastroparesis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) often report decreased enjoyment when eating. Some patients remark that food does not smell or taste the same. To determine if taste and/or smell disturbances are present in patients with gastroparesis and/or GERD and relate these to gastrointestinal symptom severity. Patients with gastroparesis and/or GERD completed questionnaires evaluating taste and smell (Taste and Smell Survey [TSS]), Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM), and Demographics. TSS questioned the nature of taste/smell changes and the impact on quality of life. PAGI-SYM was used to calculate Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) and Heartburn and Regurgitation Score (HB/RG). Seventy-six subjects were enrolled: healthy controls (n = 13), gastroparesis alone (n = 30), GERD alone (n = 10), and both gastroparesis and GERD (n = 23). Taste and smell disturbances were higher in patients with gastroparesis, GERD, and both gastroparesis and GERD compared to healthy controls. Taste and smell abnormalities were significantly correlated (r = 0.530, P Smell score was also strongly correlated to HB/RG (r = 0.513, P smell abnormalities are prominent in gastroparesis and GERD patients. Abnormalities in taste and smell are significantly correlated with both gastroparesis and GERD symptom severity. Awareness of this high prevalence of taste and smell dysfunction among patients with gastroparesis and GERD may help to better understand the food intolerances these patients often have.

  6. Studies concerning the production of volatile oil, rhizomes and roots, to different genotypes of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. is considered to pertain to European species, with great ecologic plasticity, which allows its adaptation to climate conditions characteristics to plain areas and also to mountain areas up to an altitude of 2400 meters. The species is a well-known curative plant, with a long history and multiple uses. Essential oils deriving from this species revealed the interest of researchers in food industry, cosmetics and officinal industry, furthermore being used as additives too.The raw material from which essential oils are being extracted is represented mainly by rhizomes and roots. This study has the purpose to emphasize the differences of essential oils production registered based upon the genotypes diversity. Thus, 11 experimental variants have been used, with biologic material of different origin, from Romania, Poland, Germany and Russia; they have been measured in relation to their production of rhizomes, roots and volatile oil, in the ecological conditions of Brasov, Romania.The results proved the superiority of the variants was used Romanian variety M-100, but have also revealed a negative correlation between capacity and essential oil biosynthesis.

  7. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gwon Woo [Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju [Environmental and Plant Engineering Research Institute, KICT, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively.

  8. Significance of the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products on the properties of activated carbons from phosphoric acid activation of lignocellulosic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Songlin; Yang, Jianxiao; Cai, Xuan [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Liu, Junli [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Two series of activated carbons derived from China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood impregnated with phosphoric acid were prepared in a cylindrical container that was kept in a closed state covered with a lid (the covered case) or in an open state. The effects of the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products of starting materials on the properties of activated carbon were investigated in the process of phosphoric acid activation. Elemental analysis and SEM observation showed that both activating in the covered case and increasing the mass of starting material used favored the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products. An investigation of N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms revealed that the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products significantly enhanced mesopore development in the final carbons, especially pores with a size range from 2.5 to 30 nm, with little influence on micropores, and therefore produced a large increase in the adsorption capacity to Vitamin B12 (with a molecular size of 2.09 nm). Activated carbons with highly developed mesopores could be obtained in the covered case. The carbonization mechanism of volatiles was discussed and two different carbonization pathways (in solid and gas phases) were proposed during phosphoric acid activation. (author)

  9. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  10. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  11. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  12. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of taste and smell impairment in a nationwide representative sample of the US population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Doty, Richard L; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-09

    To estimate the prevalence of, and explore potential risk factors for, taste and smell dysfunction in the general population of the USA. A cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014). A total of 3519 men and women aged 40 years and older who participated in NHANES 2013-2014. Using the NHANES Pocket Smell Test, smell impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify 6 or more of the 8 odours. Taste impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify quinine or sodium chloride. The estimated prevalence was 13.5% for smell impairment, 17.3% for taste impairment and 2.2% for taste and smell impairment. For smell, but not taste, prevalence estimates increased with age and were higher in men and ethnic minorities. In backward stepwise logistic regression, low educational attainment, low family income and a history of asthma or cancer were independently associated with a higher prevalence of smell impairment, whereas light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (1-3 drinks/day) was associated with a lower prevalence of this condition. After multivariate adjustment, being non-Hispanic Black Americans, consuming ≥4 drinks of alcohol per day and having a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of taste impairment. Based on a nationally representative multistage probability survey among the US population aged 40 years and older, smell and taste dysfunction affected ∼20.5 million (13.5%) and 26.3 million (17.3%) individuals, respectively. Age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, family income, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and history of asthma or cancer were significant risk factors for smell dysfunction, whereas only ethnicity, heavy alcohol consumption and CVD history were associated with a higher prevalence of taste dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  14. Concentrations of volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids in sheep and goat milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Kayademir, Yasemin; Heid, Carolina; Vetter, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Goat and sheep milk and dairy products thereof are characterized by a strong and unique flavor. In this context, the volatile minor fatty acid 4-ethyloctanoic acid plays a prominent role along with 4-methyloctanoic acid when both are present in free form. Using a novel GC/MS method in the selected ion-monitoring mode, previously developed for sheep subcutaneous adipose tissue, we were able to analyze the total concentrations of these flavor-relevant minor fatty acids as methyl esters in goat and sheep milk as well as in their products. Differences between the concentrations and ratios of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-ethyloctanoic acid in goat milk (n = 4), goat cheese (n = 4), sheep milk (n = 2), and sheep cheese (n = 4) were observed. Goat milk and cheese resulted in higher concentrations for both fatty acids (190 to 480 μg/g milk fat) and smaller 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratios (1.4 to 2.7) compared to sheep milk and cheese (78 to 220 μg/g milk fat; 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratio: 15 to 42). In all samples, the concentration of 4-Me-8:0 exceeded the one of 4-Et-8:0. However, due to its lower flavor threshold value the contribution of 4-Et-8:0 to the flavor was generally >76%. The calculated flavor values were >1400 for goat milk and cheeses and >200 for sheep milk and cheeses. In goat milk and its products, only a proportion of milk and sheep samples would be sufficient to generate the characteristic goaty flavor. Parameters that promote or prevent the release of 4-Me-8:0, and especially 4-Et-8:0, will be decisive for the flavor in the resulting dairy product.

  15. Volatile production during preignition heating. Final technical report, 15 September 1980-30 September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, A.; Chou, H.; Flusberg, A.; Neoh, K.; Orozco, N.; Stickler, D.

    1983-10-01

    Pulverized coal particles, in a flowing inert nitrogen stream, have been heated by high power Carbon Dioxide Laser. The consequence of such an irradiation have proved to be both novel and surprising as a result of the rapid quenching of primary coal products. It ahs been found that the gas phase yield from such heating (typically, temperatures in excess of 1400 K at rates approx. 2 x 10/sup 5/ K/s) is very small (< 0.2 percent of coal carbon and hydrogen). Analysis of the solid residue has shown the presence of fine lacy particulate chains of material of 0.1 ..mu..m diameter, which appears to be soluble in tetrahydrofuran. The yields of solute were significantly much higher than for raw coals. Molecular weight of the solute material was high, being in the range of 600 to 3000. The above and substantiating evidence point to a new mechanism of high heating rate pyrolysis in which only tar-like materials are produced as primary products from the coal. It is hypothesized that gas phase products are primarily the result of secondary reactions of these primary products in the hot gas environments usually employed by other heating techniques.

  16. Bioelectrochemical reduction of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion effluent for the production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaveeti, Sanath; Min, Booki

    2015-12-15

    This study proves for the first time the feasibility of biofuel production from anaerobic digestion effluent via bioelectrochemical cell operation at various applied cell voltages (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 V). An increase in cell voltage from 1 to 2 V resulted in more reduction current generation (-0.48 to -0.78 mA) at a lowered cathode potential (-0.45 to -0.84 mV vs Ag/AgCl). Various alcohols were produced depending on applied cell voltages, and the main products were butanol, ethanol, and propanol. Hydrogen and methane production were also observed in the headspace of the cell. A large amount of lactic acid was unexpectedly formed at all conditions, which might be the primary cause of the limited biofuel production. The addition of neutral red (NR) to the system could increase the cathodic reduction current, and thus more biofuels were produced with an enhanced alcohol formation compared to without a mediator.

  17. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  18. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode...... energy (5.20 e6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8e1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC...

  19. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  20. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  1. Volatile organic compounds at two oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Adam P; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Smith, Luther A; Thoma, Eben D; Whitaker, Donald A; Oliver, Karen D; Wu, Tai; Colon, Maribel; Alston, Lillian; Cousett, Tamira A; Miller, Michael C; Smith, Donald M; Stallings, Casson

    2016-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), along with a traffic-dominated site in downtown Denver, CO. As indicated in the EPA method, VOC concentrations were measured for 14-day sampling periods using passive-diffusive tube samplers with Carbopack X sorbent at fenceline perimeter and other locations. VOCs were significantly higher at the DJB well pad versus the Barnett well pad and were likely due to higher production levels at the DJB well pad during the study. Benzene and toluene were significantly higher at the DJB well pad versus downtown Denver. Except for perchloroethylene, VOCs measured at passive sampler locations (PSs) along the perimeter of the Barnett well pad were significantly higher than PSs farther away. At the DJB well pad, most VOC concentrations, except perchloroethylene, were significantly higher prior to operational changes than after these changes were made. Though limited, the results suggest passive samplers are precise (duplicate precision usually ≤10%) and that they can be useful to assess spatial gradients and operational conditions at well pad locations over time-integrated periods. Recently enacted EPA Methods 325A/B use passive-diffusive tube samplers to measure benzene at multiple fenceline locations at petrochemical refineries. This pilot study presents initial data demonstrating the utility of Methods 325A/B for monitoring at ONG facilities. Measurements revealed elevated concentrations reflective of production levels and spatial gradients of VOCs relative to source proximity at the Barnett well pad, as well as operational changes at the DJB well pad. Though limited, these findings indicate that Methods 325A/B can be useful in application to characterize VOCs at well pad

  2. Taste and smell in aquatic and terrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, E; Garson, M J; Polese, G; Amodeo, P; Ghiselin, M T

    2017-05-10

    Covering: up to 2017The review summarizes results up to 2017 on chemosensory cues occurring in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The chemicals are grouped by their physicochemical properties to compare their potential mobility in the different media. In contrast to what is widely asserted in the literature, the report emphasizes that living organisms encounter and sense molecules of various degrees of solubility and volatility both on land and in aquatic environments. The picture that emerges from the review suggests a substantial revision of the traditional definitions of the chemical senses based on their spatial range, which is currently orienting the literature on chemosensory signaling, in favor of a new vision based on the natural products that are the actual mediators of the chemosensory perceptions. According to this perspective, natural product chemistry is a powerful tool with which to explore the evolutionary history of the chemical senses.

  3. Development of volatile compounds during storage of different skin care products at various conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, A. F.; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    Many skin care products contain various lipids to care and soften the skin. These lipids are either saturated or unsaturated. In the case of even small amounts of unsaturated lipids, these are at risk of oxidizing when exposed to heat, light or other conditions with a pro-oxidative effect. When s...... chromatography-mass spectrometry and peroxide value, and compared to samples stored at 2°C in the dark. In addition, sensory analyses were carried out to assess the off-odours developed in the samples....

  4. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  5. Chocolate smells pink and stripy: Exploring olfactory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Stevenson, Richard J; Rich, Anina N

    2015-01-01

    Odors are often difficult to identify, and can be perceived either via the nose or mouth ("flavor"; not usually perceived as a "smell"). These features provide a unique opportunity to contrast conceptual and perceptual accounts of synesthesia. We presented six olfactory-visual synesthetes with a range of odorants. They tried to identify each smell, evaluate its attributes and illustrate their elicited visual experience. Judges rated the similarity of each synesthetes' illustrations over time (test-retest reliability). Synesthetic images were most similar from the same odor named consistently, but even inconsistently named same odors generated more similar images than different odors. This was driven by hedonic similarity. Odors presented as flavors only resulted in similar images when consistently named. Thus, the primary factor in generating a reliable synesthetic image is the name, with some influence of odor hedonics. Hedonics are a basic form of semantic knowledge, making this consistent with a conceptual basis for synaesthetic links.

  6. Smelling directions: olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

    2014-07-23

    Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway.

  7. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  8. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  9. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  10. Studies of the Atmospheric Chemsitry of Energy-Related Volatile Organic Compounds and of their Atmospheric Reaction Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Atkinson; Janet Arey

    2007-04-14

    The focus of this contract was to investigate selected aspects of the atmospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from energy-related sources as well as from biogenic sources. The classes of VOCs studied were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs, the biogenic VOCs isoprene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, alkenes (including alkenes emitted from vegetation) and their oxygenated atmospheric reaction products, and a series of oxygenated carbonyl and hydroxycarbonyl compounds formed as atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons and other VOCs. Large volume reaction chambers were used to investigate the kinetics and/or products of photolysis and of the gas-phase reactions of these organic compounds with hydroxyl (OH) radicals, nitrate (NO3) radicals, and ozone (O3), using an array of analytical instrumentation to analyze the reactants and products (including gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry). The following studies were carried out. The photolysis rates of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and of eleven isomeric methylnitronaphthalenes were measured indoors using blacklamp irradiation and outdoors using natural sunlight. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals, Cl atoms and NO3 radicals with naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-ethylnaphthalene and the ten dimethylnaphthalene isomers. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with four unsaturated carbonyls and with a series of hydroxyaldehydes formed as atmospheric reaction products of other VOCs, and for the gas-phase reactions of O3 with a series of cycloalkenes. Products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and O3 with a series of biogenically emitted VOCs were identified and quantified. Ambient atmospheric measurements of the concentrations of a

  11. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  12. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids through co-fermentation of macro- and micro-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Herrmann, Christiane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Algae may be fermented to produce hydrogen. However micro-algae (such as Arthrospira platensis) are rich in proteins and have a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which is not ideal for hydrogen fermentation. Co-fermentation with macro-algae (such as Laminaria digitata), which are rich in carbohydrates with a high (C/N) ratio, improves the performance of hydrogen production. Algal biomass, pre-treated with 2.5% dilute H2SO4 at 135°C for 15min, effected a total yield of carbohydrate monomers (CMs) of 0.268g/g volatile solids (VS). The CMs were dominating by glucose and mannitol and most (ca. 95%) were consumed by anaerobic fermentative micro-organisms during subsequent fermentation. An optimal specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of 85.0mL/g VS was obtained at an algal C/N ratio of 26.2 and an algal concentration of 20g VS/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency increased from 31.3% to 54.5% with decreasing algal concentration from 40 to 5 VS g/L.

  13. From the shop to the drain - Volatile methylsiloxanes in cosmetics and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, Daniela; Alves, Arminda; Homem, Vera; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Organosiloxanes are widely used in the formulation of a broad range of cosmetic and personal care products (PCPs), including creams and lotions, bath soaps, shampoo and hair care products to soften, smooth, and moisten. In fact, the intensive and widespread use of organosiloxanes combined with their lipophilic nature, makes them interesting targets for future research, particularly in the toxicology area. This study focused on determining the concentration levels of these compounds in the bestselling brands of PCPs in the Oporto region (Portugal), allowing the estimation of dermal and inhalation exposure to siloxanes and the evaluation of the quantities released to the environment "down-the-drain" and to air. To accomplish this task, a QuEChERS technique ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") was employed to extract the siloxanes from the target PCPs, which has never been tested before. The resulting extract was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection varied between 0.17 (L2) and 3.75ngg(-1) (L5), being much lower than any values reported in the literature for this kind of products. In general, satisfactory precision (Shampoo exhibited the highest concentration for cyclic and aftershaves for linear siloxanes. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 25.04μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 0.35μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for baby/children was estimated. The main contributors for adult dermal exposure were body moisturizers, followed by facial creams and aftershaves, while for babies/children were body moisturizers, followed by shower gel and shampoo. Similarly, the average daily inhalation exposure was also estimated. Values of 1.56μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 0.03μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children were calculated. An estimate of the siloxanes amount released "down-the-drain" into the sewage systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An emission per

  14. Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, André; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Sire, Yannick; Couderc, Marie; Lemaire, Sophie-Andréa; Kreim, Virginie; Roux, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by measuring olfactory intensity. In the absence of nitrate, butyric acid (2304 mgL(-1)), acetic acid (1633 mgL(-1)), propionic acid (1558 mgL(-1)), caproic acid (499 mgL(-1)) and valeric acid (298 mgL(-1)) were produced from reconstituted winery wastewater. For a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.4 gg(-1), caproic and valeric acids were not formed. The production of butyric and propionic acids was reduced by 93.3% and 72.5%, respectively, at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8, and by 97.4% and 100% at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=1.2 gg(-1). Nitrate delayed and decreased butyric acid formation in relation to the oxidoreduction potential. Studies in ponds showed that the addition of concentrated calcium nitrate (NITCAL) to winery wastewaters (3526 m(3)) in a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8 inhibited VFA production, with COD elimination (94%) and total nitrate degradation, and no final nitrite accumulation. On the contrary, in ponds not treated with nitrate, malodorous VFA (from propionic to heptanoïc acids) represented up to 60% of the COD. Olfactory intensity measurements in relation to the butanol scale of VFA solutions and the ponds revealed the pervasive role of VFA in the odour of the untreated pond as well as the clear decrease in the intensity and not unpleasant odour of the winery wastewater pond enriched in nitrates. The results obtained at full scale underscored the feasibility and safety of the calcium nitrate treatment as opposed to concentrated nitric acid.

  15. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  16. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: Prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudzina, T.; Goetz, N. von; Bogdal, C.; Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingred

  17. Modeling the sensory impact of defined combinations of volatile lipid oxidation products on fishy and metallic off-flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2004-01-01

    and highlighted the importance of two-factor interactions for contribution toward off-flavors. The results suggest that (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one could be useful markers for fishy and metallic off-flavors in fish oil and fish oil enriched foods. Within the addition levels of the volatiles......The volatiles (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, and (EE)-2,4-heptadienal were added to milk containing 1.5% fat according to a central composite design, to evaluate the individual and combinatory effects of these volatiles on sensory properties. The milk samples with added...... volatiles were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis for fishy and metallic off-flavors. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares regression and multiple linear regression to develop mathematical models. The models revealed significant main effects of (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one...

  18. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: Prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudzina, T.; Goetz, N. von; Bogdal, C.; Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic

  19. Separation and analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products by a MoO₃/polypyrrole intercalative sampling adsorbent with thermal desorption gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunjian; Zhao, Cheng; Zhan, Yisen; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2015-05-01

    An in situ embedded synthesis strategy was developed for the preparation of a MoO3 /polypyrrole intercalative sampling adsorbent for the separation and analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products. Structural and morphological characteristics of the MoO3 /polypyrrole intercalative adsorbent were investigated by a series of characterization methods. The MoO3 /polypyrrole sampling adsorbent possessed a higher sampling capacity and selectivity for polar formaldehyde than commonly used commercial adsorbent Tenax TA. Finally, the MoO3 /polypyrrole adsorbent was packed in the thermal desorption tube that was directly coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace volatile formaldehyde in aquatic products. Trace volatile formaldehyde from real aquatic products could be selectively sampled and quantified to be 0.43-6.6 mg/kg. The detection limit was achieved as 0.004 μg/L by this method. Good recoveries for spiked aquatic products were achieved in range of 75.0-108% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-9.0%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  1. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  2. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  3. A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Oral Zinc for Chemotherapy-Related Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckholm, Laurel; Heddinger, Steven P.; Parker, Gwendolyn; Coyne, Patrick J.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Thomas J.; Henkin, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in taste and smell are commonly reported in patients receiving chemotherapy and may hinder appetite, dietary intake, nutritional well-being, and quality of life. Oral zinc has been used to treat taste and smell abnormalities in several altered physiologic states, including renal failure, liver disease, head trauma, and pregnancy, with varying results. The authors conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinic trial over 3 months. Eligible patients were those taking chemotherapy that had alterations in taste and/or smell. The measurement of the primary end point, improvement in altered taste and smell, was made using a 0–100 scale (100 describing no loss or distortion in taste and smell, and 0 describing the worst distortion or loss of taste and smell). Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled in each treatment group, of whom 31 were white, 26 African American, and 1 Native American. Forty-one patients were female. A wide range of cancer types was represented, with breast the most common (21 patients). The zinc dose was 220 mg orally twice daily (equivalent of 50 mg elemental zinc twice daily). There was no statistically significant improvement in loss or distortion of taste or smell with the addition of zinc. There was a trend toward improvement over time in all groups, except in the zinc group where there was a nonsignificant worsening in loss of smell over time. Zinc at standard doses did not provide significant benefit to taste or smell in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:22764846

  4. [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-03-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice.

  5. Smell and taste in palliative care: a systematic analysis of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Maria; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Little is known on the role of the senses smell and taste in end-of-life care. The presented systematic literature analysis investigates the significance of smell and taste in palliative care. The online databases PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and British National Library were searched for English and German literature published between 1970 and April 2013 containing any kind of original data on the impact of smell and taste in patients in a palliative care situation. All retrieved publications were screened for relevance and full text was obtained for all articles identified as relevant. We integrated 13 papers for further analysis (explorative surveys 5, clinical trials 3, case studies 2, qualitative study 1, brief report 1, clinical report 1). Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care ranges between 60 and 86%. Existing literature reflects the significance of smells and tastes in palliative care setting in two main streams--smell and taste alterations as symptoms and malodorous wounds. Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care is high. However, in palliative care literature concepts for the assessment and fostering of subjective significance of smell and taste and the individual impact of significant smells and tastes are predominantly neglected. Available instruments should be characterized, validated and adapted for the use for palliative care patients.

  6. [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.

  7. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckholm, Laurel; Heddinger, Steven P; Parker, Gwendolyn; Coyne, Patrick J; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Thomas J; Henkin, Robert I

    2012-06-01

    Abnormalities in taste and smell are commonly reported in patients receiving chemotherapy and may hinder appetite, dietary intake, nutritional well-being, and quality of life. Oral zinc has been used to treat taste and smell abnormalities in several altered physiologic states, including renal failure, liver disease, head trauma, and pregnancy, with varying results. The authors conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinic trial over 3 months. Eligible patients were those taking chemotherapy that had alterations in taste and/or smell. The measurement of the primary end point, improvement in altered taste and smell, was made using a 0-100 scale (100 describing no loss or distortion in taste and smell, and 0 describing the worst distortion or loss of taste and smell). Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled in each treatment group, of whom 31 were white, 26 African American, and 1 Native American. Forty-one patients were female. A wide range of cancer types was represented, with breast the most common (21 patients). The zinc dose was 220 mg orally twice daily (equivalent of 50 mg elemental zinc twice daily). There was no statistically significant improvement in loss or distortion of taste or smell with the addition of zinc. There was a trend toward improvement over time in all groups, except in the zinc group where there was a nonsignificant worsening in loss of smell over time. Zinc at standard doses did not provide significant benefit to taste or smell in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  8. Experimental research and identification of mine fire by using bionic smell sensors array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hong-min; Luo Hai-zhu [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). Institute of Safety Science and Engineering

    2007-08-15

    The paper discusses the present situation of smell identification technology and give a brief account of kinds of smell sensors and their development. The sensitivity of the smell sensors array to different odors, the identification mechanism of different odor source substances and their mixture ratio were studied. The change of background value with working conditions underground and its influence on smell sensors were studied. Results indicate that the small sensors array can identify the kinds of mine fire, the burning objects, and the mixing ratio, based on the ANN. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H.; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity. PMID:26553982

  10. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2015-11-24

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

  11. Contribution of low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) from consumer products to ozone formation in urban atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study

  12. Influence of rhizobacterial volatiles on the root system architecture and the production and allocation of biomass in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Delory, Benjamin M; Baudson, Caroline; Mendaluk-Saunier de Cazenave, Magdalena; Spaepen, Stijn; Varin, Sébastien; Brostaux, Yves; du Jardin, Patrick

    2015-08-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly being seen as a way of complementing conventional inputs in agricultural systems. The effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. This study sought to assess the effects of bacterial volatiles on the biomass production and root system architecture of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. An in vitro experiment allowing plant-bacteria interaction throughout the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth-promotion ability over a 10-day co-cultivation period. Five groups of bacteria were defined and characterised based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects ranged from unchanged to greatly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was increased only by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03, which induced an 81 % increase in total biomass, as well as enhancing total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88.5, 201.5 and 474.5 %, respectively. This study is the first report on bacterial volatile-mediated growth promotion of a grass plant. Contrasting modulations of biomass production coupled with changes in root system architecture were observed. Most of the strains that increased total plant biomass also modulated adventitious root growth. Under our screening conditions, total biomass production was strongly correlated with the length and branching of the root system components, except for primary root length. An analysis of the emission kinetics of the bacterial volatile compounds is being undertaken and should lead to the identification of the compounds responsible for the observed growth-promotion effects. Within the

  13. Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a compost facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G; Schwalbe, R; Möller, M; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    1999-08-01

    Thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), i.e., Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium clavigerum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium cyclopium, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium verruculosum, and Tritirachium oryzae. Air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC/MS. Various hydrocarbons of different chemical groups and a large number of terpenes were identified. Some compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and 1-octen-3-ol were produced by a number of species, whereas some volatiles were specific for single species. An inventory of microbial metabolites will allow identification of potential health hazards due to an exposure to fungal propagules and metabolites in the workplace. Moreover, species-specific volatiles may serve as marker compounds for the selective detection of fungal species in indoor domestic and working environments.

  14. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris;

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...

  15. Rapidly fluctuating anosmia: A clinical sign for unilateral smell impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, Simona; Friedrich, Hergen; Caversaccio, Marco D; Landis, Basile N

    2016-02-01

    Reports about fluctuating olfactory deficits are rare, as are reports of unilateral olfactory loss. We present a case of unilateral anosmia with contralateral normosmia, presenting as rapidly fluctuating anosmia. The olfactory fluctuation occurred in sync with the average nasal cycle duration. Examination after nasal decongestion, formal smell testing, and imaging revealed unilateral, left-sided anosmia of sinonasal cause, with right-sided normosmia. We hypothesize that the nasal cycle induced transient anosmia when blocking the normosmic side. Fluctuating olfactory deficits might hide a unilateral olfactory loss and require additional unilateral testing and thorough workup. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. (Department of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  17. 动物生产中挥发性脂肪酸的研究进展%Review of Volatile Fatty Acid in Animal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佳捷; 张彬; 兰欣怡; 王洁

    2012-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid is a short chain fatty acid,can regulate metabolism and preserve animal health.The article summarized the biological functions,measuring methods and research situations in animal production of volatile fatty acid.%挥发性脂肪酸是一种短链脂肪酸,在调节新陈代谢及维护动物机体健康等方面发挥着重要的作用。文章从生物学功能、测定方法及其在动物生产中的研究情况等方面对挥发性脂肪酸进行了综述。

  18. Taste and smell function in chronic disease: a review of clinical and biochemical evaluations of taste and smell dysfunction in over 5000 patients at The Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Levy, Lucien M; Fordyce, April

    2013-01-01

    To describe systematic methods developed over 40 years among over 5000 patients at The Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, DC to evaluate taste and smell dysfunction. A tripartite methodology was developed. First, methods to determine clinical pathology underlying the multiple disease processes responsible for taste and smell dysfunction were developed. Second, methods to determine biochemical parameters responsible for these pathologies were developed. Third, methods to implement these techniques were developed to form a unified basis upon which treatment strategies can be developed to treat these patients. Studies were performed in 5183 patients. Taste loss was present in 62% of patients, smell loss in 87%. Most patients with taste loss (52%) exhibited Type II hypogeusia; most patients with smell loss (56%) exhibited Type II hyposmia. Sensory distortions were present in 60%. Four common diagnostic entities were found: post influenza-type hyposmia and hypogeusia (27% of patients), idiopathic causes (16%), allergic rhinitis (15%) and post head injury (14%). Regardless of clinical diagnosis the major biochemical abnormality found in most patients (~70%) was diminished parotid salivary and nasal mucus secretion of cAMP and cGMP. Taste and smell dysfunctions are common clinical problems associated with chronic disease processes. These symptoms require a systematic, integrated approach to understand their multiple and complex components. The approach presented here can and has led to effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure.

  20. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  1. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfection...

  2. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  3. Genetics of Taste and Smell: Poisons and Pleasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Danielle Renee; Knaapila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Eating is dangerous. While food contains nutrients and calories that animals need to produce heat and energy, it may also contain harmful parasites, bacteria, or chemicals. To guide food selection, the senses of taste and smell have evolved to alert us to the bitter taste of poisons and the sour taste and off-putting smell of spoiled foods. These sensory systems help people and animals to eat defensively, and they provide the brake that helps them avoid ingesting foods that are harmful. But choices about which foods to eat are motivated by more than avoiding the bad; they are also motivated by seeking the good, such as fat and sugar. However, just as not everyone is equally capable of sensing toxins in food, not everyone is equally enthusiastic about consuming high-fat, high-sugar foods. Genetic studies in humans and experimental animals strongly suggest that the liking of sugar and fat is influenced by genotype; likewise, the abilities to detect bitterness and the malodors of rotting food are highly variable among individuals. Understanding the exact genes and genetic differences that affect food intake may provide important clues in obesity treatment by allowing caregivers to tailor dietary recommendations to the chemosensory landscape of each person. PMID:21036327

  4. Pattern of Smell Identification Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Latha; Gasper, Amy; Pritchard, Megan; Baillon, Sarah; Messer, Charlotte; Proitsi, Petroula

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in general, and impaired odor identification in particular, have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Olfactory testing may be a useful diagnostic aid for AD, but the types of odor most commonly affected need to be identified. This study aimed to determine pattern and types of odor affected in AD with the goal of improving clinical applicability. 54 outpatients with mild to moderate AD and 40 age and gender-matched non-demented controls (NDC) were tested using British version of University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT; Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) and data analyzed to identify an optimal subset of UPSIT to best differentiate AD patients from controls. AD subjects had significantly lower UPSIT total scores than NDC. Random Forest with backward elimination identified 12 UPSIT items which accurately differentiated AD patients compared to controls (sensitivity, 0.89 and specificity, 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.889, and negative predictive value of 0.833). The 12 smell items found to be most affected in AD subjects reflects important attributes such as safety and food, known to be affected in people with AD and that has the potential to impair activities of daily living. The 12 items of British UPSIT most affected in AD subjects provides a potential brief scale for early detection of AD in clinical settings. Independent replication is needed to validate these findings.

  5. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  7. Sense of smell in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savović Slobodan N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sense of smell is susceptible to various changes, both in physiological and in numerous pathological conditions. Of quantitative disorders of smell, hyposmia and anosmia are quite common, whereas of qualitative disorders parosmia is most frequent. The aim of this paper was to examine impact of bilateral nasal polyposis on olfactory function. Material and methods The research was carried out at the Nose, Ear and Throat Clinic in Novi Sad. It included 80 examinees, 40 (20 male, 20 female with bilateral nasal polyposis, while 40 examinees belonged to the control group (20 male, 20 female without symptoms of nasal polyposes. Fortunato-Niccolini olfactometer was used for this examination. Results and discussion In patients with bilateral nasal polyposis the average perception threshold values for examined odors were 15.50 ccm of odorous air, while in the control group they were 10,20 ccm of odorous air. The average identification threshold values for examined odors in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis were 18.80 ccm of odorous air, while in the control group they were 13.55 ccm of scented air. T-test showed that values of both tresholds were statistically significantly higher (p< 0,01 in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis in relation to the control group. Conclusion Olfactory deficit in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis is explained by difficult or impossible passage of odors into the olfactory region.

  8. Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausias; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Granero, Roser; Islam, Mohamed A; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Fagundo, Ana B; Sancho, Carolina; Estivill, Xavier; Treasure, Janet; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-02-01

    (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.

  9. Esterification Reaction Utilizing Sense of Smell and Eyesight for Conversion and Catalyst Recovery Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Nikki; Wee, Lik H.; Martens, Johan A.

    2014-01-01

    The esterification reaction of salicylic acid with ethanol is performed in presence of dissolved 12-tungstophosphoric Brønsted-Lowry acid catalyst, a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM). The monitoring of the reaction with smell and the recovery of the catalyst with sight is presented. Formation of the sweet-scented ester is apparent from the smell.…

  10. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salme Timmusk

    Full Text Available Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates.

  11. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  12. Effects of reduced levels of sulfite in wine production using mixtures with lysozyme and dimethyl dicarbonate on levels of volatile and biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Jiménez-Moreno, Nerea; Moler, José Antonio; Nieto-Rojo, Rodrigo; Urmeneta, Henar

    2016-10-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an important preservative for wine, but its presence in foods can cause allergies and this has given impetus to the research for alternatives. The aim of this study was to reduce levels of sulfite in wine production using mixtures with lysozyme and dimethyl dicarbonate and examine the influence on levels of volatile and biogenic amines. To do so, vinifications were carried out using lysozyme, dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and mixtures of these with SO2 in different concentrations (25 and 50 mg l(-1)). Results were compared with a control vinification with only SO2 (50 mg l(-1)). Mixing low concentrations of SO2 with lysozyme and DMDC reduced the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine + spermidine and spermine). In general, the total concentration of volatile amines (dimethylamine, isopropylamine, isobutylamine, pyrrolidine, ethylamine, diethylamine, amylamine and hexylamine) was higher in the sample fermented only with SO2. The concentrations of amines with secondary amino groups (dimethylamine, diethylamine, pyrrolidine) were higher in the sample only fermented with SO2 than those fermented with DMDC and lysozyme or with a mixture of preservatives. When SO2 was the only preservative in wine, total amine concentration (biogenic and volatile amines) was higher than for the rest of the treatments. Lysozyme by itself, and lysozyme mixed with SO2, both reduced the formation of biogenic amines but given the antioxidant activity of SO2 the use of the preservative mixture seems more advisable.

  13. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures o

  14. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  15. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  16. Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert

    2012-03-01

    Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene).

  17. Key volatile compounds in red koji-shochu, a Monascus-fermented product, and their formation steps during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Yen Yen Sally; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    Red koji, which refers the solid culture grown koji mold on the steamed rice, is one of the ingredients of Asian fermented foods including the Japanese spirit shochu. This study was aimed at elucidating the characteristic flavor and key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu as well as the mechanism of their formation. Sensory evaluation showed that red koji-shochu has the distinctive flavors cheese, sour, milky, and oily. Fifteen key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, and by comparison between red koji-shochu and white koji-shochu, as another typical shochu. The mash analysis revealed that ketone compounds and short-chain acids derive from red koji. Furthermore, although other key compounds were produced by yeast, it is highly likely that their concentrations were affected directly or indirectly by the high activities of protease and lipase in red koji.

  18. Effect of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production of volatiles in Napa Gamay wine and Petite Sirah wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangeeta; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2002-09-25

    Napa Gamay grapes were fermented with four different strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (VL1, MI16, Fermirouge, and RA17). Petite Sirah grapes were fermented with seven different strains of the same yeast (BM45, Fermirouge, RA17, NI, CX3079, A350, and A796). Volatile compounds formed in the wines were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds found in both wines were alcohols, esters, and acids, as well as some miscellaneous compounds. Isoamyl alcohol was the compound found in the highest relative amount with all four yeast strains in the Napa Gamay wines, followed by 2-phenyl ethanol, monoethyl succinate, and hexanoic acid. The relative amounts of isoamyl alcohol ranged from 30.84% (VL1) to 43.28% (RA17). Major volatile compounds found in Petite Sirah wines were isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenyl ethanol, 2-hydroxy ethyl propanoate, monoethyl succinate, and octanoic acid. The several esters, including 2-hydroxyethyl propanoate, may contribute to the fruity flavor of Petite Sirah wines. Overall, the S. cerevisiae yeast strains used to ferment Napa Gamay grapes and Petite Sirah grapes produced the same major components, with certain variations in formation levels.

  19. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) wine production in Angola: Characterisation of volatile aroma compounds and yeast native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacassa, Eduardo; Trenchs, Oriol; Fariña, Laura; Debernardis, Florencia; Perez, Gabriel; Boido, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    A pineapple vinification process was conducted through inoculated and spontaneous fermentation to develop a process suitable for a quality beverage during two successive vintages in Huambo, Angola. Wines obtained with the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, were analysed by gas chromatography, and a total of 61 volatile constituents were detected in the volatile fraction and 18 as glycosidically bound aroma compounds. Concentration levels of carbonyl and sulphur compounds were in agreement with the limited information reported about pineapple fruits of other regions. We report, for the first time in pineapple wines, the presence of significant concentrations of lactones, ketones, terpenes, norisoprenoids and a variety of volatile phenols. Eight native yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous batches. Further single-strain fermentations allowed us to characterise their suitability for commercial fermentation. Three native strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae, H. uvarum and Meyerozyma guilliermondii) were selected with sensory potential to ferment pineapple fruits with increased flavour diversity. Results obtained here contribute to a better understanding of quality fermentation alternatives of this tropical fruit in subtropical regions.

  20. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  1. Understanding evolution of product composition and volatility distribution through in-situ GC × GC analysis: a case study of longifolene ozonolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Donahue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting volatility and polarity based on chromatographic information was developed and applied to the smog chamber ozonolysis of the sesquiterpene longifolene. The products were collected and analyzed using a GC × GC Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (2D-TAG and a quadrupole Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. All the secondary organic aerosol (SOA was produced within the first half hour of the experiment. However, the oxidation level of the organic aerosol, as inferred from the fraction of ion m/z 44, suggested continued evolution of the SOA over the subsequent hours. Measurements of speciated organic compounds using 2D-TAG confirm that the composition of the particles changed over the course of the experiment. Nearly 200 oxidation products (thought to be mostly ketones and acids were observed with 2D-TAG, but most could not be identified definitively due to a lack of standards and the absence of likely sesquiterpene oxidation products in available mass spectral databases. To categorize the observed products, the vapor pressure and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C of observed compounds were estimated based on their two-dimensional chromatographic retention times relative to those of known standards, establishing a retention time correlation (RTC method for using 2D-TAG to better constrain important modelling parameters. The product distribution continuously evolved in volatility and oxygenation during 5 h of oxidation. Using peak area as the best available proxy for mass, we conclude that the product mixture includes many non-negligible products; the most abundant 3 compounds accounted for only half of the total observed peak area and 80 % of peak area was spread across 15 compounds. The data provide evidence for three conclusions: (1 2D-TAG provides valuable volatility and oxygenation information even in the absence of definitive species identification, (2 complex particle-phase chemistry causes

  2. Understanding evolution of product composition and volatility distribution through in situ GC × GC analysis: a case study of longifolene ozonolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Donahue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting volatility and polarity based on chromatographic information was developed and applied to the smog chamber ozonolysis of the sesquiterpene longifolene. The products were collected and analyzed using a GC × GC Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (2D-TAG and a quadrupole Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. All the secondary organic aerosol (SOA was produced within the first half hour of the experiment. However, the oxidation level of the organic aerosol, as inferred from the fraction of ion m/z 44, suggested continued evolution of the SOA over the subsequent hours. Measurements of speciated organic compounds using 2D-TAG confirm that the composition of the particles changed over the course of the experiment. Nearly 200 oxidation products (thought to be mostly ketones and acids were observed with 2D-TAG, but most could not be identified definitively due to a lack of standards and the absence of likely sesquiterpene oxidation products in available mass spectral databases. To categorize the observed products, the vapor pressure and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C of observed compounds were estimated based on their multi-dimensional chromatographic retention times relative to those of known standards, establishing a retention time correlation (RTC method for using 2D-TAG to better constrain important modelling parameters. The product distribution continuously evolved in volatility and oxygenation during 5 h of oxidation. Using peak area as the best available proxy for mass, we conclude that the product mixture includes many non-negligible products; the most abundant 3 compounds accounted for only half of the total observed peak area and 80% of peak area was spread across 15 compounds. The data provide evidence for three conclusions: (1 2D-TAG can provide valuable volatility and oxygenation information even in the absence of definitive species identification, (2 complex particle-phase chemistry

  3. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  4. Influence of operating conditions for volatile fatty acids enrichment as a first step for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on a municipal waste water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, Timo; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-11-01

    This work describes the generation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as the first step of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production cycle. Therefore four different substrates from a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated regarding high VFA production and stable VFA composition. Due to its highest VFA yield primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT) and withdrawal (WD)) in order to find suitable conditions for a stable VFA production. The results demonstrated that although the substrate primary sludge differs in its consistence a stable composition of VFA could be achieved. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4d and a small WD of 25% at pH=6 and around 30°C is preferable for high VFA mass flow (MF=1913 mg VFA/(Ld)) and a stable VFA composition.

  5. A clinical approach towards smell loss in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas; Reichmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of olfaction is a characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent data indicate that >90% of patients with PD are diagnosed with significant olfactory loss. The olfactory loss in PD has a bilateral and general character and all olfactory domains are involved. By clinical measurements, the olfactory deficit in PD is independent of disease severity and duration. Imaging studies however, point out that the olfactory impairment may be progressive in the early motor stages. Deficits in the sense of smell may precede clinical motor symptoms by years and can be used to assess the risk for developing PD in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. Numerous studies suggest that olfactory disturbances in PD may have diagnostic utility for the differentiation of PD from other movement disorders. This review summarizes the available information about the character of olfactory function in PD and possible therapeutic strategies. It indicates the advantageous use of olfactory probes as a contribution to early and differential diagnosis.

  6. Chocolate smells pink and stripy: Exploring olfactory-visual synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Stevenson, Richard J.; Rich, Anina N.

    2015-01-01

    Odors are often difficult to identify, and can be perceived either via the nose or mouth (“flavor”; not usually perceived as a “smell”). These features provide a unique opportunity to contrast conceptual and perceptual accounts of synesthesia. We presented six olfactory-visual synesthetes with a range of odorants. They tried to identify each smell, evaluate its attributes and illustrate their elicited visual experience. Judges rated the similarity of each synesthetes’ illustrations over time (test-retest reliability). Synesthetic images were most similar from the same odor named consistently, but even inconsistently named same odors generated more similar images than different odors. This was driven by hedonic similarity. Odors presented as flavors only resulted in similar images when consistently named. Thus, the primary factor in generating a reliable synesthetic image is the name, with some influence of odor hedonics. Hedonics are a basic form of semantic knowledge, making this consistent with a conceptual basis for synaesthetic links. PMID:25895152

  7. Smell with inspiration: the evolutionary significance of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Kara C

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the mammalian genome (and larger than any other gene family in any other species), comprising 1% of genes. Beginning with a genetic radiation in reptiles roughly 200 million years ago, terrestrial vertebrates can detect millions of odorants. Each species has an olfactory repertoire unique to the genetic makeup of that species. The human olfactory repertoire is quite diverse. Contrary to erroneously reported estimates, humans can detect millions of airborne odorants (volatiles) in quite small concentrations. We exhibit tremendous variation in our genes that control the receptors in our olfactory epithelium, and this may relate to variation in cross-cultural perception of and preference for odors. With age, humans experience differential olfactory dysfunction, with some odors remaining strong and others becoming increasingly faint. Olfactory dysfunction has been pathologically linked to depression and quality of life issues, neurodegenerative disorders, adult and childhood obesity, and decreased nutrition in elderly females. Human pheromones, a controversial subject, seem to be a natural phenomenon, with a small number identified in clinical studies. The consumer product industry (perfumes, food and beverage, and pesticides) devotes billions of dollars each year supporting olfactory research in an effort to enhance product design and marketing. With so many intersecting areas of research, anthropology has a tremendous contribution to make to this growing body of work that crosses traditional disciplinary lines and has a clear applied component. Also, anthropology could benefit from considering the power of the olfactory system in memory, behavioral and social cues, evolutionary history, mate choice, food decisions, and overall health.

  8. Genome-wide Meta-analysis on the Sense of Smell Among US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Yang, Jingyun; Tranah, Greg; Franceschini, Nora; Parimi, Neeta; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Xu, Zongli; Alonso, Alvaro; Cummings, Steven R; Fornage, Myriam; Huang, Xuemei; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Liu, Yongmei; London, Stephanie; Niu, Liang; Wilson, Robert S; De Jager, Philip L; Yu, Lei; Singleton, Andrew B; Harris, Tamara; Mosley, Thomas H; Pinto, Jayant M; Bennett, David A; Chen, Honglei

    2015-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common among older adults and affects their safety, nutrition, quality of life, and mortality. More importantly, the decreased sense of smell is an early symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease. However, the genetic determinants for the sense of smell have been poorly investigated. We here performed the first genome-wide meta-analysis on the sense of smell among 6252 US older adults of European descent from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study, and the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROS/MAP). Genome-wide association study analysis was performed first by individual cohorts and then meta-analyzed using fixed-effect models with inverse variance weights. Although no SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance, we identified 13 loci with suggestive evidence for an association with the sense of smell (Pmeta effects on the expression of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, 17q21.31) in 447 frontal-cortex samples obtained postmortem and profiled by RNA-seq (P smell in older adults. Similar results were obtained after excluding participants who reported a physician-diagnosed PD or use of PD medications. In conclusion, we provide preliminary evidence that the MAPT locus may play a role in regulating the sense of smell in older adults and therefore offer a potential genetic link between poor sense of smell and major neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. [Classification of reduced sense of smell in women with Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Inatsu, Akemi; Fukumoto, Yasuho; Shigeta, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) prominently experience difficulty in smelling, a nonmotor symptom, without any signs or symptoms from an early stage. However, no study on the classification of the reduced sense of smell has been performed. We compared the classification of reduced sense of smell (bromine) between PD patients and healthy subjects to clarify the disorder profile. The subjects were 14 female neurology outpatients clinically diagnosed with PD (mean age: 71.6 ± 6.1 years) and 11 female elderly healthy subjects without any psychiatric or neurological disorders (mean age: 68.9 ± 6.9 years). In this study, the Japanese odor stick identification test was used. Both the PD patients and the healthy subjects showed a reduced sense of smell for the bromine of lumber, orange, and domestic gas. The PD patients preserved a sense of smell for perfume, but they showed a significantly lower sense of smell than the healthy subjects for the bromine of China ink, menthol, curry, rose, cypress, sweaty socks, and condensed milk; this indicates that bromine can be a supportive diagnostic index for PD. It was considered important to evaluate the reduced sense of smell in PD patients to avoid hazards in their daily lives and to conduct an effective rehabilitation program.

  10. A longitudinal descriptive study of self-reported abnormal smell and taste perception in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Steven; Broman, Daniel A; Olofsson, Jonas K; Wulff, Marianne

    2004-06-01

    Self-reported abnormal sensitivity, qualitative distortions and phantom sensations with respect to smell and taste was assessed with a longitudinal design, based on questions referring to gestational weeks 13-16 and 31-34 of pregnancy in comparison with 9-12 weeks post partum and with non-pregnant women with corresponding time durations and intervals. The results show that abnormal smell and/or taste perception was reported by 76% of the pregnant women, typically believed to be caused by their pregnancy. Increased smell sensitivity was found to be very common at the early stage of pregnancy (67% of all pregnant respondents) and occasionally accompanied by qualitative smell distortions (17%) and phantom smells (14%). The smell abnormalities were less common at the late pregnancy stage and almost absent post partum. Abnormal taste sensitivity was fairly commonly reported (26%), often described as increased bitter sensitivity and decreased salt sensitivity. These results, suggesting that abnormal smell and/or taste perception is experienced by a large majority of pregnant women, imply that further research is needed to understand to what extent these chemosensory changes may underlie food aversions and craving with implications for food intake during pregnancy.

  11. Smell differential reactivity, but not taste differential reactivity, is related to food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Wagner, Sandra; Rigal, Natalie; Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation.

  12. Effects of organic loading rate on hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production and microbial community during acidogenic hydrogenesis in a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; Cho, K-S

    2016-12-01

    Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . The active microbial community was analysed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analysed using networking analysis. The continuous stirred tank reactor achieved stable hydrogen production at different OLR conditions, and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) was 1·02 L-H2  l(-1)  day(-1) at 31·0 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . Butyrate (50%) and acetate (38%) positively increased with increase in OLR. Total VFA production stayed around 7135 mg l(-1) during the operation period. Although Clostridiales and Lactobacillales were relatively abundant, the HPR was positively associated with Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae. Total VFA and acetate, butyrate and propionate concentrations were positively correlated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Bacillales, Sporolactobacillus and Lactobacillus. The close relationship between Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae, and LAB play important roles for stable hydrogen and VFA production from molasses wastewater. Microbial information on hydrogen and VFA production can be useful to design and operate for acidogenic hydrogenesis using high strength molasses wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate.

  14. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  15. Production of biodegradable plastics from volatile fatty acids using activated sludge; Kassei odei wo mochiiru kihatsuei teikyu shibosan kara no seibunkaisei plastic no seisan to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Soejima, T.; Tomozawa, T. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Doi, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Kiya, F. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-21

    The production of biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from volatile fatty acids (VFA) by aerobic or anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge was investigated. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyesters composed of 2-4 monomer units from VFA(C 2-C 5), and that the contents in dried sludge were as high as 7.8. -18.2wt%. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyester composed of [R]-hydroxybuyrate (3HB), [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), [R]-3-hydroxynonanoate(3HN), and [R]-3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD) with high yield of 40 wt% from acetic acid as the sole carbon source in nitrogen-free wastewater for 6-12 h. It was suggested that PHA production from wastewater treatment was possible by using the anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge. 9 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  17. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eTyc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  18. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  19. Measurement of Volatile Radionuclides Production and Release Yields followed by a Post-Irradiation Analysis of a Pb/Bi Filled Ta Target at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, L.; Köster, U.; David, J. C.; Tall, Y.; Andersson, M.; Berg, K.; Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Foucher, Y.; Frånberg, H.; Gröschel, F.; Guertin, A.; Kirchner, T.; Leray, S.; Manfrin, E.; Noah, E.; Ravn, H.; Stora, T.; Thiollière, N.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2014-05-01

    A crucial requirement in the development of liquid-metal spallation neutron target is knowledge of the composition and amount of volatile radionuclides that are released from the target during operation. It is also important to know the total amount produced, which could be released if there was an accident. One type is the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target where different radionuclides can be produced following interaction with a high-energy proton beam, notably noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe isotopes) and other relative volatile isotopes such as Hg and At. The results of an irradiation experiment performed at ISOLDE on a LBE target are compared with predictions from the MCNPX code using the latest developments on the Liège Intranuclear Cascade model (INCL4.6) and the CEM03 model. The calculations are able to reproduce the mass distribution of the radioisotopes produced, including the At production, where there is a significant contribution from secondary reactions. Subsequently, a post-irradiation examination of the irradiated target was performed. Investigations of both the tantalum target structure, in particular the beam window, and the lead-bismuth eutectic were performed using several experimental techniques. No sign of severe irradiation damage, previously observed in other ISOLDE targets, was found.

  20. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  1. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W

    2010-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.

  2. A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Oral Zinc for Chemotherapy-Related Taste and Smell Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lyckholm, Laurel; Heddinger, Steven P.; Parker, Gwendolyn; Coyne, Patrick J.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Thomas J.; Henkin, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in taste and smell are commonly reported in patients receiving chemotherapy and may hinder appetite, dietary intake, nutritional well-being, and quality of life. Oral zinc has been used to treat taste and smell abnormalities in several altered physiologic states, including renal failure, liver disease, head trauma, and pregnancy, with varying results. The authors conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinic trial over 3 months. Eligible patients were those ta...

  3. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers.

  4. Novel consortium of Klebsiella variicola and Lactobacillus species enhances the functional potential of fermented dairy products by increasing the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Bravo, H; Morales-Torres, H C; Vázquez-Martínez, J; Molina-Torres, J; Olalde-Portugal, V; Partida-Martínez, L P

    2017-08-17

    Identify novel bacterial taxa that could increase the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. We recovered 344 bacterial isolates from stool samples of healthy and breastfed infants. Five were selected based on their ability to produce branched-chain amino acids. Three strains were identified as Escherichia coli, one as Klebsiella pneumoniae and other as Klebsiella variicola by molecular and biochemical methods. HPLC and solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS were used for the determination of free amino acids and volatile compounds respectively. The consortium formed by K. variicola and four Lactobacillus species showed the highest production of Leu and Ile in skim milk fermentation. In addition, the production of volatile compounds, such as acetoin, ethanol, 2-nonanone, and acetic, hexanoic and octanoic acids, increased in comparison to commercial yogurt, Emmental and Gouda cheese. Also, distinctive volatiles, such as 2,3-butanediol, 4-methyl-2- hexanone and octanol, were identified. The use of K. variicola in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus species enhances the availability of Leu and Ile and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. The identified consortium increases the functional potential of fermented dairy products. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Taste and smell function in pediatric blood and marrow transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Laing, D G; Wilkes, F J

    2012-11-01

    The intensive conditioning regimens of a pediatric blood and marrow transplant (BMT) can limit voluntary intake leading to a risk of malnutrition. Poor dietary intake is likely multi-factorial with a change in taste and smell function potentially being one contributing factor limiting intake, though this is not well studied. This research aimed to assess the taste and smell function of a cohort of pediatric BMT patients. A total of ten pediatric BMT patients (8-15 years) were recruited to this study. Smell function was assessed using a three-choice 16-item odour identification test. Taste function was assessed using five concentrations of sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastants. All tests were completed at admission to transplant and monthly until taste and smell function had normalised. At the 1-month post-transplant assessment, one third of participants displayed some evidence of taste dysfunction and one third smell dysfunction, but there was no evidence of dysfunction in any patient at the 2-month assessment. Contrary to reports of long-term loss of taste and smell function in adults, dysfunction early in transplant was found to be transient and be resolved within 2 months post-transplant in children. Further research is required to determine the causes of poor dietary intake in this population.

  6. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  7. Smell and taste in patients with vascular malformation of the extracranial head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Fasunla, Ayotunde J; Lahme, Carolin M E; Schäfers, Sophia P; Hundt, Walter; Wolf, Petra; Mandic, Robert; Werner, Jochen A; Eivazi, Behfar

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory and gustatory functions have not been investigated in patients with vascular malformation of the extracranial head and neck region with validated smell and taste tests. Although olfactory and gustatory deficiencies are often not outwardly apparent, they substantially affect daily life. Smell and taste tests using sniffin sticks and taste strips were administered in 40 patients. For all age groups and both sexes, odor threshold (THR) values were, on average, lower in patients than in healthy individuals; whereas, values of odor identification and discrimination were not significantly lower. Regarding odor THR, 33 (82.5%) patients were hyposmic. Taste values (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and total taste) were, on average, lower in patients than in healthy individuals; 21 (52.5%) patients were hypogeusic. Disease duration did not correlate with smell and taste test values. Patients with and without tongue involvement had decreased odor threshold and taste values. No significant differences were identified when taste values on the left and right sides of the tongue were compared in patients without tongue involvement and with unilateral and bilateral tongue involvement. Patients with venous malformations had lower smell test values, and patients with lymphatic malformations had lower taste test values than patients with other malformations. Patients exhibit significantly reduced olfactory and gustatory function even when the nose and/or tongue are not malformed. Patients should be tested with validated smell and taste tests to adequately inform and advise them about overcoming smell and taste deficits.

  8. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  9. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçpunar, Habibe K.; Svensson, Thomas; Quillery, Elsa; Gompel, Nicolas; Ignell, Rickard; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs), IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly’s high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans. PMID:27145030

  10. Smelling shapes: crossmodal correspondences between odors and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Vaux, Grant; Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal correspondences between odors and visual stimuli-particularly colors-are well-established in the literature, but there is a paucity of research involving visual shape correspondences. Crossmodal associations between 20 odors (a selection of those commonly found in wine) and visual shape stimuli ("kiki"/"bouba" forms-Köhler W. 1929. Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.) were investigated in a sample of 25 participants (mean age of 21 years). The odors were rated along a form scale anchored by 2 shapes, as well as several descriptive adjective scales. Two of the odors were found to be significantly associated with an angular shape (lemon and pepper) and two others with a rounded shape (raspberry and vanilla). Principal component analysis indicated that the hedonic value and intensity of odors are important in this crossmodal association, with more unpleasant and intense smells associated with more angular forms. These results are discussed in terms of their practical applications, such as in the use of bottle, logo, or label shape by marketers of perfume and wine to convey the prominent notes through congruent odor-shape pairing. In conclusion, these results support the existence of widespread crossmodal associations (or correspondences) between odors and visual shape stimuli.

  11. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs, IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly's high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans.

  12. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ashiq; Zhang, Mo; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Svensson, Thomas; Quillery, Elsa; Gompel, Nicolas; Ignell, Rickard; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs), IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly's high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans.

  13. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  14. Improving volatile fatty acids production by exploiting the residual substrates in post-fermented sludge: Protease catalysis of refractory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Fu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The real cause to the low yield of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), from inhibition or low biodegradation, is uncertain in sludge anaerobic fermentation. In this study, poor biodegradability of proteins and fast decrease of the indigenous hydrolase activity in the residual post-fermented sludge were found to be the major reasons. With the addition of trypsin or alkaline protease in residual post-fermented sludge after primary alkaline fermentation, degradation efficiency of refractory protein increased by 33.6% and 34.8%, respectively. Accordingly, the VFAs yields were improved by 69.7% and 106.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of added trypsin and alkaline protease could maintain at 13.52 U/mL and 19.11 U/mL in the alkaline fermentation process. This study demonstrated that exploiting the refractory proteins in residual post-fermented sludge by protease addition seems to be a very promising way for improving VFAs yield of conventional alkaline fermentations with waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujun Wang; Lianshuang Feng; Xiaosong Zhao; Xiulan Ma; Jingmin Yang; Huiqing Liu; Sen Dou

    2013-01-01

    Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell.In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently,the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles.Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry.The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry,including sulfur compounds,organic amines,benzene,halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes,some of which had strong peculiar smell.The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone.On this basis,the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2%by chloroform and n-hexane extraction,and almost all of odor was eliminated.The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated.

  16. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of antioxidants on the formation of volatile secondary lipid oxidation products in oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food emulsions are particularly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which leads to the formation of off-flavors and odors, and ultimately, shorter product shelf lives. Here we examine antioxidants for use in emulsions from a variety of different sources, including natural product extracts as well as rat...

  18. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-10

    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens.

  19. Comparing the accuracy of different smell identification tests in Parkinson's disease: relevance of cultural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Gonzalez-Latapi, Paulina; Camacho-Ordoñez, Azyadeh; Martínez-Ramírez, Daniel; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of the University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT), sniffin sticks (SS-16) and brief smell identification test (B-SIT) to assess smell identification in the Mexican population and its accuracy in discriminating subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). We included 199 nondemented PD subjects and 199 control subjects matched by gender. Smell identification was tested using the UPSIT and SS-16. Our group obtained B-SIT data from a previous report. The mean number of UPSIT items correctly identified by controls was 27.3±6; the PD group had a mean score of 19.4±6. UPSIT had a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 66% for a cut-off score of ≤25 for detection of PD. The mean number of SS-16 items correctly identified by controls was 10.3±2.2, while the PD group had 7.4±2.8 correct answers. For SS-16, sensitivity was 77.8% and specificity of 71.2% when using a cut-off value of ≤9. Lemon, turpentine and rose had an identification rate below the 25th percentile for all three tests. Odors with an identification rate above the 75th percentile include banana for all three tests, and gasoline, onion and chocolate for UPSIT and B-SIT. The sensitivity and specificity of the smell tests that were evaluated were lower in comparison to other published reports. Cultural biases and smell familiarity may influence the test results. The development of a true cross-culturally adapted smell identification test is warranted may improve test accuracy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity worsens quality of life and cognitive and sensorial features of sense of smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobid, Isam; Nogué, Santiago; Izquierdo-Dominguez, Adriana; Centellas, Silvia; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Mullol, Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by a loss of tolerance to a variety of environmental chemicals. Multiple chemical sensitivity is frequently triggered by exposure to chemical agents, especially insecticides. The aim of the study was to measure the sense of smell and quality of life in patients with MCS compared to the control group. We studied the sense of smell, both sensitive and sensorial characteristics, in female patients with MCS (n = 58, mean 50.5 ± 8.5 years) and healthy female volunteers without rhinosinusal pathologies (n = 60, mean age 46 ± 10.2 years). Olfactometry (Barcelona Smell Test 24/BAST-24), sinonasal symptoms (visual analogue scale/VAS 0-100 mm), and quality of life (Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory/QEESI) were assessed. Multiple chemical sensitivity patients showed a significant impairment in smell identification (19 ± 12 %; p > 0.05) and forced choice (62 ± 18 %; p > 0.05), but not in smell detection (96 ± 4 %) compared to the control group. Multiple chemical sensitivity patients reported more odours as being intense and irritating and less fresh and pleasant when compared with the control group. Patients scored a high level (40-100) on QEESI questionnaire (symptom severity, chemical intolerances, other intolerances, life impact). In MCS patients, total symptom intensity (VAS/0-700 mm) score was 202 ± 135, while disease severity score was 80 ± 23. The most frequent symptoms were itching and posterior rhinorrhea. Multiple chemical sensitivity patients have an impairment in smell cognitive abilities (odour identification and forced choice, but not for detection) with increased smell hypersensitivity and poor quality of life.

  1. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Huang, Shue; Cong, Hongliang; Li, Zheng; Li, Junjuan; Keller, Kathleen L; Shearer, Gregory C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles.Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations.Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54.4 y) who did not take hypolipidemic agents. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of smell and taste dysfunctions, ranging from 0 (best) to 2 (worst). A general linear model was used to test differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) across groups with different smell and taste status after adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, smoking, drinking, obesity, and history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and head injury.Results: The prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction was 2.4% and 1.2%, respectively. Worse smell and taste dysfunction was associated with higher total cholesterol concentrations (P-trend = 0.005). No significant differences were observed in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG concentrations across groups with different numbers of chemosensory dysfunctions (P-trend > 0.1 for all). The associations between chemosensory dysfunction and total cholesterol concentrations were more pronounced in participants aged ≤60 y and in those who were nonsmokers relative to their counterparts (P-interaction < 0.05 for all).Conclusions: In this large cross-sectional study, chemosensory dysfunction was associated with higher serum total cholesterol concentrations among Chinese adults. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the temporal relation between these chemosensory dysfunctions and

  2. Smell and Taste to Improve Nutrition in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, Friederike; Opie, Gillian; Noble, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yannan; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2017-01-01

    The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control). Infants in the treatment group (n = 28) and control group (n = 23) were born at a mean (SD) PA of 26.7 (1.5) and 27.2 (1.4) weeks, respectively. They reached full enteral feeds at a median (IQR) of 13.5 (10.0-19.0) and 15.5 (11.0-22.0) days, respectively. Survival analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval 0.91-2.91; p = 0.10) for the effect on the time to establish full enteral feeds. Repeated-measures analysis indicated significant group differences in weight z scores at 36 weeks' PA and at discharge in favor of the intervention (p < 0.05). These data indicate that the smell and taste of milk may improve milk tolerance and weight in preterm infants. The role of regular smell and taste in promoting enteral nutrition and growth in preterm infants merits a larger trial powered to detect important outcomes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Morphological analysis of cutaneous smell gland of Callithrix jacchus compared to Callithrix kuhlii (Callithrichidae, Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to be describe the morphological characteristics of the Callithrix jacchus and C. khulii cutaneous smells glands. Three animals of each species, previously fixed in formaldehyde 10%, were used. The glandular areas were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically between the two species. Macroscopically, the glands of the pubic and anal regions were more developed than they were in the esternal region. Microscopically, the epidermis was thin, constituted by one or two layers of squamous epithelium with a fine layer of keratin. The dermis was composed of a dense, irregular collagenous connective tissue with a pillous follicle. Sudoriparous and sebaceous glands were sometimes found associated with pillous follicles. In the pubic regions of both males and females, these sebaceous glands presented histological arrangements in “rose” format (multiacinar, very developed and in greater quantity than other areas. It was thus inferred that the thin epidermis could be related to the facilitation of the glandular secretion that can substitute the keratin in this region, beyond the substance production that assists in the recognition of each specimen.

  4. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  5. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  6. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  7. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  8. Persistent allergic rhinitis has a moderate impact on the sense of smell, depending on both nasal congestion and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilemany, José Maria; García-Piñero, Alfons; Alobid, Isam; Cardelús, Sara; Centellas, Silvia; Bartra, Joan; Valero, Antonio; Picado, César; Mullol, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    A degree of smell disturbance has been found in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, but alterations in olfaction in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) have not yet been evaluated. The aims of the study were to evaluate the impact of PER on the sense of smell, and to characterize this impact based on self-reported hyposmia (SRH) and PER severity. A prospective controlled study was performed on 49 consecutive patients with PER. PER patients were subclassified depending on severity and the presence of SRH. Olfactory function was evaluated by the Barcelona Smell Test-24 (BAST-24) olfactometry for smell detection, identification, and forced choice for first and fifth cranial nerve (CN) dependent odors in comparison to a group of 60 healthy volunteers. In patients with SRH, obstruction was evaluated by peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and acoustic rhinometry; and nasal inflammation was evaluated by nasal nitric oxide (nNO). Most patients with PER (67%) presented SRH. Moderate/severe PER (84.8%) predominated among patients with SRH, while mild PER (75%) predominated among patients without SRH. Smell detection, identification, and forced choice tests were significantly worse in PER patients (P smell detection (P smell. Patients with PER have a moderate loss of smell (BAST-24) with a higher impairment in those with self-reported hyposmia and moderate-to-severe PER. These results suggest that the sense of smell should be further investigated in all patients with allergic rhinitis, both in a clinical setting and in clinical trials.

  9. Predictive value of the smell identification test for nigrostriatal dopaminergic depletion in Korean tremor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Yong; Chung, Seok Jong; Lee, Ji E; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Lee, Phil Hyu; Sohn, Young H

    2013-11-01

    The predictive value of Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test for nigrostriatal dopaminergic depletion in Korean tremor patients has yet to be assessed. Three hundred nineteen drug-naive patients who visited our clinic for the diagnosis of their tremor, and took both Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test and dopamine transporter PET were included in the data analysis. Visual grading of each PET image was performed by two independent neurologists. Smell test scores were significantly correlated to the striatal dopaminergic activity (Kendall's τb = -0.291, p smell test score alone appeared to have relatively weak power for predicting dopaminergic depletion (area under the curve = 0.693). Multivariate logistic regression model with inclusion of the patient's age and symptom duration as independent variables enhanced predictive power for dopaminergic depletion (area under the curve = 0.812). These results demonstrated that Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test measurements alone may be insufficient to predict striatal dopaminergic depletion in Korean tremor patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methods of evaluation of smell in victims of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Azevedo Filho, Hildo Rocha Cirne de; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the methods for evaluation of smell in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage victims and to identify the changes found with the use of these methods. The literature search was performed in PubMed search platform and in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect in August and September 2014. Original articles published in any language, which addressed smell changes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and addressed to evaluate this function through specific methods were included. Review studies, case studies, book chapters, editorial, and studies that address the nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. The following variables were considered in data analysis: author/year, country, sample/age, treatment, method, the moment of smell evaluation, and results. The search for articles resulted in 1,763 articles, of which, 9 original articles were selected for this review. It was observed that all articles were from European and Asian countries. Standardized and nonstandardized tests and questionnaires were used in olfactory assessment, and the goals ranged from assessing the smell before and/or after surgery in this population. Heterogeneity was observed in the methods used to evaluate the smell in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and in the methods selected for application of evaluations. In addition, studies have demonstrated the existence of olfactory deficits in patients and the relationship between surgery and olfactory dysfunction.

  11. Why does the sense of smell vanish in the mouth? Testing predictions from two accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    When participants perceive flavor they do not recognise the role of smell. We examined two possible accounts of why: (1) a common attentional channel activated by taste; and (2) prior learning between taste and smell. Participants were asked to sniff food-related odors with a fluid in their mouth and profile each odor after expectorating. This process was later repeated for each odor, with some odors experienced with water on both occasions, and others with water on one occasion and sucrose (weak or strong) on the other. We investigated how reliable these odor profiles were and whether they were influenced by prior odor-taste learning (indexed by odor sweetness). For non-sweet smells, the presence of a tastant significantly improved profile reliability relative to water in the mouth. For sweet smells, tastant had no effect, which we suggest represents a cancelling out of the beneficial effects of the common attentional channel by the detrimental effects of prior learning. Thus, both mechanisms may contribute to masking the modal identity of smell thereby contributing to flavor binding.

  12. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits: the tale of two smell tests!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory functions are not systematically evaluated following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed at comparing two smell tests that are used in a clinical setting. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Alberta Smell Test were compared in terms of assessment time, cost and diagnosis. Parameters associated with olfactory loss such as injury severity, type of cerebral lesion and depressive data were considered. Forty-nine TBI patients admitted to an outpatient rehabilitation programme took part in this experiment. The scores of the two smell tests were significantly correlated. Both tests indicated that patients with frontal lesion performed significantly worse than patients with other types of lesion. Mood and injury severity were not associated with olfactory impairment when age was taken into account. Between 40-44% of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit. Since a significant proportion of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit, it is recommended than clinicians systematically evaluate olfactory functions using the Alberta Smell test. To refine their diagnosis, the UPSIT can also be used.

  13. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters were optimized for 43 oxygenated volatile organic compounds. The detection limits obtained ranged from 0.07 to 0.82 μg/mL for most of the analytes, the precision was good (relative standard deviation below 2.91% at the 5 μg/mL level and 4.75% at the limit of quantification), the recoveries for the majority of compounds varied from 70.6 to 118.9%, and the linear range was wide, which demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure. The developed procedure was used for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of raw postoxidative effluents and in effluents after chemical treatment. In total, 23 compounds at concentration levels from 0.37 to 32.95 μg/mL were identified in real samples. The same samples were also analyzed in the SCAN mode, which resulted in four more phenol derivatives being identified and tentatively determined. The studies demonstrated the need for monitoring volatile organic compounds content in effluents following various treatments due to the formation of secondary oxygenated volatile organic compounds.

  14. Emission Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds Released from Newly Produced Household Furniture Products Using a Large-Scale Chamber Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Xuan Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured to investigate the emission characteristics of five types of common furniture products using a 5 m3 size chamber at 25°C and 50% humidity. The results indicated that toluene and α-pinene are the most dominant components. The emission rates of individual components decreased constantly through time, approaching the equilibrium emission level. The relative ordering of their emission rates, if assessed in terms of total VOC (TVOC, can be arranged as follows: dining table > sofa > desk chair > bedside table > cabinet. If the emission rates of VOCs are examined between different chemical groups, they can also be arranged in the following order: aromatic (AR > terpenes (TER > carbonyl (CBN > others > paraffin (PR > olefin (HOL > halogenated paraffin (HPR. In addition, if emission strengths are compared between coated and uncoated furniture, there is no significant difference in terms of emission magnitude. Our results indicate that the emission characteristics of VOC are greatly distinguished between different furniture products in terms of relative dominance between different chemicals.

  15. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 ÀC. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (#6 and #10), one commercially available formulation (#21), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl #10 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl #10 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  16. Relation between coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase activity with regard to the production of volatile phenols by native Dekkera bruxellensis strains under 'wine-like' conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, M E; Assof, M; Fanzone, M; Martinez, C; Ganga, M A; Jofré, V; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2015-08-03

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered a major cause of wine spoilage, and 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol are the most abundant off-aromas produced by this species. They are produced by decarboxylation of the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), followed by a reduction of the intermediate 4-vinylphenols. The aim of the present study was to examine coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and vinylphenol reductase (VR) enzyme activities in 5 native D. bruxellensis strains and determine their relation with the production of ethylphenols under 'wine-like' conditions. In addition, biomass, cell culturability, carbon source utilization and organic acids were monitored during 60 days. All strains assayed turned out to have both enzyme activities. No significant differences were found in CD activity, whilst VR activity was variable among the strains. Growth of D. bruxellensis under 'wine-like' conditions showed two growth phases. Sugars were completely consumed during the first growth phase. Transformation of HCAs into ethylphenols also occurred during active growth of the yeast. No statistical differences were observed in volatile phenol levels produced by the strains growing under 'wine-like' conditions, independently of the enzyme activity previously recorded. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between the physiological state of D. bruxellensis and its ability to produce ethylphenols. Inhibition of growth of D. bruxellensis in wine seems to be the most efficient way to avoid ethylphenol production and the consequent loss of wine quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of volatile fatty acids by fermentation of waste activated sludge pre-treated in full-scale thermal hydrolysis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Pratt, S; Karlsson, A; Cirne, D; Lant, P; Werker, A

    2011-02-01

    This work focuses on fermentation of pre-treated waste activated sludge (WAS) to generate volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Pre-treatment by high-pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) was shown to aid WAS fermentation. Compared to fermentation of raw WAS, pre-treatment enabled a 2-5x increase in VFA yield (gVFA(COD)gTCOD(-1)) and 4-6x increase in VFA production rate (gVFA(COD) L(-1) d(-1)). Three sludges, pre-treated in full-scale HPTH plants, were fermented. One was from a plant processing a mix of primary sludge and WAS and the other two from plants processing solely WAS. The HPTH plants solubilised suspended matter, evidenced by a 20-30% decrease in suspended solids and an increase of soluble COD : total COD from 0.04 to 0.4. Fermentation of the three sludges yielded similar VFA concentrations (15-20gVFA(COD) L(-1)). The yields were largely independent of retention time (1 d-6 d) and temperature (42°C, 55°C). Also, the product spectrum depended mostly on the composition of the sludge rather than on operating conditions.

  18. The production of a key floral volatile is dependent on UV light in a sexually deceptive orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Amarasinghe, Ranamalie; Poldy, Jacqueline; Pichersky, Eran; Barrow, Russell A.; Peakall, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants use a diverse range of visual and olfactory cues to advertize to pollinators. Australian Chiloglottis orchids employ one to three related chemical variants, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones or ‘chiloglottones’ to sexually attract their specific male pollinators. Here an investigation was made of the physiological aspects of chiloglottone synthesis and storage that have not previously been examined. Methods The location of chiloglottone production was determined and developmental and diurnal changes by GC-MS analysis of floral tissue extracts was monitored in two distantly related Chiloglottis species. Light treatment experiments were also performed using depleted flowers to evaluate if sunlight is required for chiloglottone production; which specific wavelengths of light are required was also determined. Key Results Chiloglottone production only occurs in specific floral tissues (the labellum calli and sepals) of open flowers. Upon flower opening chiloglottone production is rapid and levels remain more or less stable both day and night, and over the 2- to 3-week lifetime of the flower. Furthermore, it was determined that chiloglottone production requires continuous sunlight, and determined the optimal wavelengths of sunlight in the UV-B range (with peak of 300 nm). Conclusions UV-B light is required for the synthesis of chiloglottones – the semiochemicals used by Chiloglottis orchids to sexually lure their male pollinators. This discovery appears to be the first case to our knowledge where plant floral odour production depends on UV-B radiation at normal levels of sunlight. In the future, identification of the genes and enzymes involved, will allow us to understand better the role of UV-B light in the biosynthesis of chiloglottones. PMID:23091095

  19. Primary emissions and secondary formation of volatile organic compounds from natural gas production in five major U.S. shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Lui, R.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Murphy, S. M.; Alvarez, S. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Min, K. E.; Brown, S. S.; Roberts, J. M.; Osthoff, H. D.; Hatch, C. D.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the U.S. Energy and Information Administration (EIA), domestic production of natural gas from shale formations is currently at the highest levels in U.S. history. Shale gas production may also result in the production of natural gas plant liquids (NGPLs) such as ethane and propane as well as natural gas condensate composed of a complex mixture of non-methane hydrocarbons containing more than ~5 carbon atoms (e.g., hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene). The amounts of natural gas liquids and condensate produced depends on the particular reservoir. The source signature of primary emissions of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere within each shale play will therefore depend on the composition of the raw natural gas as well as the industrial processes and equipment used to extract, separate, store, and transport the raw materials. Characterizing the primary emissions of VOCs from natural gas production is critical to assessing the local and regional atmospheric impacts such as the photochemical formation of ozone and secondary formation of organic aerosol. This study utilizes ground-based measurements of a full suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in two western U.S. basins, the Uintah (2012-2014 winter measurements only) and Denver-Julesburg (winter 2011 and summer 2012), and airborne measurements over the Haynesville, Fayetteville, and Marcellus shale basins (summer 2013). By comparing the observed VOC to propane enhancement ratios, we show that each basin has a unique VOC source signature associated with oil and natural gas operations. Of the shale basins studied, the Uintah basin had the largest overall VOC to propane enhancement ratios while the Marcellus had the lowest. For the western basins, we will compare the composition of oxygenated VOCs produced from photochemical oxidation of VOC precursors and contrast the oxygenated VOC mixture to a "typical" summertime urban VOC mixture. The relative roles of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and cycloalkanes as

  20. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distiller...

  1. Advanced Borobond™ Shields for Nuclear Materials Containment and Borobond™ Immobilization of Volatile Fission Products - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Borobond is a company-proprietary material developed by the CRADA partner in collaboration with Argonne, and is based on Argonne's Ceramicrete technology. It is being used by DOE for nuclear materials safe storage, and Boron Products, LLC is the manufacturer and supplier of Borobond.

  2. Continuous fermentation of food waste leachate for the production of volatile fatty acids and potential as a denitrification carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hakchan; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the continuous production of VFAs from food waste leachate using response surface analysis. The response surface approximations (R(2)=0.895, pwaste-derived VFAs, an alternative carbon source for denitrification.

  3. In vitro co-culture of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi: structure, growth and production of volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, JMS; Sena, I.; Maleita, CM; Vieira, I; Ascenção, L; Abrantes, Isabel; Bennett, RN; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, AC.

    2014-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp., commonly known as root- knot nematodes (RKNs), are economically important plant sedentary endoparasites that cause galls on susceptible hosts. The Columbia root-knot nematode (CRKN), M. chitwoodi, is a quarantine A2 type pest by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization since 1998. This nematode has been found associated with economi- cally important crops such as potato and tomato, causing severe damage and making the agricultural products unac- ceptable ...

  4. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  6. Production and Trade Situation in Iran and USA and Impact of Exchange rate Volatility on the Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salarpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pistachio production and trade and influential factors on its exports in Iran and the USA are compared the the .Using the annual data from 1970 to 2011; this study aimed to analyze the effects of pistachio price and the effects of food security. Moreover, the relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export in the Iranian economy was analyzed through examining a non linear relation between the two factors. Therefore, the hypothesis validation upon nonlinearity relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export was analyzed using smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR. The results of smooth transition model (STAR show that there is a nonlinear Granger causality between exchange rate and pistachio export and vice versa. It is therefore recommended ,in order to determine the threshold level of potential benefits of pistachio exports, the existence of the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic exchange rate and pistachio exports should be considered. Furthermore, in order to maintain market share in the international level, understanding target markets of export and achieving complete information upon the position of the major competitors in the production and trade of Pistachio is essential.

  7. State-of-the-art in the measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted from building products: results of European interlaboratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, M; Kephalopoulos, S; Kirchner, S; Schauenburg, H; Vissers, H

    1999-06-01

    Eighteen laboratories from 10 European countries participated in a comparison organized as part of the VOCEM project, a 2.5-year research collaboration among 4 research institutes and 4 industrial companies. The scope of the project was to improve the procedure used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials and products in small test chambers. The interlaboratory comparison included the GC-MS determination of 5 target compounds from carpet, 8 from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cushion vinyl and 2 from paint; for the first time, chamber recovery (sinks), homogeneity of solid materials and possible contamination during transport were tested. The results show that the intralaboratory variance (random errors) is much smaller than the interlaboratory variance (systematic errors). Causes of the largest interlaboratory discrepancies were: (i) analytical errors; (ii) losses of the heaviest compounds due to sorption on the chamber walls; and (iii) non homogeneity of the materials. The output of this work concerns both the objective of labelling materials with regard to their VOC emissions and the pre-standard drafted by the European Commitee for Standardization (CEN) for this type of determination.

  8. Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well.

  9. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  10. The Evolution of Volatile Production in Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) during Its 2011-2012 Apparition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S. N.; Coulson, I. M.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Szutowicz, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from 2011 December 28 to 2012 April 24, using the Arizona Radio Observatory submillimeter telescope (SMT) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Garradd is a dynamically young long-period comet from the Oort Cloud, with a periodicity of 127,000 yr, that reached perihelion on 2011 December 23 (at {R}h = 1.55 AU and Δ = 20.1 AU) and made its closest approach to the Earth on 2012 March 05 (at {R}h = 1.84 AU and Δ = 1.26 AU). We obtained gas production rates, and molecular abundances relative to water for HCN, ortho-{{{H}}}2{CO}, CS, CO and {{CH}}3{OH}. A rotational temperature, {T}{rot}≈ 50 K, was determined by observing multiple methanol lines with the JCMT. By averaging the abundance ratio relative to water from the SMT and the JCMT we derive: CO: 7.03%± 1.84%, HCN: 0.04% ± 0.01%, o-{{{H}}}2{CO}: 0.14% ± 0.03% as a parent molecule (and 0.28% ± 0.06% as an extended source), CS: 0.03% ± 0.01% and {{CH}}3{OH}: {3.11}-0.51+1.86%. We concluded that Garradd is normal in {{CH}}3{OH}, depleted in HCN, o-{{{H}}}2{CO} and CS and slightly enriched in CO with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. We also studied the temporal evolution of HCN and CO and find that the production of HCN has a trend similar to water (but with short-term variation), with a decrease after perihelion, while that of CO shows contrary behavior: remaining constant or increasing after perihelion.

  11. Comparison of thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers based on their main components: Cellulose, xylan and lignin. TG-FTIR analysis of volatile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica, E-mail: monica_benitez_guerrero@yahoo.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain); López-Beceiro, Jorge [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial II, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade da Coruña, Avda. Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Sánchez-Jiménez, Pedro E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pascual-Cosp, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of sisal fibers has been discussed. • Decompositions of lignocellulosic components and sisal are compared by TXRD and TG-FTIR. • Hot washing reduces the temperature range in which sisal decomposition occurs. • Sisal cellulose decomposition goes by an alternative route to levoglucosan generation. - Abstract: This paper presents in a comprehensive way the thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers, based on the fundamental components of lignocellulosic materials: cellulose, xylan and lignin. The research highlights the influence exerted on the thermal stability of sisal fibers by other constituents such as non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and mineral matter. Thermal changes were investigated by thermal X-ray diffraction (TXRD), analyzing the crystallinity index (%Ic) of cellulosic samples, and by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled with Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (TG/DTA-FTIR), which allowed to examine the evolution of the main volatile compounds evolved during the degradation under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The work demonstrates the potential of this technique to elucidate different steps during the thermal decomposition of sisal, providing extensible results to other lignocellulosic fibers, through the analysis of the evolution of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, formaldehyde and 2-butanone, and comparing it with the volatile products from pyrolysis of the biomass components. The hydroxyacetaldehyde detected during pyrolysis of sisal is indicative of an alternative route to that of levoglucosan, generated during cellulose pyrolysis. Hot-washing at 75 °C mostly extracts non-cellulosic components of low decomposition temperature, and reduces the range of temperature in which sisal decomposition occurs, causing a retard in the pyrolysis stage and increasing Tb{sub NCP} and Tb{sub CEL}, temperatures at the

  12. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  13. Does Energy Consumption Volatility Affect Real GDP Volatility? An Empirical Analysis for the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rashid; Ozge Kandemir Kocaaslan

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the...

  14. Effect of water activity on the production of volatile organic compounds by Muscodor albus and their effect on three pathogens in stored potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuff, Ronan; Mercier, Julien; Tweddell, Russell; Arul, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Muscodor albus (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes) isolate CZ-620 produces antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOC), which appear to have potential for the control of various postharvest diseases. The effect of water activity (Aw) on the production of VOC by M. albus culture, and their inhibitory effects on the growth of three pathogens of potato tuber (Fusarium sambucinum, Helminthosporium solani, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum) and the development of diseases caused by the three pathogens (dry rot, silver scurf, and bacterial soft rot, respectively) were investigated. Rye grain culture of the fungus produced six alcohols, three aldehydes, five acids or esters, and two terpenoids. The most abundant VOC were: isobutyric acid; bulnesene, a sesquiterpene; an unidentified terpene; 2 and 3-methyl-1-butanol; and ethanol. However, the level of each of those VOC varied with Aw of the culture. Emission activity occurred mainly at Aw above 0.75 and high emission of most VOC occurred only at Aw above 0.90. The aldehydes (2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal) were the only VOC produced in quantities below an Aw of 0.90. An Aw value of 0.96 favored maximum emission of acids, esters, and terpenoids. There was a higher production of alcohols and a decrease in aldehydes with increase in Aw. Isobutyric acid, which has been the main M. albus VOC monitored in previous studies as an indicator of antifungal activity, had a rather narrow optimum, peaking at Aw of 0.96 and declining sharply above 0.98. Results showed that substrate Aw affects the production dynamics of each group of VOC by the fungus, and suggest that VOC production can be prolonged by maintaining M. albus culture at a constant optimum Aw. The VOC was inhibitory to F. sambucinum, H. solani, and P. atrosepticum; and biofumigation with M. albus significantly reduced dry rot and soft rot development, and completely controlled silver scurf in inoculated tubers incubated at both 8°C and 22°C. The results show that Aw

  15. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 2 compared with steers fed 0.03% menthol. Steers fed 0% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 9 compared with steers fed 0.03 and 0.3% menthol, whereas no differences were observed on d 23 or 30. Plasma glucose was similar among treatments until d 23, when steers supplemented with 0.03% menthol had lower glucose concentrations. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments; however, PUN concentrations varied by day. A linear response was detected for BW ( = 0.03), with steers consuming 0% menthol having the greatest BW and steers that consumed 0

  16. The Evolution of Volatile Production in Comet C-2009 P1(Garradd) During its 2011-2012 Apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S. N.; Coulson, I. M.; Villaneuva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Szutowicz, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from 2011 December 28 to 2012 April 24, using the Arizona Radio Observatory submillimeter telescope (SMT) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Garradd is a dynamically young long-period comet from the Oort Cloud, with a periodicity of 127,000 years, that reached perihelion on 2011 December 23 (at Heliocentric distance (Rh) = 1.55 Astronomical Units and delta = 20.1 Astronomical Units ) and made its closest approach to the Earth on 2012 March 05 (at Heliocentric distance (Rh) = 1.84 Astronomical Units and delta = 1.26 Astronomical Units). We obtained gas production rates, and molecular abundances relative to water for HCN, ortho-H2CO, CS, CO and CH3OH. A rotational temperature, T (sub rot) approximately equal to 50 degrees Kelvin, was determined by observing multiple methanol lines with the JCMT. By averaging the abundance ratio relative to water from the SMT and the JCMT we derive: CO: 7.03 plus or minus 1.84 percent, HCN: 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 percent, ortho H2CO: 0.14 plus or minus 0.03 percent as a parent molecule (and 0.28 plus or minus 0.06 percent as an extended source), CS: 0.03 plus or minus 0.01 percent and CH3OH: 3.11 for a range from plus 1:86 to minus 0.51 percent. We concluded that Garradd is normal in CH3OH, depleted in HCN, ortho-H2CO and CS and slightly enriched in CO with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. We also studied the temporal evolution of HCN and CO and find that the production of HCN has a trend similar to water (but with short-term variation), with a decrease after perihelion, while that of CO shows contrary behavior: remaining constant or increasing after perihelion.

  17. Impaired sense of smell in a Drosophila Parkinson's model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Poddighe

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the clinical triad: tremor, akinesia and rigidity. Several studies have suggested that PD patients show disturbances in olfaction at the earliest onset of the disease. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is becoming a powerful model organism to study neurodegenerative diseases. We sought to use this system to explore olfactory dysfunction, if any, in PINK1 mutants, which is a model for PD. PINK1 mutants display many important diagnostic symptoms of the disease such as akinetic motor behavior. In the present study, we describe for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, neurophysiological and neuroanatomical results concerning the olfactory function in PINK1 mutant flies. Electroantennograms were recorded in response to synthetic and natural volatiles (essential oils from groups of PINK1 mutant adults at three different time points in their life cycle: one from 3-5 day-old flies, from 15-20 and from 27-30 days. The results obtained were compared with the same age-groups of wild type flies. We found that mutant adults showed a decrease in the olfactory response to 1-hexanol, α-pinene and essential oil volatiles. This olfactory response in mutant adults decreased even more as the flies aged. Immunohistological analysis of the antennal lobes in these mutants revealed structural abnormalities, especially in the expression of Bruchpilot protein, a marker for synaptic active zones. The combination of electrophysiological and morphological results suggests that the altered synaptic organization may be due to a neurodegenerative process. Our results indicate that this model can be used as a tool for understanding PD pathogensis and pathophysiology. These results help to explore the potential of using olfaction as a means of monitoring PD progression and developing new treatments.

  18. The effect of SO2 on the production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, organic acids, and flavor volatiles during industrial cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-05-21

    SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L) induced significantly higher acetaldehyde production by yeast than that obtained without SO(2). Although the practical implications of acetaldehyde evolution under cidermaking conditions has been overcome by research and few data are available, this compound reached levels in two 2000 L bioreactors that may have prevented the occurrence of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. It was observed that malolactic fermentation had a positive effect promoting reduction of acetaldehyde levels in cider fermented with juice, SO(2)-treated or not. The addition of SO(2) clearly delayed malolactic fermentation comparing to the control, affecting not the onset of the malolactic fermentation but the rate of malic acid degradation. This compound, however, had a stimulatory effect on alcoholic fermentation.

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  20. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  1. Use of Indian smell identification test for evaluating olfaction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Jose, Toney; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been recognized for a long time and a number of studies have been performed in various parts of the world, using culturally appropriate smell identification tests. In this study, for the first time, olfactory function has been assessed in the Indian Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) patients using an indigenously developed smell test. Olfaction was assessed in 53 IPD patients and 50 healthy controls using SniffIn-sticks ® test and Indian Smell Identification test (INSIT). In both these tests, the subjects were asked to identify the smell from a set of choices and were scored out of 10 and 12 for INSIT and SniffIn-sticks ® test, respectively. Both SniffIn-sticks ® test and INSIT showed significant impairment in olfaction in IPD patients (P more acceptable in the Indian population, can be considered as a better alternative for SniffIn-sticks ® test in the evaluation of olfaction in Indian PD subjects.

  2. Loss of smell but not taste in adult women with Turner's syndrome and other congenital hypogonadisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Cristina; Alobid, Isam; Centellas, Silvia; Balasch, Juan; Mullol, Joaquim; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2012-11-01

    To assess the impact of Turner's syndrome (TS) and other congenital hypogonadisms (OCH) on the sense of smell and taste. An analytical study of three independent cohorts was designed: patients affected by TS, OCH, and a control group of healthy women taking contraception. Gynaecological Endocrinology Unit and Smell Clinic in Rhinology Unit of Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Thirty TS patients between 20 and 50 years of age receiving hormone replacement treatment (HT) were included as the exposed cohort; fourteen age-matched women with OCH taking HT were recruited; forty-three age-matched healthy controls receiving hormone contraception treatment were selected as the control group. This group was matched with an historical cohort of forty healthy women without contraception, used to validate BAST-24 in Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Clinical history, presence of nasal symptoms, general physical examination, nasal endoscopy, and Barcelona Smell Test-24 (BAST-24) and gustometry were carried out on all patients. TS physical dysmorphology features, intensity of nasal symptoms and signs of nasal obstruction were collected. BAST-24 test included 24 odours to assess both sensory (detection, memory and forced choice) and sensitivity (intensity, irritability, freshness and pleasantness) odour characteristics, as well as 4 tastes to evaluate taste domains (detection and forced choice). Healthy women taking hormone contraception felt odours with more intensity (p=0.002) and less irritability (psmell memory (psmell but not of taste, compared to OCH and healthy controls taking contraception. Smell sensitivity was not affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidimensional Evaluation of Endogenous and Health Factors Affecting Food Preferences, Taste and Smell Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, D; Perna, S; Carrai, M; Barale, R; Grassi, M; Rondanelli, M

    2016-01-01

    This study, by taking a holistic approach, investigates the relationships between taste, smell sensitivity and food preference with prognostic (endogenous and health) factors including age, gender, genetic taste markers, body mass, cigarette smoking, and number of drugs used. Cross sectional study. Northern Italy. 203 healthy subjects (160 women/43 men; mean age: 58.2±19.8 years) were examined. Individual taste sensitivity was determined by saccharose, sodium chloride, acetic acid and caffeine solutions and by 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness test. Olfactory sensitivity has been assessed by «Sniffin' Sticks». Four tag Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regions of interest were genotyped. Factor analysis and multivariate regression were performed for scaling food preferences and screening prognostic factors, respectively. Increasing age is associated with decreased responsiveness to NaCl (P=0.001), sweet solutions (P=0.044), and smell perception (Pmore than younger. Regarding number of drugs taken, there is a significant negative effect on smell perception (Peffect was shown, on sweet perception (P=0.006). Variation in taste receptor genes can give rise to differential perception of sweet, acid and bitter tastes. No effect of gender and smoking was observed. Our study suggested that age, genetic markers, BMI and drugs use are the factors which affect taste and smell perception and food preferences.

  4. Physiology of the mouth and pharynx, Waldeyer's ring, taste and smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, M; Deggoujf, N; Huart, C; Hupin, C; Laureyns, G; Lemkens, P; Rombaux, P; Ten Bosch, J van Der Werff; Gordts, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of the different parts of the oral cavity and the pharynx to the basic physiology of breathing, phonation, speech, swallowing, and of Waldeyer's ring to the functioning of the immune system. We discuss the development of taste and smell, as well as possibilities for chemosensory testing in children.

  5. An Esterification Kinetics Experiment that Relies on the Sense of Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment involves an esterification synthesis to study reaction kinetics where students explore these topics utilizing the sense of smell rather than the traditional approach of using spectroscopic methods. Students study the effects of various factors including the concentration of the carboxylic acid and the amounts of the catalyst or…

  6. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Baskoy; Seyid Ahmet Ay; Aytug Altundag; Onuralp Kurt; Murat Salihoglu; Ferhat Deniz; Hakan Tekeli; Arif Yonem; Thomas Hummel

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls ...

  7. [Remarks on the systematization and terminology of smell and taste disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrebovski, A; Pruszewicz, A; Löbe, L P; Fikentscher, R

    1991-01-01

    Based on the experience of the Olfactogustometry Laboratories in Halle and in Poznan, a proposal of clinical terminology and systematization of smell and taste disorders has been presented. Individual interpretation of the data from anamnesis in relation to the findings of the olfactogustometric investigations were stressed as indispensable.

  8. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  9. Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jean; Halpern, Bruce; Binsted, K.; Caldwell, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Four principal areas were investigated. Nasal Patency: Measure nasal tissue swelling and airflow in BR and compare this to PreBR baseline and PostBR recovery; Ask subjects to self-assess nasal congestion at each test to compare with Astronaut self-assessment. Odorant Identification: Measure subject's ability to recognize odorants obtained from food samples taken from FARU (Flight Analog Research Unit) menu and compare this with recognition of food odors not available on FARU; Compare subject assessed ratings of odorant intensity and food liking with nasal airflow measurements to determine effect of fluid shift on smell ability. Meal Acceptability: Determine the onset and progression of reported 'menu fatigue' during BR; Determine whether decreased nasal airflow or smell ability are factors in 'menu fatigue'. Daily Mood and Health: Record mood changes during study and compare with meal acceptability and smell ability. A change in smell ability is measured by tracking subject perception of 35 odorants from admission to the FARU through to dismissal.

  10. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  12. Odor identification testing in children and young adults using the smell wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E Leslie; Doty, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Olfaction is important for nutrition, safety, and quality of life. Detecting smell loss in young children can be difficult, since many children with olfactory deficits do not recognize their problem and may even pretend to smell. The short attention span of some young children precludes testing with longer standardized olfactory tests. Currently there is a dearth of pediatric smell tests. In this study we evaluated the performance of 152 children and young adults on a game-like rotating "Smell Wheel" odor identification test. This forced-choice test, which can be self-administered, was designed to capture the child's imagination and to provide a standardized test measure with odors known to young children using a minimum number of trials. Thirty 4-5-year olds (10 female), 62 6-7-year olds (17 female), 30 10-11-year olds (18 female) and 30 18-19-year olds (15 female) were tested. Analysis of variance was used to assess the influences of sex and age on the test scores. All participants completed the simple and rapid test protocol. Test performance and age-related changes analogous to those obtained using longer tests were observed. Test scores of participants who self-administered the test were equivalent to those for whom the test was administered by the experimenter. Good compliance and olfactory test findings congruent with literature results were obtained using the Smell Wheel, suggesting that this test may be useful in assessing olfactory function in pediatric settings where attentional demands are compromised and test time is limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

  14. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  15. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, José L.; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations

  16. 76 FR 4835 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Organic Compound Reinforced Plastics Composites Production Operations Rule AGENCY: Environmental... control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from reinforced plastic composites production..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: January 14, 2011. Susan Hedman, Regional Administrator, Region...

  17. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  18. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  19. Production of anti-fungal volatiles by non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and its efficacy in suppression of verticillium wilt of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The study aimed to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strain CanR-46, and to determine the anti-fungal spectrum and the control efficacy of the Fo-VOCs. Methods: The Fo-VOCs were identified by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of the...

  20. Effects of solids concentration, pH and carbon addition on the production rate and composition of volatile fatty acids in prefermenters using primary sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Yuan, Z.; Keller, J.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging that the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems relies on not only the total amount but also the composition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Domestic wastewater often contains limited amounts of VFAs with acetic acid typically being...

  1. Emerging Equity Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.

    1995-01-01

    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  2. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  3. Endoscopy findings affect subjective smell rehabilitation in post-laryngectomy patients using the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Razmpa, E; Nikjo, A; Ghalandarabadi, M; Ghadimi, H; Saidabadi, G

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of post-laryngectomy patients, including nasal endoscopy findings, that affect subjective smell improvement in the post-surgical period. Thirty patients who had undergone total laryngectomy participated in at least three sessions of a smell rehabilitation programme involving the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre, under the supervision of a speech-language pathologist. Patient characteristics and nasal endoscopy findings were evaluated. Participants experienced a mean improvement in sense of smell of 61 per cent (p effective method for improving smell perception and appetite in laryngectomy patients. There was no relationship between nasal endoscopy findings and outcome of the nasal airflow-inducing manoeuvre rehabilitation programme in our case series.

  4. Recovery of Olfactory Function Induces Neuroplasticity Effects in Patients with Smell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kollndorfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of brain function, especially reorganization after stroke or sensory loss, has been investigated extensively. Based upon its special characteristics, the olfactory system allows the investigation of functional networks in patients with smell loss, as it holds the unique ability to be activated by the sensorimotor act of sniffing, without the presentation of an odor. In the present study, subjects with chronic peripheral smell loss and healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare functional networks in one of the major olfactory areas before and after an olfactory training program. Data analysis revealed that olfactory training induced alterations in functional connectivity networks. Thus, olfactory training is capable of inducing neural reorganization processes. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory training.

  5. What does weight stigma smell like? Cross-modal influence of visual weight cues on olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incollingo Rodriguez, A C; Tomiyama, A J; Ward, A

    2015-06-01

    In a variety of personal and professional domains, heavy individuals face stigma associated with their body size. Here we investigate a new method for subtle detection of the negative perceptions consistent with that stigma. In two studies, participants were asked to view images of heavy and thin individuals while smelling substances that, unbeknownst to them, were odorless. Across both studies, the results showed that the substances were perceived to smell worse when they were paired with images of heavy individuals than when they were paired with images of thin individuals. These findings suggest that perceptions of stigmatized individuals can be assessed indirectly through olfactory responses. More generally, they suggest that the effects of weight stigma are broader than previously recognized.

  6. Dietary evaluation of patients with smell and/or taste disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, R D; Cowart, B J; Schiavo, M A; Arnold, C; Garrison, B; Kare, M R; Lowry, L D

    1990-02-01

    The impact of smell and taste disorders on dietary habits and nutritional status has received limited research attention. This paper reports findings obtained from questionnaires and diet records completed by 40 healthy subjects and 118 patients with chemosensory dysfunction. Chemosensory disorders were frequently associated with decreases in food acceptability. Although dietary responses to these dysfunctions varied greatly, patients with distorted or phantom smell and/or taste sensations tended to report weight loss whereas those with simple sensory loss were more likely to report weight gain. Indices derived from diet records did not indicate that either group of patients was at substantial nutritional risk, but food frequency responses and estimates of body mass index were consistent with patient reports of changes in dietary patterns and weight. In addition, marked weight change and aberrant dietary practices were noted in individual patients. Thus, there were indications that chemosensory dysfunction may be associated with nutritionally important dietary alterations.

  7. Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-11-01

    Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.

  8. Modifications and evaluation of smell and taste functions in total laryngectomy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Melo, Thais Myriam Aragão; Dourado Filho, Mário Genuíno; Pinheiro Júnior, Paulo Fernando; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the alterations in smell and taste functions in individuals who underwent total laryngectomy, as well as to identify in the literature some aspects involved in the evaluation of these functions in this population. We performed a systematic review on the databases Medline, LILACS and SciELO, and this data search occurred in October/2010. The search used keywords and free terms, and retrieved 84 articles, 79 from Medline, via Pubmed, and five form LILACS and SciELO. Sixteen of these articles were selected. Most studies in this review attested decline in sensory of smell and taste functions in individuals who underwent total laryngectomy and, although there is consensus regarding the damage caused to these functions by the nasal airflow interruption, it is not yet possible to evidence details in the mechanisms and structures involved, especially regarding the modifications in the olfactory mucous.

  9. Recovery of olfactory function induces neuroplasticity effects in patients with smell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Kowalczyk, Ksenia; Hoche, Elisabeth; Mueller, Christian A; Pollak, Michael; Trattnig, Siegfried; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The plasticity of brain function, especially reorganization after stroke or sensory loss, has been investigated extensively. Based upon its special characteristics, the olfactory system allows the investigation of functional networks in patients with smell loss, as it holds the unique ability to be activated by the sensorimotor act of sniffing, without the presentation of an odor. In the present study, subjects with chronic peripheral smell loss and healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare functional networks in one of the major olfactory areas before and after an olfactory training program. Data analysis revealed that olfactory training induced alterations in functional connectivity networks. Thus, olfactory training is capable of inducing neural reorganization processes. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory training.

  10. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  11. Improved smell function with increased nasal mucus sonic hedgehog in hyposmic patients after treatment with oral theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Hosein, Suzanna; Stateman, William A; Knöppel, Alexandra B; Abdelmeguid, Mona

    We previously demonstrated the presence of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in nasal mucus in normal subjects and in patients with smell loss (hyposmia). Nasal mucus Shh levels were found significantly diminished in untreated hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies. Since treatment with oral theophylline has been previously associated with improvement in smell function we wished to study if such treatment increased nasal mucus Shh as well as improved smell function in patients with hyposmia. Forty-four patients with hyposmia of several etiologies were evaluated for changes in hyposmia by subjective measurements of smell, taste and flavor perception and by olfactometry. Measurements of nasal mucus Shh were made in relationship to each set of sensory measurements. Patients were treated with oral theophylline at doses of 200-800mg for periods of 2-10months with sensory function, nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline levels evaluated at these time intervals. Nasal mucus Shh measurements were made with a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay and theophylline with a fluorometric assay. There was consistent, significant improvement in subjective responses in smell, taste and flavor perception and in olfactometry associated with increased nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline after theophylline treatment. Improvement in smell function and in nasal mucus Shh was positively correlated in a dose-response relationship after treatment with oral theophylline. Results are consistent with a successful role for theophylline in improvement of smell function in hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies associated with increased nasal mucus Shh which can act as a biochemical marker for smell function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Changes in Mood States Are Induced by Smelling Familiar and Exotic Fragrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Orly; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Familiar fragrances usually induce positive mood states and elicit favorable evaluation. Relaxation is also widely thought to improve mood state. Yet experimental evidence on the effect of two different stimuli, fragrance smelling and breathing relaxation, on mood state, and fragrance evaluation is lacking. This study aimed to test (1) the effect of two familiar fragrances, lavender and myrtle, and two exotic fragrances, bergamot and ravensara, on perceived mood states before and after relaxation, (2) the effect of relaxation on perceived mood states for each fragrance, and (3) the effect of relaxation on fragrance evaluation as defined by adjectives. We hypothesized that mood states and assessment of the fragrances would differently be affected both in familiar vs. non-familiar fragrances and also before and after relaxation. Participants (n = 127) completed questionnaires on their mood states at baseline (T0). They were then presented with each of the four fragrances separately and asked to report on mood state and to assess the fragrances with adjectives before (T1) and after (T2) breathing relaxation. Analyses of the T0–T1 delta values of mood states by ANOVA repeated measures and post hoc comparisons showed that mood states were affected by fragrance smelling with no clear differences observed between familiar and exotic fragrances. The same analyses of T1–T2 values showed no differences in mood state after breathing relaxation and fragrance smelling. Fragrance assessment by adjectives indicated a non-conclusive trend for familiar and exotic fragrances. In sum, mood states induced by the fragrance smelling stimulus (T0–T1) were not changed by the addition of the second stimulus of relaxation (T1–T2), indicating that the former stimulus was stronger than the latter. On the other hand, the cognitive component represented by adjective-based assessment of fragrances was slightly modified by the relaxation stimulus. PMID:27877148

  13. Changes in mood states are induced by smelling familiar and exotic fragrances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Sarid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familiar fragrances usually induce positive mood states and elicit favorable evaluation. Relaxation is also widely thought to improve mood state. Yet experimental evidence on the effect of two different stimuli, fragrance smelling and breathing relaxation, on mood state and fragrance evaluation is lacking. This study aimed to test (1 the effect of two familiar fragrances, lavender and myrtle, and two exotic fragrances, bergamot and ravensara, on perceived mood states before and after relaxation, (2 the effect of relaxation on perceived mood states for each fragrance, and (3 the effect of relaxation on fragrance evaluation as defined by adjectives. We hypothesized that mood states and assessment of the fragrances would differently be affected both in familiar vs. non-familiar fragrances and also before and after relaxation. Participants (n = 127 completed questionnaires on their mood states at baseline (T0. They were then presented with each of the four fragrances separately and asked to report on mood state and to assess the fragrances with adjectives before (T1 and after (T2 breathing relaxation. Analyses of the T0−T1 delta values of mood states by ANOVA repeated measures and post hoc comparisons showed that mood states were affected by fragrance smelling with no clear differences observed between familiar and exotic fragrances. The same analyses of T1−T2 values showed no differences in mood state after breathing relaxation and fragrance smelling. Fragrance assessment by adjectives indicated a non-conclusive trend for familiar and exotic fragrances. In sum, mood states induced by the fragrance smelling stimulus (T0−T1 were not changed by the addition of the second stimulus of relaxation (T1−T2, indicating that the former stimulus was stronger than the latter. On the other hand, the cognitive component represented by adjective-based assessment of fragrances was slightly modified by the relaxation stimulus.

  14. The Olfactory Strip and Its Preservation in Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery Maintains Smell and Sinonasal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard J; Winder, Mark; Davidson, Andrew; Steel, Tim; Nalavenkata, Sunny; Mrad, Nadine; Bokhari, Ali; Barham, Henry; Knisely, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Background The return of olfaction and of sinonasal function are important end points after pituitary surgery. Opinions differ on the impact of surgery because techniques vary greatly. A modified preservation of the so-called olfactory strip is described that utilizes a small nasoseptal flap and wide exposure. Methods A cohort of patients undergoing pituitary surgery and endoscopic sinonasal tumor surgery were assessed. Patient-reported outcomes (Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT22] and Nasal Symptom Score [NSS]) were recorded. A global score of sinonasal function and the impact on smell and taste were obtained. Objective smell discrimination testing was performed in the pituitary group with the Smell Identification Test. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. Results Ninety-eight patients, n = 40 pituitary (50.95 ± 15.31 years; 47.5% female) and n = 58 tumor (52.35 ± 18.51 years; 52.5% female) were assessed. For pituitary patients, NSSs were not significantly different pre- and postsurgery (2.75 ± 3.40 versus 3.05 ± 3.03; p = 0.53). SNOT22 scores improved postsurgery (1.02 ± 0.80 versus 0.83 ± 0.70; p = 0.046). Objective smell discrimination scores between baseline and 6 months were similar (31.63 ± 3.49 versus 31.35 ± 4.61; p = 0.68). No difference in change of olfaction was seen compared with controls (Kendall tau-b p = 0.46). Conclusions Preservation of the olfactory strip can provide a low morbidity approach without adversely affecting olfaction and maintaining reconstruction options.

  15. Effect of Initial Headspace O2 Level on the Growth and Volatile Metabolite Production of Leuconostoc Mesenteriodes and the Microbial and Sensorial Quality of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Par-Fried French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, Simbarashe; Mujuru, Felix Mugove; de Baenst, Ilse; Denon, Quenten; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of residual O2 level (0% to 5%) on microbial growth and volatile metabolite production on par-fried French fries packaged in a modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 (rest N2 ) at 4 °C. The results obtained showed that the initial headspace (IH) O2 level had an effect on growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides on French fry simulation agar, whereby growth was slightly faster under 5% O2 . In terms of quantity, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and dimethyl disulphide were the most significant volatile metabolites produced by L. mesenteroides. The production of ethanol by L. mesenteroides was highest on simulation agar packaged under low IH O2 levels (0% to 1%), indicating that the fermentative metabolism was induced under these conditions. In agreement with the results observed on the simulation medium, growth of native lactic acid bacteria was faster under an IH O2 level of 5%. In addition, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and dimethyl disulphide were also quantitatively the most important volatile metabolites. However, in contrast, greater quantities of ethanol and dimethyl disulphide were produced on par-fried French fries packaged under 5% O2 . This was attributed to the limited growth of the native flora on the par-fried French fries under residual O2 levels of 0% and 1%. Although some significant differences (P < 0.05) occurred between the French fries packaged in 0%, 1%, and 5 % residual O2 during storage, all products were considered to be acceptable for consumption. The results of this study can be used to optimize the shelf-life of packaged chill stored potato products.

  16. Odour perception following bilateral damage to the olfactory bulbs: a possible case of blind smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucco, Gesualdo M; Prior, Massimo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stevenson, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Unconsciously detected chemicals may affect human behaviour (Kirk-Smith et al., 1983; Stern and McClintock, 1998; Zucco et al., 2009), likeability judgements (Li et al., 2007) and brain activity (Lorig et al., 1990; Sobel et al., 1999). No studies, however, have investigated blind smell - the hypothetical olfactory counterpart of blindsight (Weiskrantz et al., 1974). In this report, free and cued olfactory identification of suprathreshold odorants varying in irritancy (i.e., low or no irritant odours versus irritant odours), and taste identification abilities, were examined in patient MB who had undergone surgery for a meningioma. Post-operative imaging revealed encephalomalacia in the left gyrus rectus, with ablation of the left olfactory bulb and damage to the right, subcortical abnormality on the left near the orbital cortex, and damage to a small section of the right gyrus rectus. On free identification MB, while denying a capacity to smell the odours, still correctly identified some and detected others significantly above chance. In contrast, awareness always accompanied correct detections of irritant odours. Cued odour identification was at chance and no taste impairments were observed. We suggest, tentatively, that MB's unusual pattern of awareness when detecting and identifying odours relative to irritant odours may represent an example of 'blind smell'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subjective taste and smell changes in treatment-naive people with solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotten, L; Corish, C; Lorton, C; Dhuibhir, P Ui; O'Donoghue, N; O'Connor, B; Cunningham, M; El Beltagi, N; Gillham, C; Walsh, D

    2016-07-01

    Taste and smell changes (TSCs) are common in head and neck (H&N) cancer and during and after chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT). It is an area that has been under-investigated, particularly in the treatment-naive, but can negatively impact nutritional status. This study examined the prevalence, severity and characteristics of TSCs in people with non-H&N solid tumours, before CT and RT, and their relationship with co-occurring symptoms. A prospective, observational study was conducted. Forty consecutive pre-treatment cancer patients, referred to radiation oncology outpatients over 6 weeks, were recruited. Data on TSCs, symptoms and nutritional status were obtained using the 'Taste and Smell Survey' and the 'abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment' (abPG-SGA). BMI was measured. SPSS® was used for statistical analysis. Two-sided P values smell sensation. Those at nutritional risk reported more TSCs (n = 13/20). TSCs were significantly associated with dry mouth (P < 0.01), early satiety (P < 0.05) and fatigue (P < 0.05). TSCs preceded CT or RT in almost half of treatment-naive patients with solid tumours, notably stronger sweet and salt tastes. Half of the study group were at nutritional risk; the majority of these reported TSCs. TSCs were significantly associated with other symptoms. Future research and clinical guidelines, with a common terminology for assessment, diagnosis and management of cancer TSCs, are needed.

  18. Mimicking the human smell sensing mechanism with an artificial nose platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Sung, Jong Hwan; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2012-02-01

    Sensing smell is a highly complex biological process, and characterizing and mimicking the interaction between the olfactory receptor (OR) protein and its ligands is extremely challenging. Herein, we report a highly sensitive and selective human nose-like nanobioelectronic nose (nbe-nose), which responds to gaseous odorants sensitively and selectively, has a signal specificity pattern similar to that in the cellular signal transduction pathway, and maintains an antagonistic behavior similar to the human nose. The human olfaction mechanism was mimicked by using carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (CPNTs) functionalized with human OR protein. The nbe-nose was able to detect gaseous odorants at a concentration as low as 0.02 parts-per-trillion (ppt), which was comparable to a highly trained, human expert's nose. The nbe-nose can be used scientifically for smell mechanism studies. It can be also applied to various fields that rely on smell monitoring for industrial and public purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subjective visual vertical perception and sense of smell in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Docherty, Sharon; Bagust, Jeff; Willington, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Amar, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an open cross-sectional observational study involving 47 participants with Parkinson disease (PD) and 47 (age- and sex-matched) nondisabled controls without PD. The aim was to determine the profiles of subjective visual vertical (SVV) perception and sense of smell perception in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference (p smell test performance. Controls were more likely to correctly identify odors, with a median score of 10 out of 12 compared with 6.5 out of 12 for patients with PD. The median SVV error for the PD group when the frame was untilted was 0.75 degrees compared with 0.50 degrees for controls. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). When the frame was tilted, the median SVV error for the PD group was 2.31 degrees compared with 2.00 degrees for controls (not statistically significant), with both groups showing similar distribution pattern of errors. There was no statistical correlation between number of correctly identified odors and an individual's SVV error. However, a statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) was found between Mini-Mental State Examination score and mean time taken to complete each rod and frame test in patients with PD, suggesting that SVV errors might be more correlated with cognitive function than with loss of sense of smell.

  20. Learning about the functions of the olfactory system from people without a sense of smell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available The olfactory system provides numerous functions to humans, influencing ingestive behavior, awareness of environmental hazards and social communication. Approximately 1/5 of the general population exhibit an impaired sense of smell. However, in contrast to the many affected, only few patients complain of their impairment. So how important is it for humans to have an intact sense of smell? Or is it even dispensable, at least in the Western world? To investigate this, we compared 32 patients, who were born without a sense of smell (isolated congenital anosmia--ICA with 36 age-matched controls. A broad questionnaire was used, containing domains relevant to olfaction in daily life, along with a questionnaire about social relationships and the BDI-questionnaire. ICA-patients differed only slightly from controls in functions of daily life related to olfaction. These differences included enhanced social insecurity, increased risk for depressive symptoms and increased risk for household accidents. In these domains the sense of olfaction seems to play a key role.

  1. Men Smelling Women: Null Effects of Exposure to Ovulatory Sweat on Men's Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species, humans included, exhibit rapid testosterone increases after exposure to conspecific females. Female chemical stimuli are sufficient to trigger these responses in many nonhuman species, which raises the possibility of similar effects in humans. Recently, Miller and Maner (2010 reported that smelling T-shirts worn by women near ovulation can trigger testosterone responses in men; however, men were aware that they were smelling women's scents, and thus mental imagery associated with that knowledge may have contributed to the hormone responses. Here, we collected axillary sweat samples from women on days near ovulation. In a crossover design, men who were not explicitly aware of the specific stimuli smelled the sweat samples in one session and water samples in a second session. There were no differences in testosterone responses across the experimental conditions. Our null findings suggest that the relevant chemical signal is not found in axillary sweat, and/or that knowledge of the stimulus source is necessary for hormone responses. These results thus suggest boundary conditions for the effects reported in Miller and Maner (2010, and recommend further research to define the precise circumstances under which men's testosterone may respond to chemosensory cues from women.

  2. [Perception of taste and smell in normal and pathological aging: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, Karl; Naudin, Marine; Beaufils, Émilie; Atanasova, Borania

    2014-09-01

    The physiological and pathological aging on sense organs is widely studied in the visual and hearing modalities. By contrast, taste and smell changes are widely overlooked. These symptoms are rarely evoked in the elderly and often neglected in clinical practice. Studies in this population are rare and show contradictory results. In this update, we describe the perception of taste and smell in aging. In a first part, we present studies about the aging of smell and taste senses. While taste is remarkably spared during aging, olfaction decreases dramatically since 5th decade of life, frequently resulting in anosmia after 90 years. Numerous causes are evoked: acute conditions (mouth health, medications…) and chronic diseases frequently observed during aging (Alzheimer or Parkinson's diseases) may be responsible of such decline. In the last part, we approach the consequences on geriatric practice, as regards the nutrition of old subjects, including a cognitive approach regarding to perceptual functions and environmental determinants of nutrition. Taste and olfaction disorders should be considered as a geriatric syndrome that geriatricians have to be aware in clinical practice.

  3. Learning about the functions of the olfactory system from people without a sense of smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Negoias, Simona; Novakova, Lenka; Landis, Basile N; Hummel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory system provides numerous functions to humans, influencing ingestive behavior, awareness of environmental hazards and social communication. Approximately 1/5 of the general population exhibit an impaired sense of smell. However, in contrast to the many affected, only few patients complain of their impairment. So how important is it for humans to have an intact sense of smell? Or is it even dispensable, at least in the Western world? To investigate this, we compared 32 patients, who were born without a sense of smell (isolated congenital anosmia--ICA) with 36 age-matched controls. A broad questionnaire was used, containing domains relevant to olfaction in daily life, along with a questionnaire about social relationships and the BDI-questionnaire. ICA-patients differed only slightly from controls in functions of daily life related to olfaction. These differences included enhanced social insecurity, increased risk for depressive symptoms and increased risk for household accidents. In these domains the sense of olfaction seems to play a key role.

  4. Effects of smell loss on daily life and adopted coping strategies in patients with nasal polyposis with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Steven; Blomqvist, Ebba Hedén; Olsson, Petter; Stjärne, Pär; Ehnhage, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Results from prior studies of quality of life (QoL) in heterogeneous patient groups (regarding disorder type and etiology) with olfactory disorders may be useful also for understanding QoL in homogeneous patient groups. Diagnosis and treatment of smell loss should be given high priority in polyposis with asthma, and coping strategies can be suggested to these patients. To investigate the effects of smell loss on daily life and coping strategies in patients with smell loss without dysosmia and with nasal polyposis with asthma as the only primary etiology, and to compare these results with those from a prior study of a patient group with heterogeneous olfactory disorders and etiology. Fifty patients with smell loss and with nasal polyposis and asthma responded to questions about consequences of smell loss, QoL, psychological well-being and distress, and coping strategies. Negative consequences of smell loss, associated risks, and diminished food enjoyment were commonly reported, and various aspects of QoL were rated as being deteriorated. Psychological well-being was found to be poorer than normal, and use of both problem- and emotion-focused strategies was common. The results from this homogeneous patient group are very similar to those previously obtained from a heterogeneous group.

  5. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over time. Wi

  6. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  7. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  8. Effects of ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al on production of volatiles in Populus simonii × P. pyramidalis 'Opera 8277'cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo GAO; Yingbai SHEN; Zenghui HU

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of ethylene, (Z)-hexen-3-al, combinations of ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al, methyl jasmonate on the release of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) of Populus simoniixP, pyramidalis 'Opera 8277' by fumigation. The results show that exposure to ethylene alone did not induce volatiles.However, it was induced by exposure to combinations of (Z)-hexen-3-al and ethylene, a large amount ofhexenal and hexen-3-ol as compared to sole (Z)-hexen-3-al exposure,which indicated that the release of wounding signals of P.simonii zP. pyramidalis 'Opera 8277' could be synergized by ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al.

  9. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio [National Institute of Health Services, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Synthesis and odour properties of floral smelling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Sega, A; Napolitano, E; Pelosi, P; Scesa, C

    1996-04-01

    Synopsis To provide further information on the relationships between chemical structure and floral odour, here we report the synthesis and the odour evaluation of some spirane derivatives, designed as conformational models of our previously described floral odorants. One of the new compounds (5-methyl-benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-spiro-1-cyclohexane), in particular, is endowed with a particularly pleasant odour of white flowers, can be easily prepared from commercial products and is more stable than other odorants of the same class; these characteristics make this odorant suitable for being used as an additive in perfumery and cosmetics.

  11. Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Marques Canuto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

  12. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  13. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  14. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium-high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (phistory and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders.

  15. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong......In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...

  16. 76 FR 41086 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Organic Compound Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Operations Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection...) a new rule for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from reinforced plastic..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: June 24, 2011. Susan...

  17. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (psmell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor

  18. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  19. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  20. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  1. [The 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for research into smell receptors and the organization of the olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, J P H

    2004-12-25

    The 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, for their discovery of smell receptors and the organisation of the olfactory system. Their original discovery concerned the identification of some 1000 genes that code for smell receptors in the olfactory epithelium of the rat. They also demonstrated that each receptor can only be activated by a limited number of odourants and that there is some overlap in specificity with other smell receptors. Odourants in inhaled air are specifically recognized and bound by the smell receptors on the olfactory neurones in the nasal epithelium. The activated neurones send an electrical signal to the mitral cells, the dendrites of which lie in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. In each olfactory neuron only one smell receptor gene is expressed. Neurones with the same type of receptor are spread throughout the epithelium but converge in the same glomerulus. An olfactory map is formed by means of mitral-cell projections which run to the cerebral cortex as well as to other parts of the brain. Possibly the information gained about odourants will be applied in the areas of physiology and pathophysiology; in the field of pharmacology for example where odourants may be used in the treatment of disorders of fertility, behaviour or mood.

  2. Smell identification function as a severity and progression marker in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Latha; Pritchard, Megan; Powell, John F; Proitsi, Petroula; Lovestone, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Olfactory dysfunction, impaired smell identification in particular, is known as a diagnostic and a marker of conversion in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to evaluate the associations of olfactory identification impairments with cognition, illness severity, and progression in AD patients. Fifty-seven outpatients with late onset mild to moderate AD and 24 elderly non-demented controls (NDC) were assessed, at baseline and after three months, for Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and Bristol Activities of Daily Living and Neuropsychiatry Inventory. AD participants were classified as Rapid Cognitive Decliners (RCD) defined on a priori with a loss of ≥2 points in MMSE within the previous six months. AD participants had lower olfactory scores than NDC. RCD had lower olfaction scores compared with Non-Rapid Cognitive Decliners (NRCD). Although the baseline UPSIT scores were associated with baseline MMSE scores, it did not interact significantly with change in MMSE over the follow-up period. Using a median split for olfactory scores, the AD participants were classified as Rapid Olfactory Progressors (ROP) (UPSIT ≤ 15) and Slow Olfactory Progressors correlating significantly with RCD/NRCD groups. The ROP group with higher olfactory impairment indicated more symptomatic illness or severity, i.e. lower cognition, higher functional dependence, and presence of behavioral symptoms. Our study supports association of smell identification function with cognition and its utility as an adjunct clinical measure to assess severity in AD. Further work, including larger longitudinal studies, is needed to explore its value in predicting AD progression.

  3. A new cultural adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Doty, Richard L; Santos, Clayson Alan dos; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, a test of olfactory function that is widely used by otolaryngologists, geriatricians, and neurologists, has been translated into more than a dozen languages. In some instances, cultural and socioeconomic factors have necessitated changes in the odorant items or the response alternatives to make the test scores congruent with North American norms. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of Brazilian subjects on a new Portuguese language version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test with their performance on an earlier Portuguese language version of the test, as well as to assess the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status on the test scores. Based on pilot data, several response alternatives of the earlier Portuguese language version of the test were altered in an effort to improve test performance. Forty-nine healthy Brazilian volunteers, who represented several economic classes, were tested. The test scores of the study cohort who received the newer version of the test were compared with those of a group of 25 subjects who received the earlier version of the test. The mean score for the new version [35 (2.1)] was significantly (p = 0.002) higher than that for the earlier version [32.5 (3.5)]. Although no apparent influence of socioeconomic status was observed, the female participants outperformed the male participants in the current subject cohort. The changes made in the new cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were effective in increasing the average test scores of the participants. Overall, the female subjects outperformed the male subjects on the test.

  4. The lateralized smell test for detecting Alzheimer's disease: failure to replicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Bayona, Edgardo A; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Cuadros, Juan; Chung, Inna; Vazquez, Britney; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2014-05-15

    A widely publicized study by Stamps, Bartoshuk and Heilman (2013) reported that a simple measure of left:right naris differences in the ability to detect the odor of peanut butter is a sensitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD patients were said to have abnormal smell function on the left side of the nose and normal function on right side of the nose. In light of its implications for medical practice and the world-wide publicity that it engendered, we sought to replicate and expand this work. Two studies were performed. In the first, 15 AD patients were tested according to the procedures described by Stamps et al. in which the nostril contralateral to the tested side was occluded by the patient using lateral pressure from the index finger. Since this can potentially distort the contralateral naris, we repeated the testing using tape for naris occlusion. In the second, 20 AD patients were administered 20 odors of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to each side of the nose, with the contralateral naris being closed with tape. In both studies, the order of the side of testing was systematically counterbalanced. No evidence of a left:right asymmetry on any test measure was observed. Although hyposmia is well-established in AD, no meaningful asymmetry in smell perception is apparent. If olfactory function on the right side of the nose was normal as claimed, then AD patients should exhibit normal function when tested bilaterally, a phenomenon not seen in dozens of AD-related olfactory studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  6. A chromatographic method to analyze products from photo-oxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic mixtures of volatile organic compounds in smog chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa M; Vivanco, Marta G; Santiago Aladro, Manuel

    2013-03-15

    A method for quantifying secondary organic aerosol compounds (SOA) and water soluble secondary organic aerosol compounds (WSOA) produced from photo-oxidation of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smog chambers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed. This method employs a double extraction with water and methanol jointly to a double derivatization with N,O-bis (trimethylsilil) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and O-(2,3,4,5,6)-pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) followed by an analysis performed by GC/MS. The analytical procedure complements other methodologies because it can analyze SOA and WSOA compounds simultaneously at trace levels. As application, the methodology was employed to quantify the organic composition of aerosols formed in a smog chamber as a result of photo-oxidation of two different mixtures of volatile organic compounds: an anthropogenic mixture and a biogenic mixture. The analytical method allowed us to quantify up to 17 SOA compounds at levels higher than 20 ng m(-3) with reasonable recovery and a precision below 11%. Values found for applicability, selectivity, linearity, precision, recovery, detection limit, quantification limit and sensitivity demonstrated that the methodology can be satisfactorily applied to quantify SOA and WSOA.

  7. How does your kidney smell? Emerging roles for olfactory receptors in renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe D; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are chemosensors that are responsible for one's sense of smell. In addition to this specialized role in the nose, recent evidence suggests that ORs are also found in a variety of additional tissues including the kidney. As this list of renal ORs continues to expand, it is becoming clear that they play important roles in renal and whole-body physiology, including a novel role in blood pressure regulation. In this review, we highlight important considerations that are crucial when studying ORs and present the current literature on renal ORs and their emerging relevance in maintaining renal function.

  8. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  9. Study on the Preparation of Toothpaste for Cleaning off the Garlic Smell%祛蒜味牙膏的配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世贞; 霍红; 王勇

    2001-01-01

    通过选取儿茶酸、植酸钠等祛蒜味的有效成分和其他所需的原料,对祛蒜味牙膏的配方进行正交实验,利用模糊数学的方法对祛蒜味的有效性进行综合评价分析,选取出祛蒜味牙膏的合理配方。%A series of orthogonal tests have been experimented based on the different compositions of efficacious toothpaste for cleaning off the garlic smell by selecting the effective ingredients, such as catechin, sodium phytate and other necessary raw materials.The suitable formulation was formed from the tests by evaluating the quality and effectiveness of products in respect of Fuzzy Mathematics method.

  10. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  11. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  12. Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; Hordijk, C.; Gerards, S.; Boer, de W.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacteri

  13. Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a small patch of tissue high inside the nose. These cells connect directly to the brain. Each olfactory neuron has one odor receptor. Microscopic ... the brain. These representations are registered by the brain as a particular ... throat to the nose. Chewing food releases aromas that access the olfactory ...

  14. Low specificity and sensitivity of smell identification testing for the diagnosis of Parkinson?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if the University of Pennsylvania’s Smell Identification Test (UPSIT is an accurate diagnostic tool for olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Method: We included 138 non-demented PD subjects and 175 control subjects matched by gender. Smell identification was tested using UPSIT. Results: The mean number of UPSIT items correctly identified by controls was 27.52±5.88; the mean score for PD subjects was 19.66±6.08 (p=<0.001. UPSIT sensitivity was 79.7% with a specificity of 68.5% using a cut-off score of ≤25. The overall accuracy for the diagnosis of PD was of 75.3%. Conclusion: UPSIT accuracy and specificity were lower than what has been previously reported. Our data demonstrates that 17.5% of items of the UPSIT were not well identified by healthy controls. Further research of the identification of a truly cross-cultural test is warranted.

  15. Low specificity and sensitivity of smell identification testing for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Gonzalez-Latapi, Paulina; Camacho-Ordoñez, Azyadeh; Martínez-Ramírez, Daniel; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the University of Pennsylvania's Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is an accurate diagnostic tool for olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). We included 138 non-demented PD subjects and 175 control subjects matched by gender. Smell identification was tested using UPSIT. The mean number of UPSIT items correctly identified by controls was 27.52 ± 5.88; the mean score for PD subjects was 19.66 ± 6.08 (p=<0.001). UPSIT sensitivity was 79.7% with a specificity of 68.5% using a cut-off score of ≤ 25. The overall accuracy for the diagnosis of PD was of 75.3%. UPSIT accuracy and specificity were lower than what has been previously reported. Our data demonstrates that 17.5% of items of the UPSIT were not well identified by healthy controls. Further research of the identification of a truly cross-cultural test is warranted.

  16. Odor-Specific Loss of Smell Sensitivity with Age as Revealed by the Specific Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Huang, Dejian

    2016-07-01

    The perception of odor mixtures plays an important role in human food intake, behavior, and emotions. Decline of smell acuity with normal aging could impact food perception and preferences at various ages. However, since the landmark Smell Survey by National Geographic, little has been elucidated on differences in the onset and extent of loss in olfactory sensitivity toward single odorants. Here, using the Specific Sensitivity test, we show the onset and extent of loss in both identification and detection thresholds of odorants with age are odorant-specific. Subjects of Chinese descent in Singapore (186 women, 95 men), aged 21-80 years, were assessed for olfactory sensitivity of 10 odorants from various odor groups. Notably, subjects in their 70s required 179 times concentration of rose-like odorant (2-phenylethanol) than subjects in the 20s, while thresholds for onion-like 2-methyloxolane-3-thiol only differed by 3 times between the age groups. In addition, identification rate for 2-phenylethanol was negatively correlated with age throughout adult life whereas mushroom-like oct-1-en-3-ol was equally identified by subjects across all ages. Our results demonstrated the girth of differentiated olfactory loss due to normal ageing, which potentially affect overall perception and preferences of odor mixtures with age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Quantitative instruments used to assess children's sense of smell: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Raissa Gomes Fonseca; Cunha, Daniele Andrade; Gomes, Ana Carolina de Lima Gusmão; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2014-01-01

    To systematically gather from the literature available the quantitative instruments used to assess the sense of smell in studies carried out with children. The present study included a survey in the Pubmed and Bireme platforms and in the databases of MedLine, Lilacs, regional SciELO and Web of Science, followed by selection and critical analysis of the articles found and chosen. We selected original articles related to the topic in question, conducted only with children in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. We excluded studies addressing other phases of human development, exclusively or concurrently with the pediatric population; studies on animals; literature review articles; dissertations; book chapters; case study articles; and editorials. A book report protocol was created for this study, including the following information: author, department, year, location, population/sample, age, purpose of the study, methods, and main results. We found 8,451 articles by typing keywords and identifiers. Out of this total, 5,928 were excluded by the title, 2,366 by the abstract, and 123 after we read the full text. Thus, 34 articles were selected, of which 28 were repeated in the databases, totalizing 6 articles analyzed in this review. We observed a lack of standardization of the quantitative instruments used to assess children's sense of smell, with great variability in the methodology of the tests, which reduces the effectiveness and reliability of the results.

  19. Why do women stop smoking during pregnancy? Cigarettes taste and smell bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Pamela K; Kratz, Anna Thornton

    2004-08-01

    There are high rates of cigarette smoking resumption among women who have quit smoking while pregnant, and the reasons for this are poorly understood. Our purpose in this study was to obtain an in-depth description of the context surrounding smoking behaviors during pregnancy and the first 3 months after women give birth in order to gain insight into the reasons women resume smoking. We used a longitudinal qualitative descriptive approach with in-depth interviews conducted early in pregnancy, at 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 3 months postpartum. Our purposive sample consisted of 15 pregnant women who had stopped smoking without assistance by their first prenatal visit. All women smoked mentholated cigarettes prior to pregnancy and 40% were primiparas. A thematic content analysis of 43 interviews revealed that the majority of women experienced an aversion to the taste or smell of tobacco smoke while pregnant and attributed these sensation changes to being pregnant. The taste and smell of tobacco smoke returned to prepregnancy states postpartum, and by 3 months postpartum 73% of the women had resumed smoking. This physiologic change can be conceptualized as a pregnancy-specific motivation for smoking cessation that can inform our efforts toward relapse prevention.

  20. THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED SUGAR BEET JUICE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Different methods of obtaining the product given were tested and rational modes for the proposed technology were chosen in the development of technology for production of sugar beet concentrated juice. The sugar beet concentrated juice is obtained as follows: sugar beets are washed in the continuous action washing machine, checked, rotten or spoiled beets are removed from the cycle, and insufficiently treated roots are directed to re-washing. Then with the help of thermal processing the sugar beet is peeled. The peeled roots are white. They are crushed to the 3-4 mm particles size, mixed with acidified to pH 3,5-4,0 water (hydromodule 1-1.2, then the resulting mass is heated to 80 0C temperature. The use of acidified water is necessary to prevent the darkening initiation. Then the received sugar beet mass is fed to pressing to obtain its juice. The pressed juice depending on the beet source contains 12 % of DS and 1.5-3 % reducing substances (RS of the total mass of dry substances. The juice concentration is under the suction of 0.008 MPa at the boiling temperature of up to 60 0C to the content of 70 % DS. Due to the delicate mode, the sugars breakdown is less intensive, the finished product is of good quality. At the simultaneous concentration with steam the volatile substances with a specific smell are removed, that improves the juice taste and smell. Under this mode, the sugar hydrolysis is intensive, there is a growth reducing substances up to 20 %, the color is increased to 40% density. The research results allow to recommend the product obtained as the sugar syrup substitute.

  1. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  2. Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preferenc

  3. Survey of volatile oxylipins and their biosynthetic precursors in bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, Emmanuel; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2010-04-01

    Oxylipins are metabolites which are derived from the oxidative fragmentation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These metabolites play central roles in plant hormonal regulation and defense. Here we survey the production of volatile oxylipins in bryophytes and report the production of a high structural variety of C5, C6, C8 and C9 volatiles of mosses. In liverworts and hornworts oxylipin production was not as pronounced as in the 23 screened mosses. A biosynthetic investigation revealed that both, C18 and C20 fatty acids serve as precursors for the volatile oxylipins that are mainly produced after mechanical wounding of the green tissue of mosses.

  4. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  5. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  6. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  7. Hybrid organic PVDF-inorganic M-rGO-TiO2 (M = Ag, Pt) nanocomposites for multifunctional volatile organic compound sensing and photocatalytic degradation-H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, W L; Gao, M; Ho, G W

    2013-11-21

    This work focused on the development of a hybrid organic-inorganic TiO2 nanocomposite, which demonstrates the first ever report on harmful volatile organic compound (VOC) sensing and photocatalytic degradation-H2 production. The sensing and photocatalytic properties are enhanced by the synergetic effects of well-structured TiO2 nanotubes, metal nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide loading for enhanced light absorption and charge-transfer kinetics. Hybridization of a functionalized TiO2 nanocomposite with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix induced strong cross-linking networks between the inorganic-organic components, which promote mechanical reinforcement-flexibility and highly porous asymmetric structures. The developed solution processable nanocomposite has immense potential to remedy the global environmental and energy issues by producing clean water/air and energy from organic compound waste.

  8. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  9. A fragrant neighborhood: volatile mediated bacterial interactions in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play essential roles in communication and competition between soil microorganisms. Here we assessed volatile-mediated interactions of a synthetic microbial community in a model system that mimics the natural conditions in the heterogeneous soil environment along the rhizosphere. Phylogenetic different soil bacterial isolates (Burkholderia sp., Dyella sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Paenibacillus sp.) were inoculated as mixtures or monoculture in organic-poor, sandy soil containing artificial root exudates (ARE) and the volatile profile and growth were analyzed. Additionally, a two-compartment system was used to test if volatiles produced by inter-specific interactions in the rhizosphere can stimulate the activity of starving bacteria in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil. The obtained results revealed that both microbial interactions and shifts in microbial community composition had a strong effect on the volatile emission. Interestingly, the presence of a slow-growing, low abundant Paenibacillus strain significantly affected the volatile production by the other abundant members of the bacterial community as well as the growth of the interacting strains. Furthermore, volatiles released by mixtures of root-exudates consuming bacteria stimulated the activity and growth of starved bacteria. Besides growth stimulation, also an inhibition in growth was observed for starving bacteria exposed to microbial volatiles. The current work suggests that volatiles produced during microbial interactions in the rhizosphere have a significant long distance effect on microorganisms in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil.

  10. A fragrant neighborhood: Volatile mediated bacterial interactions in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eSchulz-Bohm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that volatile organic compounds play essential roles in communication and competition between soil microorganisms. Here we assessed volatile-mediated interactions of a synthetic microbial community in a model system that mimics the natural conditions in the heterogeneous soil environment along the rhizosphere. Phylogenetic different soil bacterial isolates (Burkholderia sp., Dyella sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Paenibacillus sp. were inoculated as mixtures or monoculture in organic-poor, sandy soil containing artificial root exudates and the volatile profile and growth were analyzed. Additionally, a two-compartment system was used to test if volatiles produced by inter-specific interactions in the rhizosphere can stimulate the activity of starving bacteria in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil. The obtained results revealed that both microbial interactions and shifts in microbial community composition had a strong effect on the volatile emission. Interestingly, the presence of a slow-growing, low abundant Paenibacillus strain significantly affected the volatile production by the other abundant members of the bacterial community as well as the growth of the interacting strains. Furthermore, volatiles released by mixtures of root-exudates consuming bacteria stimulated the activity and growth of starved bacteria. Besides growth stimulation, also an inhibition in growth was observed for starving bacteria exposed to microbial volatiles. The current work suggests that volatiles produced during microbial interactions in the rhizosphere have a significant long distance effect on microorganisms in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil.

  11. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW.

  12. How does measured olfactory function correlate with self-ratings of the sense of smell in patients with nasal polyposis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Trung; Nguyen-Thi, Phi-Linh; Jankowski, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate correlations, before and after surgery, between olfactory function self-ratings and measurements, and self-ratings of nasal obstruction and smell; and to establish cutoff points of self-rating scores for smell reduction in patients with nasal polyposis (NP). Prospective study. A total of 80 patients with NP (36 women, 44 men; aged 49 ± 4 years) were enrolled. Self-ratings (0- to 10-point scale) and measurements of olfactory function with standardized Sniffin' Sticks odor threshold and identification tests were assessed 1 day before surgery, and at 6 weeks (26-78 days) and 7 months (132-318 days) after surgery. Relationships were studied with Spearman correlation coefficients. Cutoff points of self-rating scores for olfactory deficit were established using the receiver operating characteristic curve. Overall, olfactory function self-ratings and measurements correlated strongly preoperatively (r = -0.66, P smell were not correlated when two complaints were dissociated. Cutoff points of self-rating scores for smell reduction were nine units preoperatively and five units postoperatively. Self-ratings and measurements of olfactory function correlated well before and after surgery in NP patients with olfactory deficits. Self-ratings were not reliable pre- and postoperatively in normosmic patients. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...

  14. Stock markets liberalization affects volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alin NISTOR; Maria-Lenuţa CIUPAC-ULICI; GHERMAN Mircea-Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the impact of liberalization, the results show that, in general, market opening is accompanied by a significant increase in market volatility. In particular, volatility tends to decrease due to large capital inflows and domestic growth.The study analyzes the impact of stock market liberalization on volatility in six emerging stock markets by using GARCH methodology. Theory on the effects of financial liberalization on volatility has been ambiguous, and empirical work has yielded con...

  15. Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolina eGarbeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We applied a novel cultivation approach that mimics the natural nutritional heterogeneity in soil in which P. fluorescens grown on nutrient-limited agar was exposed to volatiles produced by 4 phylogenetically different bacterial isolates (Collimonas pratensis, Serratia plymuthica, Paenibacillus sp. and Pedobacter sp. growing in sand containing artificial root exudates. Contrary to our expectation, the produced volatiles stimulated rather than inhibited the growth of P. fluorescens. A genome-wide, microarray-based analysis revealed that volatiles of all 4 bacterial strains affected gene expression of P. fluorescens, but with a different pattern of gene expression for each strain. Based on the annotation of the differently expressed genes, bacterial volatiles appear to induce a chemotactic motility response in P. fluorescens, but also an oxidative stress response. A more detailed study revealed that volatiles produced by C. pratensis triggered, antimicrobial secondary metabolite production in P. fluorescens. Our results indicate that bacterial volatiles can have an important role in communication, trophic - and antagonistic interactions within the soil bacterial community.

  16. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production during fermentation of cellulosic substrates by a thermophilic consortium at 50 and 60 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Sarah M; Nelson, Michael C; Lepistö, Raghida; Yu, Zhongtang; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of temperature and cellulosic substrates on fermentative metabolites, H(2) production, and community successions in an anaerobic, cellulolytic consortium, TC60. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the consortium was predominated by Thermoanaerobacter and Clostridium spp. Metabolite production was analyzed with four cellulosic substrates at 4 kg/m(3). Triplicate cultures of each substrate were incubated at 50 or 60 °C. The main fermentation products (H(2), CO(2), ethanol, and acetate) were monitored over time. The ANOVA model for production rates showed a significant temperature effect (Phydrogen-producing microorganisms.

  17. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  18. Plant volatiles and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loreto, F.; Dicke, M.; Schnitzler, J.P.; Turlings, T.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted by plants represent the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, constitutively and after stress induction. In recent years, our understanding of the func

  19. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  20. Pre-birth sense of smell in the wild boar: the ontogeny of the olfactory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgione, Domenico; Trapanese, Martina; Buglione, Maria; Rippa, Daniela; Polese, Gianluca; Maresca, Viviana; Maselli, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth). Using mRNA expression analysis of olfactory marker protein and neuropeptide Y, involved in the function of olfactory sensory neurons, we show early activation of the appropriate genes in the wild boar. We hypothesize olfactory pre-birth development in wild boar is highly adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensing of Scent, Fragrance, Smell, and Odor Emissions from Biota Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People encounter enormous numbers of chemicals present in the outdoor atmosphere and/or in the various facilities they use daily. Despite such diversity, not many of them have necessarily the potential to draw human’s nasal attraction if their perception thresholds are in general not sufficiently low enough, regardless of abundance. In this sense, many types of scents, musks, fragrances, smells, odors, and pheromones are unique enough to draw a great deal of attention mainly by their presence at or near threshold levels which are far lower than those of common chemicals with poor odorant characteristics. It is known that most of the diverse characters of odor-related ingredients or expressions are commonly produced from various biota sources present in the biosphere, e.g., fauna, flora, bacteria, fruits, flowers, trees, meats, fresh/decaying foods, etc.

  2. Occlusion of sight, sound and smell during Green Exercise influences mood, perceived exertion and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, John-James; Barton, Jo; Gladwell, Valerie F; Micklewright, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to identify the relative contribution of sight, sound and smell to the Green Exercise effect. It was hypothesised that visual occlusion while exercising in a natural environment would have the greatest diminishing effect on perceived exertion and mood compared to auditory and olfactory occlusion. Twenty-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: visual (n = 10), auditory (n = 9) and olfactory occlusion (n = 10). Each performed six, 5-min bouts of exercise alternating between full sensory and occlusion. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and mood were recorded at the end of each bout. Sensory-occlusion increased mood, RPE and HR; effects were strongest when sounds were blocked but virtually absent when vision was blocked. During sensory occlusion, mood changes were characterised by increased Fatigue and Confusion, and reduced Vigour. Reductions in Tension and Vigour and increases in Fatigue were found during full sensory exercise, consistent with previous research findings.

  3. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattazzi, Lorenza; Cariboni, Anna; Poojara, Ridhika; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

  4. Taste and Smell Disturbances after Brain Irradiation: A Dose Volume Histogram Analysis of a Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, C. Marc; Chan, Michael D.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Horne, Elizabeth; Harmon, Michelle; Carter, Annette F.; Hinson, William H.; Mirlohi, Susan; Duncan, Susan E.; Dietrich, Andrea M.; Lesser, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced taste and smell disturbances are prevalent in patients receiving brain radiotherapy, although the mechanisms underlying these toxicities are poorly understood. We report the results of a single institution prospective clinical trial aimed at correlating self-reported taste and smell disturbances with radiation dose delivered to defined areas within the brain and nasopharynx. Methods and Materials 22 patients with gliomas were enrolled on a prospective observational trial in which patients underwent a validated questionnaire assessing taste and smell disturbances at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks after commencement of brain radiotherapy. 14 patients with glioblastoma, 3 patients with grade 3 gliomas, and 5 patients with low grade gliomas participated. Median dose to tumor volume was 60 Gy (range 45–60 Gy). Dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis was performed for specific regions of interest (ROI) that were considered potential targets of radiation damage including the thalamus, temporal lobes, nasopharynx, olfactory groove, frontal pole and periventricular stem cell niche. The %v10 (percent of ROI receiving 10 Gy), %v40, and %v60 were calculated for each structure. Data from questionnaires and DVH were analyzed using stepwise regression. Results 20 of 22 patients submitted evaluable questionnaires that encompassed at least the entire radiotherapy course. 10 of 20 patients reported experiencing some degree of smell disturbance during radiotherapy, and 14 of 20 patients experienced taste disturbances. Patients reporting more severe taste toxicity also reported more severe toxicities with sense of smell (r2=0.60, pmore common in temporal lobe tumors, and may be related to the dose received by the nasopharynx. PMID:24890354

  5. Taste and smell disturbances after brain irradiation: a dose-volume histogram analysis of a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, C Marc; Chan, Michael D; Peiffer, Ann M; Horne, Elizabeth; Harmon, Michelle; Carter, Annette F; Hinson, William H; Mirlohi, Susan; Duncan, Susan E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Lesser, Glenn J

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste and smell disturbances are prevalent in patients receiving brain radiation therapy, although the mechanisms underlying these toxicities are poorly understood. We report the results of a single institution prospective clinical trial aimed at correlating self-reported taste and smell disturbances with radiation dose delivered to defined areas within the brain and nasopharynx. Twenty-two patients with gliomas were enrolled on a prospective observational trial in which patients underwent a validated questionnaire assessing taste and smell disturbances at baseline and at 3 and 6 weeks after commencement of brain radiation therapy. Fourteen patients with glioblastoma, 3 patients with grade 3 gliomas, and 5 patients with low grade gliomas participated. Median dose to tumor volume was 60 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis was performed for specific regions of interest that were considered potential targets of radiation damage, including the thalamus, temporal lobes, nasopharynx, olfactory groove, frontal pole, and periventricular stem cell niche. The %v10 (percent of region of interest receiving 10 Gy), %v40, and %v60 were calculated for each structure. Data from questionnaires and DVH were analyzed using stepwise regression. Twenty of 22 patients submitted evaluable questionnaires that encompassed at least the entire radiation therapy course. Ten of 20 patients reported experiencing some degree of smell disturbance during radiation therapy, and 14 of 20 patients experienced taste disturbances. Patients reporting more severe taste toxicity also reported more severe toxicities with sense of smell (r(2) = 0.60, P more common in temporal lobe tumors, and may be related to the dose received by the nasopharynx. © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-culturally modified University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test for a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Tekeli, Hakan; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Yasar, Halit; Kendirli, Mustafa T; Saglam, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is a well-developed and popular olfactory test, which has been validated in various populations. However, there was only one study in a Turkish population, and this study indicated that the North American version of the UPSIT was not enough to evaluate the olfactory functions of Turkish population. So, we developed a cross-cultural adaptation of the UPSIT, the UPSIT-Turkish (UPSIT-T). Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of the UPSIT-T in healthy Turkish subjects. The study included 51 healthy individuals who reported having normal olfactory function. The participants were administered the North American version of the UPSIT firstly, and then, after a day UPSIT-T was applied to the participants. The results of two smell tests were compared, and the applicability of UPSIT-T was evaluated. The mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 27.2 ± 5.7 (range, 14-38) with the UPSIT application, whereas the mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 35.9 ± 3.1 for UPSIT-T. There was a statistically significant increase in the scores of the participants when UPSIT-T was performed (p < 0.001). The identification rates of 10 test odorants were <80% for our study group, and 2 of 10 were <70% for the UPSIT-T. The UPSIT-T modification is an adequate olfactory test for clinical use in a Turkish population.

  7. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... fi…rst order Markov process and show that our model is closely related to the CEV and Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard (2001) models for local volatility. We show that if measurement noise in the observable volatility proxies is not accounted for, then the estimated autoregressive parameter in the latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  8. Use of non-growing Lactococcus lactis cell suspensions for production of volatile metabolites with direct relevance for flavour formation during dairy fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van de B.; Bron, P.A.; Sijtsma, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium that has been used for centuries in the production of a variety of cheeses, as these bacteria rapidly acidify milk and greatly contribute to the flavour of the fermentation end-products. After a short growth phase during cheese ripening L. lac

  9. Effects of solids concentration, pH and carbon addition on the production rate and composition of volatile fatty acids in prefermenters using primary sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Yuan, Z.; Keller, J.

    2006-01-01

    in prefermenters. In this study, a series of controlled batch experiments were conducted with sludge from a full-scale prefermenter to determine the impact of solids concentration, pH and addition of molasses on prefermentation processes. It was found that an increase in solids concentration enhanced total VFA...... production with an increased propionic acid fraction. The optimal pH for prefermentation was in the range of 6-7 with significant productivity loss when pH was below 5.5. Molasses addition significantly increased the production of VFAs particularly the propionic acid. However, the fermentation rate...

  10. Comparison of Aroma Character Impact Volatiles of Thummong Leaves (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.), Mangdana Water Beetle (Lethocerus indicus), and a Commercial Product as Flavoring Agents in Thai Traditional Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Luanphaisarnnont, Torsak; Rouseff, Russell

    2017-07-11

    Thummong (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.) is a tree native to southern Thailand. The leaves of this tree are highly aromatic and used to flavor Thai dishes in place of the traditional water beetle Mangdana (Lethocerus indicus) for religious and cultural reasons. Total and aroma-active volatiles from both flavoring materials were compared using gas chromatography-olfactory (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatiles from Thummong leaves and the Mangdana water beetle were collected and concentrated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. A total of 23 and 25 aroma-active volatiles were identified in Thummong leaves and Mangdana, respectively. The major aroma-active volatiles in Thummong leaves consisted of 7 aldehydes, 5 ketones, and 3 esters. In contrast, the aroma-active volatiles in the water beetle consisted of 11 aldehydes, 3 esters, and 2 ketones. Both had (E)-2-nonenal as the most intense aroma-active volatile. The water beetle character impact volatile (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was absent in the leaves, but its aroma character was mimicked by 11-dodecen-2-one in the leaves, which was absent in the beetle. In addition, a commercial Mangdana flavoring was examined using GC-O and GC-MS and found to contain only a single aroma-active volatile, hexyl acetate. All three flavoring sources exhibited similar aroma characteristics but were produced from profoundly different aroma-active volatiles.

  11. Microwave Extraction of Volatiles for Mars Science and ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaulker, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The greatest advantage of microwave heating for volatiles extraction is that excavation can be greatly reduced. Surface support operations would be simple consisting of rovers with drilling capability for insertion of microwaves down bore holes to heat at desired depths. The rovers would also provide support to scientific instruments for volatiles analysis and for volatiles collection and storage. The process has the potential for a much lower mass and a less complex system than other in-situ processes. Microwave energy penetrates the surface heating within with subsequent sublimation of water or decomposition of volatile containing minerals. On Mars the volatiles should migrate to the surface to be captured with a cold trap. The water extraction and transport process coupled with atmospheric CO2 collection could readily lead to a propellant production process, H2O + CO2 yields CH4 + O2.

  12. Changes in dark chocolate volatiles during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Lia M; Cadwallader, Keith R; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2012-05-09

    Chocolate storage is critical to the quality of the final product. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to a change in crystal structure, which may eventually cause fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The impact of various storage conditions on the flavor quality of dark chocolate was determined. Dark chocolate was stored in different conditions leading to either fat or sugar bloom and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of storage. Changes in chocolate flavor were determined by volatile analysis and descriptive sensory evaluation. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least-squares regression analysis (PLS). Volatile concentration and loss were significantly affected by storage conditions. Chocolates stored at high temperature were the most visually and texturally compromised, but volatile concentrations were affected the least, whereas samples stored at ambient, frozen, and high relative humidity conditions had significant volatile loss during storage. It was determined that high-temperature storage caused a change in crystal state due to the polymorphic shift to form VI, leading to an increase in sample hardness. Decreased solid fat content (SFC) during high-temperature storage increased instrumentally determined volatile retention, although no difference was detected in chocolate flavor during sensory analysis, possibly due to instrumental and sensory sampling techniques. When all instrumental and sensory data had been taken into account, the storage condition that had the least impact on texture, surface roughness, grain size, lipid polymorphism, fat bloom formation, volatile concentrations, and sensory attributes was storage at constant temperature and 75% relative humidity.

  13. Volatile components and sensory characteristics of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes during fermentation periods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Pinitklang, Surapong; Laohakunjit, Natta; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2016-01-01

    Headspace-volatile components and sensory characteristics, including color, Maillard reaction products and free amino acid profiles, of two types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta...

  14. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis

    2001-01-01

    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  15. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  16. The Aestetic and Perceived Attributes of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    . The character of a product depends on more than this – its technical attributes are a part, but so too are its aesthetic or perceived attributes. The aesthetic attributes are those to which the senses respond: touch, sight, sound, smell and even taste. Perceived attributes of a product – its style and its...

  17. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris.

  18. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  19. A Response Surface Methodology Approach to Investigate the Effect of Sulfur Dioxide, pH, and Ethanol on DbCD and DbVPR Gene Expression and on the Volatile Phenol Production in Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis CBS2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdetara, Federica; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campanello, Alessia; Costa, Carlo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta; Vigentini, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage yeast in barrel-aged wine, metabolize hydroxycinnamic acids into off-flavors, namely ethylphenols. Recently, both the enzymes involved in this transformation, the cinnamate decarboxylase (DbCD) and the vinylphenol reductase (DbVPR), have been identified. To counteract microbial proliferation in wine, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used commonly to stabilize the final product, but limiting its use is advised to preserve human health and boost sustainability in winemaking. In the present study, the influence of SO2 was investigated in relation with pH and ethanol factors on the expression of DbCD and DbVPR genes and volatile phenol production in D. bruxellensis CBS2499 strain under different model wines throughout a response surface methodology (RSM). In order to ensure an exact quantification of DbCD and DbVPR expression, an appropriate housekeeping gene was sought among DbPDC, DbALD, DbEF, DbACT, and DbTUB genes by GeNorm and Normfinder algorithms. The latter gene showed the highest expression stability and it was chosen as the reference housekeeping gene in qPCR assays. Even though SO2 could not be commented as main factor because of its statistical irrelevance on the response of DbCD gene, linear interactions with pH and ethanol concurred to define a significant effect (p bruxellensis spoilage.

  20. Research program for environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Follow-up project for briquette production plants (Tanjun Enim); Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Tanjun Enim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To suppress the emission of environmental pollutants from coal utilization in Indonesia and to contribute to stable security of Japan`s energy, demonstration of clean coal technology and consolidation of diffusion base to be introduced into Indonesia have been promoted. Briquette production plant installed in the Tanjun Enim Coal Mine was examined and guided. Two kinds of high-volatile subbituminous coals are used as raw materials. Semi-cokes with volatile matter of 20% are prepared through fluidized carbonization at 480 degC. Hydrated lime or clay and binder are added to the semi-cokes, to manufacture ball briquettes by molding at room temperature. These are forcedly dried in the continuous drying furnace. In the design, 5 ton ball briquettes can be produced for an hour. Operation time is between 8 and 15 hours in a single shift. Products completely without smoke and smell can be obtained. Combustion performance of the products is remarkably superior to that of conventional products. The operation techniques of carbonization and molding processes were actively guided. To produce briquettes with further high quality, it was suggested that blending ratios and coal properties should be investigated. Inspection method for each apparatus was also guided. There was no abrasion. 13 figs., 2 tabs.