Sample records for volatiles involved magma

  1. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity (United States)

    Webb, S.


    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  2. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.


    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  3. Zinc and volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric


    Zinc is a moderately volatile element and a key tracer of volatile depletion on planetary bodies due to lack of significant isotopic fractionation under high-temperature processes. Terrestrial basalts have δ66Zn values similar to some chondrites (+ 0.15 to 0.3‰ where [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000]) and elevated Zn concentrations (100 ppm). Lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ and have low Zn concentrations (~2 ppm). Late-stage lunar magmatic products, such as ferroan anorthosite, Mg-suite and Alkali suite rocks exhibit heavier δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). The heavy δ66Zn lunar signature is thought to reflect evaporative loss and fractionation of zinc, either during a giant impact or in a magma ocean phase.We explore conditions of volatile element loss within a lunar magma ocean (LMO) using models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are widely applicable to planetary magma oceans. For the Moon, our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ~ +1.4‰ within the mantle, assuming a terrestrial mantle zinc starting composition.We examine two cases of zinc evaporative fractionation: (1) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was completed prior to LMO crystallization and (2) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was concurrent with LMO crystallization. The first case resulted in a homogeneous lunar mantle and the second case yielded a stratified lunar mantle, with the greatest zinc isotopic enrichment in late-stage crystallization products. This latter case reproduces the distribution of zinc isotope compositions in lunar materials quite well.We find that hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process in losing Zn, but that erosion of a nascent lunar atmosphere, or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible. While lunar volatile depletion is still possible as a consequence of the giant impact, this process cannot reproduce the variable δ66Zn found in the Moon. Outgassing

  4. A model for steady flows of magma-volatile mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, Marco


    A general one-dimensional model for the steady adiabatic motion of liquid-volatile mixtures in vertical ducts with varying cross-section is presented. The liquid contains a dissolved part of the volatile and is assumed to be incompressible and in thermomechanical equilibrium with a perfect gas phase, which is generated by the exsolution of the same volatile. An inverse problem approach is used -- the pressure along the duct is set as an input datum, and the other physical quantities are obtained as output. This fluid-dynamic model is intended as an approximate description of magma-volatile mixture flows of interest to geophysics and planetary sciences. It is implemented as a symbolic code, where each line stands for an analytic expression, whether algebraic or differential, which is managed by the software kernel independently of the numerical value of each variable. The code is versatile and user-friendly and permits to check the consequences of different hypotheses even through its early steps. Only the las...

  5. Transfer of volatiles and metals from mafic to felsic magmas in composite magma chambers: An experimental study (United States)

    Guo, Haihao; Audétat, Andreas


    In order to determine the behavior of metals and volatiles during intrusion of mafic magma into the base of silicic, upper crustal magma chambers, fluid-rock partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) of Li, B, Na, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Mo, As, Se, Sb, Te, W, Tl, Pb and Bi were determined experimentally at 2 kbar and 850 °C close to the solidus of mafic magma. In a first step, volatile-bearing mafic glasses were prepared by melting a natural basaltic trachyandesite in the presence of volatile-bearing fluids at 1200 °C/10 kbar in piston cylinder presses. The hydrous glasses were then equilibrated in subsequent experiments at 850 °C/2 kbar in cold-seal pressure vessels, which caused 80-90% of the melt to crystallize. After 0.5-2.0 days of equilibration, the exsolved fluid was trapped by means of in-situ fracturing in the form of synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Both the mafic rock residue and the fluid inclusions were subsequently analyzed by laser-ablation ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Reverse experiments were conducted by equilibrating metal-bearing aqueous solutions with rock powder and then trapping the fluid. In two additional experiments, information on relative element mobilities were obtained by reacting fluids that exsolved from crystallizing mafic magma with overlying silicic melts. The combined results suggest that under the studied conditions S, Cl, Cu, Se, Br, Cd and Te are most volatile (Dfluid/rock >10), followed by Li, B, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, Cs, W, Tl, Pb and Bi (Dfluid/rock = 1-10). Less volatile are Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Mo and Rb (Dfluid/rock 0.1-1), and the least fluid-mobile elements are Al, Si, Ti, Zr, Ba and Ce (Dfluid/rock <0.1). This trend is broadly consistent with relative element volatilities determined on natural high-temperature fumarole gases, although some differences exist. Based on the volatility data and measured mineral-melt and sulfide-melt partition coefficients, volatile fluxing in

  6. Water-rich and volatile-undersaturated magmas at Hekla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Berg, Anne-Sophie; Stix, John


    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four eruptions at Hekla volcano in Iceland were analyzed for their dissolved H2O, CO2, S, and Cl contents. A positive correlation among the repose interval, magmatic evolution, and volatile contents of magmas is revealed. H2O is the dominant volatile species; it behaves as an incompatible component, increasing in concentration over time as a result of fractional crystallization in the magma. The full suite of H2O contents ranges from a low of 0.80 wt % in basaltic andesites to a maximum of 5.67 wt % in rhyolites. Decreasing H2O/K2O at fixed major element compositions suggests that syneruptive degassing reduces H2O contents significantly. Hekla magmas are CO2 poor, with very low concentrations present only in the most evolved compositions (˜20-30 ppm or less). The decrease in S content from basaltic andesite to rhyolite demonstrates that sulfide saturation is attained when the melt composition reaches basaltic andesite, resulting in the precipitation of pyrrhotite. Low CO2/Nb ratios suggest that vapor saturation is most likely reached during an early period of cooling and solidification in the crust. Fresh injections of mafic magma interact with previously solidified intrusives, producing new melts that are volatile undersaturated. Vapor saturation pressures obtained using the most volatile-rich melt inclusions suggest the presence of a magma chamber at a minimum depth of ˜7 km. This is in agreement with geophysical observations from recent small-volume eruptions, but given the possibility of volatile-undersaturated melts, some of the magmas may reside at greater depths.

  7. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.


    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma batches, saturated in volatiles, at depths of 3.8-7.4 km, and (2) the ascent of more-differentiated and cogenetic volatile-poor basaltic andesites during historic-present eruptions, having longer residence times in the shallowest (< 3.4 km) and hence coolest regions of the magmatic plumbing system. We also report the first measurements of the compositions of noble-gas isotopes (He, Ne, and Ar) in fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene crystals. While the measured 40Ar/36Ar ratios (300-304) and 4He/20Ne ratios (9-373) indicate some degree of air contamination, the 3He/4He ratios (7.01-7.20 Ra) support a common mantle source for Holocene basalts and historic-present basaltic andesites. The magmatic source is interpreted as generated by a primitive MORB-like mantle, that is influenced to variable extents by distinct slab fluid components for basalts (Ba/La 76 and U/Th 0.8) and basaltic andesites (Ba/La 86 and U/Th 1.0) in addition to effects of magma differentiation. These values for the

  8. The influence of volatiles on the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Jarvis, P.; Blundy, J. D.


    Mantle-derived mafic magmas provide heat, mass and volatiles to felsic plutons emplaced in the Earth's crust. Inputs of mafic magma lead to a wide range of physical and chemical interactions and have been frequently invoked as a means of sustaining shallow magmatic bodies and even triggering volcanic eruptions, like the case of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption where a mafic batch induced remobilization and explosion of a felsic reservoir. There is the general need to understand how hydrous mafic magmas interact with compositionally evolved plutons and how volatiles contribute to physical and chemical changes operating in mafic-felsic magma interaction. Thus, we experimentally constrained the effect of volatiles (mainly H2O) on the interaction of water-saturated mafic magmas and water-saturated felsic crystal mushes in the shallow crust (solid crystals (50 to 80 vol.% quartz crystals) and water-saturated (6 wt.% H2O) andesitic glass (initially crystal-free mafic end-member), for maximum 24 hour duration of experiment. The two specimens were encapsulated in welded Au capsules, buffered with NNO +1 to +2. Microstructural and chemical results of the run products display interesting features such as: i) reduction of crystal size in the mafic end-member towards to the interface of the two samples ('chemical quenching'); ii) mafic percolation into the felsic crystal mush; iii) formation of a dacitic melt-enriched hornblende-bearing 'hybrid front' at the interface of the two samples; iv) efflux of water into the felsic mush (5 to 8 wt.% in the residual melt) and generation of hornblende coronas around quartz crystals close to the interface of the two samples; v) lack of alkali (particularly, K) 'uphill diffusion' in the mafic end-member. The experimental and analytical results are against the existing state-of-the-art that does not consider the influence of volatiles in a realistic scenario where two magmas display different initial composition, water content

  9. Volatile Evolution of Magma Associated with the Solchiaro Eruption in the Phlegrean Volcanic District (Italy) (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R. J.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Fedele, L.; Shimizu, N.; Hunter, J.


    The Phlegrean volcanic district (PVD) in southern Italy is one of the best known volcanic hazard areas in the world. More than 1.5 million people live in close proximity to the volcanic centers. The PVD comprises three volcanic fields: the Campi Flegrei caldera and the islands of Ischia and Procida. We studied volatiles plus major and trace elements in the magma associated with the Solchiaro eruption on the Island of Procida, Italy, to gain a better understanding of the relationship between pre-eruptive volatiles and magmatic evolution. The Solchiaro eruption is one of the more primitive products erupted in the PVD and provides information on the source of later more evolved magmas associated with this volcanic system. The composition of the magma before eruption was determined by analyzing 104 melt inclusions (MIs) in forsteritic olivine, glass embayment plus rim glasses, and high vesciculated glasses selected from 4 representative samples. The composition of MIs was recalculated and ranges from basaltic to trachy-basaltic. Among major elements potassium shows the highest variability, from 0.5 to 6 wt%. MI define a continuous trend based on major and minor element compositions. Embayments matrix glass and high vesciculated glasses define a field that suggests a discontinuous process. Compatible to incompatible trace element ratios in early melts are highly variable and represent the melt phase before or at the very beginning of assimilation-fractional crystallization (FCA) processes. Intermediate melt compositions reflect continuing FCA processes, late melt compositions suggest that the FCA process was aborted before eruption. Volatile contents of early melt are highly variable and reflect source heterogeneities, and the melts are interpreted to be undersaturated. Intermediate melts were volatile saturated and H2O-CO2 contents define a degassing path. Depths of trapping of MI range from 4.4 to 2.2 km, and are calculated based on Newman and Lowenstern (2002) and

  10. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua) (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.


    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P < 50-60 MPa), volatile-poor (H2O < 0.3-1.7 wt%; CO2 < 23-308 μg/g) magmatic conditions. These are manifested as andesitic magmas, recording

  11. The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece: Magma evolution and volatile behaviour (United States)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Preece, Katie; Keller, Jörg


    The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) eruption (172 ka) was one of the first major caldera-forming eruptions of the Santorini volcanic complex (Greece). The eruption shows some striking similarities to the caldera-forming Late Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption in terms of field, petrological and geochemical characteristics of its eruptive products, which are used to reveal the storage conditions of the LP2 magmas, pre-eruptive magmatic processes and the behaviour and degassing of volatiles prior to and during eruption. The LP2 eruption comprises four, predominantly rhyodacitic eruptive units (LP2-A, B, C, D). The lowermost unit of the Plinian LP2 deposits (LP2-A) consists of a basal phreatomagmatic bed (LP2-A1), which is overlain by three discrete pumice fall deposits (LP2-A2-1, A2-2, A3), the most prominent of which (LP2-A3) contains abundant, quench-textured scoriae that range in composition from basalt to basaltic andesite. The eruption proceeded with the deposition of pumice-rich pyroclastic flows (LP2-B) characterised by a lower, stratified and cross-bedded ignimbrite (LP2-B1) that may grade into a massive, non-welded ignimbrite (LP2-B2), a lithic-rich pumiceous breccia (LP2-C) and a co-ignimbrite lithic lag breccia (LP2-D). The main volume of rhyodacitic magma, which formed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite and apatite from basaltic parental magmas and assimilation of crustal rocks, was held at mid-crustal levels (≤ 16 km depth), magmatic temperatures of 831 ± 12 °C and an oxygen fugacity slightly above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. Injection of ˜ 200 °C hotter mafic magma into the rhyodacitic reservoir and subsequent mingling and minor hybridisation with the resident magma helped to remobilise the rhyodacitic host magma and determined the final compositional range of the erupted products. Melt inclusion data show that sulphur concentrations were reduced to < 270 ppm in

  12. Phase relations and volatiles content of the Minopoli2 Campi Flegrei caldera shoshonitic magma (United States)

    Mangiacapra, A.; Rutherford, M.; Civetta, L.


    New constraints on pre-eruption conditions of the Minopoli2 shoshonitic magma are provided by experimental studies. The products of this eruption represent the least evolved magma composition erupted in the first epoch of Campi Flegrei caldera activity (10.3-9.5 ka). Recent geochemical investigations (Mangiacapra et al.,2008)* on dissolved volatiles in the Minopoli2 phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), revealed a H2O- and CO2-rich shoshonitic magma, stored at two depths (8-9 and 2-3 km) where it experienced both open-system degassing, driven by crystallization, and flushing with a CO2-rich gas phase coming from deeper levels. Phase equilibrium experiments dry and with 3.5wt% H2O have been guided by the dissolved H2O and CO2 in MIs. The phase equilibria of the shoshonite with 3.5 wt% H2O shows that the observed phenocryst assemblage (olivine, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase and biotite) becomes stable at 1020±15 °C over the pressure range of 40 to 150 MPa and to higher pressures. The experimental data indicate that the shoshonite crystallised the phenocryst assemblage (15 vol%) at a depth of circa 9 Km and 1025 °C; only small degrees of additional crystallization occurred as the magma ascended to a depth of circa 3 km with degassing of some MIs. Sulphur speciation in glassy MIs was determined as ≥ 79% sulphate which is equivalent to a log fO2≥ NNO + 1.5. The low end of the fO2 range is interpreted to represent the pre-eruption magma at depth. The solubility of CO2 and H2O as a function of pressure in the Minopoli2 shoshonite have been experimentally calibrated. These results contribute to the understanding of magma chamber processes and conduit dynamics, relevant parameters for hazard assessment. * Mangiacapra A., R. Moretti, M. Rutherford, L. Civetta, G. Orsi and P. Papale (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Camp Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035550

  13. Diffusive fractionation of volatiles and their isotopes during bubble growth in magmas (United States)

    Watson, E. Bruce


    Bubbles grow in decompressing magmas by simple expansion and by diffusive supply of volatiles to the bubble/melt interface. The latter phenomenon is of significant geochemical interest because diffusion can fractionate elements and isotopes (or isotopologues) of dissolved components. This raises the possibility that the character of volatile components in bubbles may not reflect that of volatiles dissolved in the host melt over the lifetime of a bubble—even in the absence of equilibrium vapor/melt isotopic fractionation. Recent experiments have confirmed the existence of an isotope mass effect on diffusion of the volatile element Cl in silicate melt [Fortin et al. (Isotopic fractionation of chlorine during chemical diffusion in a dacitic melt and its implications for isotope behavior during bubble growth (abstract), 2016 Fall AGU Meeting, 2016)], so there is a clear need to understand the efficacy of diffusive fractionation during bubble growth. In this study, numerical models of diffusion and mass redistribution during bubble growth were implemented for both "passive" volatiles—those whose concentrations are generally well below saturation levels—and "active" volatiles such as CO2 and H2O, whose elevated concentrations and limited solubilities are the cause of bubble nucleation and growth. Both diffusive and convective bubble-growth scenarios were explored. The magnitude of the isotope mass effect on passive volatiles partitioned into bubbles growing at a constant rate R in a static system depends upon R/ D L, K d and D H/ D L ( K d = bubble/melt partition coefficient; D H/ D L = diffusivity ratio of the heavy and light isotopes). During convective bubble growth, the presence of a discrete (physical) melt boundary layer against the growing bubble (of width x BL) simplifies outcomes because it leads to the quick onset of steady-state fractionation during growth, the magnitude of which depends mainly upon R•x BL/ D L and D H/ D L (bubble/melt fractionation

  14. Volatile Abundances and Magma Geochemistry of Recent (2006) Through Ancient Eruptions (Less Than 2100 aBP) of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.; Gerard, T.; Goldoff, B.; Coombs, M. L.


    Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska, is a subduction-related Aleutian arc volcano located approximately 275 km southwest of Anchorage. During the past 200 years, Augustine volcano has shown explosive eruptive behavior seven times, with the most recent activity occurring in January through March 2006. Its ash and pumice eruptions pose a threat to commercial air traffic, the local fishing industry, and the inhabitants of the region. Following prior investigations on volatile abundances and processes of evolution for magmas associated with the 1976 (Johnston, 1978) and 1986 (Roman et al., 2005) eruptions of Augustine, we have analyzed phenocrysts, matrix glasses, and silicate melt inclusions in andesites formed during 5 pre-historic eruptions (ranging from 2100 to 1000 years in age) as well as the 1986 and recent 2006 eruptions. Outcrops of basaltic units on Augustine are rare, and basaltic melt inclusions are as well, so most melt inclusions studied range from andesitic to rhyolitic compositions. Comparison of the volatile abundances in felsic melt inclusion glasses shows few differences in H2O, CO2, S, and Cl, respectively, between eruptive materials of the pre- historic, 1976 (Johnston, 1978), and 1986 (Roman et al., 2005; our data) events. The magmas associated with these eruptions contained 1.6 to 8.0 wt.% H2O with 0.21 to 0.84 wt.% Cl, 100 to 1800 ppm CO2, and 100 to 400 ppm S. In contrast, preliminary research on rhyodacitic to rhyolitic melt inclusions in a single 2006 andesite sample collected from a lahar deposit indicates they contain somewhat lower H2O contents and higher Cl and S abundances than felsic melt inclusions from prior eruptions, and they exhibit geochemical trends consonant with magma mixing. Relationships involving H2O, CO2, S, and Cl in prehistoric through 1986 melt inclusions are consistent with fluid-saturated magma evolution of andesitic to rhyolitic melt compositions during closed-system ascent. The various batches of magma rose through

  15. Magma evolution and volatile behaviour prior to and during the Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece (United States)

    Gertisser, R.; Preece, K.; Keller, J.


    The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) eruption (c. 180 ka) was the first major caldera-forming eruption of the Santorini volcanic complex (Greece). The eruption shows some striking similarities to the caldera-forming Late Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption in terms of field, petrological and geochemical characteristics of its eruptive products, which are discussed here to reveal the storage conditions of the LP2 magmas, pre-eruptive magmatic processes and the behaviour and degassing of volatiles prior to and during eruption. The LP2 eruption consists of four discrete eruption phases that produced pyroclastic fall and flow deposits of predominantly rhyodacitic composition [Druitt et al., 1999, Geol. Soc. Lond. Mem., 19]. A subordinate basaltic to andesitic juvenile component, represented by grey, quench-textured scoriae, occurs mainly in the Plinian airfall deposits of the first eruption phase. Petrological and geochemical data indicate that the main volume of rhyodacitic LP2 magma formed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite and apatite from basaltic magma with compositional characteristics similar to the most mafic scoriae and assimilation of small amounts of crustal rocks. The magma was stored at mid-crustal levels, magmatic temperatures of 831 ± 12°C and an oxygen fugacity slightly above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. Injection of c. 200°C hotter mafic magma into the rhyodacitic reservoir and subsequent mingling and minor hybridisation with the resident magma helped remobilising the rhyodacitic host magma and ultimately determined the observed compositional range of the erupted products. Melt inclusion data show that sulphur concentrations were reduced to less than 200 ppm in the rhyodacite, primarily due to partitioning of sulphur into a crystallising sulphide phase (pyrrhotite) during magmatic differentiation at oxygen fugacities around the FMQ oxygen buffer. Sulphur

  16. Magma Fragmentation (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.


    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  17. The Evidence from Inclusions in Pumices for the Direct Degassing of Volatiles from the Magma to the Hydrothermal Fluids in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zenghui; ZHAI Shikui; ZHAO Guangtao


    This article presents the evidence in support of the direct magma degassing as the principal mechanism of volatilesreleasing into the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough, as contrasted to the argument for the hydrothermal strippingof volatiles from the volcanic rocks.Laser Raman microprobe and stepped-heating techniques are employed to determine the compositions and contents of thevolatiles in pumices in the middle Okinawa Trough. The results show that the volatiles are similar to the gases in the hy-drothermal fluids and hydrothermal minerals in composition, the mean percent content of each component and variationtrend. This indicates the direct influence of magma degassing on the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, the contents ofvolatiles in pumices are rather low and do not support the hydrothermal stripping as the main mechanism to enrich the fluidswith gases. The results are consistent with the idea that the direct magma degassing is more important than hydrothermalstripping in supplying gases to the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough.

  18. First determination of dissolved volatiles in magmas of Mt Garet (Vanuatu arc). Origin of sulfur emissions (United States)

    Floury, P.; Metrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Garaebiti, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Beaumais, A.; Neuville, D.


    Mt Garet, on Gaua island, is one of the active volcanoes of the Vanuatu arc in the Southwest Pacific. This 360 m high cone emerges from the lake Letas in the summit caldera of a composite volcano. Since 1962, Mt Garet produced ash and gas plumes recurrently, the last explosive events being documented in 2009 - 2010. Airborne measurements of SO2 emission rates, the only data set presently available for this volcano, were realized in 2009 and revealed a high SO2 flux of, on average, 2955 tons per day [1]. We report here the very first data on the geochemistry of the scoriae emitted in January 2010, together with analyses of major elements and volatiles (H2O, Cl, S) in crystal-hosted melt inclusions and a detailed mineralogy of the samples. The 2010 scoriae are basaltic-andesites and are more evolved that the pre-1962 basaltic lava flows of Mt Garet. Their major and trace element evolution cannot be reconciled with a single process of fractional crystallization, but suggest mixing between a pre-1962 like basalt and an evolved trachydacitic end-member. This observation strongly suggests the recent development of a small reservoir beneath Mt Garet. The plagioclases (An89-73) and clinopyroxenes (Fs5-16) display a significant chemical range but do not clearly evidence reverse zoning. The paragenesis is complemented by Fe-Ti oxides (USP39-40) and scarce olivines (Fo72.7). Some crystals are obviously inherited (e.g., An-poor plagioclase). The melt inclusions are ubiquitous but of small size in each mineral phase. Their H2O content was specifically determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy (IPGP), with a series of basaltic glass standards previously developed for Raman calibration [2]. Data and spectrum are treated following [3]. As a whole melt inclusion compositions cover the whole chemical spectrum from basalt to trachydacite. Their contents in H2O (2.7-0.8 wt%), S (1570 - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 211-212, 36-46 [2] Mercier et al., (2009) and (2010

  19. Magma storage before large and small explosive eruption at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, constrained by thermobarometry and volatiles in melt inclusions (United States)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Gudrun


    Basaltic eruptions at Grímsvötn occur every decade on average. These are normally phreatomagmatic of a low intensity whereas occasionally larger eruptions with an initial plinian phase take place. The last eruption in May 2011 reached into the stratosphere with heavy ash fall over south Iceland. What causes the difference in eruption intensity at Grímsvötn is not understood. In order to discuss this difference, the crystallization conditions of the eruptive magma were determined through thermobarometry and volatile concentration measured on melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glasses. Tephra of the two largest historical eruptions (2011 and 1873) and two small eruptions (2004 and 1823) were investigated. Pressure and temperature estimates of crystallization are obtained through equilibrium clinopyroxene-glass (cpx-liq) pairs, where both adjacent groundmass glass and that of melt inclusions (MI) were measured. Most cpx-liq equilibria give pressure of 4 ±1 kbar corresponding to approximately 15 km depth. The cpx crystallization occurred over a considerable temperature range, 1065-1175 °C that correlates with the estimated pressure in products of the 19th century eruptions. Sulfur and chlorine concentrations are highest in MI of the larger eruptions (1974-1789 ppm and 339-266 ppm, respectively) together with lowest groundmass glass concentrations (908-766 ppm and 208-180 ppm, respectively). Quenching with glacial water explains higher groundmass values for the smaller phreatomagmatic eruptions. The differences in volatile concentrations between MI and groundmass glass (S) and the average sulfur concentration in the degassed groundmass correlate with known eruptive volume for the 21st century eruptions and that of the Laki eruption. This suggests water/magma ratio control of S degassing efficiency and allows crude estimates of unknown volumes for older eruptions. The higher volatile concentrations of MI in the larger eruptions are likely to reflect recharge of

  20. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.


    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  1. Prodigious emission rates and magma degassing budget of major, trace and radioactive volatile species from Ambrym basaltic volcano, Vanuatu island Arc (United States)

    Allard, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Bani, P.; Métrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Gauthier, P.-J.; Shinohara, H.; Sawyer, G.; Parello, F.; Bagnato, E.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.


    Ambrym volcano, in the Vanuatu arc, is one of the most active volcanoes of the Southwest Pacific region, where persistent lava lake and/or Strombolian activity sustains voluminous gas plume emissions. Here we report on the first comprehensive budget for the discharge of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species from Ambrym volcano, as well as the first data for volatiles dissolved in its basaltic magma (olivine-hosted melt inclusions). In situ MultiGAS analysis of H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S in crater rim emissions, coupled with filter-pack determination of SO2, halogens, stable and radioactive metals demonstrates a common magmatic source for volcanic gases emitted by its two main active craters, Benbow and Marum. These share a high water content ( 93 mol%), similar S/Cl, Cl/F, Br/Cl molar ratios, similar (210Po/210Pb) and (210Bi/210Pb) activity ratios, as well as comparable proportions in most trace metals. Their difference in CO2/SO2 ratio (1.0 and 5.6-3.0, respectively) is attributed to deeper gas-melt separation at Marum (Strombolian explosions) than Benbow (lava lake degassing) during our measurements in 2007. Airborne UV sensing of the SO2 plume flux (90 kg s- 1 or 7800 tons d- 1) demonstrates a prevalent degassing contribution ( 65%) of Benbow crater in that period and allows us to quantify the total volatile fluxes during medium-level eruptive activity of the volcano. Results reveal that Ambrym ranks among the most powerful volcanic gas emitters on Earth, producing between 5% and 9% of current estimates for global subaerial volcanic emissions of H2O, CO2, HCl, Cu, Cr, Cd, Au, Cs and Tl, between 10% and 17% of SO2, HF, HBr, Hg, 210Po and 210Pb, and over 30% of Ag, Se and Sn. Global flux estimates thus need to integrate its contribution and be revised accordingly. Prodigious gas emission from Ambrym does not result from an anomalous volatile enrichment nor a differential excess degassing of its feeding basalt: this latter contains relatively modest

  2. Pre-eruptive volatile content of mafic magma from the 2.0-1.7 ka Castle Creek eruptive period, Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Rea, J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.


    Among global convergent margins, the Cascade arc (Pacific Northwest, North America) has an atypically warm thermal profile due to the young age of the subducting ocean crust (≤10 Ma) and slow rate of subduction (3.5 cm/yr) in this region. Slab dehydration is thus expected to occur at relatively shallow subduction depths, resulting in high fluid fluxes in the mantle wedge below the forearc, with minimal addition of volatiles directly beneath the main volcanic front. Across-arc trends in magmatic volatiles should be most visible within particularly wide (E-W) portions of the active volcanic arc, such as are observed in Southern Washington, Central Oregon, and Northern California. As part of an ongoing study aimed at constraining variations in magmatic volatiles using monogenetic cinder cones across the Southern Washington Cascades, we analyzed the H2O and CO2 contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in basaltic scoria (Bu tephra) from the Castle Creek eruptive period (2.0-1.7 ka) of Mount St. Helens (MSH). The defining feature of this period is the first appearance of mafic magma at the surface, which initiated the modern Mount St. Helens and its variety of rock compositions (Mullineaux, 1996). Andesite, dacite, and basalt all were erupted during Castle Creek time, producing pyroclastic flows, surges, and tephra as well as lava flows. Our initial results show pre-eruptive H2O contents of 0.4-1.3 wt. % H2O and CO2 values that are below detection (<25-50 ppm). The morphology of the olivine crystals and their melt inclusions indicate relatively rapid crystallization. Given the low CO2 values, we conclude that the melt inclusions trapped partially degassed melts at relatively low pressure in a volcanic conduit or shallow storage reservoir. MSH represents the western extent of a stretch of volcanism extending ~100 km to the east; MSH magmas are thus expected to have high volatile contents relative to the other volcanic centers at this latitude.

  3. Experimental Study of Lunar and SNC Magmas (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    The research described in this progress report involved the study of petrological, geochemical, and volcanic processes that occur on the Moon and the SNC meteorite parent body, generally accepted to be Mars. The link between these studies is that they focus on two terrestrial-type parent bodies somewhat smaller than earth, and the fact that they focus on the types of magmas (magma compositions) present, the role of volatiles in magmatic processes, and on processes of magma evolution on these planets. We are also interested in how these processes and magma types varied over time.In earlier work on the A15 green and A17 orange lunar glasses, we discovered a variety of metal blebs. Some of these Fe-Ni metal blebs occur in the glass; others (in A17) were found in olivine phenocrysts that we find make up about 2 vol 96 of the orange glass magma. The importance of these metal spheres is that they fix the oxidation state of the parent magma during the eruption, and also indicate changes during the eruption . They also yield important information about the composition of the gas phase present, the gas that drove the lunar fire-fountaining. During the tenure of this grant, we have continued to work on the remaining questions regarding the origin and evolution of the gas phase in lunar basaltic magmas, what they indicate about the lunar interior, and how the gas affects volcanic eruptions. Work on Martian magmas petrogenesis questions during the tenure of this grant has resulted in advances in our methods of evaluating magmatic oxidation state variations in Mars and some new insights into the compositional variations that existed in the SNC magmas over time . Additionally, Minitti has continued to work on the problem of possible shock effects on the abundance and distribution of water in Mars minerals.

  4. Determination of volatile concentrations in fluorapatite of Martian shergottite NWA 2975 by combining synchrotron FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, EMPA, and TEM, and inferences on the volatile budget of the apatite host-magma (United States)

    SłAby, Ewa; Koch-Müller, Monika; FöRster, Hans-Jürgen; Wirth, Richard; Rhede, Dieter; Schreiber, Anja; Schade, Ulrich


    We combined the focused ion beam sample preparation technique with polarized synchrotron-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy, laser-Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis to identify and quantify structurally bound OH, F, Cl, and CO3 groups in fluorapatite from the Northwest Africa 2975 (NWA 2975) shergottite. In this study, the first FTIR spectra of the OH-stretching region from a Martian apatite are presented that show characteristic OH-bands of a F-rich, hydroxyl-bearing apatite. Depending on the method of apatite-formula calculation and whether charge balance is assumed or not, the FTIR-based quantification of the incorporated OH, expressed as wt% H2O, is in variably good agreement with the H2O concentration calculated from electron microprobe data. EMP analyses yielded between 0.35 and 0.54 wt% H2O, and IR data yielded an average H2O content of 0.31 ± 0.03 wt%, consistent with the lower range determined from EMP analyses. The TEM observations implied that the volatiles budget of fluorapatite is magmatic. The water content and the relative volatile ratios calculated for the NWA 2975 magma are similar to those established for other enriched or intermediate shergottites. It is difficult to define the source of enrichment: either Martian wet mantle or crustal assimilation. Comparing the environment of parental magma generation for NWA 2975 with the terrestrial mantle in terms of water content, it displays a composition intermediate between enriched and depleted MORB.

  5. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation. (United States)

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H


    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied.

  6. Volatile constraints on the magma supply, dynamics and plumbing system of a top-ranking basaltic gas emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu Arc (United States)

    Allard, Patrick


    P. Allard1,2, A. Aiuppa3,4, P. Bani5, N. Métrich1,6, A. Bertagnini6, M. Burton7, P-J. Gauthier5, F. Parello3, H. Shinohara8, G. Sawyer9, E. Bagnato3, E. Garaebiti10 1IPGP, UMR7154 CNRS, Paris France; 2INGV, Sezione di Catania, Italy; 3DiSTEM, Palermo University, Italy; 4INGV, Sezione di Palermo, Italy; 5LMV-OPGC, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 6INGV, Sezione di Pisa, Italy; 7SEAES, University of Manchester, UK; 8Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; 9Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK; 10GEOHAZARD, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ambrym basaltic volcano (central Vanuatu arc) is one of the most active volcanic systems of the Southwest Pacific region, where recurrent lava lake activity sustains voluminous gas release from two main cones, Benbow and Marum, in a 12 km-wide summit caldera. In 2007-2008 we could perform the first detailed investigations of gas emissions from this very active but remote and hardly accessible intra-oceanic arc volcano, combining ground-based and airborne measurements and using both in situ and remote sensing tools. The degassing budget of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species reveals that Ambrym ranks amongst the three most powerful persistent emitters of magmatic volatiles at global scale [1]. Coupled with the analysis of dissolved volatiles in the feeding basalt (olivine-hosted melt inclusions), the gas emission rates imply a very high average magma supply/degassing rate of 25 m3/s - 6 times the rate at Mount Etna - from a reservoir emplaced at about 4 km depth beneath the caldera floor. The chemical composition of emitted volcanic gases is compatible with dominant closed-system ascent and degassing of the basalt, followed by open degassing at shallow depth as water exsolution becomes extensive. The modest time-averaged extrusion rate, estimated from caldera infilling over the past 2 ka, requires convective downward recycling of the denser degassed magma in conduits with diameter of order 10 m. High resolution OP

  7. Involvement of a broccoli COQ5 methyltransferase in the production of volatile selenium compounds. (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Kochian, Leon V; Li, Li


    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments.

  8. Growth rates of lava domes with respect to viscosity of magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available In the discussion of lava dome formation, viscosity of magma plays an important role. Measurements of viscosity of magmas in field and laboratory are briefly summarized. The types of lava dome emplacements are classified into two, squeeze- and spine-type, by kinetic processes. The squeeze-type is the formation of a dome as a result of squeezes of magma through conduits and the latter is solidified magma forced to ascend by underlying fluid magma. An important parameter in the formation of such lava domes is their growth rates. Lava domes of squeeze-type are governed by the Hagen-Poiseuille Law which involves their viscosoties and other eruption parameters. At present, the real viscosity of magmas at the site of lava dome is still inaccessible. In order to avoid uncertainty in viscosity of magmas, a conception of «macroscopic viscosity» is proposed, which involves effects of chemical components, mainly SiO2 and volatile material, crystals and temperature, and their changes with time. Lava dome formations during the 20th century are briefly examined and their growth rates are estimated. The relationship between the growth rates and the SiO2 content of the magma is statistically studied, and the macroscopic viscosity is empirically expressed as a function of SiO2 content. The linearity between the two parameters is reasonably interpreted. This means that formation processes of lava domes are dominantly controlled by macroscopic viscosity of magma.

  9. Mechanisms of magma degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and the local volatile composition (4He-40Ar*-CO2) of the mantle by laser ablation analysis of individual MORB vesicles (United States)

    Colin, A.; Burnard, P.; Marty, B.


    Individual vesicles in excimer laser. One sample shows evidence of syn-emplacement selective helium loss from the vesicles in the glass rim close to the crystallised zone of the pillow lava, proving that He contents and low He/Ar ratios do not always reflect mantle and/or magmatic processes. However the composition of the different vesicles of three of these samples covers large ranges in He/Ar and Ar/CO2 with linear variations in plots of ln(He/Ar) vs. ln(Ar/CO2) which are consistent with a Rayleigh distillation at equilibrium and allow the relative abundances of the volatiles in the MORB mantle source to be estimated by correcting for degassing processes on a sample-by-sample basis. This technique presents a new tool for characterising and correcting for volatile fractionation processes that have modified the initial mantle source composition. The results confirm a heterogeneous CO2/3He ratio in the MORB source regions with the Azores mantle source enriched in C/3He compared to that of N-MORBs. The considerable heterogeneity in vesicle compositions within such a small volume (<1 cm3) requires injection of less degassed magma at shallow level before eruption. The maximum time interval between magma mixing and quenching on the seafloor is of the order of a few hours.

  10. Early Discrimination Of Microorganisms Involved In Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Using Qualitative Volatile Fingerprints (United States)

    Planas, Neus; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Magan, Naresh


    This study has examined the use of an electronic nose for the detection of volatile organic compounds produced by different microorganisms responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), an important disease among patients who require mechanical ventilation. Based on the analysis of the volatile organic compounds, electronic nose technology is being evaluated for the early detection and identification of many diseases. It has been shown that effective discrimination of two bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and yeast (Candida albicans), could be obtained after 24 h and filamentous fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) after 72 h. Discrimination between blank samples and those with as initial concentration of 102 CFU ml-1 was shown with 24 h incubation for bacteria and 48 h for fungi. Effective discrimination between all the species was achieved 72 h after incubation. Initial studies with mixtures of microorganisms involved in VAP suggest that complex interactions between species occur which influences the ability to differentiate dominant species using volatile production patterns. A nutrient agar base medium was found to be optimum for early discrimination between two microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans).

  11. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

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    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)


    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  12. Impact of different techniques involving contact with lees on the volatile composition of cider. (United States)

    Antón-Díaz, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; Mangas-Alonso, Juan José; Fernández-García, Ovidio; Picinelli-Lobo, Anna


    The effect of different treatments involving contact with natural lees on the aromatic profile of cider has been evaluated. Comparing with the untreated ciders, the contact with lees brought about a significant increase of the concentrations of most of the volatile compounds analysed, in particular fatty acids, alcohols, ethyl esters and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol. The opposite was observed among fusel acetate esters and 4-vinylguaiacol. The addition of β-glucanase enhanced the increase of ethyl octanoate, but produced a decrease in the contents of decanoic acid and all of the major volatiles excepting acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetoine, whereas the application of oxygen influenced the rise of the level of 3-ethoxy-1-propanol only. The olfactometric profiles also revealed significant effects of the treatment with lees for ethyl propionate, diacetyl, cis-3-hexenol, acetic acid, benzyl alcohol, and m-cresol, while the addition of oxygen significantly influenced the perception of ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-one, 3-methyl-2-butenol, t-3-hexenol and c-3-hexenol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. More Evidence for Multiple Meteorite Magmas (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    Cosmochemists have identified six main compositional types of magma that formed inside asteroids during the first 100 million years of Solar System history. These magmas vary in their chemical and mineralogical make up, but all have in common low concentrations of sodium and other volatile elements. Our low-sodium-magma diet has now changed. Two groups of researchers have identified a new type of asteroidal magma that is rich in sodium and appears to have formed by partial melting of previously unmelted, volatile-rich chondritic rock. The teams, one led by James Day (University of Maryland) and the other by Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico), studied two meteorites found in Antarctica, named Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129, using a battery of cosmochemical techniques. These studies show that an even wider variety of magmas was produced inside asteroids than we had thought, shedding light on the melting histories and formation of asteroids.

  14. Lunar magma transport phenomena (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.


    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  15. Involvement of a Broccoli COQ5 Methyltransferase in the Production of Volatile Selenium Compounds[C][OA (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Kochian, Leon V.; Li, Li


    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments. PMID:19656903

  16. The origin of volatiles in the Earth's mantle (United States)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Hirschmann, Marc M.


    The Earth's deep interior contains significant reservoirs of volatiles such as H, C, and N. Due to the incompatible nature of these volatile species, it has been difficult to reconcile their storage in the residual mantle immediately following crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean (MO). As the magma ocean freezes, it is commonly assumed that very small amounts of melt are retained in the residual mantle, limiting the trapped volatile concentration in the primordial mantle. In this article, we show that inefficient melt drainage out of the freezing front can retain large amounts of volatiles hosted in the trapped melt in the residual mantle while creating a thick early atmosphere. Using a two-phase flow model, we demonstrate that compaction within the moving freezing front is inefficient over time scales characteristic of magma ocean solidification. We employ a scaling relation between the trapped melt fraction, the rate of compaction, and the rate of freezing in our magma ocean evolution model. For cosmochemically plausible fractions of volatiles delivered during the later stages of accretion, our calculations suggest that up to 77% of total H2O and 12% of CO2 could have been trapped in the mantle during magma ocean crystallization. The assumption of a constant trapped melt fraction underestimates the mass of volatiles in the residual mantle by more than an order of magnitude.Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's deep interior contains substantial amounts of volatile elements like C, H, and N. How these elements got sequestered in the Earth's interior has long been a topic of debate. It is generally assumed that most of these elements escaped the interior of the Earth during the first few hundred thousand years to create a primitive atmosphere, leaving the mantle reservoir nearly empty. In this work, we show that the key to this paradox involves the very early stages of crystallization of the mantle from a global magma ocean. Using numerical models, we show

  17. The mechanics of shallow magma reservoir outgassing (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Degruyter, W.; Leclaire, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.


    Magma degassing fundamentally controls the Earth's volatile cycles. The large amount of gas expelled into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions (i.e., volcanic outgassing) is the most obvious display of magmatic volatile release. However, owing to the large intrusive:extrusive ratio, and considering the paucity of volatiles left in intrusive rocks after final solidification, volcanic outgassing likely constitutes only a small fraction of the overall mass of magmatic volatiles released to the Earth's surface. Therefore, as most magmas stall on their way to the surface, outgassing of uneruptible, crystal-rich magma storage regions will play a dominant role in closing the balance of volatile element cycling between the mantle and the surface. We use a numerical approach to study the migration of a magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich magma bodies ("mush zones") at the pore scale. Our results suggest that buoyancy-driven outgassing is efficient over crystal volume fractions between 0.4 and 0.7 (for mm-sized crystals). We parameterize our pore-scale results for MVP migration in a thermomechanical magma reservoir model to study outgassing under dynamical conditions where cooling controls the evolution of the proportion of crystal, gas, and melt phases and to investigate the role of the reservoir size and the temperature-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust on outgassing efficiency. We find that buoyancy-driven outgassing allows for a maximum of 40-50% volatiles to leave the reservoir over the 0.4-0.7 crystal volume fractions, implying that a significant amount of outgassing must occur at high crystal content (>0.7) through veining and/or capillary fracturing.

  18. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress. (United States)

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse


    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  19. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth? (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.


    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  20. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth? (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.


    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  1. The roles of fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal mush remobilization and volatile-melt interactions in the genesis of a young basalt-peralkaline rhyolite suite, the greater Olkaria volcanic complex, Kenya Rift valley (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.; Fitton, J.G.; Rogers, N.W.; Nejbert, K.; Tindle, A.G.; Marshall, A.S.


    The Greater Olkaria Volcanic Complex is a young (???20 ka) multi-centred lava and dome field dominated by the eruption of peralkaline rhyolites. Basaltic and trachytic magmas have been erupted peripherally to the complex and also form, with mugearites and benmoreites, an extensive suite of magmatic inclusions in the rhyolites. The eruptive rocks commonly represent mixed magmas and the magmatic inclusions are themselves two-, three- or four-component mixes. All rock types may carry xenocrysts of alkali feldspar, and less commonly plagioclase, derived from magma mixing and by remobilization of crystal mushes and/or plutonic rocks. Xenoliths in the range gabbro-syenite are common in the lavas and magmatic inclusions, the more salic varieties sometimes containing silicic glass representing partial melts and ranging in composition from anorthite ?? corundum- to acmite-normative. The peralkaline varieties are broadly similar, in major element terms, to the eruptive peralkaline rhyolites. The basalt-trachyte suite formed by a combination of fractional crystallization, magma mixing and resorption of earlier-formed crystals. Matrix glass in metaluminous trachytes has a peralkaline rhyolitic composition, indicating that the eruptive rhyolites may have formed by fractional crystallization of trachyte. Anomalous trace element enrichments (e.g. ??? 2000 ppm Y in a benmoreite) and negative Ce anomalies may have resulted from various Na- and K-enriched fluids evolving from melts of intermediate composition and either being lost from the system or enriched in other parts of the reservoirs. A small group of nepheline-normative, usually peralkaline, magmatic inclusions was formed by fluid transfer between peralkaline rhyolitic and benmoreitic magmas. The plumbing system of the complex consists of several independent reservoirs and conduits, repeatedly recharged by batches of mafic magma, with ubiquitous magma mixing. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  2. Why do Martian Magmas erupt? (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.


    Eruption of silicate lava, whether on Earth or another planet, requires that at some depth the melt has lower density than the surrounding rocks. As the densities of silicate liquids change during crystallization, whether a particular silicate liquid will erupt or be trapped at a level of neutral buoyancy is a complex yet fundamental issue for planetary dynamics. In general, 3 factors drive surface eruptions: inherent buoyancy relative to mantle phases, compositional evolution, and volatile contents. These factors manifest on Earth as terrestrial basalts commonly have compositions close to a density minimum [1]. Recent work has produced estimates of Martian parental magma compositions [2-5] based on shergottite meteorites and from Gusev crater. Using the MELTS algorithm [6] and other density calibrations, we simulated evolution of these liquids, focusing on density changes. For much of the crystallization path, density is controlled by FeO. All of the liquids begin with ρ ~ 2.8 g/cc at 1 bar, and the evolution of liquid density is controlled by the liquidus phases. At low pressures, olivine is the liquidus phase for each melt, and as FeO is not incompatible in olivine, olivine crystallization decreases liquid density, increasing buoyancy with crystallization. However, FeO is incompatible in pyroxene, and thus liquids crystallizing pyroxene become denser and less buoyant with crystallization, producing liquids with densities up to and above 3.0 g/cc. As the olivine-pyroxene saturation relationship is affected by pressure and chemistry, the identity of the liquidus phase and density evolution will vary between magmas. Without spreading centers, Mars has no location where the mantle approaches the surface, and it is likely that any magma which is denser than the crust will stall below or within that crust. The crystallization path of a liquid is a function of pressure, with pyroxene crystallizing first at P > 10 kbar (~80 km depth), close to the base of the Martian

  3. The effect of nonlinear decompression history on H2O/CO2 vesiculation in rhyolitic magmas (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian


    Magma ascent rate is one of the key parameters that control volcanic eruption style, tephra dispersion, and volcanic atmospheric impact. Many methods have been employed to investigate the magma ascent rate in volcanic eruptions, and most rely on equilibrium thermodynamics. Combining the mixed H2O-CO2 solubility model with the diffusivities of both H2O and CO2 for normal rhyolitic melt, we model the kinetics of H2O and CO2 in rhyolitic eruptions that involve nonlinear decompression rates. Our study focuses on the effects of the total magma ascent time, the nonlinearity of decompression paths, and the influence of different initial CO2/H2O content on the posteruptive H2O and CO2 concentration profiles around bubbles within the melt. Our results show that, under most circumstances, volatile diffusion profiles do not constrain a unique solution for the decompression rate of magmas during an eruption, but, instead, provide a family of decompression paths with a well-defined trade-off between ascent time and nonlinearity. An important consequence of our analysis is that the common assumption of a constant decompression rate (averaged value) tends to underestimate the actual magma ascent time.

  4. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.


    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the

  5. Combined transcript and metabolite analysis reveals genes involved in spider mite induced volatile formation in cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Kappers, I.F.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.


    Many plants have an indirect defense against herbivores by emitting volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus) the production of carnivore attractants can be induced by herbivory or jasmonic acid spraying. From the leaves of cucumber plants with and

  6. Magma Oceans on Exoplanets and Early Earth (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda


    Late, giant accretionary impacts likely form multiple magma oceans of some depth in young rocky planets. Models of magma ocean solidification that incorporate water, carbon, and other incompatible volatile elements in small amounts predict a range of first-order outcomes important to planetary evolution. First, initial planetary bulk composition and size determine the composition of the earliest degassed atmosphere. This early atmosphere appears in a rapid burst at the end of solidification, determined by the ability of nucleating bubbles to reach the surface. Larger planets will have briefer and more catastrophic atmospheric degassing during solidification of any magma ocean. Second, this early atmosphere is sufficiently insulating to keep the planetary surface hot for millions of years. Depending upon the atmospheric composition and temperature structure these hot young planets may be observable from Earth or from satellites. Third, small but significant quantities of volatiles remain in the planet's solid mantle, encouraging convection, plate tectonics, and later atmospheric degassing through volcanism. A critical outcome of magma ocean solidification is the development of a solid mantle density gradient with den-sity increasing with radius, which will flow to gravitational stability. Shallow, dense, damp material will carry its water content as it sinks into the perovskite stability zone and transforms into perovskite. Even in models with very low initial water contents, a large fraction of the sinking upper mantle material will be forced to dewater as it crosses the boundary into the relatively dry lower mantle, leaving its water behind in a rapid flux as it sinks. This water ad-dition could initiate or speed convection in planets in which perovskite is stable, that is, planets larger than Mars.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots. (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq


    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis.

  8. Textural and chemical consequences of interaction between hydrous mafic and felsic magmas: an experimental study (United States)

    Pistone, Mattia; Blundy, Jonathan D.; Brooker, Richard A.


    Mantle-derived, hydrous mafic magmas are often invoked as a mechanism to transfer heat, mass and volatiles to felsic plutons in the Earth's crust. Field observations suggest that mafic, water-rich magmas often intrude viscous felsic crystal-rich mushes. This scenario can advect water from the crystallising mafic magma to the felsic magma, leading to an increase in melt fraction in the felsic mush and subsequent mobilisation, at the same time as the mafic magma becomes quenched through a combination of cooling and water loss. To investigate such a scenario, we conducted experiments on a water-undersaturated (4 wt% H2O in the interstitial melt) dacitic crystal mush (50-80 vol% quartz crystals) subject to volatile supply from a water-saturated (≥6 wt% H2O) andesite magma at 950 °C and 4 kbar. Our experimental run products show unidirectional solidification textures (i.e. comb layering) as crystals nucleate at the mafic-felsic interface and grow into the mafic end-member. This process is driven by isothermal and isobaric undercooling resulting from a change in liquidus temperature as water migrates from the mafic to the felsic magma. We refer to this process as "chemical quenching" and suggest that some textures associated with natural mafic-felsic interactions are not simply cooling-driven in origin, but can be caused by exsolution of volatiles adjacent to an interface, whether a water-undersaturated felsic magma (as in our experiments) or a fracture.

  9. The Role of Magma Mixing in Creating Magmatic Diversity (United States)

    Davidson, J. P.; Collins, S.; Morgan, D. J.


    Most magmas derived from the mantle are fundamentally basaltic. An assessment of actual magmatic rock compositions erupted at the earth's surface, however, shows greater diversity. While still strongly dominated by basalts, magmatic rock compositions extend to far more differentiated (higher SiO2, LREE enriched) compositions. Magmatic diversity is generated by differentiation processes, including crystal fractionation/ accumulation, crustal contamination and magma mixing. Among these, magma mixing is arguably inevitable in magma systems that deliver magmas from source-to-surface, since magmas will tend to multiply re-occupy plumbing systems. A given mantle-derived magma type will mix with any residual magmas (and crystals) in the system, and with any partial melts of the wallrock which are generated as it is repeatedly flushed through the system. Evidence for magma mixing can be read from the petrography (identification of crystals derived from different magmas), a technique which is now well-developed and supplemented by isotopic fingerprinting (1,2) As a means of creating diversity, mixing is inevitably not efficient as its tendency is to blend towards a common composition (i.e. converging on homogeneity rather than diversity). It may be surprising then that many systems do not tend to homogenise with time, meaning that the timescales of mixing episodes and eruption must be similar to external magma contributions of distinct composition (recharge?). Indeed recharge and mixing/ contamination may well be related. As a result, the consequences of magma mixing may well bear on eruption triggering. When two magmas mix, volatile exsolution may be triggered by retrograde boiling, with crystallisation of anhydrous phase(s) in either of the magmas (3) or volatiles may be generated by thermal breakdown of a hydrous phase in one of the magmas (4). The generation of gas pressures in this way probably leads to geophysical signals too (small earthquakes). Recent work pulling

  10. Self Sealing Magmas (United States)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallee, Yan


    During ascent of magma, pressure decreases and bubbles form. If the volume increases more rapidly than the relaxation timescale, the magma fragments catastrophically. If a permeable network forms, the magma degasses non-violently. This process is generally assumed to be unidirectional, however, recent studies have shown how shear and compaction can drive self sealing. Here, we additionally constrain skin formation during degassing and sintering. We heated natural samples of obsidian in a dry atmosphere and monitored foaming and impermeable skin formation. We suggest a model for skin formation that is controlled by diffusional loss of water and bubble collapse at free surfaces. We heated synthetic glass beads in a hydrous atmosphere to measure the timescale of viscous sintering. The beads sinter at drastically shorter timescales as water vapour rehydrates an otherwise degassed melt, reducing viscosity and glass transition temperatures. Both processes can produce dense inhomogeneities within the timescales of magma ascent and effectively disturb permeabilities and form barriers, particularly at the margins of the conduit, where strain localisation takes place. Localised ash in failure zones (i.e. Tuffisite) then becomes associated with water vapour fluxes and alow rapid rehydration and sintering. When measuring permeabilities in laboratory and field, and when discussing shallow degassing in volcanoes, local barriers for degassing should be taken into account. Highlighting the processes that lead to the formation of such dense skins and sintered infills of cavities can help understanding the bulk permeabilities of volcanic systems.

  11. A felsic MASH zone of crustal magmas - Feedback between granite magma intrusion and in situ crustal anatexis (United States)

    Schwindinger, Martin; Weinberg, Roberto F.


    Magma mixing and mingling are described from different tectonic environments and are key mechanisms in the evolution of granitoids. The literature focuses on the interaction between mafic and felsic magmas with only limited research on the interaction between similar magmas. Here, we investigate instead hybridization processes between felsic magmas formed during the 500 Ma Delamerian Orogeny on the south coast of Kangaroo Island. Field relations suggest that a coarse, megacrystic granite intruded and interacted with a fine-grained diatexite that resulted from combined muscovite dehydration and water-fluxed melting of Kanmantoo Group turbidites. The two magmas hybridized during syn-magmatic deformation, explaining the complexity of relationships and variability of granitoids exposed. We suggest that granite intrusion enhanced melting of the turbidites by bringing in heat and H2O. With rising melt fraction, intrusive magmas became increasingly unable to traverse the partially molten terrane, creating a positive feedback between intrusion and anatexis. This feedback loop generated the exposed mid-crustal zone where magmas mixed and homogenized. Thus, the outcrops on Kangaroo Island represent a crustal and felsic melting-assimilation-storage-homogenization (felsic MASH) zone where, instead of having direct mantle magma involvement, as originally proposed, these processes developed in a purely crustal environment formed by felsic magmas.

  12. Mush Column Magma Chambers (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  13. The influence of magma viscosity on convection within a magma chamber (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Driesner, T.; Ulmer, P.


    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are the most important sources of metals like Cu, Mo, W and Sn and a major resource for Au. It is well accepted that they are formed by the release of magmatic fluids from a batholith-sized magma body. Traditionally, it has been assumed that crystallization-induced volatile saturation (called "second boiling") is the main mechanism for fluid release, typically operating over thousands to tens of thousands of years (Candela, 1991). From an analysis of alteration halo geometries caused by magmatic fluids, Cathles and Shannon (2007) suggested much shorter timescales in the order of hundreds of years. Such rapid release of fluids cannot be explained by second boiling as the rate of solidification scales with the slow conduction of heat away from the system. However, rapid fluid release is possible if convection is assumed within the magma chamber. The magma would degas in the upper part of the magma chamber and volatile poor magma would sink down again. Such, the rates of degassing can be much higher than due to cooling only. We developed a convection model using Navier-Stokes equations provided by the computational fluid dynamics platform OpenFOAM that gives the possibility to use externally derived meshes with complex (natural) geometries. We implemented a temperature, pressure, composition and crystal fraction dependent viscosity (Ardia et al., 2008; Giordano et al., 2008; Moore et al., 1998) and a temperature, pressure, composition dependent density (Lange1994). We found that the new viscosity and density models strongly affect convection within the magma chamber. The dependence of viscosity on crystal fraction has a particularly strong effect as the steep viscosity increase at the critical crystal fraction leads to steep decrease of convection velocity. As the magma chamber is cooling from outside to inside a purely conductive layer is developing along the edges of the magma chamber. Convection continues in the inner part of the

  14. A Terpene Synthase Is Involved in the Synthesis of the Volatile Organic Compound Sodorifen of Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13. (United States)

    Domik, Dajana; Thürmer, Andrea; Weise, Teresa; Brandt, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf; Piechulla, Birgit


    Bacteria release a plethora of volatile organic compounds, including compounds with extraordinary structures. Sodorifen (IUPAC name: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8-heptamethyl-3-methylenebicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-ene) is a recently identified and unusual volatile hydrocarbon that is emitted by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica 4R×13. Sodorifen comprises a bicyclic ring structure solely consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, where every carbon atom of the skeleton is substituted with either a methyl or a methylene group. This unusual feature of sodorifen made a prediction of its biosynthetic origin very difficult and so far its biosynthesis is unknown. To unravel the biosynthetic pathway we performed genome and transcriptome analyses to identify candidate genes. One knockout mutant (SOD_c20750) showed the desired negative sodorifen phenotype. Here it was shown for the first time that this gene is indispensable for the synthesis of sodorifen and strongly supports the hypothesis that sodorifen descends from the terpene metabolism. SOD_c20750 is the first bacterial terpene cyclase isolated from Serratia spp. and Enterobacteriales. Homology modeling revealed a 3D structure, which exhibits a functional role of amino acids for intermediate cation stabilization (W325) and putative proton acception (Y332). Moreover, the size and hydrophobicity of the active site strongly indicates that indeed the enzyme may catalyze the unusual compound sodorifen.

  15. A terpene synthase is involved in the synthesis of the volatile organic compound sodorifen of Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana eDomik


    Full Text Available Bacteria release a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including compounds with extraordinary structures. Sodorifen (IUPAC name: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8-heptamethyl-3-methylenebicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-ene is a recently identified and unusual volatile hydrocarbon that is emitted by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13. Sodorifen comprises a bicyclic ring structure solely consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, where every carbon atom of the skeleton is substituted with either a methyl or a methylene group. This unusual feature of sodorifen made a prediction of its biosynthetic origin very difficult and so far its biosynthesis was unknown. To unravel the biosynthetic pathway we performed genome and transcriptome analyses to identify candidate genes. One knockout mutant (SOD_c20750 showed the desired negative sodorifen phenotype. Here it was shown for the first time that this gene is indispensable for the synthesis of sodorifen and strongly supports the hypothesis that sodorifen descends from the terpene metabolism. SOD_c20750 is the first bacterial terpene cyclase isolated from Serratia spp. and Enterobacteriales. Homology modeling revealed a 3D structure, which indicated a functional role of amino acids for intermediate cation stabilization (W325 and putative proton acceptance (Y331. Moreover, the size and hydrophobicity of the active site strongly indicated that indeed the enzyme may catalyze the unusual compound sodorifen.

  16. Comparative Magma Oceanography (United States)

    Jones, J. H.


    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  17. Three Dimensional Magma Wagging: Seismic Diagnostics And Forcing Mechanism (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.


    Seismic tremor involving 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations are common precursors of explosive sillicic volcanism. Here we present recent progress on the development and application of the three dimensional magma-wagging model, which is extended from the magma wagging model for tremor [Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011, Bercovici et al., 2013]. In our model, a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. Inside the volcanic conduit, the magma column undergoes swirling motion, in which each horizontal section of the column can trace elliptical trajectories. We propose seismic diagnostics for the characteristics of the swirling motion using the time-lag between seismic stations, and test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. Our analysis demonstrates the existence of elliptical swirling motion more than one week before the eruption, and suggests that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical swirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending. We further explore the coupling between the dynamics of the gas flux in the foamy annulus and the wagging motion of the magma column. We show that the gas flux provides a driving force for the magma column to swirl against viscous damping. The coupling between gas flux and wagging motion also brings the possibility to link observation of out-gassing with seismic measurements.

  18. Iron Redox Systematics of Shergottites and Martian Magmas (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Danielson, L. R.; Martin, A. M.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.


    Martian meteorites record a range of oxygen fugacities from near the IW buffer to above FMQ buffer [1]. In terrestrial magmas, Fe(3+)/ SigmaFe for this fO2 range are between 0 and 0.25 [2]. Such variation will affect the stability of oxides, pyroxenes, and how the melt equilibrates with volatile species. An understanding of the variation of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe for martian magmas is lacking, and previous work has been on FeO-poor and Al2O3-rich terrestrial basalts. We have initiated a study of the iron redox systematics of martian magmas to better understand FeO and Fe2O3 stability, the stability of magnetite, and the low Ca/high Ca pyroxene [3] ratios observed at the surface.

  19. CYP74B24 is the 13-hydroperoxide lyase involved in biosynthesis of green leaf volatiles in tea (Camellia sinensis). (United States)

    Ono, Eiichiro; Handa, Taiki; Koeduka, Takao; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Tawfik, Moataz M; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Matsui, Kenji


    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are C6-aliphatic aldehydes/alcohols/acetates, and biosynthesized from the central precursor fatty acid 13-hydroperoxides by 13-hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) in various plant species. While GLVs have been implicated as defense compounds in plants, GLVs give characteristic grassy note to a bouquet of aroma in green tea, which is manufactured from young leaves of Camellia sinensis. Here we identify three HPL-related genes from C. sinensis via RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) in silico, and functionally characterized a candidate gene, CYP74B24, as a gene encoding tea HPL. Recombinant CYP74B24 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli specifically produced (Z)-3-hexenal from 13-HPOT with the optimal pH 6.0 in vitro. CYP74B24 gene was expressed throughout the aerial organs in a rather constitutive manner and further induced by mechanical wounding. Constitutive expression of CYP74B24 gene in intact tea leaves might account for low but substantial and constitutive formation of a subset of GLVs, some of which are stored as glycosides. Our results not only provide novel insights into the biological roles that GLVs play in tea plants, but also serve as basis for the improvement of aroma quality in tea manufacturing processes.

  20. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.


    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  1. The fate of volatiles in mid-ocean ridge magmatism

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Tobias; Hirschmann, Marc M


    Deep-Earth volatile cycles couple the mantle with near-surface reservoirs. Volatiles are emitted by volcanism and, in particular, from mid-ocean ridges, which are the most prolific source of basaltic volcanism. Estimates of volatile extraction from the asthenosphere beneath ridges typically rely on measurements of undegassed lavas combined with simple petrogenetic models of the mean degree of melting. Estimated volatile fluxes have large uncertainties; this is partly due to a poor understanding of how volatiles are transported by magma in the asthenosphere. Here, we assess the fate of mantle volatiles through numerical simulations of melting and melt transport at mid-ocean ridges. Our simulations are based on two-phase, magma/mantle dynamics theory coupled to an idealised thermodynamic model of mantle melting in the presence of water and carbon dioxide. We combine simulation results with catalogued observations of all ridge segments to estimate a range of likely volatile output from the global mid-ocean ridge...

  2. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Kathy; Humphreys, Madeleine


    Explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by exsolution of H2O-rich vapour from silicic magma. Eruption dynamics involve a complex interplay between nucleation and growth of vapour bubbles and crystallization, generating highly nonlinear variation in the physical properties of magma as it ascends beneath a volcano. This makes explosive volcanism difficult to model and, ultimately, to predict. A key unknown is the temperature variation in magma rising through the sub-volcanic system, as it loses gas and crystallizes en route. Thermodynamic modelling of magma that degasses, but does not crystallize, indicates that both cooling and heating are possible. Hitherto it has not been possible to evaluate such alternatives because of the difficulty of tracking temperature variations in moving magma several kilometres below the surface. Here we extend recent work on glassy melt inclusions trapped in plagioclase crystals to develop a method for tracking pressure-temperature-crystallinity paths in magma beneath two active andesite volcanoes. We use dissolved H2O in melt inclusions to constrain the pressure of H2O at the time an inclusion became sealed, incompatible trace element concentrations to calculate the corresponding magma crystallinity and plagioclase-melt geothermometry to determine the temperature. These data are allied to ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry to show that the temperature of ascending magma increases by up to 100 degrees C, owing to the release of latent heat of crystallization. This heating can account for several common textural features of andesitic magmas, which might otherwise be erroneously attributed to pre-eruptive magma mixing.

  3. Eruption Depths, Magma Storage and Magma Degassing at Sumisu Caldera, Izu-Bonin Arc: Evidence from Glasses and Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.


    Island arc volcanoes can become submarine during cataclysmal caldera collapse. The passage of a volcanic vent from atmospheric to under water environment involves complex modifications of the eruption style and subsequent transport of the pyroclasts. Here, we use FTIR measurements of the volatile contents of glass and melt inclusions in the juvenile pumice clasts in the Sumisu basin and its surroundings (Izu-Bonin arc) to investigate changes in eruption depths, magma storage and degassing over time. This study is based on legacy cores from ODP 126, where numerous unconsolidated (250 m), massive to normally graded pumice lapilli-tuffs were recovered over four cores (788C, 790A, 790B and 791A). Glass and clast geochemistry indicate the submarine Sumisu caldera as the source of several of these pumice lapilli-tuffs. Glass chips and melt inclusions from these samples were analyzed using FTIR for H2O and CO2 contents. Glass chips record variable H2O contents; most chips contain 0.6-1.6 wt% H2O, corresponding to eruption depths of 320-2100 mbsl. Variations in glass H2O and pressure estimates suggest that edifice collapse occurred prior-to or during eruption of the oldest of these samples, and that the edifice may have subsequently grown over time. Sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from two units record variably degassed but H2O-rich melts (1.1-5.6 wt% H2O). The lowest H2O contents overlap with glass chips, consistent with degassing and crystallization of melts until eruption, and the highest H2O contents suggest that large amounts of degassing accompanied likely explosive eruptions. Most inclusions, from both units, contain 2-4 wt% H2O, which further indicates that the magmas crystallized at pressures of ~50-100 MPa, or depths ~400-2800 m below the seafloor. Further glass and melt inclusion analyses, including major element compositions, will elucidate changes in magma storage, degassing and evolution over time.

  4. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao


    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  5. Gradients in physical parameters in zoned felsic magma bodies: Implications for evolution and eruptive withdrawal (United States)

    Wolff, J. A.; Wörner, G.; Blake, S.


    Five diverse, well documented, chemically zoned magmas have been chosen from the literature to demonstrate the extent and patterns of density and viscosity gradients in zoned magma chambers. The patterns are used to assess implications for development of zonation, and withdrawal dynamics and preservation of systematic chemical variations in the final pyroclastic deposit. These examples are: Bishop Tuff, California (high-silica rhyolite); Los Humeros, Mexico (calc-alkaline rhyolite to andesite); Fogo A, Azores (trachyte); Laacher See, Eifel (phonolite) and Tenerife, Canary Islands (phonolite). It was necessary to make several simplifying assumptions in order to calculate viscosity and density profiles through each system; results are particularly sensitive to magmatic water and crystal contents. Nevertheless, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Small, strongly zoned, alkaline magma systems which evolved through fractional crystallisation of a basaltic parent (Fogo A, Laacher See) have suffered a partial time-integrated volatile depletion prior to eruption. The most likely mechanism of volatile loss is degassing of the uppermost, highly differentiated, "cupola" magma layer. (2) Eruption withdrawal dynamics are critically dependent on density gradients (and therefore on volatile content and phenocryst abundance), while viscosity variations play a subordinate rôle in the chosen examples. (3) Formation of a chemically zoned tephra sequence by eruption of chemically zoned felsic magma requires a pre-eruptive volatile gradient in the magma chamber. (4) Withdrawal-layer thicknesses during eruptions from naturally zoned magma chambers are of the order of 100 m. (5) The quantitative treatment of gravitational liquid segregation processes by Nilson et al. (1985) successfully predicts times required for zonation of magma bodies: typically 10 3-10 4 years for small alkaline systems, and > 10 5 years for large silicic systems.

  6. Water-driven undercooling during the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Blundy, J. D.; Brooker, R. A.; Hinton, R.


    Mantle-derived mafic magmas are often invoked as a mechanism to transfer heat, mass and volatiles to felsic plutons that reside in the Earth's crust. This process has been suggested as a means of sustaining shallow magmatic bodies and triggering volcanic eruptions. Various field observations suggest that mafic water-rich magmas might intrude a viscous felsic crystal-rich mush. This scenario might be expected to produce water advection from the crystallizing mafic magma to the felsic magma, leading to an increase of melt fraction in the felsic mush and subsequent mobilization whilst the mafic magma is simultaneously quenched. To investigate certain features of this scenario we conducted 24-hour experiments to establish the petrological evolution of a water-saturated (4 wt.% H2O in the interstitial melt) dacitic crystal mush (50-80 vol.% quartz crystals) subject to a volatile supply released from a water-saturated (≥ 6 wt.% H2O) andesitic magma at 950 °C and 500 MPa (15 km depth). Run products were characterised by SEM, EPMA, SIMS and Raman. Our results show unidirectional solidification textures (comb layering) as crystal nucleate at the mafic-felsic interface and grow into the mafic end-member. This is a direct effect of isothermal undercooling that results from a change in liquidus temperatures of the interacting magmas with changing water content. This is the first study exploring felsic-mafic magma interaction under "natural conditions" and shows that textures associated with mafic-felsic interactions found in the field may not be simply cooling-driven in origin. These experiments allow us to explore some essential concepts for understanding the origin of mafic enclaves, how volatiles contribute to crystal mush remobilisation within the Earth's crust and can trigger explosive volcanic eruptions during recharge of mafic inputs into felsic reservoirs, and how degassing processes might be traced by textural features that indicate the direction of volatile

  7. Degassing-induced crystallization of basaltic magma and effects on lava rheology (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Banks, N.G.; Rhodes, J.M.


    During the north-east rift eruption of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, on 25 March-14 April 1984 (Fig. 1), microphenocryst contents of erupted lava increased from 0.5 to 30% without concurrent change in either bulk magma composition or eruption temperature (1,140 ?? 3 ??C). The crystallization of the microphenocrysts is interpreted here as being due to undercooling of the magma 20-30 ??C below its liquidas; the undercooling probably resulted from separation and release of volatiles as the magma migrated 12 km from the primary summit reservoir to the eruption site on the north-east rift zone. Such crystallization of magma during an eruption has not been documented previously. The undercooling and crystallization increased the effective viscosity of the magma, leading to decreased eruption rates and stagnation of the lava flow. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. The types of unrest occurring at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy) since 1982 and the role of magma (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Sarno, Federica; Schiavone, Roberto; Troise, Claudia


    The thermodynamic response of a multiphase (at least biphasic) and multicomponent system that has enough degrees of freedom to respond to variations of external constraints consists in re-equilibrating phase proportions and compositions of dissolved components. For volcanic systems in unrest, such as CampiFlegrei, this puts first-order thermal constraints that typically the procedures of geophysical inversion of geodetic and gravimetric data cannot identify.In this study, based on a thermodyamically internally consistent approach to the geochemical data recorded in the last 35 years, we show that: 1) The fumarole-feeding portions of the Solfatara geothermal field have fluid pressures below the lithostatic gradients. Shallow steam condensation occurs certainly in the surroundingsof fumarole emissions, and was attained in few circumstances during the 1982-84 unrest. 2) Inert gases help evaluating the geochemical signature of the deep upcoming gas, not compatible with a magma migrating to shallow depths in recent times. Any magma emplaced at shallow depth should have a volatile content and a size incompatible with geophysical measurements and models on shallow magma emplacement.After exhaustion of the shallow magma emplaced in1982-84, the system is fed by a deep magmatic gas. 3) Gas indicators and the observed increase in magmatic fraction (Y) after year 2000 require a raise in the temperature of the formed hydrothermal vapour and the likely involvement of a supercritical fluid phase. This determines the opening of awindow for magmatic gases at surface, which is however hardly compatible with a magma raising to shallow depths. 4) The unrest style can be related to the P-T-H conditions of the deep hydrothermal vapour. These determine if the pore-filling fluid is a biphasic liquid+vapour. like in 1982-84, when pore overpressures developed under nearly undrained conditions. 5) The nature of the 1982-84 unrest was magmatic, due to the emplacement of a shallow (3-4 km deep

  9. Halogen behaviours during andesitic magma degassing: from magma chamber to volcanic plume (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Villemant, B.; Boudon, G.; Michel, A.


    Halogen (F, Cl, Br and I) behaviours during degassing of H2O-rich silicic magmas are investigated using volatile content analysis in glass (matrix glass and melt inclusions) of volcanic clasts (pumice and lava-dome fragments) in a series of plinian, vulcanian and lava dome-forming eruptions. Examples are taken from andesitic systems in subduction zones: Montagne Pelée and Soufrière Hills of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) and Santa Maria-Santiaguito (Guatemala). Halogens behaviour during shallow degassing primarily depends on their incompatible character in melts and on H2O solubility. But variations in pre-eruptive conditions, degassing kinetics and syn-eruptive melt crystallisation, induce large variations in halogen extraction efficiency during H2O degassing, up to prevent halogen loss. In all studied systems, Cl, Br and I are not fractionated neither by differentiation nor by degassing processes: thus Cl/Br/I ratios remain well preserved in melts from reservoirs to eruption. These ratios measured in erupted clasts are characteristic of pre-eruptive magma compositions and may be used to trace deep magmatic processes. Moreover, during plinian eruptions, Cl, Br and I are extracted by H2O degassing but less efficiently than predicted by available experimental fluid-melt partition coefficients, by a factor as high as 5. F behaves as an incompatible element and, contrary to other halogens, is never significantly extracted by degassing. Degassing during lava dome-forming eruptions of andesitic magmas occurs mainly at equilibrium and is more efficient at extracting halogens and H2O than explosive degassing. The mobility of H2O and halogens depends on their speciation in both silicate melts and exsolved fluids which strongly varies with pressure. We suggest that the rapid pressure decrease during highly explosive eruptions prevents complete volatile speciation at equilibrium and consequently strongly limits halogen degassing.

  10. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption (United States)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.


    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  11. Magma deformation and emplacement in rhyolitic dykes (United States)

    McGowan, Ellen; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike; Wynn, Peter


    -ductile microtextures and bubble populations point towards multi-step and multi-rate magma decompression, and we propose that gas overpressure in bubbles created tensile micro-cracks, whose coalescence culminated in macroscopic fragmentation. Finally, we infer that bubble collapse was associated with both localised brittle magma failure at shallow levels and macroscopic magma fragmentation deeper within the magmatic system. Processes recorded by the Húsafell dyke exposures appear akin to those occurring in the shallow conduits of Chaitén and Cordón Caulle during recent rhyolitic eruptions[2,3]. The field evidence presented here therefore bridges the gap between eruption observations and the deeper geological record, and so provides new insight into conduit evolution during explosive-hybrid-effusive eruptive phases[2,3] and the influence of country rock. The parallels between intrusive dyke textures and those found in extruded silicic lavas suggest that processes recorded in the dykes, including bubble collapse, volatile resorption, thermally-induced vesiculation and the formation of brittle-ductile shear zones, also occur within extrusive flows, contributing to their extreme textural heterogeneity[4]. [1] Saemundsson K & Noll H (1974) Jökull 24, 40-59. [2] Schipper CI et al. (2013) JVGR, 262, 25-37. [3] Castro JC et al. (2014) EPSL, 405, 52-61. [4] Shields JK et al. (2016) JVGR, 310, 137-158.

  12. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas (United States)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela


    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  13. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  14. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan


    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  15. Magma mixing and high fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, Hawai‘i (United States)

    Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, Don; Steele-MacInnis, M.J.


    The 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption provides a unique opportunity to investigate the process of shallow magma mixing, its impact on the magmatic volatile budget and its role in triggering and driving episodes of Hawaiian fountaining. Melt inclusions hosted by olivine record a continuous decrease in H2O concentration through the 17 episodes of the eruption, while CO2 concentrations correlate with the degree of post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on the inclusion walls. Geochemical data, when combined with the magma budget and with contemporaneous eruption observations, show complex mixing between episodes involving hot, geochemically heterogeneous melts from depth, likely carrying exsolved vapor, and melts which had erupted at the surface, degassed and drained-back into the vent. The drained-back melts acted as a coolant, inducing rapid cooling of the more primitive melts and their olivines at shallow depths and inducing crystallization and vesiculation and triggering renewed fountaining. A consequence of the mixing is that the melts became vapor-undersaturated, so equilibration pressures cannot be inferred from them using saturation models. After the melt inclusions were trapped, continued growth of vapor bubbles, caused by enhanced post-entrapment crystallization, sequestered a large fraction of CO2 from the melt within the inclusions. This study, while cautioning against accepting melt inclusion CO2 concentrations “as measured” in mixed magmas, also illustrates that careful analysis and interpretation of post-entrapment modifications can turn this apparent challenge into a way to yield novel useful insights into the geochemical controls on eruption intensity.

  16. Halogen degassing during ascent and eruption of water-poor basaltic magma (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Gerlach, T.M.; Herd, Richard A.


    A study of volcanic gas composition and matrix glass volatile concentrations has allowed a model for halogen degassing to be formulated for K??lauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Volcanic gases emitted during 2004-2005 were characterised by a molar SO2/HCl of 10-64, with a mean of 33; and a molar HF/HCl of 0-5, with a mean of 1.0 (from approximately 2500 measurements). The HF/HCl ratio was more variable than the SO2/HCl ratio, and the two correlate weakly. Variations in ratio took place over rapid timescales (seconds). Matrix glasses of Pele's tears erupted in 2006 have a mean S, Cl and F content of 67, 85 and 173??ppm respectively, but are associated with a large range in S/F. A model is developed that describes the open system degassing of halogens from parental magmas, using the glass data from this study, previously published results and parameterisation of sulphur degassing from previous work. The results illustrate that halogen degassing takes place at pressures of pressure, virtually at the top of the magma column. This model reproduces the volcanic gas data and other observations of volcanic activity well and is consistent with other studies of halogen degassing from basaltic magmas. The model suggests that variation in volcanic gas halogen ratios is caused by exsolution and gas-melt separation at low pressures in the conduit. There is no evidence that either diffusive fractionation or near-vent chemical reactions involving halogens is important in the system, although these processes cannot be ruled out. The fluxes of HCl and HF from K??lauea during 2004-5 were ~ 25 and 12??t/d respectively. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  17. On the Interaction of a Vigorous Hydrothermal System with an Active Magma Chamber: The Puna Magma Chamber, Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii (United States)

    Gregory, R. T.; Marsh, B. D.; Teplow, W.; Fournelle, J.


    The extent of the interaction between hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers has long been of fundamental interest to the development of ore deposits, cooling of magma chambers, and dehydration of the subducting lithosphere. As volatiles build up in the residual magma in the trailing edge of magmatic solidification fronts, is it possible that volatiles are transferred from the active magma to the hydrothermal system and vice versa? Does the external fracture front associated with vigorous hydrothermal systems sometimes propagate into the solidification front, facilitating volatile exchange? Or is the magma always sealed at temperatures above some critical level related to rock strength and overpressure? The degree of hydrothermal interaction in igneous systems is generally gauged in post mortem studies of δ18O and δD, where it has been assumed that a fracture front develops about the magma collapsing inward with cooling. H.P. Taylor and D. Norton's (1979; J. Petrol.)seminal work inferred that rocks are sealed with approach to the solidus and there is little to no direct interaction with external volatiles in the active magma. In active lava lakes a fracture front develops in response to thermal contraction of the newly formed rock once the temperature drops to ~950°C (Peck and Kinoshita,1976;USGS PP935A); rainfall driven hydrothermal systems flash to steam near the 100 °C isotherm in the solidified lake and have little effect on the cooling history (Peck et al., 1977; AJS). Lava lakes are fully degassed magmas and until the recent discovery of the Puna Magma Chamber (Teplow et al., 2008; AGU) no active magma was known at sufficiently great pressure to contain original volatiles. During the course of routine drilling of an injection well at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) well-field, Big Island, Hawaii, a 75-meter interval of diorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m, continued drilling to 2488 m encountered a melt

  18. Noble gas solubility in silicate melts:a review of experimentation and theory, and implications regarding magma degassing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paonita


    Full Text Available Noble gas solubility in silicate melts and glasses has gained a crucial role in Earth Sciences investigations and in the studies of non-crystalline materials on a micro to a macro-scale. Due to their special geochemical features, noble gases are in fact ideal tracers of magma degassing. Their inert nature also allows them to be used to probe the structure of silicate melts. Owing to the development of modern high pressure and temperature technologies, a large number of experimental investigations have been performed on this subject in recent times. This paper reviews the related literature, and tries to define our present state of knowledge, the problems encountered in the experimental procedures and the theoretical questions which remain unresolved. Throughout the manuscript I will also try to show how the thermodynamic and structural interpretations of the growing experimental dataset are greatly improving our understanding of the dissolution mechanisms, although there are still several points under discussion. Our improved capability of predicting noble gas solubilities in conditions closer to those found in magma has allowed scientists to develop quantitative models of magma degassing, which provide constraints on a number of questions of geological impact. Despite these recent improvements, noble gas solubility in more complex systems involving the main volatiles in magmas, is poorly known and a lot of work must be done. Expertise from other fields would be extremely valuable to upcoming research, thus focus should be placed on the structural aspects and the practical and commercial interests of the study of noble gas solubility.

  19. Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.


    Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath Campi Flegrei and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.

  20. Melt production and magma emplacement: What use are they? (United States)

    Nimmo, F.


    I will review the processes of melt production and magma emplacement and address two questions: how do these processes affect planetary evolution?; and what can we learn from observing them, both now and in the future? Melt production is primarily controlled by the temperature of the planetary interior. The extraction of melt from silicate mantles has a number of effects. Firstly, it advects heat (e.g. Io, Venus?). Secondly, it segregates radiogenic materials into the crust, thus cooling the mantle (e.g. Mars, Earth). Thirdly, it removes volatiles from the interior (e.g. Venus, Mars). Recognition that melting is occurring gives us information about likely conditions inside the planet. Models of melt generation by convective upwelling have been used to constrain the interior properties of the Earth, Venus and Mars. Melting during tidal heating (Io) or accretion is less well understood. Magma emplacement is primarily controlled by the density of the magma and the surrounding material. Extrusive activity is likely for high volatile concentrations or low crustal densities. Water is particularly difficult to erupt, since (unlike silicates) the melt is denser than the solid. Different styles of magma emplacement are observed: voluminous surface flows and volcanic edifices of various kinds (ubiquitous); giant radiating dyke swarms (Earth, Venus, Mars); intrusive sills and diapirs (Earth, Venus?, Mars?, Europa?). The extrusive emplacement of magma will cause resurfacing, and is thus easily detected. The release of volatiles during emplacement may have local (e.g. Laki) or global (Venus? Mars?) effects on climate and atmosphere. Intrusive emplacement is harder to detect, but may interact with local volatiles to create unusual landforms (Earth, Mars). The style and volume of emplacement is a useful diagnostic tool. The morphology of lava flows gives information about the rheology and composition of the flow material (e.g. Venus, Miranda). Observations of dykes may be used to

  1. The decompression of basaltic magma into a sub-surface repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.


    We examine the ascent of volatile-rich basaltic magma through a vertical dike that intersects a horizontal tunnel of comparable cross-sectional area to the dike and located 300 $m$ below the surface and initially filled with air at atmospheric pressure. This process is a simplified representation of

  2. The decompression of basaltic magma into a sub-surface repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.; Woods, A.W.


    We examine the ascent of volatile-rich basaltic magma through a vertical dike that intersects a horizontal tunnel of comparable cross-sectional area to the dike and located 300 $m$ below the surface and initially filled with air at atmospheric pressure. This process is a simplified representation of

  3. Virtual volatility (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.


    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  4. Virtual volatility


    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.


    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  5. Role of magma-water interaction in very large explosive eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.


    An important class of explosive eruptions, involving large-scale magma-water interaction during the discharge of hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometers of magma, is discussed. Geologic evidence for such eruptions is summarized. Case studies from New Zealand, Australia, England, and the western United States are described, focusing on inferred eruption dynamics. Several critical problems that need theoretical and experimental research are identified. These include rates at which water can flow into a volcanic vent or plumbing system, entrainment of water by explosive eruptions through lakes and seas, effects of magma properties and gas bubbles on magma-water interaction, and hazards associated with the eruptions.

  6. Warm storage for arc magmas. (United States)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas


    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  7. Plant volatiles. (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T


    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  8. Behavior of halogens during the degassing of felsic magmas (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Villemant, B.; Boudon, G.


    Residual concentrations of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) and H2O in glass (matrix glass and melt inclusions) have been determined in a series of volcanic clasts (pumice and lava-dome fragments) of plinian, vulcanian and lava dome-forming eruptions. Felsic magmas from calc-alkaline, trachytic and phonolitic systems have been investigated: Montagne Pelée and Soufrière Hills of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles), Santa Maria-Santiaguito (Guatemala), Fogo (Azores) and Vesuvius (Italy). The behavior of halogens during shallow H2O degassing primarily depends on their incompatible character and their partitioning between melt and exsolved H2O vapor. However, variations in pre-eruptive conditions, degassing kinetics, and syn-eruptive melt crystallization induce large variations in the efficiency of halogen extraction. In all systems studied, Cl, Br and I are not fractionated from each other by differentiation or by degassing processes. Cl/Br/I ratios in melt remain almost constant from the magma reservoir to the surface. The ratios measured in erupted clasts are thus characteristic of pre-eruptive magma compositions and may be used to trace deep magmatic processes. F behaves as an incompatible element and, unlike the other halogens, is never significantly extracted by degassing. Cl, Br and I are efficiently extracted from melts at high pressure by H2O-rich fluids exsolved from magmas or during slow effusive magma degassing, but not during rapid explosive degassing. Because H2O and halogen mobility depends on their speciation, which strongly varies with pressure in both silicate melts and exsolved fluids, we suggest that the rapid pressure decrease during highly explosive eruptions prevents complete equilibrium between the diverse species of the volatiles and consequently limits their degassing. Conversely, degassing in effusive eruptions is an equilibrium process and leads to significant halogen output in volcanic plumes.

  9. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène


    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  10. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène


    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  11. Temporal evolution of magma flow and degassing conditions during dome growth, insights from 2D numerical modeling (United States)

    Chevalier, Laure; Collombet, Marielle; Pinel, Virginie


    Understanding magma degassing evolution during an eruption is essential to improving forecasting of effusive/explosive regime transitions at andesitic volcanoes. Lava domes frequently form during effusive phases, inducing a pressure increase both within the conduit and within the surrounding rocks. To quantify the influence of dome height on magma flow and degassing, we couple magma and gas flow in a 2D numerical model. The deformation induced by magma flow evolution is also quantified. From realistic initial magma flow conditions in effusive regime (Collombet, 2009), we apply increasing pressure at the conduit top as the dome grows. Since volatile solubility increases with pressure, dome growth is then associated with an increase in magma dissolved water content at a given depth, which corresponds with a decrease in magma porosity and permeability. Magma flow evolution is associated with ground deflation of a few μrad in the near field. However this signal is not detectable as it is hidden by dome subsidence (a few mrad). A Darcy flow model is used to study the impact of pressure and permeability conditions on gas flow in the conduit and surrounding rock. We show that dome permeability has almost no influence on magma degassing. However, increasing pressure in the surrounding rock, due to dome loading, as well as decreasing magma permeability in the conduit limit permeable gas loss at the conduit walls, thus causing gas pressurization in the upper conduit by a few tens of MPa. Decreasing magma permeability and increasing gas pressure increase the likelihood of magma explosivity and hazard in the case of a rapid decompression due to dome collapse.

  12. Tracking Magma Degassing and Changes in Magma Rheology Between Major Dome Collapse Events (United States)

    Genareau, K.; Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.


    -induced crystallization of plagioclase in addition to late-stage rapid crystallization of pyroxene and Fe-oxides due to oxidation in the extruded dome prior to collapse. Geochemical analyses of the microlites and the groundmass glass will also be presented to examine the behavior of volatiles during the two phases of dome extrusion and quantify how progressive stages of degassing, resulting decompression-induced crystallization, and consequent changes in magma rheology contributed to lava dome collapse at this persistently active stratovolcano.

  13. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano


    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  14. Mantle decarbonation and Archean high-Mg magmas (United States)

    Edwards, Garth R.


    Magnesium-rich mane to ultramafic extrusions were most common in the Archean and pose interesting petrological problems. The high Mg content of komatiites (>18 wt%, for example, is usually interpreted as indicating an origin at higher temperatures than exist in mantle melting zones in the modern Earth. Current contrasting models for the origin of komatiites in the mantle require either high degrees of melting or lower degrees of melting at great depth. A potential complementary mechanism for Mg enrichment in magmas involves the melting of magnesite-bearing garnet Iherxolite. In this model, the ascending primary mafic or ultramafic magma is enriched in MgO by the loss of some off the CO2 to the adjacent mantle at pressures of ˜2.2 GPa, where the magma becomes saturated with CO2. To generate komatiite in this way from a picritelike parent, for example, requires that the primary magma lose some of its major and trace element components to the adjacent mantle concurrently with the CO2. Production of magnesian magmas by magnesite breakdown may not have required the heat or depth of those produced by other means; this mechanism may help to explain some apparently low Archean geothermal gradients, as well as the contemporaneity of Archean diamonds and komatites. The mantle magnesite could have formed by direct reaction of primordial CO2 or CO with hot, protomantle material during Earth's accretionary period.

  15. Magma flow through elastic-walled dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.; Woods, A.W.; Boer, de A.


    A convection–diffusion model for the averaged flow of a viscous, incompressible magma through an elastic medium is considered. The magma flows through a dike from a magma reservoir to the Earth’s surface; only changes in dike width and velocity over large vertical length scales relative to the chara

  16. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  17. Volatility Risk


    Zhiguang Wang


    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  18. Implications of Viscosity-Contrast for Co-Extruding Two-Component Magmas, Triggering Eruptions and Forming Layered Domes (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Clarke, S. M.


    Polymer co-extrusion experiments represent excellent dynamical analogies with two-magma transport and the effusion of composite lava domes. They demonstrate that the co-extrusion of magmas having different viscosity can explain not only the observed normal zoning in magma dikes and conduits but also the compositional layering observed in effused lava domes. New results indicate that dike and conduit zoning along with dome layering are strongly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the flowing magmas. Realistic models of magma storage and dike formation show that co-extrusion of magmas is both more readily explained and energetically preferred over serial intrusion processes. Co-extrusion during the formation of dikes may play an important role in triggering larger volcanic eruptions. Lubrication of the flow by a typically, more mafic, lower-viscosity component allows a more viscous but also more highly volatile-charged magma to be transported greater distances upward in the dike resulting in exsolution of a gas phase and the formation of a magma foam. Transition to a foam lowers the bulk density of the magma enabling dikes to propagate greater vertical distances for a given back pressure. Our new results suggest that a dike propagating across a sloping magma-chamber roof intersecting both "wet" silicic and relatively "dry" mafic layers has the greatest probability of reaching the surface in the dike segment where the magmas flow co-extrusively. Thus, bimodal eruptive compositions are dynamically preferred in such a petrologically common magmatic regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  19. Oxidation of shallow conduit magma: Insight from μ-XANES analysis on volcanic ash particle (United States)

    Miwa, T.; Ishibashi, H.; Iguchi, M.


    Redox state of magma is important to understand dynamics of volcanic eruptions because magma properties such as composition of degassed volatiles, stability field of minerals, and rheology of magma depend on redox state. To evaluate redox state of magma, Fe3+/ΣFe ratio [= Fe3+/( Fe3++ Fe2+)] of volcanic glass has been measured non-destructively by Fe-K edge μ-XANES (micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy (e.g., Cottrell and Kelly, 2011). We performed textural, compositional, and Fe-K edge μ-XANES analyses on volcanic ash to infer oxidation process of magma at shallow conduit during eruption at Bromo Volcano, Indonesia. The volcanic ash particles were collected in 24th March 2011 by real-time sampling from ongoing activity. The activity was characterized by strombolian eruption showing magma head ascended to near the ground surface. The ash sample contains two type of volcanic glasses named as Brown and Black glasses (BrG and BlG), based on their color. Textual analysis shows microlite crystallinities are same in the two type of glasses, ranging from 0 to 3 vol.%. EPMA analyses show that all of the glasses have almost identical andesitic composition with SiO2 = 60 wt.%. In contrast, Fe-K edge μ-XANES spectra with the analytical method by Ishibashi et al. (in prep) demonstrate that BrG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.20-0.26) is more oxidized than BlG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.32-0.60). From combination of the glass composition, the measured Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and 1060 degree C of temperature (Kress and Carmichael, 1991), the oxygen fugacities are estimated to be NNO and NNO+4 for BrG and BlG, respectively. The volcanic glasses preserve syn-eruptive physicochemical conditions by rapid quenching due to their small size ranging from 125 to 250 μm. Our results demonstrate that BrG and BlG magmas are textually and chemically identical but their redox conditions are different at the eruption. The oxidation of magma can be caused by following two processes; 1) diffusive transport

  20. The Effect of Thermal Cycling on Crystal-Liquid Separation During Lunar Magma Ocean Differentiation (United States)

    Mills, Ryan D.


    Differentiation of magma oceans likely involves a mixture of fractional and equilibrium crystallization [1]. The existence of: 1) large volumes of anorthosite in the lunar highlands and 2) the incompatible- rich (KREEP) reservoir suggests that fractional crystallization may have dominated during differentiation of the Moon. For this to have occurred, crystal fractionation must have been remarkably efficient. Several authors [e.g. 2, 3] have hypothesized that equilibrium crystallization would have dominated early in differentiation of magma oceans because of crystal entrainment during turbulent convection. However, recent numerical modeling [4] suggests that crystal settling could have occurred throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean if crystals were large and crystal fraction was low. These results indicate that the crystal size distribution could have played an important role in differentiation of the lunar magma ocean. Here, I suggest that thermal cycling from tidal heating during lunar magma ocean crystallization caused crystals to coarsen, leading to efficient crystal-liquid separation.

  1. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands (United States)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi


    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  2. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc (United States)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.; Rasmussen, D. J.; Weis, D.


    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO > 7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  3. Volatiles and the tempo of flood basalt magmatism (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael


    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas implies correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. The overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, and as a large magma body heats the surrounding rocks thermally activated creep will relax isotropic overpressure more rapidly. Here, we examine the viability of buoyancy overpressure as a trigger for continental flood basalt eruptions. We employ a new one-dimensional model that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape from Moho-depth and crustal chambers. We investigate the temporal evolution of degassing and the eruptibility of magmas using the Siberian Traps flood basalts as a test case. We suggest that the volatile inventory set during mantle melting and redistributed via bubble motion controls ascent of magma into and through the crust, thereby regulating the tempo of flood basalt magmatism. Volatile-rich melts from low degrees of partial melting of the mantle are buoyant and erupt to the surface with little staging or crustal interaction. Melts with moderate volatile budgets accumulate in large, mostly molten magma chambers at the Moho or in the lower crust. These large magma bodies may remain buoyant and poised to erupt-triggered by volatile-rich recharge or external stresses-for ∼106 yr. If and when such chambers fail, enormous volumes of magma can ascend into the upper crust, staging at shallow levels and initiating substantial assimilation that contributes to pulses of large-volume flood basalt eruption. Our model further predicts that the Siberian Traps may have released 1019-1020 g of CO2

  4. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil


    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  5. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius (United States)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.


    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  6. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: Implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone (United States)

    Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank


    Active volcanoes at oceanic subduction zone have long been regard as important pathways for deep carbon degassed from Earth's interior, whereas those at continental subduction zone remain poorly constrained. Large-scale active volcanoes, together with significant modern hydrothermal activities, are widely distributed in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF) on convergent boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. They provide an important opportunity for studying deep carbon cycle at the ongoing intra-continent subduction zone. Soil microseepage survey based on accumulation chamber method reveals an average soil CO2 flux of ca. 280 g m-2 d-1 in wet season for the Rehai geothermal park (RGP). Combined with average soil CO2 flux in dry season (ca. 875 g m-2 d-1), total soil CO2 output of the RGP and adjacent region (ca. 3 km2) would be about 6.30 × 105 t a-1. Additionally, we conclude that total flux of outgassing CO2 from the TVF would range in (4.48-7.05) × 106 t a-1, if CO2 fluxes from hot springs and soil in literature are taken into account. Both hot spring and soil gases from the TVF exhibit enrichment in CO2 (>85%) and remarkable contribution from mantle components, as indicated by their elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.85-5.30 RA) and δ13C-CO2 values (-9.00‰ to -2.07‰). He-C isotope coupling model suggests involvement of recycled organic metasediments and limestones from subducted Indian continental lithosphere in formation of the enriched mantle wedge (EMW), which has been recognized as source region of the TVF parental magmas. Contamination by crustal limestone is the first-order control on variations in He-CO2 systematics of volatiles released by the EMW-derived melts. Depleted mantle and recycled crustal materials from subducted Indian continental lithosphere contribute about 45-85% of the total carbon inventory, while the rest carbon (about 15-55%) is accounted by limestones in continental crust. As indicated by origin and evolution of the TVF

  7. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.


    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  8. Mantle Volatiles - Distribution and Consequences (United States)

    Luth, R. W.


    Volatiles in the mantle have, for many years, been the subject of intensive study from a number of perspectives. They are of interest because of their potential effects on melting relationships, on transport of major and trace elements, and on the rheological and other physical properties of the mantle. By convention, "volatiles" in this context are constituents that are liquid or gaseous at normal Earth surface conditions. This review will look at the behavior of C-O-H-S-halogen volatiles, beginning with H2O and C-O volatiles.There have been tremendous strides made recently towards understanding how volatiles in general and water in particular is transported and stored in the mantle. This progress is based on research on a number of fronts: studies of mantle-derived samples have provided insight into the nature and occurrence of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, and chlorite, and have provided constraints on the capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxenes, and garnet to contain "water" by a variety of substitution mechanisms. Experimental studies on mantle-derived magmas have provided constraints on volatile contents in their source regions. Other studies have constrained the pressure, temperature, and composition conditions over which hydrous phases are stable in the mantle.Fundamental questions remain about the geochemical cycling of volatiles in the mantle, and between the mantle and the surface. Much attention has focused on the capability of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, serpentine, chlorite, and a family of "dense hydrous magnesian silicates" (DHMSs) to act as carriers of water in subducting slabs back into the mantle. It has been clear since the work of Ito et al. (1983) that there is a discrepancy between the amount of volatiles subducted into the mantle and those returned to the surface by arc magmatism. A recent overview of volatile cycling in subduction systems by Bebout (1996) suggests that 5-15% of the H2

  9. Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C


    Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.

  10. Mantle to surface degassing of alkalic magmas at Erebus volcano, Antarctica (United States)

    Oppenheimer, C.; Moretti, R.; Kyle, P.R.; Eschenbacher, A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hervig, R.L.; Dunbar, N.W.


    Continental intraplate volcanoes, such as Erebus volcano, Antarctica, are associated with extensional tectonics, mantle upwelling and high heat flow. Typically, erupted magmas are alkaline and rich in volatiles (especially CO2), inherited from low degrees of partial melting of mantle sources. We examine the degassing of the magmatic system at Erebus volcano using melt inclusion data and high temporal resolution open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements of gas emissions from the active lava lake. Remarkably different gas signatures are associated with passive and explosive gas emissions, representative of volatile contents and redox conditions that reveal contrasting shallow and deep degassing sources. We show that this unexpected degassing signature provides a unique probe for magma differentiation and transfer of CO2-rich oxidised fluids from the mantle to the surface, and evaluate how these processes operate in time and space. Extensive crystallisation driven by CO2 fluxing is responsible for isobaric fractionation of parental basanite magmas close to their source depth. Magma deeper than 4kbar equilibrates under vapour-buffered conditions. At shallower depths, CO2-rich fluids accumulate and are then released either via convection-driven, open-system gas loss or as closed-system slugs that ascend and result in Strombolian eruptions in the lava lake. The open-system gases have a reduced state (below the QFM buffer) whereas the closed-system gases preserve their deep oxidised signatures (close to the NNO buffer). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesmaier


    Full Text Available That rising bubbles may significantly affect magma mixing paths has already been demon strated by analogue experiments. Here, for the first time, bubble-advection experiments are performed employing volcanic melts at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of basaltic glass were placed below cylinders of rhyolite glass. Upon melting, interstitial air formed bubbles that rose into the rhyolite melt, thereby entraining tails of basaltic liquid. The formation of plume-like filaments of advected basalt within the rhyolite was characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Melt entrainment by bubble ascent appears to be an efficient mechanism for mingling volcanic melts of highly contrasting compositions and properties. MicroCT imaging reveals bubbles trailing each other and multiple filaments coalescing into bigger ones. Rheological modelling of the filaments yields viscosities of up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than for the surrounding rhyolitic liquid. Such a viscosity contrast implies that bubbles rising successively are likely to follow this pathway of low resistance that previously ascending bubbles have generated. Filaments formed by multiple bubbles would thus experience episodic replenishment with mafic material. Inevitable implications for the concept of bubble advection in magma mixing include thereby both an acceleration of mixing because of decreased viscous resistance for bubbles inside filaments and non-conventional diffusion systematics because of intermittent supply of mafic material (instead of a single pulse inside a material. Inside the filaments, the mafic material was variably hybridised to andesitic through rhyolitic composition. Compositional profiles alone are ambiguous, however, to determine whether single or multiple bubbles were involved during formation of a filament. Statistical analysis, employing concentration variance as measure of homogenisation, demonstrates that also filaments appearing as single

  12. In situ X-ray tomographic microscopy observations of vesiculation of bubble-free and bubble-bearing magmas (United States)

    Pistone, Mattia; Caricchi, Luca; Fife, Julie L.; Mader, Kevin; Ulmer, Peter


    Magma degassing is thought to play a major role in magma fractionation, transport, storage, and volcanic eruption dynamics. However, the conditions that determine when and how magma degassing operates prior to and during an eruption remain poorly constrained. We performed experiments to explore if the initial presence of gas bubbles in magma influences the capability of gas to escape from the magma. Vesiculation of natural H2O-poor (bubble coalescence during vesiculation. In both sets of experiments, vesiculation was triggered by heating the samples at room pressure. Our results suggest that the presence of pre-existing gas bubbles during a nucleation event significantly decreases the tendency of bubbles to coalesce and inhibits magma outgassing. In contrast, in initially bubble-free samples, the nucleation and growth of bubbles is accompanied by significant coalescence and outgassing. We infer that volatile-undersaturated (i.e. bubble-free) magmas in the reservoirs are more likely to erupt effusively, while the presence of excess gas already at depth (i.e. bubble-bearing systems) increases the likelihood of explosive eruptions.

  13. Influence of extrusion rate and magma rheology on the growth of lava domes: Insights from particle-dynamics modeling (United States)

    Husain, Taha; Elsworth, Derek; Voight, Barry; Mattioli, Glen; Jansma, Pamela


    Lava domes are structures that grow by the extrusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Repeated cycles of growth are punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for the strength of the composite magma that rheologically stiffens and strengthens at its surface. Here we explore lava dome growth and failure mechanics using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. The model follows the evolution of fractured lava, with solidification driven by degassing induced crystallization of magma. The particle-dynamics model emulates the natural development of dome growth and rearrangement of the lava dome which is difficult in mesh-based analyses due to mesh entanglement effects. The deformable talus evolves naturally as a frictional carapace that caps a ductile magma core. Extrusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the distribution of strength in the composite structure. This new model is calibrated against existing observational models of lava dome growth. Results show that the shape and extent of the ductile core and the overall structure of the lava dome are strongly controlled by the infusion rate. The effects of extrusion rate on magma rheology are sensitive to material stiffness, which in turn is a function of volatile content and crystallinity. Material stiffness and material strength are key model parameters which govern magma rheology and subsequently the morphological character of the lava dome and in turn stability. Degassing induced crystallization causes material stiffening and enhances material strength reflected in non-Newtonian magma behavior. The increase in stiffness and strength of the injected magma causes a transition in the style of dome growth, from endogenous expansion of a ductile core, to stiffer and stronger intruding material capable of punching through the overlying material and resulting in the development of a spine or

  14. Sulfate Saturated Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores (United States)

    Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.


    Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a basaltic, basaltic andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare sulfide inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA

  15. Formation of redox gradients during magma-magma mixing (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.


    Magma-mixing is a key process that controls mass transfer in magmatic systems. The variations in melt compositions near the magma-magma interface potentially change the Fe oxidation state [1] and, thus, affect the solubility and transport of metals. To test this hypothesis, diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1000 °C, 150 MPa and QFM+4. Synthesized crystal-bearing cylinders of hydrous dacite and hydrous basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 80 h. The run products show that mafic components (Fe, Mg, etc.) were transported from the andesite into the dacite, while Si, Na and K diffused from the dacite into the andesite. A crystal dissolution sequence in the order of cpx, opx, plag, and spl/il was observed for the andesite. We combined μ-XANES spectroscopy at Fe K-edge [2] with two-oxide oxybarometry [3] to measure redox profiles within our experiments. Here, fO2 decreased towards the interface within the dacite and increased towards the interface within the andesite. This discontinuous fO2 evolution, with a sharp redox gradient of ~1.8 log fO2 units at the interface was maintained throughout the time-series despite the externally imposed fO2 of the vessel. We propose a combination of two mechanisms that create and sustain this redox gradient: 1) The dissolution of cpx and opx in the andesite mainly introduced Fe2+ into the melt, which diffused towards the dacite, lowering Fe3+/SFe near the interface. 2) Charge balance calculations in the melt during diffusive exchange suggest net positive charge excess in the andesite near the interface (i.e., oxidation) and net negative charge excess in the dacite near the interface (i.e., reduction). We suggest that this (metastable) redox layer can help to explain the contrasting Au/Cu ratios observed for arc-related porphyry-type ore deposits. [1] Moretti (2005), Ann. Geophys. 48, 583-608. [2] Cottrell et al. (2009), Chem. Geol. 268, 167-179. [3] Ghiorso and Evans (2008), Am. J. Sci. 308, 957-1039.

  16. Magma storage and evolution of the most recent effusive and explosive eruptions from Yellowstone Caldera (United States)

    Befus, Kenneth S.; Gardner, James E.


    Between 70 and 175 ka, over 350 km3 of high-silica rhyolite magma erupted both effusively and explosively from within the Yellowstone Caldera. Phenocrysts in all studied lavas and tuffs are remarkably homogenous at the crystal, eruption, and caldera-scale, and yield QUILF temperatures of 750 ± 25 °C. Phase equilibrium experiments replicate the observed phenocryst assemblage at those temperatures and suggest that the magmas were all stored in the upper crust. Quartz-hosted glass inclusions contain 1.0-2.5 % H2O and 50-600 ppm CO2, but some units are relatively rich in CO2 (300-600 ppm) and some are CO2-poor (50-200 ppm). The CO2-rich magmas were stored at 90-150 MPa and contained a fluid that was 60-75 mol% CO2. CO2-poor magmas were stored at 50-70 MPa, with a more H2O-rich fluid (X_{{{text{CO}}2 }} = 40-60 %). Storage pressures and volatiles do not correlate with eruption age, volume, or style. Trace-element contents in glass inclusions and host matrix glass preserve a systematic evolution produced by crystal fractionation, estimated to range from 36 ± 12 to 52 ± 12 wt%. Because the erupted products contain Yellowstone magmatic system may undergo rapid changes. The variations in depth suggest the magmas were sourced from multiple chambers that follow similar evolutionary paths in the upper crust.

  17. Magma Energy Research Project, FY80 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L. (ed.)


    The technical feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is explored. Five aspects of the project are studied: resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma/material compatibility, and energy extraction.

  18. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions. (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria


    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  19. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project `CFDDP': Understanding the Magma-Aquifers Interaction at Large Calderas (United States)

    de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Sacchi, M.


    Campi Flegrei caldera is a good example of the most explosive volcanism on the Earth, a potential source of global catastrophes. Alike several similar volcanic areas (Yellowstone and Long Valley, USA; Santorini, Greece; Iwo Jima, Japan, etc.) its volcanic activity, i.e. eruptions and unrests, is dominated by physical mechanisms involving the strict interaction between shallow magma sources and geothermal systems. Furthermore, just like similar areas, it should be characterised by very large shallow magma chambers, filled by residual magma left after the ignimbritic caldera forming eruptions. However, neither the physical mechanisms of magma-water interaction, nor the evidence for such large magma chamber, have been ever clear enough to be used for detailed volcanological interpretation and eruption forecast. The CFDDP project aims to understand, for the first time, the location and rehology of large residual magma chambers and the mechanisms of interaction between magma and aquifer systems to generate eruptions and unrests. CFDDP is then structured as a large multidisciplinary project, with a main volcanological aim and with a further goal to launch a geothermal energy exploitation project in the area. A larger goal of the CFDDP project is to establish at Campi Flegrei, a densely urbanised area in a developed western country, a natural laboratory to study volcanic risk, environmental issues, monitoring technologies, geothermal energy exploitation.

  20. Evaporative fractionation of volatile stable isotopes and their bearing on the origin of the Moon. (United States)

    Day, James M D; Moynier, Frederic


    The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ ((238)U/(204)Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both inheritance of volatile-depleted materials that formed the Moon and planets and subsequent evaporative loss of volatile elements that occurred during lunar formation and differentiation. Models of volatile loss through localized eruptive degassing are not consistent with the available S, Cl, Zn and K isotopes and abundance data for the Moon. The most probable cause of volatile depletion is global-scale evaporation resulting from a giant impact or a magma ocean phase where inefficient volatile loss during magmatic convection led to the present distribution of volatile elements within mantle and crustal reservoirs. Problems exist for models of planetary volatile depletion following giant impact. Most critically, in this model, the volatile loss requires preferential delivery and retention of late-accreted volatiles to the Earth compared with the Moon. Different proportions of late-accreted mass are computed to explain present-day distributions of volatile and moderately volatile elements (e.g. Pb, Zn; 5 to >10%) relative to highly siderophile elements (approx. 0.5%) for the Earth. Models of early magma ocean phases may be more effective in explaining the volatile loss. Basaltic materials (e.g. eucrites and angrites) from highly differentiated airless asteroids are volatile-depleted, like the Moon, whereas the Earth and Mars have proportionally greater volatile contents. Parent-body size and the existence of early atmospheres are therefore likely to represent fundamental controls on planetary volatile retention or loss.

  1. Numerical investigation of permeability models for low viscosity magmas: application to the 2007 Stromboli effusive eruption (United States)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Landi, Patrizia; Polacci, Margherita


    Magma permeability is the most important factor controlling the transition between effusive and explosive activity of a basaltic eruption. Indeed, when low viscosity magmas are not permeable enough, volatiles stay trapped into the melt, expanding and pushing up more and more magma as the pressure decreases. As soon as the volume fraction of the gas, or the overpressure of the bubbles, or the strain rate of the melt becomes too large, magma fragments, generating an explosive eruption. On the contrary, if magma is sufficiently permeable, gas is able to decouple from the melt and fragmentation does not occur, causing, thus, an effusive eruption. A correct modelisation of gas/magma decoupling is, therefore, fundamental to properly understand the ascent dynamics occurring during an eruption. Here we study several permeability models for a low viscosity magma using a 1D steady-state model for magma ascent dynamics, focussing, in particular, on the 2007 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano, Italy. We compare the numerical solutions computed using respectively Darcy's and Forchheimer's law. We also take into account the different expressions for Darcian permeability introduced by Bai et al. (2010, 2011) for Stromboli volcano, comparing them against a new expression for permeability derived from the data collected by Polacci et al. (2009) on Stromboli scoria. The numerical results show that using the permeability expressions of Bai et al. (2010, 2011) with Darcy's law, magma fragments into an explosive eruption. Using the new permeability model, instead, the decoupling between gas and magma is sufficient to generate an effusive eruption. However, when Forchheimer's law is adopted, fragmentation is always achieved, even with our new permeability. For a broader investigation on permeability, we also adopt the permeability relation introduced by Degruyter et al. (2012) as a function of three parameters: bubble number density, throat-bubble size ratio, and tortuosity factor

  2. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff


    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  3. Experiment plan for characterization of the properties of molten rock at atmospheric and elevated pressures: Magma Energy Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modreski, P.J.


    Knowledge of the properties of molten rock (magma) is of importance to the Magma Energy Research Project of Sandia Laboratories. Facilities have been set up at Sandia to study the physical properties, chemistry, and corrosive nature of magma to 1600/sup 0/C and from atmospheric pressure to 4 kbar (400 MPa). Experiments at atmospheric pressure are being done in the presence of multicomponent gas mixtures to control the chemical activities of oxygen and sulfur. The high-pressure apparatus includes cold-seal small-volume pressure vessels (to 1100/sup 0/C and 1 kbar) and a large (750 cm/sup 3/ sample volume), internally heated pressure vessel (to 1600/sup 0/C and 4 kbar). The large vessel contains a number of penetrations for electrical leads and pressure lines, and is linked to a computer for data acquisition and control of experiments. Water and other dissolved volatiles (CO/sub 2/, CO, SO/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, HCl, HF) have significant effects on all the properties of magma, and these effects will be studied in the high-pressure apparatus. Phase equilibria, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and materials compatibility will be the first properties to be examined under pressure. This report includes a review of the nature and chemical basis for the effects of dissolved volatiles on these properties of magma. 70 references, 10 figures.

  4. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario


    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  5. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  6. Volatile behavior and trace metal transport in the magmatic-geothermal system at Pūtauaki (Mt. Edgecumbe), New Zealand (United States)

    Norling, B.; Rowe, M. C.; Chambefort, I.; Tepley, F. J.; Morrow, S.


    The present-day hydrothermal system beneath the Kawerau Geothermal Field, in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is likely heated from the Pūtauaki (Mt. Edgecumbe) magma system. The aim of this work, as an analog for present day processes, is to identify whether or not earlier erupted Pūtauaki magmas show evidence for volatile exsolution. This may have led to the transfer of volatile components from the magmatic to hydrothermal systems. To accomplish this, minerals and melt inclusions from volcanic products were analyzed for abundances of volatile and ore-forming elements (S, Cl, Li, Cu, Sn, Mo, W, Sb, As, and Tl). The variations in abundance of these elements were used to assess magma evolution and volatile exsolution or fluxing in the magma system. Melt inclusions suggest the evolution of Pūtauaki andesite-dacite magmas is predominantly driven by crystallization processes resulting in rhyodacite-rhyolite glass compositions (although textural and geochemical evidence still indicate a role for magma mixing). Measured mineral-melt partition coefficients for trace metals of interest indicates that, with the exception of Tl in biotite, analyzed metals are all incompatible in Pūtauaki crystallization products. Excluding Li and Cu, other volatile and ore metals recorded in melt inclusions behave incompatibly, with concentrations increasing during evolution from rhyodacitic to rhyolitic melt compositions. Li and Cu appear to have increased mobility likely resulting from diffusive exchange post-crystallization, and may be related to late volatile fluxing. Although S and Cl concentrations decrease with melt evolution, no mineralogical evidence exists to indicate the exsolution and mobility of ore-forming metals from the magma at the time of crystallization. This observation cannot rule out the potential for post-crystallization volatile exsolution and ore-forming metal mobilization, which may only be recorded as diffusive re-equilibration of more rapidly diffusing

  7. Magma beneath Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Eaton, G.P.; Christiansen, R.L.; Iyer, H.M.; Pitt, A.M.; Mabey, D.R.; Blank, H.R.; Zietz, I.; Gettings, M.E.


    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  8. Evidence for degassing of fresh magma during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens: Subtle signals from the hydrothermal system (United States)

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Kelly, Peter


    Results from chemical and isotopic analyses of water and gas collected between 2002 and 2016 from sites on and around Mount St. Helens are used to assess magmatic degassing related to the 2004-2008 eruption. During 2005 the chemistry of hot springs in The Breach of Mount St. Helens showed no obvious response to the eruption, and over the next few years, changes were subtle, giving only slight indications of perturbations in the system. By 2010 however, water chemistry, temperatures, and isotope compositions (δD and δ18O) clearly indicated some inputs of volatiles and heat associated with the eruption, but the changes were such that they could be attributed to a pre-existing, gas depleted magma. An increase of ~ 1.5‰ in the δ13C values of dissolved carbon in the springs was noted in 2006 and continued through 2009, a change that was mirrored by a similar shift in δ13C-CO2 in bubble gas emissions. These changes require input of a new source of carbon to the hydrothermal system and provide clear evidence of CO2 from an undegassed body of magma. Rising trends in 3He/4He ratios in gas also accompanied the increases in δ13C. Since 2011 maximum RC/RA values are ≥ 6.4 and are distinctly higher than 5 samples collected between 1986 and 2002, and provide additional evidence for some involvement of new magma as early as 2006, and possibly earlier, given the unknown time needed for CO2 and He to traverse the system and arrive at the springs.

  9. Domes and Flows: Do Temporal Trends in Dacitic Magma Chemistry and Rheological Behavior at Santiaguito, Guatemala, Reflect Magma Chamber or Conduit Processes? (United States)

    Avard, G.; Whittington, A.; Rose, W.; Matias, O.; Cornejo, J.


    Santiaguito is a dacitic dome complex growing in the crater left by the 1902 plinian eruption of the stratovolcano Santa Maria, in Guatemala. The domes began growing in 1922 and are still active, with frequent small ash and steam eruptions, and semi-continous extrusion of crystal-rich dacitic lava both as spines on the domes (endogenous growth) and slow-moving block-lava "stealth" flows (exogenous growth). All four vents have produced both domes and flows, and at times multiple vents have been active. Between 1999 and 2004, one flow reached a length of 4 km. New flows emerged from the same vent in 2004 and 2005-2006 (ongoing). Flow morphology is controlled by rheology, which in turn depends on lava composition, crystal content, and volatile content. Samples of flows erupted from 1987 to the present share many features, including a phenocryst population dominated by complexly zoned plagioclase, a micro-crystalline plagioclase-rich rhyolitic groundmass, and a complete absence of hydrous phases. Small amphibole crystals with thick oxide rims are found only in samples more than 30 years old. Bulk-rock chemical analyses confirm a decrease in magma SiO2 content, from 63.5 - 66 wt.% before 1980, to 61 - 63 wt.% today. It has been suggested that this decreasing SiO2 content reflects the tapping of deeper and hotter magma; the lack of amphibole indicates that it must also be drier. From these preliminary results, we infer that magma chemistry is probably dictated by long time-scale changes in the magma chamber, while eruptive style is probably controlled by phenocryst content, matrix volatile content and microlite growth, which owe more to ascent dynamics and conduit processes than the parental magma. The lack of a direct correlation between bulk magma chemistry and extrusive style may also apply to other dacitic volcanoes such as Mount Saint Helens, suggesting that they also have the potential to produce kilometer-long flows if changes occur to the conduit system.

  10. Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years. (United States)

    Scaillet, B; Pichavant, M; Cioni, R


    Forecasting future eruptions of Vesuvius is an important challenge for volcanologists, as its reawakening could threaten the lives of 700,000 people living near the volcano. Critical to the evaluation of hazards associated with the next eruption is the estimation of the depth of the magma reservoir, one of the main parameters controlling magma properties and eruptive style. Petrological studies have indicated that during past activity, magma chambers were at depths between 3 and 16 km (refs 3-7). Geophysical surveys have imaged some levels of seismic attenuation, the shallowest of which lies at 8-9 km depth, and these have been tentatively interpreted as levels of preferential magma accumulation. By using experimental phase equilibria, carried out on material from four main explosive events at Vesuvius, we show here that the reservoirs that fed the eruptive activity migrated from 7-8 km to 3-4 km depth between the ad 79 (Pompeii) and ad 472 (Pollena) events. If data from the Pomici di Base event 18.5 kyr ago and the 1944 Vesuvius eruption are included, the total upward migration of the reservoir amounts to 9-11 km. The change of preferential magma ponding levels in the upper crust can be attributed to differences in the volatile content and buoyancy of ascending magmas, as well as to changes in local stress field following either caldera formation or volcano spreading. Reservoir migration, and the possible influence on feeding rates, should be integrated into the parameters used for defining expected eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius.

  11. Magma Chambers, Thermal Energy, and the Unsuccessful Search for a Magma Chamber Thermostat (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.


    Although the traditional concept that plutons are the frozen corpses of huge, highly liquid magma chambers ("big red blobs") is losing favor, the related notion that magma bodies can spend long periods of time (~106years) in a mushy, highly crystalline state is widely accepted. However, analysis of the thermal balance of magmatic systems indicates that it is difficult to maintain a significant portion in a simmering, mushy state, whether or not the system is eutectic-like. Magma bodies cool primarily by loss of heat to the Earth's surface. The balance between cooling via energy loss to the surface and heating via magma accretion can be denoted as M = ρLa/q, where ρ is magma density, L is latent heat of crystallization, a is the vertical rate of magma accretion, and q is surface heat flux. If M>1, then magma accretion outpaces cooling and a magma chamber forms. For reasonable values of ρ, L, and q, the rate of accretion amust be > ~15 mm/yr to form a persistent volume above the solidus. This rate is extremely high, an order of magnitude faster than estimated pluton-filling rates, and would produce a body 10 km thick in 700 ka, an order of magnitude faster than geochronology indicates. Regardless of the rate of magma supply, the proportion of crystals in the system must vary dramatically with depth at any given time owing to transfer of heat. Mechanical stirring (e.g., by convection) could serve to homogenize crystal content in a magma body, but this is unachievable in crystal-rich, locked-up magma. Without convection the lower part of the magma body becomes much hotter than the top—a process familiar to anyone who has scorched a pot of oatmeal. Thermal models that succeed in producing persistent, large bodies of magma rely on scenarios that are unrealistic (e.g., omitting heat loss to the planet's surface), self-fulfilling prophecies (e.g., setting unnaturally high temperatures as fixed boundary conditions), or physically unreasonable (e.g., magma is intruded

  12. Evidencia textural y geoquímica de mezcla de magmas en el volcán Chimpa, Puna Salteña Textural and geochemical evidence for magma mixing in the Chimpa Volcano, Puna Salteña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arnosio


    emitted during the explosive cycle corresponds to ignimbrites, which do not show a clear evidence of basic magma interaction. On the contrary, the blocks and ash flow deposits show field and petrographic evidence suggesting a process of interaction with mafic magmas (mingling. The latter is represented by the presence of mafic inclusions and development of disequilibrium textures in plagioclase and biotite. However, the andesitic magma composition was not modified by the mingling process. During the second cycle, a new magma is generated due to magma mixing between andesitic and more mafic magmas. This hybrid magma has a disequilibrium mineral association, including olivine and quartz with well-developed clinopyroxene reaction rims; hornblende and biotite with reaction rims of plagioclase + orthopyroxene + magnetite; and orthopyroxene with an overgrowth of clinopyroxene. All these phases coexist with other crystals of the same mineralogy, but in apparent equilibrium. In geochemical diagrams, analyses of the hybrid lavas occur in an intermediate position between andesitic and basaltic andesite end members, defining a linear tendency. The proportion of end members involved in the mixture is 56% for the andesitic magma and 44% for the basic magma. The petrographic and chemical data suggest an increasing interaction between raising basic magmas and a resident andesitic magma with time.

  13. Experiments on the rheology of vesicle-bearing magmas (United States)

    Vona, Alessandro; Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Romano, Claudia


    We present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. Starting materials having variable vesicularity (φ = 0 - 66%) were synthesized by high-temperature foaming (T = 900 - 1050 ° C and P = 1 bar) of cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian from Hrafntinnuhryggur, Krafla, Iceland. These cores were subsequently deformed using a high-temperature uniaxial press at dry atmospheric conditions. Each experiment involved deforming vesicle-bearing cores isothermally (T = 750 ° C), at constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5-1 x 10-4 s-1), and to total strains (ɛ) of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods and establishes a baseline for comparing data derived from experiments on vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, the presence of vesicles has a major impact on the rheological response, producing a marked decrease of bulk viscosity (maximum decrease of 2 log units Pa s) that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log ηBulk = log η0 - 1.47 * [φ/(1-φ)]0.48. Our model provides a means to compare the diverse behaviour of vesicle-bearing melts reported in the literature and reflecting material properties (e.g., analogue vs. natural), geometry and distribution of pores (e.g. foamed/natural vs. unconsolidated/sintered materials), and flow regime. Lastly, we apply principles of Maxwell relaxation theory, combined with our parameterization of bubble-melt rheology, to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behaviour (strain localization) in vesiculated magmas and lavas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, strain rate, and geological condition. Increasing vesicularity in magmas can initiate non-Newtonian behaviour at constant strain rates. Lower melt viscosity sustains homogeneous Newtonian flow in vesiculated magmas even at relatively high strain rates.

  14. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust? (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.


    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  15. Evidence for multiple magma ocean outgassing and atmospheric loss episodes from mantle noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Jonathan M


    The energy associated with giant impacts is large enough to generate global magma oceans during Earth's accretion. However, geochemical evidence requiring a terrestrial magma ocean is scarce. Here we present evidence for at least two separate magma ocean outgassing episodes on Earth based on the ratio of primordial 3He to 22Ne in the present-day mantle. We demonstrate that the depleted mantle 3He/22Ne ratio is at least 10 while a more primitive mantle reservoir has a 3He/22Ne ratio of 2.3 to 3. The 3He/22Ne ratios of the mantle reservoirs are higher than possible sources of terrestrial volatiles, including the solar nebula ratio of 1.5. Therefore, a planetary process must have raised the mantle's 3He/22Ne ratio. We show that long-term plate tectonic cycling is incapable of raising the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio and may even lower it. However, ingassing of a gravitationally accreted nebular atmosphere into a magma ocean on the proto-Earth explains the 3He/22Ne and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of the primitive mantle reservoir....

  16. Primitive SNC parent magmas and crystallization: Low PH2O experiments (United States)

    Ford, D. J.; Rutherford, M. J.


    SNC meteorites are generally believed to present one of the best opportunities to study the composition and petrogenesis of Mars magmas. The crystallization ages, noble gas content, oxygen isotopic composition, and shocked minerals of the meteorites are consistent with a Martian origin. The samples range from dunite to clinopyroxenite to microgabbro. Efforts by researchers to determine parental magmas for the more primitive SNC meteorites have been complicated by crystal accumulation and possible melt segregation and removal. This has resulted in a range of parent magma estimates, although all appear to be Fe-rich and Al-poor. One major objective is to refine the Chassigny parent magma estimate by forcing olivine + clinopyroxene saturation upon the proposed melt composition. EETA 79001 magma compositions are also being investigated to determine the parent magma and the origin of the coarse-grained olivine and orthopyroxene megacrysts. Low pressure experiments with small but finite P(sub H2O) are being utilized to facilitate equilibrium, and to simulate the H2O indicated for these magmas. The presence of small (0.5-1.0 wt percent) amounts of H2O in SNC magmas appears to be required by the occurrence of hydrous minerals and textures in melts trapped by growing phenocrysts. This evidence for hydrous melts occurs in all SNC's except EETA 79001 and ALHA 77005, where the inclusion textures were obscured by shock effects. The lack of hydrous minerals or low temperature melts in the intercumulus regions of these rocks suggests that final emplacement was sufficiently close to the surface to allow degassing as the magma equilibrated with the low P atmosphere. Any H2O left in intercumulus phases would also tend to be lost during impact heating. Thus, although the bulk H2O of SNC's is very low, it is believed that this is explained by the near Mars surface emplacement of SNC magmas and by shock effects. Magmatic processes involving H2O need to be examined in order to

  17. Magma Storage, Recharge and the Caldera Cycle at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Fabbro, G.; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Sindang, M.


    Many calderas have a history of repeated caldera-forming eruptions, interspersed with periods of more minor activity. Rabaul, for instance, has had at least 11 ignimbrite-forming eruptions over the last 200 ky. The most recent of these was the '1400 BP' eruption, which led to caldera collapse. Since then, there has been multiple smaller eruptions, including the ongoing activity from Tavurvur and Vulcan. An important question facing volcanology today is what controls the size of eruptions at calderas such as Rabaul.Detailed stratigraphic sampling of the 1400BP eruption reveals that prior to eruption, the magma reservoir below Rabaul contained a well-mixed dacite with whole-rock SiO2 contents of 65.0-66.4 wt%. The dacite contains a single phenocryst assemblage of plag (An44-52), cpx (En43-46Fs13-15Wo40-41), opx (En69-71Fs25-28Wo3) and magnetite, along with minor apatite. The homogeneity of the dacite is underscored by the narrow range of compositions of both the matrix glass and the melt inclusions (67.8-69.0 wt% SiO2). The only exception to this is at the top of the ignimbrite, representing some of the last magma to have been withdrawn. Dispersed throughout the dacitic pumices are darker, more mafic blebs. Streaks of mingled magma with a range of SiO2 contents, down to 59.9 wt% SiO2 are also found in the pumice, suggesting that a mafic recharge magma was intruded into the base of the reservoir shortly before eruption. High TiO2 contents rule out the direct involvement of basalt, and instead imply the magma that intruded into the reservoir was an andesite with at least 56 wt% SiO2. Phenocrysts related to this recharge magma are rare, and the crystals found in the dark blebs are identical in composition to those found in the dacite, indicating that the recharge was aphyric. The present-day, post-caldera recharge magma is different to the pre-1400 BP recharge magma: it is basaltic. This suggests that the plumbing system of Rabaul is different during the pre-caldera and

  18. Using Intensive Variables to Constrain Magma Source Regions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.


    representing source region conditions are valid, these thermodynamic constraints on the source regions clearly indicate two things: the nephelinites and basanites/basalts could not have originated from the same source regions, and the basanites and basalts could have originated from the same source regions. We suggest that computation of intensive variables for magma source regions is a logical complement to standard trace element and isotopic studies. -Francis, D. and Ludden, J., (1990) The mantle source for olivine nephelinite, basanite and alkaline olivine basalts at Fort Selkirk, Yukon, Canada: Journal of Petrology, 31, p. 371-400. -Francis, D. and Ludden, J., (1995) The signature of amphibole in mafic alkaline lavas, a study in the northern Canadian Cordillera: Journal of Petrology, 36, p. 1171-1191. -Ghiorso, MS., and Sack, RO. (1995) Chemical Mass Transfer in Magmatic Processes. IV. A Revised and Internally Consistent Thermodynamic Model for the Interpolation and Extrapolation of Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Magmatic Systems at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 119, 197-212. -Ghiorso, MS., Hirschmann, MM., Reiners, PW., and Kress, VC. III (2002) The pMELTS: An revision of MELTS aimed at improving calculation of phase relations and major element partitioning involved in partial melting of the mantle at pressures up to 3 GPa. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 3(5), 10.1029/2001GC000217.

  19. Transport network and flow mechanism of shallow ore-bearing magma in Tongling ore cluster area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Jun; WANG; Qingfei; HUANG; Dinghua


    Abundant studies revealed that shallow intrusions of the Yanshanian epoch resulted in the mass mineralization of the Tongling region. Various evidences showed there existed a concealed magma chamber at -10 km depth in the middle part of this region during Yanshanian epoch, from which the ore-forming magma was generated and then transported to the superficial layer. Yet the transport network and flow mechanism of the shallow ore-bearing magma, the key problem associ- ated with ore-forming process, was relatively little focused on. Integrate analysis of structural me- chanics, statistical fractal and geological facts suggested that NE trending high-angle fold-related thrust faults and the tessellated basement ones served as the main pathways for the shallow magma's transporting, moreover, the saddle void spaces among adjacent strata in the folds upon this fault system provided the place for magma's emplacement. So the folds in the upper part and faults in the lower part of the upper crust constituted the fluid's transport and emplacement network. During the deformation of geologic body with multi-layer structure, the layers in the upper part tended to fold when received the jacking stress from the lower part, while the lower one inclined to fault undergoing loads of the upper part. And the producing probability of this structure assemblage was highly increased in the condition, such as in the Tongling area, that the mechanic rigidity of the lower layers was stronger than that of the upper ones. For the pre-existence of fluid-conducting network, the top magma with high volatile in the magma chamber transported rapidly to the superficial layer in dyking pattern, located in the void spaces of folds, filled and reconstructed them. The sudden drop of pressure caused the fluid unmixing from the magma and mass ore-forming elements concentration. Pulse activity of the dyking may be the principal reason why magmatic bodies in the Tongling area were spatially

  20. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey. (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica


    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Petrological cannibalism: the chemical and textural consequences of incremental magma body growth (United States)

    Cashman, Kathy; Blundy, Jon


    The textures of minerals in volcanic and plutonic rocks testify to a complexity of processes in their formation that is at odds with simple geochemical models of igneous differentiation. Zoning in plagioclase feldspar is a case in point. Very slow diffusion of the major components in plagioclase means that textural evidence for complex magmatic evolution is preserved, almost without modification. Consequently, plagioclase affords considerable insight into the processes by which magmas accumulate in the crust prior to their eventual eruption or solidification. Here, we use the example of the 1980-1986 eruptions of Mount St. Helens to explore the causes of textural complexity in plagioclase and associated trapped melt inclusions. Textures of individual crystals are consistent with multiple heating and cooling events; changes in total pressure ( P) or volatile pressure () are less easy to assess from textures alone. We show that by allying textural and chemical analyses of plagioclase and melt inclusions, including volatiles (H2O, CO2) and slow-diffusing trace elements (Sr, Ba), to published experimental studies of Mount St. Helens magmas, it is possible to disambiguate the roles of pressure and temperature to reconstruct magmatic evolutionary pathways through temperature-pressure-melt fraction ( T-- F) space. Our modeled crystals indicate that (1) crystallization starts at > 300 MPa, consistent with prior estimates from melt inclusion volatile contents, (2) crystal cores grow at = 200-280 MPa at F = 0.65-0.7, (3) crystals are transferred to = 100-130 MPa (often accompanied by 10-20 °C of heating), where they grow albitic rims of varying thicknesses, and (4) the last stage of crystallization occurs after minor heating at ~ 100 MPa to produce characteristic rim compositions of An50. We hypothesize that modeled decreases in excess of ~50 MPa most likely represent upward transport through the magmatic system. Small variations in modeled , in contrast, can be effected by

  2. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers (United States)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.


    Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a

  3. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia


    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  4. Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.111-124Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1 is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2, white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2 is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2, unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity, crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O. A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3. Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.

  5. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids (United States)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.


    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na

  6. Sphene-centered ocellar texture as a petrological tool to unveil the mechanism facilitating magma mixing (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    were crystallizing. This led to the incongruent melting of amphibole and biotite to form liquids of sphene composition. Meanwhile, plagioclase continued to grow in the mafic-turned-hybrid system with a different composition after the advent of felsic melt as indicated by compositional zoning in plagioclase crystals. The newly produced sphene-liquid, owing to its higher affinity for felsic phase than mafic, got incorporated into the back-veining felsic melt forming a distinct liquid of its own. The felsic melt also incorporated crystallizing plagioclase grains in it from the mafic matrix. The mixture of felsic melt, sphene-liquid and plagioclase crystals flowed through the biotite, amphibole and plagioclase dominated matrix towards the low pressure zones to occupy the spherical void spaces left behind by escaping of gases/volatiles forming the sphene ocelli. Hibbard, M.J., 1991. Textural anatomy of twelve magma-mixed granitoid systems. In: Didier, J., Barbarin, B. (Eds.) Enclaves and granite petrology, 431-444.

  7. The parent magmas of the SNC meteorites (United States)

    Longhi, J.; Pan, V.


    Mineral compositions, partition coefficients, and computer-graphic representations of liquidus phase boundaries are used here to calculate parent magma compositions for Nakhla, Chassigny, and the xenocryst assemblage in EETA79001B, ALHA77005, and the EETA79001A groundmass. The calculated SNC parent magma compositions have low concentrations of Al2O3 and widely varying wollastonitite (CaO) component. In this regard they resemble basaltic komatiites, but their range of Wo is more extensive than that of basaltic komatiites and trace element characteristics are different. The calculated Nakhla parent magma has an unusually high Wo content and does not resemble any other known magmatic composition. A model of SNC petrogenesis is proposed.

  8. The Influence of Phenocrysts on Magma Degassing in Rhyolitic Systems (United States)

    deGraffenried, R.; Larsen, J. F.; Lindoo, A. N.


    The kinetics of volatile exsolution and magma degassing control volcanic eruption styles, but the role of phenocrysts in the degassing process is poorly understood. The focus of this study is two series of decompression experiments examining how phenocrysts may or may not influence vesicle structures leading to permeability development and degassing in magmas with rhyolitic matrix melts. Powdered rhyolite obsidian (75 SiO2 wt. %; Mono Craters, CA) was seeded with 20 and 40 vol. % euhedral corundum crystals (350 μm) to approximate phenocrysts. Experiments were run using TZM (Ti-Zr-Mo alloy) vessels fitted with a water-cooled rapid quench top in a vertical Deltech furnace. Each run was held at 110 MPa and 900OC for 24 hours then decompressed continuously at a rate of 0.25 MPa/s to a final pressure (Pf) between 75 and 15 MPa. Permeability was measured using a bench-top permeameter constructed for the small experimental samples. Porosity was obtained from reflected light images using NIH Image J. The porosity of the samples increased from 11.0±1.7 to 73.3±3.1 vol % at Pf of 75 to 15 MPa for crystal free samples, 30.1±6.9 to 62.2±2.6 vol % at Pf of of 75 to 25 MPa for 20 vol % crystal samples, and 13.3±2.5 to 41.2±9.6 vol % at Pf of 75 to 50 MPa for 40 vol % crystal samples. The 20 vol % samples are impermeable up to at least 50 MPa Pf. The 40 vol % samples are impermeable up to 25 MPa Pf, with one sample having a measured Darcian permeability of -13.93±0.05 m2 at 25 MPa Pf. Comparatively, the crystal free samples were mostly impermeable up to 15 MPa, with one sample having a measured Darcian permeability of -14.41±0.04 m2 at 15 MPa Pf and 73.3 vol % porosity. Although preliminary, our permeable 40 vol % experiment suggests the phenocrysts help the samples develop permeability at a higher ending pressure and potentially lower porosity. Differences in the porosity curve as a function of pressure between the 20 and 40 vol % series indicate phenocrysts influence

  9. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions (United States)

    Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.; Andersson, Ulf B.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Gardner, Màiri F.; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan


    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2-8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7-12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3-7 km) and sub-Moho (23-28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  10. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes (United States)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung


    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  11. Magma Mixing: Why Picrites are Not So Hot (United States)

    Natland, J. H.


    Oxide gabbros or ferrogabbros are the late, low-temperature differentiates of tholeiitic magma and usually form as cumulates that can have 2-30% of the magmatic oxides, ilmenite and magnetite. They are common in the ocean crust and are likely ubiquitous wherever extensive tholeiitic magmatism has occurred, especially beneath thick lava piles such as at Hawaii, Iceland, oceanic plateaus, island arcs and ancient continental crust. When intruded by hot primitive magma including picrite, the oxide-bearing portions of these rocks are readily partially melted or assimilated into the magma and contribute to it a degree of iron and titanium enrichment that is not reflective of the mantle source of the primitive magma. The most extreme examples of such mixing are meimechites and ferropicrites, but this type of end-member mixing is even common in MORB. To the extent this process occurs, the eruptive picrite cannot be used to estimate compositions of partial melts of mantle rocks, nor their eruptive or potential temperatures, using olivine-liquid FeO-MgO backtrack procedures. Most picrites have glasses with compositions approximating those expected from low-pressure multiphase cotectic crystallization, and olivine that on average crystallized from liquids of nearly those compositions. The hallmark of such rocks is the presence of minerals other than olivine among phenocrysts (plagioclase at Iceland, clinopyroxene at many oceanic islands), Fe- and Ti-rich chromian spinel (ankaramites, ferropicrites and meimichites), and in some cases the presence of iron-rich olivine (hortonolite ~Fo65 in ferropicrites), Ti-rich kaersutitic amphibole and even apatite (meimechites); the latter two derive from late-stage, hydrous and geochemically enriched metamorphic or alkalic assimilants. This type of mixing, however, does not necessarily involve depleted and enriched mixing components. To avoid such mixing, primitive melts have to rise primarily through upper mantle rocks of near-zero melt

  12. Volatile Outputs From Subduction-Related Magmatism in the Oregon Cascades Estimated From Melt Inclusions, Spring Discharges, Heat Flow Data and Geochronology (United States)

    Wallace, P.; Ruscitto, D.; Rowe, M.; Kent, A.


    Estimates of volatile fluxes provide a primary test for models of magmatism and volatile cycling during subduction in the endmember "hot and dry" Cascadia subduction zone, which is caused by slow convergence (4 cm/a) of the young (~10-12 Ma) Juan de Fuca plate with Western North America. Intra- arc rifting in the Central Oregon segment of the Cascade arc during the past 2 Ma has caused this region to have the highest mafic output along the arc. However, estimates of major volatile (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) fluxes and comparisons with other arcs (e.g. Central America) are not straightforward because there are no passively degassing volcanoes in the area. We estimate volatile outputs for the Central Oregon Cascades by combining data for olivine-hosted melt inclusions with regional heat flow (e.g. Ingebritsen, 1989; Blackwell,1990) and geochronological (Sherrod and Smith, 1990) studies. These flux estimates can be compared with those obtained from spring water studies (e.g. James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). This multidisciplinary approach allows us to more accurately constrain volatile fluxes, given that uncertainties in all methods are large and difficult to evaluate. Reported fluxes for Central Oregon springs are 3.4E5 CO2 and 1.5E4 Cl kg/yr/km of arc (James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). Melt inclusion data indicate primitive basaltic magmas in the Central Oregon Cascades have 1.0-3.5 wt% H2O, 800-1900 ppm S, and 300-1100 ppm Cl. Assuming global arc magma CO2 contents of ~1 wt% (Wallace, 2005), we estimate H2O/CO2 (1.0-3.5), S/CO2 (0.08-0.19), and Cl/CO2 (0.03-0.11) in magmas, which when combined with spring CO2 estimates, yield an H2O flux of 0.34-1.2E6, a S flux of 2.6-6.5E4, and a Cl flux of 1.0-3.7E4 kg/yr/km of arc. Alternatively, by combining melt inclusion data with magma flux estimates (14-38 km3/Myr/km of arc; Ingebritsen et al. 1989; Sherrod and Smith 1990) we estimate volatile fluxes for H2O: 0.39-5.4E6; S: 0.39-3.9E5; and Cl: 0.16- 2.3E5 kg/yr/km of arc. Given the

  13. Juvenile pumice and pyroclastic obsidian reveal the eruptive conditions necessary for the stability of Plinian eruption of rhyolitic magma (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; McCann, K. A.; Hoxsie, E. C.


    Significant explosive activity generally precedes or coexists with the large effusion of rhyolitic lava (e.g., Mono Craters; Medicine Lake Volcano; Newberry; Chaitén; Cordón Caulle). Such explosive-to-effusive transitions and, ultimately, cessation of activity are commonly explained by the overall waning magma chamber pressure accompanying magma withdrawal, albeit modulated by magma outgassing. The tephra deposits of such explosive-to-effusive eruptions record the character of the transition - abrupt or gradual - as well as potential changes in eruptive conditions, such as magma composition, volatiles content, mass discharge rate, conduit size, magma outgassing. Results will be presented from a detailed study of both the gas-rich (pumice) and gas-poor (obsidian) juvenile pyroclasts produced during the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California. In the proximal deposits, a multitude of pumice-rich sections separated by layers rich in dense clasts suggests a pulsatory behavior of the explosive phase. Density measurements on 2,600 pumices show that the intermediate, most voluminous deposits have a near constant median porosity of 65%. However, rapid increase in porosity to 75-80% is observed at both the bottom and the top of the fallout deposits, suggestive of rapid variations in magma degassing. In contrast, a water content of pyroclastic obsidians of approximately 0.6 wt% does remain constant throughout the eruption, suggesting that the pyroclastic obsidians degassed up to a constant pressure of a few megapascals. Numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and degassing is used to provide constraints on eruption conditions.

  14. Finite-element modeling of magma chamber-host rock interactions prior to caldera collapse (United States)

    Kabele, Petr; Žák, Jiří; Somr, Michael


    Gravity-driven failure of shallow magma chamber roofs and formation of collapse calderas are commonly accompanied by ejection of large volumes of pyroclastic material to the Earth's atmosphere and thus represent severe volcanic hazards. In this respect, numerical analysis has proven as a key tool in understanding the mechanical conditions of caldera collapse. The main objective of this paper is to find a suitable approach to finite-element simulation of roof fracturing and caldera collapse during inflation and subsequent deflation of shallow magma chambers. Such a model should capture the dominant mechanical phenomena, for example, interaction of the host rock with magma and progressive deformation of the chamber roof. To this end, a comparative study, which involves various representations of magma (inviscid fluid, nearly incompressible elastic, or plastic solid) and constitutive models of the host rock (fracture and plasticity), was carried out. In particular, the quasi-brittle fracture model of host rock reproduced well the formation of tension-induced radial and circumferential fractures during magma injection into the chamber (inflation stage), especially at shallow crustal levels. Conversely, the Mohr-Coulomb shear criterion has shown to be more appropriate for greater depths. Subsequent magma withdrawal from the chamber (deflation stage) results in further damage or even collapse of the chamber roof. While most of the previous studies of caldera collapse rely on the elastic stress analysis, the proposed approach advances modeling of the process by incorporating non-linear failure phenomena and nearly incompressible behaviour of magma. This leads to a perhaps more realistic representation of the fracture processes preceding roof collapse and caldera formation.

  15. Change in Magma Dynamics at Okataina Rhyolite Caldera revealed by Plagioclase Textures and Geochemistry (United States)

    Shane, P. A. R.


    A fundamental reorganization of magma dynamics at Okataina volcano, New Zealand, occurred at 26 ka involving a change from smaller volume, high-temperature rhyodacite magmas to a lower eruptive tempo of larger volume, low-temperature, rhyolite magmas. Zircon studies demonstrate the presence of a periodically active, long-lived (100,000 yr) magmatic reservoir. However, there is little correlation between periods of zircon crystallization and eruption events. In contrast, the changing magmatic dynamics is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular-texture of high-An (>40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An 40-50). The crystals display step-wise re-growth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma-mingling. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent re-development of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations, resulting in simpler

  16. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de


    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which hosts

  17. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de


    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which hosts

  18. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry


    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  19. Surface tension driven processes densify and retain permeability in magma and lava (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben M.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Ian Schipper, C.; Mark Jellinek, A.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kelly Russell, J.; Lavallée, Yan; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    We offer new insights into how an explosive eruption can transition into an effusive eruption. Magma containing >0.2 wt% dissolved water has the potential to vesiculate to a porosity in excess of 80 vol.% at atmospheric pressure. Thus all magmas contain volatiles at depth sufficient to form foams and explosively fragment. Yet gas is often lost passively and effusive eruptions ensue. Magmatic foams are permeable and understanding permeability in magma is crucial for models that predict eruptive style. Permeability also governs magma compaction models. Those models generally imply that a reduction in magma porosity and permeability generates an increased propensity for explosivity. Here, our experimental results show that surface tension stresses drive densification without creating an impermeable 'plug', offering an additional explanation of why dense magmas can avoid explosive eruption. In both an open furnace and a closed autoclave, we subject pumice samples with initial porosity of ∼70 vol.% to a range of isostatic pressures (0.1-11 MPa) and temperatures (350-950 °C) relevant to shallow volcanic environments. Our experimental data and models constrain the viscosity, permeability, timescales, and length scales over which densification by pore-scale surface tension stresses competes with density-driven compaction. Where surface tension dominates the dynamics, densification halts at a plateau connected porosity of ∼25 vol.% for our samples. SEM, pycnometry and micro-tomography show that in this process (1) microporous networks are destroyed, (2) the relative pore network surface area decreases, and (3) a remaining crystal framework enhances the longevity of macro-pore connectivity and permeability critical for sustained outgassing. We propose that these observations are a consequence of a surface tension-driven retraction of viscous pore walls at areas of high bubble curvature (micro-vesicular network terminations), and that this process drives bulk

  20. Geology of magma systems: background and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterfreund, A.R.


    A review of basic concepts and current models of igneous geology is presented. Emphasis is centered on studies of magma generation, ascent, emplacement, evolution, and surface or near-surface activity. An indexed reference list is also provided to facilitate future investigations.

  1. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.


    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO2. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition.

  2. Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Martin, A.; Pando, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.


    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite [1]. Morris et al. [1] propose that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks [2,3]. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stability of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas [4,5]. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition. Second, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of the same shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar and variable fO2 at 1250 C, and at variable pressure. These two goals will help define not only magnetite stability, but pyroxene-melt equilibria that are also dependent upon fO2.

  3. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.


    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  4. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece


    John Browning; Kyriaki Drymoni; Agust Gudmundsson


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techni...

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  6. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.


    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  7. Temporal magma source changes at Gaua volcano, Vanuatu island arc (United States)

    Beaumais, Aurélien; Bertrand, Hervé; Chazot, Gilles; Dosso, Laure; Robin, Claude


    Gaua Island (also called Santa Maria), from the central part of the Vanuatu arc, consists of a large volcano marked by a caldera that hosts the active Mount Garet summit cone. In this paper, a geochemical study including Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopic compositions of 25 lavas emitted since 1.8 Ma is presented, with a focus on the volcanic products that preceded (old volcanics, main cone and pyroclastic series) and followed (Mount Garet) the caldera forming event. All lavas show an island arc signature with enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Post-caldera lavas define a medium-K calc-alkaline trend, whereas lavas from the former main cone have high-K calc-alkaline compositions. Compared to the pre-caldera volcanic suite, the Mount Garet lavas have similar Th/Nb ( 1.5), 143Nd/144Nd ( 0.51295) and 176Hf/177Hf ( 0.28316) ratios, but higher Ba/La ( 42 vs. 27) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70417 vs. 0.70405) ratios and lower Ce/Pb ( 2.7 vs. 4.6), La/Sm ( 2.5 vs. 4.0) and 206Pb/204Pb (18.105 vs. 18.176) ratios. High Th/Nb and low Nd and Hf isotopic ratios compared to N-MORB suggest the contribution of 2% of subducted sediment melt to the mantle source of Gaua magmas. Most of the observed differences between pre- and post-caldera lavas can be accounted for by the involvement of at least two portions of the mantle wedge, metasomatized by different slab-derived aqueous fluids. In addition, the lower La/Sm (at a given 143Nd/144Nd) ratios of Mount Garet lavas suggest a higher degree of partial melting ( 10-15%) compared to the pre-caldera lavas ( 5%). The Santa Maria Pyroclastic Series (SMPS) eruption probably triggered the caldera collapse, in response to emptying of the magmatic chamber. This event may have allowed new access to the surface for a geochemically distinct batch of magma issued from a separate magma chamber, resulting in the birth and construction of Mount Garet within the caldera. As both magmatic suites were emitted over a very short time, the storage of their parental

  8. Effects of magma-induced stress within a cellular automaton model of volcanism (United States)

    Butters, Olivia J.; Sarson, Graeme R.; Bushby, Paul J.


    The cellular automaton model of Piegari, Di Maio, Scandone and Milano, J. Volc. Geoth. Res., 202, 22-28 (2011) is extended to include magma-induced stress (i.e. a local magma-related augmentation of the stress field). This constitutes a nonlinear coupling between the magma and stress fields considered by this model, which affects the statistical distributions of eruptions obtained. The extended model retains a power law relation between eruption size and frequency for most events, as expected from the self-organised criticality inspiring this model; but the power law now applies for a reduced range of size, and there are new peaks of relatively more frequent eruptions of intermediate and large size. The cumulative frequency of repose time between events remains well modelled by a stretched exponential function of repose time (approaching a pure exponential distribution only for the longest repose times), but the time scales of this behaviour are slightly longer, reflecting the increased preference for larger events. The eruptions are relatively more likely to have high volatile (water) content, so would generally be more explosive. The new model also naturally favours a central 'axial' transport conduit, as found in many volcano systems, but which otherwise must be artificially imposed within such models.

  9. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile) (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam


    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  10. Differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, T.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, J.; Hirahara, Y.; Takahashi, T.


    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation) (Jaupart and Tait, 1995, and references therein). The geochemical path caused by boundary layer fractionation can be fairly different from a path resulting from homogeneous fractionation (e.g., Langmuir, 1989). Therefore, it is important to understand the relative contributions of these fractionation mechanisms in magma chambers. Kuritani (2009) examined the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms in cooling basaltic magma chambers using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. However, the basaltic magmas examined in the work were alkali-rich (Na2O+K2O > 4 wt.%). In this study, to explore differentiation mechanisms of frontal-arc basalt magmas that are volumetrically much more important than rear-arc alkali basalt magmas, the relative roles of the two fractionation mechanisms are examined for low-K tholetiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc, using the same mass balance model. First, the water content and the temperature of the Iwate magma were estimated. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-81) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were derived from a common magma with variable temperature in a magma chamber, and the plagioclase phenocrysts were all derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of the magma chamber. By

  11. Mechanical interaction between gas bubbles and micro-crystals in magma (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Arellano, Santiago; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas


    The magnitude of volcanic gas emissions from low viscosity magmas is controlled by many factors. The buoyancy driven ascent of gas bubbles in the volcanic conduit is one of them. During the ascent the bubbles may collide with micro-crystals, slide along the crystal faces, and finally leave the crystal at the crystal tip. We investigate the mechanical consequences of this interaction in a static volume of magma assuming constant pressure, temperature and chemical composition and neglecting thermodynamic processes between bubbles and crystals. Explicitly, we focus on tabular crystals whose extensions are about one order of magnitude larger than the bubbles. The mechanical interaction changes the motion of both the bubbles and the crystals. The buoyancy force of the bubbles results in a torque on the crystal which ultimately orients the long axis of the crystal to the vertical direction. On the other hand, bubbles change their ascent path and velocity if they slide along a crystal face. This change in the bubble motion may have two opposing impacts on the magnitude of volcanic emissions: First, the reduced ascent velocity results in a bubble accumulation and thus enhanced bubble coalescence rate in the proximity of crystals. Second, the crystals align the bubbles in rise channels starting at the crystal tips while no bubbles access the magma volume immediately located above the crystal cross section, which we call "crystal shadow". Now, volatile degassing from supersaturated magma is a diffusive short-distance process which accelerate in the proximity of pre-existing gas bubbles. We thus infer that the orientation of the crystals influences the bulk volatile degassing rate and thus the volcanic gas emission rate due to the crystal shadow. The mechanical model suggests that all crystals get erected by the bubble-induced torque within time periods in the order of weeks to months. This has to be compared to the crystal nucleation rate in order to obtain a steady state

  12. Laguna del Maule magma feeding system and construction of a shallow silicic magma reservoir (United States)

    Cáceres, Francisco; Castruccio, Ángelo; Parada, Miguel; Scheu, Bettina


    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field is composed by at least 130 basaltic-to-rhyolitic eruptive vents that erupted more than 350 km3 of lavas and pyroclasts since Pleistocene in the Chilean Andes. It has captivated attention because of its current high accelerated uplift suggested to be formed by a growing shallow rhyolitic magma reservoir beneath the zone of deformation. Studying six Holocene post-glacial andesitic-to-rhyolitic lavas and one dome that partially overlap the ground-inflation zone, we determined the architecture and steps of construction of the magma feeding system that generated its post-glacial effusive volcanism. Further we suggest a possible origin for the rhyolitic magma that generated the ring of rhyolites encircling the lake and remain active causing the uplift. Mineral chemistry and textures suggest the same provenance of magma for the studied units, as well as complex magmatic history before eruptions. Similar temperatures, pressures, H2O and fO2 conditions for amphibole crystallisation in first stages indicate a common ˜17 km deep original reservoir that differentiated via in-situ crystallisation. The chemistry of the amphiboles present in all not-rhyolitic units shows trends that indicate a temperature domain on their crystallisation over other thermodynamic parameters such as pressure, water activity or chemistry of co-crystallising phases. All this supports a mush-like reservoir differentiating interstitial magma while crystallisation occurs. P-T conditions for amphibole crystallisation indicate that only amphiboles from rhyodacites show a non-adiabatic decompression that give rise to a polybaric and polythermal evolution trend from ˜450-200 MPa and ˜1030-900 ˚ C. In addition, unbuffered fO2 conditions were calculated for rhyodacite amphibole crystallisation upon cooling from melts with rather constant H2O contents. We propose that a large part of these rhyodacite amphiboles were formed during a non-adiabatic magma ascent similar to that

  13. Krafla Magma Testbed: An International Project Crossing The Scientific Frontier From Geothermal System Into Magma (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Dingwell, D. B.; Ludden, J. N.; Mandeville, C. W.; Markusson, S.; Papale, P.; Sigmundsson, F.


    Few Earth regimes are subject to as much inference and as little direct knowledge as magma. Among the most important mysteries is the transition from hydrothermal to magmatic, i.e. from aqueous fluid-present to silicate melt-present, regimes. Because solid rock is ductile at near-solidus temperature, fractures should have fleeting existence and therefore heat transfer should be by conduction. Heat and mass transport across this zone influences evolution of magma bodies. The hydrothermal regime influences eruptive behavior when magma intrudes it and propagation of the transition zone toward magma is demonstrated by physical and chemical evidence. Both drilling observations and heat-balance considerations indicate that the melt- and fluid-absent transition zone is thin. Drilling of Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1, 2 km into Krafla Caldera, showed that the transition from deep-solidus fine-grained granite to liquidus rhyolite is less than 30 m thick, probably much less. For the first time, we have the opportunity to interrogate an entire system of heat and mass transport, from magmatic source through the hydrothermal zone to surface volcanism, and in so doing unite the disciplines of volcanology and geothermal energy. With support from industry, national geoscience agencies, community stakeholders, and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), we are developing a broad program to push the limits of knowledge and technology in extremely hot Earth. We use the term "testbed" for two reasons: Surface and borehole observations used in volcano monitoring and geothermal exploration will be tested and reinterpreted in light of the first "ground-truth" about magma. More than "observing", magma and the transition zone will be manipulated through fluid injection and extraction to understand time-dependent behavior. Sensor technology will be pushed to measure magmatic conditions directly. Payoffs are in fundamental planetary science, volcano

  14. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    The June, 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ∼1.3 km3 of andesite and ∼4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ∼10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the

  15. Why do mafic arc magmas contain ˜4wt% water on average? (United States)

    Plank, Terry; Kelley, Katherine A.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Hauri, Erik H.; Wallace, Paul J.


    The last 15 yr have seen an explosion of data on the volatile contents of magmas parental to arc volcanoes. This has occurred due to the intense study of melt inclusions trapped in volcanic phenocrysts, aliquots of magma that have presumably escaped degassing during eruption. The surprising first-order result is the narrow range in H2O concentrations in the least degassed melt inclusions from each volcano. Nearly all arc volcanoes are sourced with mafic magmas that contain 2-6 wt% H2O. The average for each arc varies even less, from 3.2 (for the Cascades) to 4.5 (for the Marianas), with a global average of 3.9±0.4 wt% H2O. Significant variations occur from volcano to volcano within each arc, but the means are indistinguishable within one s.d. The narrow range and common average value for H2O are in stark contrast to the concentrations of most other subduction tracers, such as Nb or Ba, which vary by orders of magnitude. A modulating process, either in the crust or mantle, is likely responsible for the restricted range in the H2O contents of arc melt inclusions. One possibility is that melt inclusion H2O values reflect vapor saturation at the last storage depth in the crust prior to eruption. In this scenario, magmas rise from the mantle with variable H2O contents (>4 wt%), become vapor-saturated and start degassing, and continue to degas up until the depth at which they stall. If the stalling depths are ∼6 km, which is common for storage depths beneath volcanoes, magmas would be saturated at ∼4 wt% H2O, and melt inclusions, most of which become closed during further ascent, would thus record ≤4 wt% H2O. Another possibility is that the mantle melting process modulates water content in the melt such that magmas rise out of the mantle with ∼4 wt% H2O. A strong relationship between the water content of the source, H2O(o) and the degree of melting (F) maintains nearly constant water contents in the melt for a restricted range in mantle temperature. Magmas with

  16. Short-lived radioactivity and magma genesis (United States)

    Gill, James; Condomines, Michel


    Short-lived decay products of uranium and thorium have half-lives and chemistries sensitive to the processes and time scales of magma genesis, including partial melting in the mantle and magmatic differentiation in the crust. Radioactive disequilibrium between U-238, Th-230, and Ra-226 is widespread in volcanic rocks. These disequilibria and the isotopic composition of thorium depend especially on the extent and rate of melting as well as the presence and composition of vapor during melting. The duration of mantle melting may be several hundred millennia, whereas ascent times are a few decades to thousands of years. Differentiation of most magmas commonly occurs within a few millennia, but felsic ones can be tens of millennia old upon eruption.

  17. Timescale of Petrogenetic Processes Recorded in the Mount Perkins Magma System, Northern Colorado River Extension Corridor, Arizona (United States)

    Danielson, Lisa R.; Metcalf, Rodney V.; Miller, Calvin F.; Rhodes Gregory T.; Wooden, J. L.


    The Miocene Mt. Perkins Pluton is a small composite intrusive body emplaced in the shallow crust as four separate phases during the earliest stages of crustal extension. Phase 1 (oldest) consists of isotropic hornblende gabbro and a layered cumulate sequence. Phase 2 consists of quartz monzonite to quartz monzodiorite hosting mafic microgranitoid enclaves. Phase 3 is composed of quartz monzonite and is subdivided into mafic enclave-rich zones and enclave-free zones. Phase 4 consists of aphanitic dikes of mafic, intermediate and felsic compositions hosting mafic enclaves. Phases 2-4 enclaves record significant isotopic disequilibrium with surrounding granitoid host rocks, but collectively enclaves and host rocks form a cogenetic suite exhibiting systematic variations in Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes that correlate with major and trace elements. Phases 2-4 record multiple episodes of magma mingling among cogenetic hybrid magmas that formed via magma mixing and fractional crystallization at a deeper crustal. The mafic end-member was alkali basalt similar to nearby 6-4 Ma basalt with enriched OIB-like trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. The felsic end-member was a subalkaline crustal-derived magma. Phase 1 isotropic gabbro exhibits elemental and isotopic compositional variations at relatively constant SiO2, suggesting generation of isotropic gabbro by an open-system process involving two mafic end-members. One end-member is similar in composition to the OIB-like mafic end-member for phases 2-4; the second is similar to nearby 11-8 Ma tholeiite basalt exhibiting low epsilon (sub Nd), and depleted incompatible trace elements. Phase 1 cumulates record in situ fractional crystallization of an OIB-like mafic magma with isotopic evidence of crustal contamination by partial melts generated in adjacent Proterozoic gneiss. The Mt Perkins pluton records a complex history in a lithospheric scale magma system involving two distinct mantle-derived mafic magmas and felsic magma sourced in the

  18. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma (United States)

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.


    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  19. Thermal and mechanical evolution of magma reservoirs (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Dufek, J.


    Magmas spend most of their suprasolidus lifespan at high crystallinity. Crystal-rich mushes have a low thermal contrast with the surrounding crust and latent heat buffering is expected to decrease the cooling rate as they approach the solidus. The impact of latent buffering is phase-diagram dependent; massive crystallization over a short temperature interval, occurring near invariant points, can significantly increase the time a given magma spends above the solidus. This latent heat effect is likely to play an important role in the upper crust, as the typical upper crustal compositions (dacite) reach the haplogranite eutectic around 40-60 vol% crystals. As high crystallinity is the most probable state for magmas in the upper crust, the interaction between crystal mushes and hot recharges from below is common. Hence, the thermo-mechanical response of mushes to recharge is a central process in the rheological evolution of these systems. An important feedback following recharge is related to the reduction in density as solid phases melt, leading to the development of in-situ overpressures. The combined effect of melting and overpressurization has a two major consequences for magmatic systems, both commonly observed in the rock record: (1) it increases the likelihood for reactivation of locked crystal mushes, and (2) it enhances the assimilation of stoped blocks in the upper crust.

  20. Viscosity of mafic magmas at high pressures (United States)

    Cochain, B.; Sanloup, C.; Leroy, C.; Kono, Y.


    While it is accepted that silica-rich melts behave anomalously with a decrease of their viscosity at increased pressures (P), the viscosity of silica-poor melts is much less constrained. However, modeling of mantle melts dynamics throughout Earth's history, including the magma ocean era, requires precise knowledge of the viscous properties of silica-poor magmas. We extend here our previous measurements on fayalite melt to natural end-members pyroxenite melts (MgSiO3 and CaSiO3) using in situ X-ray radiography up to 8 GPa. For all compositions, viscosity decreases with P, rapidly below 5 GPa and slowly above. The magnitude of the viscosity decrease is larger for pyroxene melts than for fayalite melt and larger for the Ca end-member within pyroxene melts. The anomalous viscosity decrease appears to be a universal behavior for magmas up to 13 GPa, while the P dependence of viscosity beyond this remains to be measured. These results imply that mantle melts are very pervasive at depth.

  1. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  2. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  3. Magma ascent and emplacement in a continental rift setting: lessons from alkaline complexes in active and ancient rift zones (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Lloyd, Ryan; Birhanu, Yelebe; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahgen; Finch, Adrian


    A key feature of continental rift evolution is the development of large chemically-evolved alkaline magmatic systems in the shallow crust. At active alkaline systems, for example in the East African Rift, the volcanic complexes pose significant hazards to local populations but can also sustain major geothermal resources. In ancient rifts, for example the Gardar province in Southern Greenland, these alkaline magma bodies can host some of the world's largest rare element deposits in resources such as rare earths, niobium and tantalum. Despite their significance, there are major uncertainties about how such magmas are emplaced, the mechanisms that trigger eruptions and the magmatic and hydrothermal processes that generate geothermal and mineral resources. Here we compare observations from active caldera volcanoes in the Ethiopian Rift with compositionally equivalent ancient (1300-1100 Ma) plutonic systems in the Gardar Rift province (Greenland). In the Ethiopian Rift Valley we use InSAR and GPS data to evaluate the temporal and spatial evolution of ground deformation at Aluto and Corbetti calderas. We show that unrest at Aluto is characterized by short (3-6 month) accelerating uplift pulses likely caused by magmatic fluid intrusion at 5 km. At Corbetti, uplift is steady ( 6.6 cm/yr) and sustained over many years with analytical source models suggesting deformation is linked to sill intrusion at depths of 7 km. To evaluate the validity of these contrasting deformation mechanisms (i.e. magmatic fluid intrusion and sill emplacement) we carried out extensive field, structural and geochemical analysis in the roof zones of two alkaline plutons (Ilímaussaq and Motzfeldt) in Greenland. Our results show that the volatile contents (F, Cl, OH and S) of these magmas were exceptionally high and that there is evidence for ponding of magmatic fluids in the roof zone of the magma reservoir. We also identified extensive sill networks at the contact between the magma reservoir and the

  4. Geochemical Evidence for a Terrestrial Magma Ocean (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.


    The aftermath of phase separation and crystal-liquid fractionation in a magma ocean should leave a planet geochemically differentiated. Subsequent convective and other mixing processes may operate over time to obscure geochemical evidence of magma ocean differentiation. On the other hand, core formation is probably the most permanent, irreversible part of planetary differentiation. Hence the geochemical traces of core separation should be the most distinct remnants left behind in the mantle and crust, In the case of the Earth, core formation apparently coincided with a magma ocean that extended to a depth of approximately 1000 km. Evidence for this is found in high pressure element partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between liquid silicate and liquid iron alloy, and with the Ni-Co ratio and the abundance of Ni and Co in the Earth's upper mantle. A terrestrial magma ocean with a depth of 1000 km will solidify from the bottom up and first crystallize in the perovskite stability field. The largest effect of perovskite fractionation on major element distribution is to decrease the Si-Mg ratio in the silicate liquid and increase the Si-Mg ratio in the crystalline cumulate. Therefore, if a magma ocean with perovskite fractionation existed, then one could expect to observe an upper mantle with a lower than chondritic Si-Mg ratio. This is indeed observed in modern upper mantle peridotites. Although more experimental work is needed to fully understand the high-pressure behavior of trace element partitioning, it is likely that Hf is more compatible than Lu in perovskite-silicate liquid pairs. Thus, perovskite fractionation produces a molten mantle with a higher than chondritic Lu-Hf ratio. Arndt and Blichert-Toft measured Hf isotope compositions of Barberton komatiites that seem to require a source region with a long-lived, high Lu-Hf ratio. It is plausible that that these Barberton komatiites were generated within the majorite stability field by remelting a perovskite

  5. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids (United States)

    Martin, Hervé


    Both geochemical and experimental petrological research indicate that Archaean continental crust was generated by partial melting of an Archaean tholeiite transformed into a garnet-bearing amphibolite or eclogite. The geodynamic context of tholeiite melting is the subject of controversy. It is assumed to be either (1) subduction (melting of a hot subducting slab), or (2) hot spot (melting of underplated basalts). These hypotheses are considered in the light of modern adakite genesis. Adakites are intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks, andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (basaltic members are lacking). They have trondhjemitic affinities (high-Na 2O contents and K 2O/Na 2O˜0.5) and their Mg no. (0.5), Ni (20-40 ppm) and Cr (30-50 ppm) contents are higher than in typical calc-alkaline magmas. Sr contents are high (>300 ppm, until 2000 ppm) and REE show strongly fractionated patterns with very low heavy REE (HREE) contents (Yb≤1.8 ppm, Y≤18 ppm). Consequently, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios are typical and discriminating features of adakitic magmas, indicative of melting of a mafic source where garnet and/or hornblende are residual phases. Adakitic magmas are only found in subduction zone environments, exclusively where the subduction and/or the subducted slab are young (situation is well-exemplified in Southern Chile where the Chile ridge is subducted and where the adakitic character of the lavas correlates well with the young age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere. In typical subduction zones, the subducted lithosphere is older than 20 Ma, it is cool and the geothermal gradient along the Benioff plane is low such that the oceanic crust dehydrates before it reaches the solidus temperature of hydrated tholeiite. Consequently, the basaltic slab cannot melt. The released large ion lithophile element (LILE)-rich fluids rise up into the mantle wedge, inducing both its metasomatism and partial melting. Afterwards, the residue is made up of olivine

  6. Emerging Equity Market Volatility


    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.


    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  7. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  8. Volcanic tremors and magma wagging: gas flux interactions and forcing mechanism (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Jellinek, A. Mark; Michaut, Chloé; Roman, Diana C.; Morse, Robert


    Volcanic tremor is an important precursor to explosive eruptions and is ubiquitous across most silicic volcanic systems. Oscillations can persist for days and occur in a remarkably narrow frequency band (i.e. 0.5-7 Hz). The recently proposed magma-wagging model of Jellinek & Bercovici provides a basic explanation for the emergence and frequency evolution of tremor that is consistent with observations of many active silicic and andesitic volcanic systems. This model builds on work suggesting that the magma column rising in the volcanic conduit is surrounded by a permeable vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. The magma-wagging model stipulates that the magma column rattles within the spring like foam of the annulus, and predicts oscillations at the range of observed tremor frequencies for a wide variety of volcanic environments. However, the viscous resistance of the magma column attenuates the oscillations and thus a forcing mechanism is required. Here we provide further development of the magma-wagging model and demonstrate that it implicitly has the requisite forcing to excite wagging behaviour. In particular, the extended model allows for gas flux through the annulus, which interacts with the wagging displacements and induces a Bernoulli effect that amplifies the oscillations. This effect leads to an instability involving growing oscillations at the lower end of the tremor frequency spectrum, and that drives the system against viscous damping of the wagging magma column. The fully non-linear model displays tremor oscillations associated with pulses in gas flux, analogous to observations of audible `chugging'. These oscillations also occur in clusters or envelopes that are consistent with observations of sporadic tremor envelopes. The wagging model further accurately predicts that seismic signals on opposite sides of a volcano are out of phase by approximately half a wagging or tremor period. Finally, peaks in gas flux occur at the end of the growing instability

  9. The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael


    Magnetic and geologic data indicate that the ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism (the I/E ratio) is higher in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major volcanic provinces on Mars relative to most volcanic centers on Earth. The fraction of magmas that erupt helps to determine the effects of magmatism on crustal structure and the flux of magmatic gases to the atmosphere and also influences estimates of melt production inferred from the history of surface volcanism. We consider several possible controls on the prevalence of intrusive magmatism at Tharsis and Syrtis Major, including melt production rates, lithospheric properties, regional stresses and strain rates, and magmatic volatile budgets. The Curie temperature is the minimum crustal temperature required for thermal demagnetization, implying that if the primary magnetic mineral is magnetite or hematite, the crust was warm during the intrusive magmatism reflected in Tharsis and Syrtis Major I/E ratios. When wall rocks are warm, thermally activated creep relaxes stresses from magma replenishment and regional tectonics, and eruptibility depends on buoyancy overpressure. We develop a new one-dimensional model for the development of buoyancy in a viscous regime that accounts for cooling, crystallization, volatile exsolution, bubble coalescence and rise, fluid egress, and compaction of country rock. Under these conditions, we find that initial water and CO2 contents typically <1.5 wt % can explain the observed range of intrusive/extrusive ratios. Our results support the hypothesis that warm crust and a relatively sparse volatile budget encouraged the development of large intrusive complexes beneath Tharsis and Syrtis Major.

  10. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 1: Theory) (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.


    lower end of the volume flux range for sinuous rilles corresponds to magma rise speeds approaching the limit set by the fact that excessive cooling would occur during flow up a 30 km long dike kept open by a very low excess pressure. These eruptions were thus probably fed by partial melt zones deep in the mantle. Longer eruption durations, rather than any subtle topographic slope effects, appear to be the key to the ability of these flows to erode sinuous rille channels. We conclude that: (1) essentially all lunar magmas were negatively buoyant everywhere within the crust; (2) positive excess pressures of at least 20-30 MPa must have been present in mantle melts at or below the crust-mantle interface to drive magmas to the surface; (3) such pressures are easily produced in zones of partial melting by pressure-release during mantle convection or simple heat accumulation from radioisotopes; (4) magma volume fluxes available from dikes forming at the tops of partial melt zones are consistent with the 105 to 106 m3 s-1 volume fluxes implied by earlier analyses of surface flows; (5) eruptions producing thermally-eroded sinuous rille channels involved somewhat smaller volume fluxes of magma where the supply rate may be limited by the rate of extraction of melt percolating through partial melt zones.

  11. Comagmatic granophyric granite in the Fish Canyon Tuff, Colorado: Implications for magma-chamber processes during a large ash-flow eruption (United States)

    Lipman, P.; Dungan, M.; Bachmann, Olivier


    The 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff, a vast ash-flow sheet (??5000 km3) of uniform phenocryst-rich dacite, is representative of "monotonous intermediate" eruptions from a magma chamber that lacked compositional gradients. Sparse small fragments of comagmatic granophyre in late-erupted tuff and postcaldera lava, having mineral compositions indistinguishable from phenocrysts in the tuff and precaldera lava-like rocks, record complex events in the Fish Canyon chamber just prior to eruption. Sanidine phenocrysts in the granophyre preserve zoning evidence of mingling with andesitic magma, then shattering by decompression and volatile loss accompanying early Fish Canyon eruptions before overgrowth by granophyre. The textural and chemical disequilibria indicate that the eruption resulted from batholith-scale remobilization of a shallow subvolcanic chamber, contrary to previous interpretations of magma storage and phenocryst growth in the lower crust.

  12. CO2 contents of basaltic arc magmas from the southern Cascades: Corrections for shrinkage bubble effects and implications for crustal storage (United States)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Aster, E. M.; Clynne, M. A.


    Volatiles such as H2O and CO2 play an important role in a variety of magmatic processes from magma generation to eruption, and melt inclusions (MI) - small volumes of melt trapped inside phenocrysts - have been used to measure their pre-eruptive concentrations. In particular, the volatile contents of MI from basaltic arc magmas have been used to track the role of dehydrating subducted oceanic lithosphere in magma formation in subduction zones. However, recent studies have shown that MI are imperfect storage containers and can lose H by diffusion through the mineral host and CO2 due to formation of a vapor bubble in the inclusion. Such results suggest that even the least degassed melt inclusions from a volcano may have volatile concentrations that underestimate the initial volatile contents of the magma. Thus, recognizing pre- and post-entrapment processes that influence MIs is important for interpreting magmatic processes at depth. Recent studies have developed methods that can be used to distinguish and correct for H diffusive loss (Bucholz et al., 2013) and CO2 loss to vapor bubbles (Wallace et al., 2015). Here, we focus on MI from eight cinder cones that erupted primitive basaltic magmas in the Lassen region of the Cascade arc, where H2O and Cl concentrations have been shown to relate to the amount of a subduction component added to the mantle wedge (Walowski et al., 2015). Using methods of Aster (2015), we correct for the loss of CO2 to a vapor bubble formed within a melt inclusion as the result of post-entrapment crystallization and thermal contraction. The results of the CO2 restoration calculations suggest that ~25-75% of the initial dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to a vapor bubble after entrapment. Trapping pressures for the restored CO2 and maximum H2O contents calculated using methods of Iacono-Marziano et al. (2012) range from ~2-5 kbar, equivalent to entrapment depths of ~7-18 km below the surface. The results

  13. Outgassing from Open and Closed Magma Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix W. von Aulock


    Full Text Available During magma ascent, bubbles nucleate, grow, coalesce, and form a variably permeable porous network. The reorganization, failing and sealing of bubble walls may contribute to the opening and closing of the volcanic system. In this contribution we cause obsidian to nucleate and grow bubbles to high gas volume fraction at atmospheric pressure by heating samples to 950°C for different times and we image the growth through a furnace. Following the experiment, we imaged the internal pore structure of selected samples in 3D and then dissected for analysis of textures and dissolved water content remnant in the glass. We demonstrate that in these high viscosity systems, during foaming and subsequent foam-maturation, bubbles near a free surface resorb via diffusion to produce an impermeable skin of melt around a foam. The skin thickens non-linearly through time. The water concentrations at the outer and inner skin margins reflect the solubility of water in the melt at the partial pressure of water in atmospheric and water-rich bubble conditions, respectively. In this regime, mass transfer of water out of the system is diffusion limited and the sample shrinks slowly. In a second set of experiments in which we polished off the skin of the foamed samples and placed them back in the furnace to allow open system outgassing, we observe rapid sample contraction and collapse of the connected pore network under surface tension as the system efficiently outgasses. In this regime, mass transfer of water is permeability limited. We conclude that diffusion-driven skin formation can efficiently seal connectivity in foams. When rupture of melt film around gas bubbles (i.e., skin removal occurs, then rapid outgassing and consequent foam collapse modulate gas pressurization in the vesiculated magma. The mechanisms described here are relevant to the evolution of pore network heterogeneity in permeable magmas.

  14. Chlorine solubility in evolved alkaline magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Carroll


    Full Text Available Experimental studies of Cl solubility in trachytic to phonolitic melts provide insights into the capacity of alkaline magmas to transport Cl from depth to the earth?s surface and atmosphere, and information on Cl solubility variations with pressure, temperature and melt or fluid composition is crucial for understanding the reasons for variations in Cl emissions at active volcanoes. This paper provides a brief review of Cl solubility experiments conducted on a range of trachytic to phonolitic melt compositions. Depending on the experimental conditions the melts studied were in equilibrium with either a Cl-bearing aqueous fluid or a subcritical assemblage of low- Cl aqueous fluid + Cl-rich brine. The nature of the fluid phase(s was identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in run product glasses and the fluid bulk composition was calculated by mass balance. Chlorine concentrations in the glass increase with increasing Cl molality in the fluid phase until a plateau in Cl concentration is reached when melt coexists with aqueous fluid + brine. With fluids of similar Cl molality, higher Cl concentrations are observed in peralkaline phonolitic melts compared with peraluminous phonolitic melts; overall the Cl concentrations observed in phonolitic and trachytic melts are approximately twice those found in calcalkaline rhyolitic melts under similar conditions. The observed negative pressure dependence of Cl solubility implies that Cl contents of melts may actually increase during magma decompression if the magma coexists with aqueous fluid and Cl-rich brine (assuming melt-vapor equilibrium is maintained. The high Cl contents (approaching 1 wt% Cl observed in some melts/glasses from the Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei areas suggest saturation with a Cl-rich brine prior to eruption.

  15. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology (United States)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.


    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  16. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma. (United States)

    Greensite, Fred


    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  17. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Greensite

    Full Text Available We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  18. The impairment of MAGMAS function in human is responsible for a severe skeletal dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybel Mehawej


    Full Text Available Impairment of the tightly regulated ossification process leads to a wide range of skeletal dysplasias and deciphering their molecular bases has contributed to the understanding of this complex process. Here, we report a homozygous mutation in the mitochondria-associated granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor-signaling gene (MAGMAS in a novel and severe spondylodysplastic dysplasia. MAGMAS, also referred to as PAM16 (presequence translocase-associated motor 16, is a mitochondria-associated protein involved in preprotein translocation into the matrix. We show that MAGMAS is specifically expressed in trabecular bone and cartilage at early developmental stages and that the mutation leads to an instability of the protein. We further demonstrate that the mutation described here confers to yeast strains a temperature-sensitive phenotype, impairs the import of mitochondrial matrix pre-proteins and induces cell death. The finding of deleterious MAGMAS mutations in an early lethal skeletal dysplasia supports a key role for this mitochondrial protein in the ossification process.

  19. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over time. Wi

  20. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.


    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  1. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  2. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.


    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  3. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia; Schiazza, Mariangela; Liu, Yu; Giosa, Paola; Crocetti, Sergio


    Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  4. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppa Francesco


    Full Text Available Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  5. The oxidation state, and sulfur and Cu contents of arc magmas: implications for metallogeny (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy P.


    explain the somewhat restricted distribution of Au-rich porphyry Cu deposits, but the general association of porphyry Cu deposits with relatively oxidized magmas. Exsolution of a saline, high temperature aqueous fluid enables metals to partition from the magma into a highly mobile volatile phase. Sulfur also partitions strongly into this fluid phase, predominantly as SO2 at ΔFMQ = + 1 to + 2. However, as the fluid cools below 400 °C, SIVO2 disproportionates to form reduced H2S- II and oxidized H2SVIO4. The H2S bonds with metals in solution to precipitate as Cu- and Mo-sulfides, while the H2SO4 (and HCl) generates progressively acidic wallrock alteration (phyllic, argillic, advanced argillic). Gold may precipitate with early Cu/Mo-sulfides, but some may also stay in solution as bisulfide complexes, eventually reaching the epithermal environment. Thus, three components, [S], [H2O], and fO2 work together throughout subduction and arc magmatic processes to transport chalcophile and siderophile metals from the mantle into the upper crust, where they may be concentrated by hydrothermal processes to form ore deposits. These processes are far from 100% efficient, and metals (especially highly siderophile elements such as Au and PGE) may be left behind at various stages of the passage of arc magmas through the lithosphere, where they may form potentially metalliferous source rocks for partial melts and subsequent magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits generated during later tectonomagmatic events.

  6. Volatile Concentrations and H-Isotope Composition of Unequilibrated Eucrites (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Righter, Kevin; Berger, Eve L.


    Eucrites are among the oldest and best studied asteroidal basalts (1). They represent magmatism that occurred on their parent asteroid, likely 4-Vesta, starting at 4563 Ma and continuing for approx. 30 Myr. Two hypotheses are debated for the genesis of eucrites, a magma ocean model (2), and a mantle partial melting model. In general, volatiles (H, C, F, Cl) have been ignored for eucrites and 4-Vesta, but solubility of wt% levels of H2O are possible at Vestan interior PT conditions. Targeted measurements on samples could aid our understanding considerably. Recent studies have found evidence of volatile elements in eucrites, but quantifying the abundance of volatiles remains problematic (6). Volatile elements have a disproportionately large effect on melt properties and phase stability, relative to their low abundance. The source of volatile elements can be elucidated by examining the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H), as different H reservoirs have drastically different H isotope compositions. Recent studies of apatite in eucrites have shown that the D/H of 4-Vesta matches that of Earth and carbonaceous chondrites, however, the D/H of apatites may not represent the D/H of a primitive 4-Vesta melt due to the possibility of degassing prior to the crystallization of apatite. Therefore, the D/H of early crystallizing phases must be measured to determine if the D/H of 4-Vesta is equal to that of the Earth and carbonaceous chondrites.

  7. Rheology of Volatile-rich Crystal Mush (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Caricchi, L.; Ulmer, P.; Reusser, E.; Mancktelow, N.; Burlini, L.


    Magma batholiths are commonly highly crystalline (> 50 vol%; crystal mush, Bachmann and Bergantz, 2008a) and possible modes of mobilization and emplacement have been intensively discussed in the last decades. Recently, it has been proposed that a stiff mushy batholith must be reheated to mobilize; this produces a reduction in crystallinity that leads to an increase of the magma buoyancy (Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011). Another way of batholith mobilization in the crust can be caused by addition of volatiles (mainly H2O and CO2) released by ascending hydrous mafic magmas coming from the mantle (Bachmann and Bergantz, 2008b). The enrichment in volatiles induces a drastic decrease in the bulk viscosity of the granitic body and, thus, an evident change in the rheological properties of the batholith. The rheology of such very crystal-rich highly viscous systems is still a matter of debate. To provide some additional experimental constraints relevant to this discussion, we deformed hydrous (2.52 wt% H2O) haplogranitic magmas containing variable amounts of quartz crystals (from 55 to 65 vol%), and fixed volume of gas-pressurized CO2-bubbles (9-10 vol%), in simple shear using a HT-HP Paterson-type rock deformation apparatus. Strain rates ranging between 1•10-5 s-1 and 4•10-3 s-1 were applied at temperatures between 823 and 1023 K and constant confining pressure of 200-250 MPa (8-9 km depth). The results suggest that three-phase suspensions are characterized by strain rate-dependent rheology (non-Newtonian behavior). Two non-Newtonian regimes were observed: shear thinning (decrease of viscosity with increasing strain rate) and shear thickening (increase of viscosity with increasing strain rate). The first effect dominantly occurs because of crystal size reduction and shear localization, enhanced by the presence of gas bubbles in the weak shear bands. However, when the solid crystal framework induces an internal flow blockage due to crystal interlock, the second effect

  8. The buoyancy of large siliceous magma chambers is sufficient to initiate supereruptions (United States)

    Malfait, W.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.; Ota, T.; Nakamura, E.; Lerch, P.; Mezouar, M.


    magma chambers for a range of conditions/configurations indicates that magma buoyancy provides a significant background overpressure that in many cases may suffice to initiate an eruption. Thus, although magma recharge and mush rejuvenation, volatile saturation or tectonic stress may be important triggers for specific eruptive episodes, the initiation of a supereruption does not a priori require such a trigger. [1] Mason, B.G., D.M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, Bulletin of Volcanology, 2004. 66: p. 735-748. [2] Self, S. and S. Blake, Elements, 2008. 4(1): p. 41. [3] Sparks, S., et al., in Report of a Geological Society of Landon Working Group, T. Nield, Editor. 2005: London. [4] Jellinek, A.M. and D.J. DePaolo, Bulletin of Volcanology, 2003. 65: p. 363-381. [5] Knoche, R., S.L. Webb, and D.B. Dingwell, Canadian Mineralogist, 1992. 30: p. 561-569. [6] Ochs, F.A. and R.A. Lange, Science, 1999. 283: p. 1314.

  9. Magma transfer and degassing budget: Application to the 2009-2010 eruptive crisis of Mt Garet (Vanuatu arc) (United States)

    Métrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Garaebiti, E.; Vergniolle, S.; Bani, P.; Beaumais, A.; Neuville, D. R.


    Mt Garet, on Gaua Island, is one of the active volcanoes of the Vanuatu arc. We report here a new dataset on lapilli and lava erupted during Mt Garet unrest in 2009-2010 and on products of the older activity of Gaua composite volcano. The present-day magma of Mt Garet is a trachy-andesite (52 wt.% SiO2) with relatively high Rb/Th (14.6) and Ba/La (41) ratios compared to the Gaua pre- and syn-caldera series, but typical of the central part of Vanuatu arc. Its mineral assemblage is mainly composed of plagioclase (An86-56) and clinopyroxene (Fs5-16) which display significant chemical variations, patchy zones, surface dissolution, and oscillatory zoning that imply episodes of high undercooling and growth rates. The paragenesis is complemented by Fe-Ti oxides and scarce olivine (Fo72-73). The melt inclusions are ubiquitous and their compositions cover a chemical spectrum from basalt to trachy-andesite. Volatile-rich basaltic inclusions (H2O: 2.7 wt.%, S: 0.15 wt.%, and Cl: 0.22 wt.%) are preserved in Mg-rich clinopyroxene whereas the majority of the melt inclusions is volatile poorer with, ≤ 1.0 wt.% of H2O, ≤ 0.05 wt.% of S, and 0.25-0.27 wt.% of Cl. At 1100 °C the measured viscosity of anhydrous magma of Mt Garet is 103.5 Pa s. Adding 0.8 to 2.5 wt.% of H2O decreases the melt viscosity by 0.5 to two orders of magnitude. Combining data on bulk rocks, minerals, and their melt inclusions together with the very first published gas fluxes acquired during the same period of activity, we propose that the high sulfur outgassing in 2009-2010 was produced by the degassing of a basaltic magma batch ( 0.027 km3) emplaced in a shallow reservoir. This scenario would require temperature and H2O-loss driven resorption/crystallization, magma mixing, and exsolution of an early gas phase rich in H2O, and S. We suggest here the 2009-2010 activity to be sustained by the existence of thermal convection driven at the bottom of the magma reservoir by cooling, and in which the bubbles

  10. Open-system dynamics and mixing in magma mushes (United States)

    Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J. M.; Burgisser, A.


    Magma dominantly exists in a slowly cooling crystal-rich or mushy state. Yet, observations of complexly zoned crystals, some formed in just one to ten years, as well as time-transgressive crystal fabrics imply that magmas mix and transition rapidly from a locked crystal mush to a mobile and eruptable fluid. Here we use a discrete-element numerical model that resolves crystal-scale granular interactions and fluid flow, to simulate the open-system dynamics of a magma mush. We find that when new magma is injected into a reservoir from below, the existing magma responds as a viscoplastic material: fault-like surfaces form around the edges of the new injection creating a central mixing bowl of magma that can be unlocked and become fluidized, allowing for complex mixing. We identify three distinct dynamic regimes that depend on the rate of magma injection. If the magma injection rate is slow, the intruded magma penetrates and spreads by porous media flow through the crystal mush. With increasing velocity, the intruded magma creates a stable cavity of fluidized magma that is isolated from the rest of the reservoir. At higher velocities still, the entire mixing bowl becomes fluidized. Circulation within the mixing bowl entrains crystals from the walls, bringing together crystals from different parts of the reservoir that may have experienced different physiochemical environments and leaving little melt unmixed. We conclude that both granular and fluid dynamics, when considered simultaneously, can explain observations of complex crystal fabrics and zoning observed in many magmatic systems.

  11. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas (United States)

    Su, Y.; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán.; Wright, Heather; Vazquez, Jorge


    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous "excess sulfur" problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the "petrologic estimate"), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of vapor

  12. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.


    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  13. Outgassing in the lab: Permeability development in two-phase magmas during simple shear (United States)

    Kushnir, Alexandra; Martel, Caroline; Champallier, Rémi; Arbaret, Laurent


    developed shortly after the onset of inelastic deformation. Again, permeability was established through a series of en echelon fractures, but there was no reduction in bubble density surrounding these features, suggesting that there was insufficient time to drain the abutting bubbles. These experiments highlight a transition in deformation mechanism that has a profound effect on sample outgassing. Critically, the Mode I fracture geometry may expedite volatile movement upwards from the interior of the magma column and outward to the conduit periphery.

  14. Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA) (United States)

    Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Muirhead, James D.; Ort, Michael H.


    Monogenetic volcanoes have limited magma supply and lack long-lived sustained magma plumbing systems. They erupt once, often from multiple vents and sometimes over several years, and are rarely or never re-activated. Eruptive behavior is very sensitive to physical processes (e.g., volatile exsolution, magma-water interaction) occurring in the later stages of magma ascent at shallow crustal depths (flowing through dikes fragmented and conduits were formed. We have identified three main types of fragmental deposits, (1) buds (which emerge from dikes), (2) pyroclastic massifs, and (3) diatremes; these represent three different styles and intensities of shallow-depth magma fragmentation. They may develop successively and at different sites during the evolution of a monogenetic volcano. The deposits consist of a mixture of pyroclasts with varying degrees of welding and country-rock debris in various proportions. Pyroclasts are commonly welded together, but also reveal in places features consistent with phreatomagmatism, such as blocky shapes, dense groundmasses, and composite clasts (loaded and cored). The extent of fragmentation and the formation of subterranean open space controlled the nature of the particles and the architecture and geometry of these conduit structures and their deposits.

  15. Revisiting the compositions and volatile contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mount Shasta region: implications for the formation of high-Mg andesites (United States)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Kent, A. J. R.


    Primitive chemical characteristics of high-Mg andesites (HMA) suggest equilibration with mantle wedge peridotite, and they may form through either shallow, wet partial melting of the mantle or re-equilibration of slab melts migrating through the wedge. We have re-examined a well-studied example of HMA from near Mt. Shasta, CA, because petrographic evidence for magma mixing has stimulated a recent debate over whether HMA magmas have a mantle origin. We examined naturally quenched, glassy, olivine-hosted (Fo87-94) melt inclusions from this locality and analyzed the samples by FTIR, LA-ICPMS, and electron probe. Compositions (uncorrected for post-entrapment modification) are highly variable and can be divided into high-CaO (>10 wt%) melts only found in Fo > 91 olivines and low-CaO ( 90 olivines. Restored low-CaO melt inclusions are HMAs (57-61 wt% SiO2; 4.9-10.9 wt% MgO), whereas high-CaO inclusions are primitive basaltic andesites (PBA) (51-56 wt% SiO2; 9.8-15.1 wt% MgO). HMA and PBA inclusions have distinct trace element characteristics. Importantly, both types of inclusions are volatile-rich, with maximum values in HMA and PBA melt inclusions of 3.5 and 5.6 wt% H2O, 830 and 2,900 ppm S, 1,590 and 2,580 ppm Cl, and 500 and 820 ppm CO2, respectively. PBA melts are comparable to experimental hydrous melts in equilibrium with harzburgite. Two-component mixing between PBA and dacitic magma (59:41) is able to produce a primitive HMA composition, but the predicted mixture shows some small but significant major and trace element discrepancies from published whole-rock analyses from the Shasta locality. An alternative model that involves incorporation of xenocrysts (high-Mg olivine from PBA and pyroxenes from dacite) into a primary (mantle-derived) HMA magma can explain the phenocryst and melt inclusion compositions but is difficult to evaluate quantitatively because of the complex crystal populations. Our results suggest that a spectrum of mantle-derived melts, including

  16. Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.


    Evolution of the magma chamber at Mount Mazama involved repeated recharge by two types of andesite (high-Sr and low-Sr), crystal fractionation, crystal accumulation, assimilation, and magma mixing (Bacon and Druitt 1988). This paper addresses the modal compositions, textures, mineral chemistry and magmatic temperatures of (i) products of the 6845??50 BP climactic eruption, (ii) blocks of partially fused granitoid wallrock found in the ejecta, and (iii) preclimactic rhyodacitic lavas leaked from the chamber in late Pleistocene and early Holocene time. Immediately prior to the climactic eruption the chamber contained ??? 40 km3 of rhyodacite (10 vol% plag + opx + aug + hb + mt + ilm, ???880?? C) overlying high-Sr andesite and cumulus-crystal mush (28-51 vol% plag + hb ?? opx ?? aug + mt ?? ilm, 880?? to ???950?? C), which in turn overlay low-Sr crystal mush (50-66 vol% plag + opx + aug ?? hb ?? ol + mt + ilm, 890?? to ???950??? C). Despite the well known compositional gap in the ejecta, no thermal discontinuity existed in the chamber. Pre-eruptive water contents of pore liquids in most high-Sr and low-Sr mushes were 4-6 wt%, but on average the high-Sr mushes were slightly richer in water. Although parental magmas of the crystal mushes were andesitic, xenocrysts of bytownite and Ni-rich magnesian olivine in some scoriae record the one-time injection of basalt into the chamber. Textures in ol-bearing scoriae preserve evidence for the reactions ol + liq = opx and ol + aug + liq(+ plag?) = hb, which occurred in andesitic liquids at Mount Mazama. Strontium abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts constrain the petrogenesis of preclimactic and climactic rhyodacites. Phenocryst cores derived from high-Sr and low-Sr magmas have different Sr contents which can be resolved by microprobe. Partition coefficients for plagioclase in andesitic to rhyolitic glasses range from 2 to 7, and increase as glass %SiO2 increases. Evolved Pleistocene rhyodacites (???30-25,000 BP) and

  17. Discovering Mathematics with Magma Reducing the Abstract to the Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Bosma, Wieb


    With a design based on the ontology and semantics of algebra, Magma enables users to rapidly formulate and perform calculations in the more abstract parts of mathematics. This book introduces the role Magma plays in advanced mathematical research through 14 case studies which, in most cases, describe computations underpinning theoretical results.

  18. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong......In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...

  19. Electrical conductivity of water-bearing magmas (United States)

    Gaillard, F.


    Phase diagrams and chemical analyzes of crystals and glass inclusions of erupted lavas tell us that most explosive volcanic eruptions were caused by extremely water-rich pre-eruptive conditions. Volcanologists estimate volcanic hazards by the pre-eruptive water content of lavas erupted in the past and they hypothesize that future eruptions should show similar features. Alternatively, the development of methods allowing direct estimation of water content of magmas stored in the Earth’s interior would have the advantage of providing direct constraints about upcoming rather than past eruptions. Geoelectrical sounding, being the most sensitive probe to the chemical state of the Earth’s interior, seems a promising tool providing that its interpretation is based on relevant laboratory constraints. However, the current database of electrical conductivity of silicate melt merely constrains anhydrous composition. We have therefore undertaken an experimental program aiming at elucidating the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of natural magmas. Measurements (impedance spectroscopy) are performed using a two electrodes set-up in an internally heated pressure vessel. The explored temperature and pressure range is 25-1350°C and 0.1-400MPa. The material used is a natural rhyolitic obsidian. Hydration of this rhyolite is first performed in Pt capsules with 0.5, 1, 2 and 6wt% of water. In a second step, the conductivity measurements are performed at pressure and temperature in a modified Pt capsule. One end of the capsule is arc-welded whereas the other end is closed with the help of a BN cone and cement through which an inner electrode is introduced in the form a Pt wire. The capsule is used as outer electrode. The electrical cell has therefore a radial geometry. The rhyolite is introduced in the cell in the form of a cylinder drilled in the previously hydrated glass. At dwell condition, the melt is sandwiched between two slices of quartz avoiding any deformation

  20. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.


    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the Vesta magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear

  1. Magma mixing induced by particle settling (United States)

    Renggli, Christian J.; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; De Campos, Cristina P.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.


    A time series of experiments at high temperature have been performed to investigate the influence of particle settling on magma mixing. A natural rhyolite glass was held above a natural basalt glass in a platinum crucible. After melting of the glasses at superliquidus temperatures, a platinum sphere was placed on the upper surface of the rhyolitic melt and sank into the experimental column (rhyolitic melt above basaltic melt). Upon falling through the rhyolitic-basaltic melt interface, the Pt sphere entrained a filament of rhyolitic melt in its further fall. The quenched products of the experiments were imaged using X-ray microCT methods. The images of our time series of experiments document the formation of a rhyolite filament as it is entrained into the underlying basalt by the falling platinum sphere. When the Pt particle reached the bottom of the crucible, the entrained rhyolitic filament started to ascend buoyantly up to the initial rhyolitic-basaltic interface. This generated a significant thickness increase of a comingled "melange" layer at the interface due to "liquid rope coiling" and piling up of the filament. As a consequence, the basalt/rhyolite interface was greatly enlarged and diffusive hybridisation greatly accelerated. Further, bubbles, originating at the interface, are observed to have risen into the overlying rhyolite dragging basalt filaments with them. Upon crossing the basalt/rhyolite interface, the bubbles have non-spherical shapes as they adapt to the differing surface tensions of basaltic and rhyolitic melts. Major element profiles, measured across the rhyolite filaments, exhibit asymmetrical shapes from the rhyolite into the basalt. Na and Ti reveal uphill diffusion from the rhyolite towards the interface in the filament cross sections. These results reveal the potential qualitative complexity of the mingling process between rhyolitic and basaltic magmas in the presence of sinking crystals. They imply that crystal-rich magma mingling may

  2. The role of volatiles in the genesis of cenozoic magmatism in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica (United States)

    Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Bonadiman, Costanza; Ferlito, Carmelo; Zanetti, Alberto; Ottolini, Luisa


    3 to 7 % of melting (F) with a 5% of modal amphibole with the same composition and modal proportion of mantle xenoliths from Baker Rocks, a locality near to Shield Nunatak. The model was not able to predict the F content which is less abundant in natural sample. From the resulted partial melting percentage, we calculated a total amount of CO2 in mantle source of 273 ppm by assuming the highest 3900 ppm measured in MI as starting value. The estimated maximum content of H2O and CO2 in the primary melt is 2.6 wt% and 8800 ppm respectively. Obtained data were compared with those from mantle xenoliths from NVL with the aim to reconstruct the composition of the mantle source of the Cenozoic magmatism and to model the whole volatile budget from mantle to magmas starting from the measured volatile content in hydrous (amph) and NAM phases in mantle xenoliths. Preliminary results evidence that high-Fe-Ti-K basanites found in MI are very similar to the calculated metasomatic agent involved in the formation of the very peculiar Fe-rich lherzolites.

  3. A possible model for initiationof ULF oscillation in magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Nikitina


    Full Text Available During the period just prior to an earthquake, an electomagnetic emission develops over seismic zones. In this paper, a model of excitation of magnetic fields over zones of volcanic activity is proposed. Movement of magma along volcanic channels precedes an earthquake, hydrodynamic processes in the moving magma can lead to formation of waves and vortices in the flow which, in turn, can cause development of magnetic fields in conducting magma. During this period, the movement of the magma intensifies leading to a corresponding intensification of the magnetic fields. In this paper, different possible sources of ULF pulsation in magma are examined,and the variable geomagnetic fields induced by this pulsation are estimated.

  4. A new view of the He-Ar-CO 2 degassing at mid-ocean ridges: Homogeneous composition of magmas from the upper mantle (United States)

    Paonita, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro


    Deep-sea exploration is rapidly improving our understanding of volatiles geochemistry in mid-ocean-ridge igneous products. It is also placing greater constraints on degassing processes of the Earth's mantle, with the result that degassing models based on vapour-melt equilibrium are no longer able to explain the increasing number of data. In fact, such models force to postulate an upper mantle strongly heterogeneous at any scale, and cannot account for the widespread carbon supersaturation of the recovered igneous products. Here we review the global He-Ar-CO 2 dataset of fluid inclusions in mid-ocean-ridge glasses using the framework of advanced modelling of multicomponent bubble growth in magmas. We display that non-equilibrium fractionations among He, Ar and CO 2, driven by their different diffusivities in silicate melts, are common in most of the natural conditions of magma decompression and their signature strongly depends on pressure of degassing. Due to the comparable Ar and CO 2 diffusivity, magma degassing at low pressure fractionates both the He/Ar and He/CO 2 ratio by a similar extent, while the slower CO 2 diffusion at high pressure causes early kinetic effects on Ar/CO 2 ratio and dramatically changes the degassing path. On this ground, the very different geochemical signatures among suites of data coming from different ridge segments mainly depend on the depth of the magma chamber where the melt was stored. Besides, the variations inside a single suite highlight variable ascent speed and cooling rate of the emplaced lava. The large variations in both the He/CO 2 and Ar/CO 2 ratios at almost constant He/Ar, displayed in glasses coming from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 24-30°N segment and the Rodriguez Triple Junction, are therefore interpreted as a high-pressure signature. In contrast, the simultaneous increase in both He/CO 2 and He/Ar of the East Pacific Rise, Pito Seamount and South-East Indian Ridge data sets suggests the dominance of low

  5. Priming Silicic Giant Magma Bodies: Finding Evidence for Internal Forcing Versus External Triggering of Supereruptions by Phase Equilibria Modeling. (United States)

    Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Kennedy, B.


    It is important to understand what triggers silicic eruptions because of the implications for modern-day systems. The goal of this project is to use phase equilibria modeling (i.e. rhyolite-MELTS) to determine to what extent magmas within the crust are induced to erupt due to external triggers (e.g. earthquakes; new magma injection; neighboring eruptions) and to what extent they naturally evolve to a point where eruption is inevitable (e.g. by fluid exsolution and decrease in magma strength and density). Whole-rock compositions from four rhyolite tuffs across the globe associated with large or supereruptions (Mamaku Tuff, New Zealand; Peach Spring Tuff, SW USA; early and late-erupted Bishop Tuff, California; and Toba Tuff, Indonesia) are studied using rhyolite-MELTS modeling. Key physical properties of magma are strongly affected by the initial volatile content due to fluid exsolution. By running simulations with varying water contents, we can track the evolution of fluid exsolution during crystallization. Isobaric (constrained temperature change at constant pressure) and isochoric (constrained temperature change at constant volume) models were run for the four compositions. In constrained-pressure scenarios, fluid is free to exsolve as crystallization proceeds, and the total system volume can increase or decrease accordingly; this would require deformation of the surrounding crust to accommodate the magma volume change. In constrained-volume scenarios, bubble exsolution is limited to the volume change due to crystallization; in this case, pressure can decrease or increase (if bubbles are absent or present). For fixed-pressure scenarios, fluid exsolution is more extensive and leads to internal triggering, at least for fluid-saturated conditions; external triggering is more likely in fluid-undersaturated conditions. For fixed-volume scenarios, none of the systems cross a fragmentation threshold for the crystal contents typically observed in natural pumice. If

  6. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott


    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  7. Rejuvenation of shallow-crustal silicic magma bodies at Augustine and Hayes volcanoes, Alaska (United States)

    Coombs, M. L.; Vazquez, J. A.; Hayden, L. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Andersen, N. L.; Till, C. B.


    Rejuvenation of crystal-rich magma bodies leading to eruption can occur on a variety of scales and in varied tectonic settings. Two examples from the Aleutian arc highlight 1) segregation of silicic melt from an intermediate mush, and 2) "defrosting" of a shallowly emplaced intrusion. Augustine Volcano erupted a late Pleistocene rhyolite pumice fall that we link through zircon geochronology to cumulate dioritic blocks, ripped from Augustine's shallow magmatic plumbing system and ejected during the 2006 eruption. Unpolished zircon rims from the rhyolite yield a U-Th age of ~25 ka, and interiors yield a dominant age population of ~26 ka. Zircons from diorites have interior ages and compositions indistinguishable from those of the rhyolite. The diorites, rhyolite, and early Holocene dacites define whole-rock linear unmixing trends consistent with melt (rhyolite) extraction from a mush (dacites), leaving behind a cumulate residue (diorites). A volatile-rich basalt erupted just prior to the rhyolite likely facilitated melt extraction from the mush. The rhyolitic Hayes River ignimbrite, erupted from Hayes volcano, contains dense porphyry blocks that match pumices in composition and phenocryst content and are samples of a shallow intrusion. Autocrystic monazite accommodated up to several weight % Th and significantly affected the U-Th ratio of the magma during differentiation. An isochron for early melt and low-U monazites yields an age of ~67 ka, whereas one for late melt and high-U monazites yields ~42 ka. This younger age is indistinguishable from the laser single crystal Ar-Ar age for sanidine of 41±2 ka (1 sigma). We interpret the apparent ~25 k.y. crystallization interval to represent the assembly and differentiation timescale associated with the Hayes magma body. Sharp reverse zoning in sanidine from pumice (but not porphyry) records a thermal pulse not seen in the more slowly reacting phases, suggesting that a rejuvenation event occurred just prior to eruption.

  8. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.


    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  9. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  10. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo


    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  11. A decadal view of magma fragmentation (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.


    Although the past decade has seen fundamental advances in studies of explosive volcanism, the disruption to air traffic caused by the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, highlights the need for improved understanding of magmatic fragmentation in general, and of fine ash generation in particular. To develop a theoretical basis for predicting the fine ash content of eruptive plumes, we need to understand not only fragmentation mechanisms but also the dependence of those mechanisms on conditions of magma ascent and degassing. Experimental and analytical approaches to this problem include experimental studies of vesiculation and permeability development in silicic melts, quantitative textural studies of pyroclasts to constrain conditions that reduce fragmentation efficiency (that is, allow vesicular clasts to be preserved), direct experiments on fragmentation in both natural and analog materials, and determination of total grain size distributions (TGSDs) of pyroclastic deposits. Experiments on silicic melts have demonstrated that very high supersaturations (overpressures ΔP) may be achieved in silicic melts prior to homogeneous bubble nucleation, and that the high bubble number densities of silicic pumice require not only homogeneous nucleation but also nucleation of a mixed H2O-CO2 gas phase. In most pumice and scoria clasts, resulting vesicle populations form power law size distributions; power law exponents >3 in silicic tephras indicate that small vesicles comprise most of the vesicle volume (consistent with rapid late-stage vesiculation at high ΔP), while exponents 60-70%) and show no dependence on either melt composition or mass eruption rate; this suggests that melt porosity is more important than either decompression rate or magma rheology for clast preservation. These pyroclasts also have uniformly high permeabilities, high pore connectivity, and simple porous pathways, all of which suggest that ease of gas escape also contributed to clast

  12. The three stages of magma ocean cooling (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.


    Models of magma ocean (MO) cooling and crystallization can provide important constraints on MO plausibility for a given planet, on the origin of long term, stable crusts, and even on the origin of the solar system. Assuming the MO is initially extensive enough to have a mostly molten surface, its first stage of cooling is an era of radiative heat loss from the surface, with extremely rapid convection below, and no conductive layer in between. The development of the chill crust starts the second stage of MO cooling. Heat loss is now limited by conduction through the crust. The third stage of cooling starts when the near surface MO evolves compositionally to the point of saturation with feldspar. At this point, the cooling rate again precipitously diminishes, the rate of crustal thickness growth as a function of temperature suddenly increases. More work on incorporating chemical constraints into the evolving physical models of MO solidification would be worthwhile.

  13. Time-resolved seismic tomography detects magma intrusions at Mount Etna. (United States)

    Patanè, D; Barberi, G; Cocina, O; De Gori, P; Chiarabba, C


    The continuous volcanic and seismic activity at Mount Etna makes this volcano an important laboratory for seismological and geophysical studies. We used repeated three-dimensional tomography to detect variations in elastic parameters during different volcanic cycles, before and during the October 2002-January 2003 flank eruption. Well-defined anomalous low P- to S-wave velocity ratio volumes were revealed. Absent during the pre-eruptive period, the anomalies trace the intrusion of volatile-rich (>/=4 weight percent) basaltic magma, most of which rose up only a few months before the onset of eruption. The observed time changes of velocity anomalies suggest that four-dimensional tomography provides a basis for more efficient volcano monitoring and short- and midterm eruption forecasting of explosive activity.

  14. MAGMA: a multiagent architecture for metaheuristics. (United States)

    Milano, Michela; Roli, Andrea


    In this work, we introduce a multiagent architecture called the MultiAGent Metaheuristic Architecture (MAGMA) conceived as a conceptual and practical framework for metaheuristic algorithms. Metaheuristics can be seen as the result of the interaction among different kinds of agents: The basic architecture contains three levels, each hosting one or more agents. Level-0 agents build solutions, level-1 agents improve solutions, and level-2 agents provide the high level strategy. In this framework, classical metaheuristic algorithms can be smoothly accommodated and extended. The basic three level architecture can be enhanced with the introduction of a fourth level of agents (level-3 agents) coordinating lower level agents. With this additional level, MAGMA can also describe, in a uniform way, cooperative search and, in general, any combination of metaheuristics. We describe the entire architecture, the structure of agents in each level in terms of tuples, and the structure of their coordination as a labeled transition system. We propose this perspective with the aim to achieve a better and clearer understanding of metaheuristics, obtain hybrid algorithms, suggest guidelines for a software engineering-oriented implementation and for didactic purposes. Some specializations of the general architecture will be provided in order to show that existing metaheuristics [e.g., greedy randomized adaptive procedure (GRASP), ant colony optimization (ACO), iterated local search (ILS), memetic algorithms (MAs)] can be easily described in our framework. We describe cooperative search and large neighborhood search (LNS) in the proposed framework exploiting level-3 agents. We show also that a simple hybrid algorithm, called guided restart ILS, can be easily conceived as a combination of existing components in our framework.

  15. A Synthesis of Experimental Data Describing the Partitioning of Moderately Volatile Elements in Major Rock Forming Minerals: Implications for the Moon (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; Draper, David S.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey


    Highly volatile elements [condensation temperatures below about 700 K] and water are highly informative about lunar bulk composition (hence origin), differentiation and magmatic evolution, and the role of impacts in delivering volatiles to the Moon. Fractionation of volatile elements compared to moderately volatile and refractory elements are informative about high-temperature conditions that operated in the proto-lunar disk. Existing data show clearly that the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the bulk silicate Earth. For example, K/Th is 400-700 in the Moon compared to 2800-3000 in Earth. A complicating factor is that the abundances of the highly volatile elements in major lunar lithologies vary by approximately two orders of magnitude. Perhaps most interesting, H2O is not correlated with the concentration of volatile elements, indicating a decoupling of highly volatile elements from the even more volatile H2O. We contend that this decoupling could be a significant tracer of processes operating during lunar formation, differentiation, and bombardment, and the combination of analyzing both volatile elements and water is likely to provide significant insight into lunar geochemical history. This variation and lack of correlation raises the question: what were the relative contributions of crystallization in the magma ocean, subsequent mantle overturn, production of secondary magmas, and addition of volatiles by large impacts in producing this apparently large range in volatile abundances? This current study will produce new partitioning data relevant to the role and distribution of the volatile and non-volatile, yet geochemically significant elements (Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Ce, Yb, Tl, Pb, Bi) during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  16. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille


    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  17. Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid


    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine

  18. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo


    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  19. The Non-Newtonian Rheology of Real Magmas: insights into 3D microstructures (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Caricchi, L.; Ulmer, P.; Reusser, E.; Marone, F.; Burlini, L.


    thinning. These non-Newtonian effects can be reconciled with the observed microstructures. Shear thinning is related to an evident crystal size reduction and subsequent generation of shear bands, where deformation is predominantly accommodated. Shear thickening occurs when bubbles coalesce and gas-channels are produced thereby promoting magma degassing and resulting in an increase of viscosity due to volatile loss. In both cases, whether magmas are weakened or strengthened, finally, they result liable to fracture, if the strain rate is sufficiently incremented. BIBLIOGRAPHY Paterson, M.S., Olgaard, D.L. (2000). Rock deformation tests to large shear strains in torsion. Journal of Structural Geology 22, 1341-1358. Stampanoni, M., Groso, A., Isenegger, A., Mikuljan, G., Chen, Q., Bertrand, A., Henein, S., Betemps, R., Frommherz, U., Böhler, P., Meister, D., Lange, M., Abela, R. (2006). Trends in synchrotron-based tomographic imaging: the SLS experience. Proceedings of SPIE 6318, 1-14. Webb, S.L., Dingwell, D.B. (1990). Non-Newtonian rheology of igneous melts at high stresses and strain rates: experimental results for rhyolite, andesite, basalt and nephelinite. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (B10), 15695-15701.

  20. Phlogopite and K-amphibole in the upper mantle: Implication for magma genesis in subduction zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Akira; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))


    High-pressure phase relations have been examined for phlogopite + diopside with and without enstatite under vapor absent conditions in the pressure range of 5 to 13 GPa and in the temperature range of 1,000 to 1,300C. Phlogopite in these systems can be stable up to 6-7 GPa and decomposes through pressure-dependent reactions to crystallize phases including potassic amphibole. The experimental results suggest that phlogopite, which is one of main hydrous phases in the downdragged hydrated peridotite at the base of mantle wedge, plays an important role in the formation of magmas at the backarc side of a volcanic arc. The existence of potassic amphibole at higher pressure regions may imply the involvement of subduction component in magma generation in the region far away from the trench axis.

  1. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  2. MAGMA: analysis of two-channel microarrays made easy. (United States)

    Rehrauer, Hubert; Zoller, Stefan; Schlapbach, Ralph


    The web application MAGMA provides a simple and intuitive interface to identify differentially expressed genes from two-channel microarray data. While the underlying algorithms are not superior to those of similar web applications, MAGMA is particularly user friendly and can be used without prior training. The user interface guides the novice user through the most typical microarray analysis workflow consisting of data upload, annotation, normalization and statistical analysis. It automatically generates R-scripts that document MAGMA's entire data processing steps, thereby allowing the user to regenerate all results in his local R installation. The implementation of MAGMA follows the model-view-controller design pattern that strictly separates the R-based statistical data processing, the web-representation and the application logic. This modular design makes the application flexible and easily extendible by experts in one of the fields: statistical microarray analysis, web design or software development. State-of-the-art Java Server Faces technology was used to generate the web interface and to perform user input processing. MAGMA's object-oriented modular framework makes it easily extendible and applicable to other fields and demonstrates that modern Java technology is also suitable for rather small and concise academic projects. MAGMA is freely available at

  3. New approach on volatile contents determination in silicate melt inclusions: A coupling X-ray microtomography and geochemical approach in Los Humeros caldera complex (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt) (United States)

    Creon, L.; Levresse, G.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.


    Volatile contents and magma degassing behavior are known to affect the style, frequency, and intensity of near-surface magmatic processes. For this reason, much effort have been devoted to characterize the volatile evolution of shallow magmatic systems to better constrain volcanic history. Silicate melt inclusions (SMI) represent samples of melt that were isolated from the bulk magma at depth, thus preserving the PTX conditions of the pre-eruptive material. SMI are often affected by the formation of a bubble after trapping; this is a natural consequence of the PVTX properties of crystal-melt-volatile systems. Previous workers have recognized that bubble formation is an obstacle, which affects the interpretation of SMI trapping conditions based only on analysis of the glass phase. Indeed, they explained that bubbles can contain a significant percentage of the volatiles, particularly for those with low solubility in the melt (e.g. CO2). In this study, we propose to define the pre-eruptive PTX conditions of Los Humeros magma chamber using SMI from the various eruption events within 460 and 30 Ka. An innovative analytical coupling has been used in order to determine: (1) the volume of the SMI glass and bubble, using high resolution 3D X-ray microtomography; (2) the density and composition of the bubbles, using Raman spectroscopy; (3) the volatile element contents in glass, using NanoSIMS; and, (4) the major elements composition of the glass, using EPMA. The recalculated volatile concentrations of the total SMI (glass + bubble), illustrate clearly that the volatile content determinations using only the glass phase, underestimate drastically the total volatile content and therefore induce significant error on the determination of the pre-eruptive volcanic budget and on the constrain on the volcanic and thermal history. This study had moreover highlighted the complex evolution of Los Humeros composite magma chamber and, gave constrains for geothermal exploration purpose.

  4. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail:


    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  5. Transient numerical model of magma ascent dynamics: application to the explosive eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano (United States)

    La Spina, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.


    Volcanic activity exhibits a wide range of eruption styles, from relatively slow effusive eruptions that produce lava flows and lava domes, to explosive eruptions that can inject large volumes of fragmented magma and volcanic gases high into the atmosphere. Although controls on eruption style and scale are not fully understood, previous research suggests that the dynamics of magma ascent in the shallow subsurface (systems. The model is novel in that it implements finite rates of volatile exsolution and velocity and pressure relaxation between the phases. We validate the model against a simple two-phase Riemann problem, the Air-Water Shock Tube problem, which contains strong shock and rarefaction waves. We then use the model to explore the role of the aforementioned finite rates in controlling eruption style and duration, within the context of two types of eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: Vulcanian and sub-Plinian eruptions. Exsolution, pressure, and velocity relaxation rates all appear to exert important controls on eruption duration. More significantly, however, a single finite exsolution rate characteristic of the Soufrière Hills magma composition is able to produce both end-member eruption durations observed in nature. The duration therefore appears to be largely controlled by the timescales available for exsolution, which depend on dynamic processes such as ascent rate and fragmentation wave speed.

  6. Primary magmas and mantle temperatures through time (United States)

    Ganne, Jérôme; Feng, Xiaojun


    Chemical composition of mafic magmas is a critical indicator of physicochemical conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and fluid availability, accompanying melt production in the mantle and its evolution in the continental or oceanic lithosphere. Recovering this information has fundamental implications in constraining the thermal state of the mantle and the physics of mantle convection throughout the Earth's history. Here a statistical approach is applied to a geochemical database of about 22,000 samples from the mafic magma record. Potential temperatures (Tps) of the mantle derived from this database, assuming melting by adiabatic decompression and a Ti-dependent (Fe2O3/TiO2 = 0.5) or constant redox condition (Fe2+/∑Fe = 0.9 or 0.8) in the magmatic source, are thought to be representative of different thermal "horizons" (or thermal heterogeneities) in the ambient mantle, ranging in depth from a shallow sublithospheric mantle (Tp minima) to a lower thermal boundary layer (Tp maxima). The difference of temperature (ΔTp) observed between Tp maxima and minima did not change significantly with time (˜170°C). Conversely, a progressive but limited cooling of ˜150°C is proposed since ˜2.5 Gyr for the Earth's ambient mantle, which falls in the lower limit proposed by Herzberg et al. [2010] (˜150-250°C hotter than today). Cooling of the ambient mantle after 2.5 Ga is preceded by a high-temperature plateau evolution and a transition from dominant plumes to a plate tectonics geodynamic regime, suggesting that subductions stabilized temperatures in the Archaean mantle that was in warming mode at that time.abstract type="synopsis">Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's upper mantle constitutes a major interface between inner and outer envelops of the planet. We explore at high resolution its thermal state evolution (potential temperature of the ambient mantle, Tp) in depth and time using a multi-dimensional database of mafic lavas chemistry (>22,000 samples formed in

  7. Optimisation of a complete method for the analysis of volatiles involved in the flavour stability of beer by solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R


    Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used for the quantification of 32 volatiles which represent the typical chemical reactions that can occur during beer ageing. Detection was accomplished by employing on-fibre derivatisation using o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and normal HS-SPME extraction. The procedures were optimised for SPME fibre selection, PFBHA loading temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and effect of salt addition. Interference of matrix effects was overcome by calibrating according to the standard addition method and by using internal standards. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully and was applied to study the flavour stability of different beer types.

  8. New perspectives on primary magmas and related mantle sources from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) (United States)

    Alesci, Giuseppe; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Ferlito, Carmelo


    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcano in the world and the understanding of its eruptive dynamics is fundamental to reduce volcanic risk related to the frequent volcanic events. In this respect the complete evolution of Mt. Etna magmatismand the reconstruction of its mantle source was considered performing a detailed sampling from Tholeiitic to Recent Mongibello periods. Backward mass balance fractionation models, starting from real and primitive analyzed magmas, allowed to reconstruct the "primary" and un-fractionated melt compositions.The Tholeiitic suite did not necessitate a backward reconstruction for the presence of real primary un-fractionated compositions. The least differentiated products for each alkaline period were identified and about 17 to 19% of a solid assemblage made up of Ol (87 to 100%) and Cpx (up to 13%) was added to re-equilibrate the basalts with mantle olivine (Fo87). A further subtraction of an average 23.3% of a solid assemblage constituted by Ol (7-18%), Cpx (26-55%) and Plag (21-48%) is needed to get to the most differentiated erupted lavas. To reach the most evolved terms ishypothesized the involvement of 27% Ol, 14% Cpx, 29% Opx, 15% Plg and 15% Cr-sp for a total amount of 53.1% of Gabbroic material.On average an estimation of about 40% of material should be considered beneath the volcanic edifice taking into account the entire volume of the products emitted by the volcano. Thus if according to [1] the whole volcano edifice amounts to about 370 km3, about 150 km3 of magma should be left behind from the magma on its way from the mantle to the surface. Although Etnean alkaline lavas appear enriched in K, Rb, Th and U and depleted in Ti, Y and Yb with respect to the Iblean magmas, their overall composition appear quite similar.Thus partial melting models were developed for each Etnean magmatic period, based on a mantle composition similar to that of the nearbyIblean lithosphere. Results indicate twodifferent sources for Tholeiitic

  9. Isotopic Disequilibrium and High-Crystallinity Magma Ascent: Clues to the Temporal Restriction of Proterozoic Anorthosites (United States)

    Bybee, G. M.


    Many Proterozoic anorthosite massifs show crustal isotopic signatures that have fuelled debate regarding the source (mantle vs. lower crust) of these temporally restricted magmas. The models advocating a mantle derivation for these rocks suggest that lower crustal assimilation plays an important role in developing the isotopic signature of the massifs, but no evidence exists to support this. We make use of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of anorthosites from the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite (MMIS), the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) and the Rogaland Anorthosite Province (RAP), their internal mineral phases and comagmatic, high-pressure pyroxene megacrysts, which represent samples from various stages of the polybaric ascent of the magmas, to probe the origin of the crustal isotopic signatures and assess the importance of differentiation at lower crustal depths. Study of the MMIS and NPS is instructive as each is intruded into crust of significantly different age and isotopic composition. We observe varying degrees of internal isotopic disequilibrium, enforcing the notion that the nature of the crustal assimilant has a profound influence on the chemical signature of the magmas (Fig. 1). We also find unexpected patterns of internal isotopic disequilibrium, such as isotopically depleted orthopyroxene relative to plagioclase (Fig. 1), which suggests that anorthosite petrogenesis is not a "simple" case of progressive crustal contamination during polybaric magma ascent, but is more likely to involve significant differentiation and solidification at lower crust depths. The 100 m.y. magmatic timescales observed in these anorthosite systems may be caused by significant magmatic differentiation at Moho/lower crustal levels, as well as formation in long-lived arc environments. These long-lived magmatic timescales contrast with recent observations suggesting that the duration of magma ascent from the Moho to surface in arc environments is on the order of months to years. Such

  10. H2O and CO2 in magmas from the Mariana arc and back arc systems (United States)

    Newman, Sally; Stolper, Edward; Stern, Robert


    We examined the H2O and CO2 contents of glasses from lavas and xenoliths from the Mariana arc system, an intraoceanic convergent margin in the western Pacific, which contains an active volcanic arc, an actively spreading back arc basin, and active behind-the-arc cross-chain volcanoes. Samples include (1) glass rims from Mariana arc, Mariana trough, and cross-chain submarine lavas; (2) glass inclusions in arc and trough phenocrysts; and (3) glass inclusions from a gabbro + anorthosite xenolith from Agrigan (Mariana arc). Glass rims of submarine arc lavas contain 0.3-1.9 wt % H2O, and CO2 is below detection limits. Where they could be compared, glass inclusions in arc phenocrysts contain more H2O than their host glasses; most arc glasses and phenocryst inclusions contain no detectable CO2, with the exception of those from a North Hiyoshi shoshonite, which contains 400-600 ppm. The glass inclusions from the Agrigan xenolith contain 4-6% H2O, and CO2 is below the detection limit. Glasses from the cross-chain lavas are similar to those from the arc: H2O contents are 1.4-1.7 wt %, and CO2 is below detection limits. Volatile contents in Mariana trough lava glass rims are variable: 0.2-2.8 wt % H2O and 0-300 ppm CO2. Glass inclusions from trough phenocrysts have water contents similar to the host glass, but they can contain up to 875 ppm CO2. Volatile contents of melt inclusions from trough and arc lavas and from the xenolith imply minimum depths of crystallization of ~1-8 km. H2O and CO2 contents of Mariana trough glasses are negatively correlated, indicating saturation of the erupting magma with a CO2-H2O vapor at the pressure of eruption (~400 bars for these samples), with the vapor ranging from nearly pure CO2 at the CO2-rich end of the glass array to nearly pure H2O at the H2O-rich end. Degassing of these magmas on ascent and eruption leads to significant loss of CO2 (thereby masking preeruptive CO2 contents) but minimal disturbance of preeruptive H2O contents. For

  11. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  12. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L


    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  13. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier


    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  14. Time scales of crystal mixing in magma mushes (United States)

    Schleicher, Jillian M.; Bergantz, George W.; Breidenthal, Robert E.; Burgisser, Alain


    Magma mixing is widely recognized as a means of producing compositional diversity and preconditioning magmas for eruption. However, the processes and associated time scales that produce the commonly observed expressions of magma mixing are poorly understood, especially under crystal-rich conditions. Here we introduce and exemplify a parameterized method to predict the characteristic mixing time of crystals in a crystal-rich magma mush that is subject to open-system reintrusion events. Our approach includes novel numerical simulations that resolve multiphase particle-fluid interactions. It also quantifies the crystal mixing by calculating both the local and system-wide progressive loss of the spatial correlation of individual crystals throughout the mixing region. Both inertial and viscous time scales for bulk mixing are introduced. Estimated mixing times are compared to natural examples and the time for basaltic mush systems to become well mixed can be on the order of 10 days.

  15. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian


    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  16. A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen


    Full Text Available Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion. Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms. Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species. However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study (Chen, et al. mBio (2015, 6: e00392-15, we demonstrated that the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses acetic acid as a volatile signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation within physically separated cells in the community. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation. Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication.

  17. A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Chai, Yunrong


    Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion. Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms. Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species. However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study (Chen, et al. mBio (2015), 6: e00392-15), we demonstrated that the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses acetic acid as a volatile signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation within physically separated cells in the community. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation. Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication.

  18. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie


    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  19. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.


    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  20. Magma Rich Events at Magma-Poor Rifted Margins: A South-East Indian Example (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Horn, Brian


    The south-east Indian continental rifted margin, as imaged by the INE1-1000 deep long-offset seismic reflection section by ION Geophysical, is a classic example of a magma-poor rifted margin, showing highly thinned continental crust, or possibly exhumed mantle, within the ocean-continent transition (OCT). Outboard, the steady-state oceanic crust is between 4 and 5 km thickness, consistent with magma-poor continental breakup and sea-floor spreading. It is therefore surprising that between the hyper-extended crust showing thin or absent continental crust (of approximately 75 km width) and the anomalously thin steady-state oceanic crust, there appears to be a region of thicker magmatic crust of approximately 11 km thickness and 100 km width. Magmatic events, at or just after continental breakup, have also been observed at other magma-poor rifted margins (e.g. NE Brazil). This interpretation of magma-poor OCT structure and thinner than global average oceanic crust separated by thicker magmatic crust on the SE Indian margin is supported by gravity inversion; which uses a 3D spectral technique and includes a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping, gives a small negative value (approximately -0.1 km) over the steady-state oceanic crust compared with a positive value (approximately +0.3 km) over the thicker magmatic crust. This RDA difference is consistent with the variation in crustal thickness seen by the seismic reflection interpretation and gravity inversion. We use joint inversion of the time domain seismic reflection and gravity data to investigate the average basement density and seismic velocity of the anomalously thick magmatic crust. An initial comparison of Moho depth from deep long-offset seismic reflection data and gravity inversion suggests that its basement density and seismic velocity are slightly less than that of the outboard steady-state oceanic

  1. Il magma costitutivo dell'immaginario sociale contemporaneo: vivere e pensare il magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro


    Full Text Available La figura dell’Etna, sede della redazione di M@gm@, ha sollecitato un’immaginazione straordinaria durante la creazione del progetto editoriale avviato nel 2002, stimolando il coraggio di un’esperienza entusiasmante e appassionata dalla logica del magma del vulcano fonte di una poetica che ha alimentato, grazie alla sua sintassi metaforica, la costituzione di un progetto e di spazi alternativi. Celebriamo in quest’occasione il sesto anniversario della rivista, dedicando un numero ai contributi proposti dagli associati d’ (il progetto dell’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi, l’Associazione culturale scientifica che pubblica la rivista ed i membri della redazione.

  2. Volatile Solubilities in Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Phonolite Melt and New Insights on Degassing of Sulfur, Chlorine, and Water (United States)

    Webster, J. D.; Sintoni, M. F.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.


    To better understand volatile exsolution, degassing, and eruptive processes in subduction-related magmas, we have conducted thirty H2O plus S plus Cl solubility experiments with phonolite melt at 905 to 1000 deg. C, 200 MPa, and relatively oxidizing conditions. The experiments include an 8000-year old Mt. Somma-Vesuvius phonolite, distilled H2O, NaCl, KCl, and CaSO4, and they involve a new method of constraining the concentration of S in the run-product fluids. Unlike prior S-solubility experiments, the S concentration in fluid is determined as proportional to the mass loss of the anhydrite crystals in the starting charges of the experiments. This method provides accurate S contents of fluids. The H2O, Cl, and S concentrations of the phonolitic glasses of our experiments range from 4 to 8, 0.38 to 0.84, and 0.01 to 0.19 wt.%, respectively. Sulfur solubility increases with increasing CaO and FeO (total iron) in melt, decreasing Cl and K2O in melt, decreasing Cl in fluid(s), and with increasing oxygen fugacity values greater than NNO. Chlorine solubility in melt increases with decreasing S content of melt and decreasing S and H2O in the coexisting fluid(s). Water solubility in melt shows no systematic variation with melt composition, but varies strongly with the composition of fluids. The partition coefficients (wt.% of X in fluid[s]/wt.% of X in phonolitic melt) range from 40 to > 200 for S and from 12 to 87 for Cl. At pressure-temperature-oxygen fugacity conditions similar to those of this study, these partition coefficients are equivalent to those determined previously for natural equilibria involving andesite melt plus Cl-free, S-bearing aqueous fluid (Scaillet and Pichavant, 2003) and experimental equilibria with andesite melt plus S-free, Cl-bearing aqueous fluid (Webster et al., 1999), respectively. Our research also shows that these partition coefficients for S and Cl are inversely proportional to one another. Silicate melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts

  3. Diapiric ascent of silicic magma beneath the Bolivian Altiplano


    Del Potro, R.; M. Díez; Blundy, J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Gottsmann, Joachim


    The vertical transport of large volumes of silicic magma, which drives volcanic eruptions and the long-term compositional evolution of the continental crust, is a highly debated problem. In recent years, dyking has been favored as the main ascent mechanism, but the structural connection between a distributed configuration of melt-filled pores in the source region and shallow magma reservoirs remains unsolved. In the Central Andes, inversion of a new high-resolution Bouguer anomaly data over t...

  4. Low-(18)O Silicic Magmas: Why Are They So Rare?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsley, S.D.; Gregory, R.T.


    LOW-180 silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of 10W-l `O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense 10W-l*O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km3) have plagioclase 6180 values of 6.8 + 0.1%., whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase 8]80 values between 5.5 and 6.8%o. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3%0 relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5%o depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone 10W-180 rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the 10W-l 80 Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of 10W-180 material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyrins bejiire the magmatic 180 can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 180 subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small- volume, 10W-180 magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.

  5. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  6. Prolonged ascent and episodic venting of discrete magma batches at the onset of the Huckleberry Ridge supereruption, Yellowstone (United States)

    Myers, Madison L.; Wallace, Paul J.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Morter, Beth K.; Swallow, Elliot J.


    How exceedingly large, volcanic supereruptions begin provides crucial information on the storage, ascent and release of silica-rich magma in catastrophic events. Initial fall deposits of the 2.08 Ma, 2500 km3 Huckleberry Ridge eruption are multiply bedded and in several places contain reworked intervals, indicating time breaks in the opening phases of the eruption. A 2.5 m section of these fall deposits was sampled at nine levels below the earliest ignimbrite (member A) at Mount Everts (Mammoth, Wyoming). We analyzed major and trace elements and volatiles in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), reentrants (REs; unsealed melt inclusions) and associated obsidian pyroclasts (thick-walled shards) to establish quartz crystallization and storage depths and melt compositional groupings. Systematic relationships between Rb and other incompatible elements (U, Cl, B) indicate ∼55% fractional crystallization between the least and most evolved glass compositions. In contrast, H2O concentrations in MIs show scattered relationships with trace elements and are interpreted to reflect variable loss of H2O by diffusion through the quartz host during magma ascent. The wide H2O variations (1.0-4.7 wt.%) in MIs from individual fall horizons imply as much as ∼14 days of diffusive loss, reflecting highly variable and surprisingly slow decompression conditions. Water and CO2 gradients in reentrants, however, are consistent with final ascent times of obsidian pyroclasts, by comparison, show that by the onset of eruption, the quartz had been brought together into three discrete magma bodies, which we interpret to have been cupolas on the roof of the main magma body. These cupolas were erupted sequentially and episodically from separate vents to generate the fall deposits before escalating activity led to generation of voluminous pyroclastic flows, and this pattern of activity suggests that tectonic triggering may have destabilized multiple magma bodies. Supereruptions as large as the

  7. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua. (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.


    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  8. Crystallization and Cooling of a Deep Silicate Magma Ocean (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron


    Impact and accretion simulations of terrestrial planet formation suggest that giant impacts are both common and expected to produce extensive melting. The moon-forming impact, for example, likely melted the majority of Earth's mantle to produce a global magma ocean that subsequently cooled and crystallised. Understanding the cooling process is critical to determining magma ocean lifetimes and recognising possible remnant signatures of the magma ocean in present-day mantle heterogeneities. Modelling this evolution is challenging, however, due to the vastly different timescales and lengthscales associated with turbulent convection (magma ocean) and viscous creep (present-day mantle), in addition to uncertainties in material properties and chemical partitioning. We consider a simplified spherically-symmetric (1-D) magma ocean to investigate both its evolving structure and cooling timescale. Extending the work of Abe (1993), mixing-length theory is employed to determine convective heat transport, producing a high resolution model that parameterises the ultra-thin boundary layer (few cms) at the surface of the magma ocean. The thermodynamics of mantle melting are represented using a pseudo-one-component model, which retains the simplicity of a standard one-component model while introducing a finite temperature interval for melting. This model is used to determine the cooling timescale for a variety of plausible thermodynamic models, with special emphasis on comparing the center-outwards vs bottom-up cooling scenarios that arise from the assumed EOS.

  9. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems (United States)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio


    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  10. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  11. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.


    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than

  12. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...

  13. Genesis of emulsion texture due to magma mixing: a case study from Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex of Eastern India (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    The emulsion texture is a rare magma mixing feature in which rounded bodies of one magmatic phase remain dispersed in the other coherent phase (Freundt and Schmincke, 1992). This type of special texture in hybrid rocks can significantly contribute toward understanding the mechanisms facilitating magma mixing and magma chamber dynamics involving two disparate magmas as the exact processes by which mixing occurs still remain unclear. Recent developments in microfluidics have greatly helped us to understand the complex processes governing magma mixing occurring at micro-level. Presented work uses some of the results obtained from microfluidic experiments with a view to understand the formation mechanism of emulsions preserved in the hybrid rocks of the Ghansura Rhyolite Dome (GRD) of Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC), Eastern India. The GRD has preserved hybrid rocks displaying emulsion texture that formed due to the interaction of a phenocryst-rich basaltic magma and host rhyolite magma. The emulsions are more or less spherical in shape and dominantly composed of amphibole having biotite rinds set in a matrix of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Amphibole compositions were determined from the core of the emulsions to the rim with a view to check for cationic substitutions. The amphibole constituting the emulsions is actinolite in composition, and commonly shows tschermakite (Ts) and pargasite (Prg) substitutions. From petrographical and mineral-chemical analyses we infer that when mafic magma, containing phenocrysts of augite, came in contact with felsic magma, diffusion of cations like H+, Al3+and others occurred from the felsic to the mafic system. These cations reacted with the clinopyroxene phenocrysts in the mafic magma to form amphibole (actinolite) crystals. The formation of amphibole crystals in the mafic system greatly increased the viscosity of the system allowing the amphibole crystals to venture into the adjacent felsic

  14. Stock markets liberalization affects volatility?


    Ioan Alin NISTOR; Maria-Lenuţa CIUPAC-ULICI; GHERMAN Mircea-Cristian


    Regarding the impact of liberalization, the results show that, in general, market opening is accompanied by a significant increase in market volatility. In particular, volatility tends to decrease due to large capital inflows and domestic growth.The study analyzes the impact of stock market liberalization on volatility in six emerging stock markets by using GARCH methodology. Theory on the effects of financial liberalization on volatility has been ambiguous, and empirical work has yielded con...

  15. Timing of Magma Mixing in the Gangdisê Magmatic Belt during the India-Asia Collision:Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Xuanxue; DONG Guochen; ZHAO Zhidan; GUO Tieying; WANG Liangliang; CHEN Tao


    Abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) extensively distribute in granitoids in the Gangdisê giant magmatic belt, within which the Quxu batholith is the most typical MME-bearing pluton. Systematic sampling for granodioritic host rock, mafic microgranular enclaves and gabbro nearby at two locations in the Quxu batholith, and subsequent zircon SHRIMP Ⅱ U-Pb dating have been conducted. Two sets of isotopic ages for granodioritic host rock,mafic microgranular enclaves and gabbro are 50.4±1.3 Ma, 51.2±1.1 Ma, 47.0±1 Ma and 49.3±1.7 Ma, 48.9±1.1 Ma,49.9±1.7 Ma, respectively. It thus rules out the possibilities of mafic microgranular enclaves being refractory residues after partial melting of magma source region, or being xenoliths of country rocks or later intrusions.Therefore, it is believed that the three types of rocks mentioned above likely formed in the same magmatic event, i.e., they formed by magma mixing in the Eocene (c. 50 Ma). Compositionally, granitoid host rocks incline towards acidic end member involved in magma mixing, gabbros are akin to basic end member and mafic microgranular enclaves are the incompletely mixed basic magma clots trapped in acidic magma. The isotopic dating also suggested that huge-scale magma mixing in the Gangdise belt took place 15-20 million years after the initiation of the India-Asia continental collision, genetically related to the underplating of subduction-collision-induced basic magma at the base of the continental crust. Underplating and magma mixing were likely the main process of mass-energy exchange between the mantle and the crust during the continental collision, and greatly contributed to the accretion of the continental crust, the evolution of the lithosphere and related mineralization beneath the portion of the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the collision zone.

  16. Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and glass in dacite magmas erupted in 1980-1986 and 2005 at Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Underwood, S.J.; Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.


    In active, shallow, sub-volcanic magma conduits the extent of the dehydrogenation–oxidation reaction in amphibole phenocrysts is controlled by energetic processes that cause crystal lattice damage or conditions that increase hydrogen diffusivity in magmatic phases. Amphibole phenocrysts separated from dacitic volcanic rocks erupted from 1980 to 1986 and in 2005 at Mount St. Helens (MSH) were analyzed for δD, water content and Fe3+/Fe2+, and fragments of glassy groundmass were analyzed for δD and water content. Changes in amphibole δD values through time are evaluated within the context of carefully observed volcanic eruption behavior and published petrological and geochemical investigations. Driving forces for amphibole dehydrogenation include increase in magma oxygen fugacity, decrease in amphibole hydrogen fugacity, or both. The phenocryst amphibole (δD value c. –57‰ and 2 wt % H2O) in the white fallout pumice of the May 18, 1980 plinian eruptive phase is probably little modified during rapid magma ascent up an ∼7 km conduit. Younger volcanic rocks incorporate some shallowly degassed dacitic magma from earlier pulses, based on amphibole phenocryst populations that exhibit varying degrees of dehydrogenation. Pyroclastic rocks from explosive eruptions in June–October 1980 have elevated abundances of mottled amphibole phenocrysts (peaking in some pyroclastic rocks erupted on July 22, 1980), and extensive amphibole dehydrogenation is linked to crystal damage from vesiculation and pyroclastic fountain collapse that increased effective hydrogen diffusion in amphibole. Multiple amphibole δD populations in many 1980 pyroclastic rocks combined with their groundmass characteristics (e.g. mixed pumice textures) support models of shallow mixing prior to, or during, eruption as new, volatile-rich magma pulses blended with more oxidized, degassed magma. Amphibole dehydrogenation is quenched at the top surface of MSH dacite lava lobes, but the diversity in the

  17. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.


    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  18. The rheology of crystal-rich magmas (Kuno Award Lecture) (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Aldin Faroughi, Salah; Degruyter, Wim


    The rheology of magmas controls not only eruption dynamics but also the rate of transport of magmas through the crust and to a large extent the rate of magma differentiation and degassing. Magma bodies stalled in the upper crust are known to spend most of their lifespan above the solidus at a high crystal content (Cooper and Kent, 2014; Huber et al., 2009), where the probability of melt extraction (crystal fractionation) is the greatest (Dufek and Bachmann, 2010). In this study, we explore a new theoretical framework to study the viscosity of crystal bearing magmas. Since the seminal work of A. Einstein and W. Sutherland in the early 20th century, it has been shown theoretically and tested experimentally that a simple self-similar behavior exist between the relative viscosity of dilute (low crystal content) suspensions and the particle volume fraction. The self-similar nature of that relationship is quickly lost as we consider crystal fractions beyond a few volume percent. We propose that the relative viscosity of crystal-bearing magmas can be fully described by two state variables, the intrinsic viscosity and the crowding factor (a measure of the packing threshold in the suspension). These two state variables can be measured experimentally under different conditions, which allows us to develop closure relationships in terms of the applied shear stress and the crystal shape and size distributions. We build these closure equations from the extensive literature on the rheology of synthetic suspensions, where the nature of the particle shape and size distributions is better constrained and apply the newly developed model to published experiments on crystal-bearing magmas. We find that we recover a self-similar behavior (unique rheology curve) up to the packing threshold and show that the commonly reported break in slope between the relative viscosity and crystal volume fraction around the expected packing threshold is most likely caused by a sudden change in the state

  19. Preeruption conditions and timing of dacite-andesite magma mixing in the 2.2 ka eruption at Mount Rainier (United States)

    Venezky, D. Y.; Rutherford, M. J.


    Analytical, field, and experimental evidence demonstrate that the Mount Rainier tephra layer C (2.2 ka) preserves a magma mixing event between an andesitic magma (whole rock SiO2 content of 57-60 wt %) and a dacitic magma (whole rock SiO2 content of 65±1 wt %). The end-member andesite (a mix of an injected and chamber andesite) and dacite can be characterized on the basis of the homogeneity of the matrix glass and phenocryst rim compositions. Many pumices, however, contain mixtures of the end-members. The end-member dacite contains a microlite-free matrix glass with 74-77 wt % SiO2, orthopyroxene rims of Mg57-64, clinopyroxene rims of Mg66-74, and plagioclase rim anorthite contents of An45-65. The temperature and oxygen fugacity, from Fe-Ti oxide compositions, are 930±10°C and 0.5-0.75 log units above NNO. The mixed andesite contains Mg73-84 orthopyroxene rims, Mg73-78 clinopyroxene rims, An78-84 plagioclase rims, and Mg67-74 amphibole rims. The temperature from Fe-Ti oxides, hornblendeplagioclase, and two-pyroxene geothermometry is 1060±15°C, and the oxygen fugacity is approximately one log unit above NNO for the injected andesite. The chamber andesite is estimated to be a magma with a ˜64-65 wt % SiO2 melt at 980°C and a NNO oxygen fugacity. We conclude that the andesitic and dacitic magmas are from separate magma storage regions (at >7 km and ˜2.4 km) due to differences in the bimodal whole rock, matrix glass, and phenocryst compositions and the presence or absence of stable hornblende. The time involved from the mixing event through the eruption is limited to a period of 4-5 days based on Fe-Ti oxide reequilibration, phenocryst growth rates, and hornblende breakdown. The eruption sequence is interpreted as having been initiated by an injection of the 1060±15°C andesitic magma into the ˜980°C (>7 km) andesite storage region. The mixed andesitic magma then intersected a shallow, ˜2.4 km, dacitic storage system on its way toward the surface. The

  20. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin


    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  1. Plant volatiles and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loreto, F.; Dicke, M.; Schnitzler, J.P.; Turlings, T.C.J.


    Volatile organic compounds emitted by plants represent the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, constitutively and after stress induction. In recent years, our understanding of the func

  2. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.


    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  3. Phase equilibrium modelling of granite magma petrogenesis: B. An evaluation of the magma compositions that result from fractional crystallization (United States)

    Garcia-Arias, Marcos; Stevens, Gary


    Several fractional crystallization processes (flow segregation, gravitational settling, filter-pressing), as well as batch crystallization, have been investigated in this study using thermodynamic modelling (pseudosections) to test whether they are able to reproduce the compositional trends shown by S-type granites. Three starting compositions comprising a pure melt phase and variable amounts of entrained minerals (0, 20 and 40 wt.% of the total magma) have been used to study a wide range of likely S-type magma compositions. The evolution of these magmas was investigated from the segregation from their sources at 0.8 GPa until emplacement at 0.3 GPa in an adiabatic path, followed by isobaric cooling until the solidus was crossed, in a closed-system scenario. The modelled magmas and the fractionated mineral assemblages are compared to the S-type granites of the Peninsula pluton, Cape Granite Suite, South Africa, which have a composition very similar to most of the S-type granites. The adiabatic ascent of the magmas digests partially the entrained mineral assemblage of the magmas, but unless this entrained assemblage represents less than 1 wt.% of the original magma, part of the mineral fraction survives the ascent up to the chosen pressure of emplacement. At the level of emplacement, batch crystallization produces magmas that only plot within the composition of the granites of the Peninsula pluton if the bulk composition of the original magmas already matched that of the granites. Flow segregation of crystals during the ascent and gravitational settling fractional crystallization produce bodies that are generally more mafic than the most mafic granites of the pluton and the residual melts have an almost haplogranitic composition, producing a bimodal compositional distribution not observed in the granites. Consequently, these two processes are ruled out. Filter-pressing fractional crystallization produces bodies in an onion-layer structure that become more felsic

  4. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... fi…rst order Markov process and show that our model is closely related to the CEV and Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard (2001) models for local volatility. We show that if measurement noise in the observable volatility proxies is not accounted for, then the estimated autoregressive parameter in the latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  5. Experimental constraints on the outgassing dynamics of basaltic magmas (United States)

    Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Azzopardi, B. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Ripepe, M.


    The dynamics of separated two-phase flow of basaltic magmas in cylindrical conduits has been explored combining large-scale experiments and theoretical studies. Experiments consisted of the continuous injection of air into water or glucose syrup in a 0.24 m diameter, 6.5 m long bubble column. The model calculates vesicularity and pressure gradient for a range of gas superficial velocities (volume flow rates/pipe area, 10-2-102 m/s), conduit diameters (100-2 m), and magma viscosities (3-300 Pa s). The model is calibrated with the experimental results to extrapolate key flow parameters such as Co (distribution parameter) and Froude number, which control the maximum vesicularity of the magma in the column, and the gas rise speed of gas slugs. It predicts that magma vesicularity increases with increasing gas volume flow rate and decreases with increasing conduit diameter, until a threshold value (45 vol.%), which characterizes churn and annular flow regimes. Transition to annular flow regimes is expected to occur at minimum gas volume flow rates of 103-104 m3/s. The vertical pressure gradient decreases with increasing gas flow rates and is controlled by magma vesicularity (in bubbly flows) or the length and spacing of gas slugs. This study also shows that until conditions for separated flow are met, increases in magma viscosity favor stability of slug flow over bubbly flow but suggests coexistence between gas slugs and small bubbles, which contribute to a small fraction of the total gas outflux. Gas flow promotes effective convection of the liquid, favoring magma homogeneity and stable conditions.

  6. Magma evolution and ascent at the Craters of the Moon and neighboring volcanic fields, southern Idaho, USA: implications for the evolution of polygenetic and monogenetic volcanic fields (United States)

    Putirka, Keith D.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Vaid, Nitin


    The evolution of polygenetic and monogenetic volcanic fields must reflect differences in magma processing during ascent. To assess their evolution we use thermobarometry and geochemistry to evaluate ascent paths for neighboring, nearly coeval volcanic fields in the Snake River Plain, in south-central Idaho, derived from (1) dominantly Holocene polygenetic evolved lavas from the Craters of the Moon lava field (COME) and (2) Quaternary non-evolved, olivine tholeiites (NEOT) from nearby monogenetic volcanic fields. These data show that NEOT have high magmatic temperatures (1205 + or - 27 degrees C) and a narrow temperature range (50 degrees C). Prolonged storage of COME magmas allows them to evolve to higher 87Sr/86Sr and SiO2, and lower MgO and 143Nd/144Nd. Most importantly, ascent paths control evolution: NEOT often erupt near the axis of the plain where high-flux (Yellowstone-related), pre-Holocene magmatic activity replaces granitic middle crust with basaltic sills, resulting in a net increase in NEOT magma buoyancy. COME flows erupt off-axis, where felsic crustal lithologies sometimes remain intact, providing a barrier to ascent and a source for crustal contamination. A three-stage ascent process explains the entire range of erupted compositions. Stage 1 (40-20 km): picrites are transported to the middle crust, undergoing partial crystallization of olivine + or - clinopyroxene. COME magmas pass through unarmored conduits and assimilate 1% or less of ancient gabbroic crust having high Sr and 87Sr/86Sr and low SiO2. Stage 2 (20-10 km): magmas are stored within the middle crust, and evolve to moderate MgO (10%). NEOT magmas, reaching 10% MgO, are positively buoyant and migrate through the middle crust. COME magmas remain negatively buoyant and so crystallize further and assimilate middle crust. Stage 3 (15-0 km): final ascent and eruption occurs when volatile contents, increased by differentiation, are sufficient (1-2 wt % H2O) to provide magma buoyancy through the

  7. Solidification fronts in large magma chambers: insights from the anomalies (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.


    The emplacement of hot viscous magma into the cold rigid crust causes a thermal disturbance within both the country rock and the magma. With time, heat loss from the molten interior to the walls causes solidification at the floor, roof and margins of the magma chamber. As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of heat is lost via conduction through the roof of the intrusion. In basaltic sills and layered mafic intrusions (LMIs), this solidification front is manifest in the deposition of mineral assemblages and compositions that become progressively more evolved from the floor of the intrusion upwards (the 'Layered Series'; LS) and from the roof downwards (the UBS) such that the most chemically evolved rocks are found in the interior of the magma body at a 'Sandwich Horizon'. The formation of a UBS, as typified by the Skaergaard Intrusion, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique LMIs for which little or no UBS exists. Convection of the molten magma, reinjection and mixing of new magma, compaction of cumulates, and porous flow of interstitial liquid, among other processes, can affect the final location and composition of the most differentiated liquids; but ultimately, all are linked to the nature of heat loss from the magma chamber. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution of several classic LMIs as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series; 'UBS'). For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate

  8. Laboratory studies of crystal growth in magma (United States)

    Hammer, J. E.; Welsch, B. T.; First, E.; Shea, T.


    The proportions, compositions, and interrelationships among crystalline phases and glasses in volcanic rocks cryptically record pre-eruptive intensive conditions, the timing of changes in crystallization environment, and the devolatilization history of eruptive ascent. These parameters are recognized as important monitoring tools at active volcanoes and interpreting geologic events at prehistoric and remote eruptions, thus motivating our attempts to understand the information preserved in crystals through an experimental appoach. We are performing laboratory experiments in mafic, felsic, and intermediate composition magmas to study the mechanisms of crystal growth in thermochemical environments relevant to volcanic environments. We target features common to natural crystals in igneous rocks for our experimental studies of rapid crystal growth phenomena: (1) Surface curvature. Do curved interfaces and spongy cores represent evidence of dissolution (i.e., are they corrosion features), or do they record the transition from dendritic to polyhedral morphology? (2) Trapped melt inclusions. Do trapped liquids represent bulk (i.e., far-field) liquids, boundary layer liquids, or something intermediate, depending on individual species diffusivity? What sequence of crystal growth rates leads to preservation of sealed melt inclusions? (3) Subgrain boundaries. Natural phenocrysts commonly exhibit tabular subgrain regions distinguished by small angle lattice misorientations or "dislocation lamellae" and undulatory extinction. Might these crystal defects be produced as dendrites undergo ripening? (4) Clusters. Contacting clusters of polymineralic crystals are the building blocks of cumulates, and are ubiquitous features of mafic volcanic rocks. Are plagioclase and clinopyroxene aligned crystallographically, suggesting an epitaxial (surface energy) relationship? (5) Log-normal size distribution. What synthetic cooling histories produce "natural" distributions of crystal sizes, and

  9. Eddy Flow during Magma Emplacement: The Basemelt Sill, Antarctica (United States)

    Petford, N.; Mirhadizadeh, S.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. Comprising a vertical stack of interconnected sills, the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry1. Image-based numerical modelling where the intrusion geometry defines its own unique finite element mesh allows simulations of the flow regime to be made that incorporate realistic magma particle size and flow geometries obtained directly from field measurements. One testable outcome relates to the origin of rhythmic layering where analytical results imply the sheared suspension intersects the phase space for particle Reynolds and Peclet number flow characteristic of macroscopic structures formation2. Another relates to potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation due to the formation of eddies locally at undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. The eddies are transient and mechanical in origin, unrelated to well-known fluid dynamical effects around obstacles where flow is turbulent. Numerical particle tracing reveals that these low Re number eddies can both trap (remove) and eject particles back into the magma at a later time according to their mass density. This trapping mechanism has potential to develop local variations in structure (layering) and magma chemistry that may otherwise not occur where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. Simulations indicate that eddy formation is best developed where magma viscosity is in the range 1-102 Pa s. Higher viscosities (> 103 Pa s) tend to dampen the effect implying eddy development is most likely a transient feature. However, it is nice to think that something as simple as a bumpy contact could impart physical and by implication chemical diversity in igneous rocks. 1Marsh, D.B. (2004), A

  10. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility


    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis


    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  11. Appinite suites: A record of the role of water in the genesis, transport, emplacement and crystallization of magma (United States)

    Murphy, J. Brendan


    tendency to form soon after the cessation of subduction, and the important role of deep crustal faults as conduits for magmas of various compositions to rise towards the surface. These conduits provide the setting for magmas of diverse composition to mix and mingle. Neo-Archean appinites, and their genetic relationship with abundant coeval sanukitoids, have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of some form of plate tectonics at that time. Melting may be triggered by asthenospheric upwelling caused either by slab breakoff (e.g. after terrane or continental collision) or by the generation of a slab window (e.g. where a ridge collides with a subduction zone). Mafic magma may contain a juvenile component, but Nd isotopic data suggest the additional involvement of a sub-continental lithospheric mantle that, in many instances, was previously metasomatized by fluids and magma and was underplated by mafic complexes during subduction. The composition of the mafic magma may vary from one suite to another. In several suites, the mafic magmas have more traditional calc alkalic or tholeiitic affinities and do not share the shoshonitic characteristics of the type area. In addition, in several appinite complexes, felsic magma was formed by crustal anatexis, rather than fractional crystallization.

  12. Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas (United States)

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.


    Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.

  13. Slab Contributions to Cascades Magmas: Constraints from Central Oregon and Northern California (United States)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.


    The Cascades arc is the global end member, warm-slab subduction zone (slab thermal parameter ~200 km) resulting from the slow subduction of young oceanic crust beneath North America. Significant slab dehydration is predicted to occur beneath the forearc (high-Mg andesite (HMA) and primitive basaltic andesite (PBA) with 3.3 and 5.6 wt.% H2Omax, respectively. Three distinct primitive melt compositions were calculated using inclusions from Central Oregon: calc-alkaline basalt, Sr-rich basalt, and depleted basaltic andesite (1.6, 2.3, and 3.0 wt.% H2Omax, respectively). We calculated extents of mantle melting for each primitive magma composition using Ti, Y, Gd, Dy, Er, and Yb contents (i.e., assuming negligible contributions from the slab). Based on these calculations, we infer Central Oregon and Shasta magmas to represent 8-15% and 14-20% partial melts (respectively) of variably depleted sources. Major elements in preliminary slab components from Central Oregon are H2O (~39-45 wt.%), Na2O (~36-47 wt.%), K2O (~8-15 wt.%), and Cl (~1.0-3.8 wt.%) and similar to the slab component calculated for Shasta HMA. The slab component calculated for Shasta PBA is more volatile-rich with ~62 wt.% H2O, ~28 wt.% Na2O, ~5.3 wt.% K2O, and 4.6 wt.% Cl. Calculated slab components are similar to previously published estimates from the Shasta region and experimental high temperature (>800 °C) fluids/melts derived from altered oceanic crust and/or sediments. Compositional proxies for slab surface temperatures (H2O/K2O and H2O/Ce) are at the high temperature range of the global arc spectrum, corresponding to temperatures of 850-950 °C, and are consistent with a young, hot incoming plate.

  14. The influence of magmatic differentiation on the oxidation state of Fe in a basaltic arc magma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Cottrell, Elizabeth (Rhode Island); (Smithsonian)


    Subduction zone basalts are more oxidized than basalts from other tectonic settings (e.g., higher Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe), and this contrast may play a central role in the unique geochemical processes that generate arc and continental crust. The processes generating oxidized arc magmas, however, are poorly constrained, although they appear inherently linked to subduction. Near-surface differentiation processes unique to arc settings might drive oxidation of magmas that originate in equilibrium with a relatively reduced mantle source. Alternatively, arc magmas could record the oxidation conditions of a relatively oxidized mantle source. Here, we present new measurements of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from a single eruption of Agrigan volcano, Marianas, in order to test the influence of differentiation processes vs. source conditions on the Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratio, a proxy for system oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}). We determined Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in glass inclusions using {mu}-XANES and couple these data with major elements, dissolved volatiles, and trace elements. After correcting for post-entrapment crystallization, Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in the Agrigan melt inclusions (0.219 to 0.282), and their modeled fO{sub 2}s ({Delta}QFM + 1.0 to + 1.8), are uniformly more oxidized than MORB, and preserve a portion of the evolution of this magma from 5.7 to 3.2 wt.% MgO. Fractionation of olivine {+-} clinopyroxene {+-} plagioclase should increase Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe as MgO decreases in the melt, but the data show Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios decreasing as MgO decreases below 5 wt.% MgO. The major element trajectories, taken in combination with this strong reduction trend, are inconsistent with crystallization of common ferromagnesian phases found in the bulk Agrigan sample, including magnetite. Rather, decreasing Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios correlate with decreasing S concentrations, suggesting that electronic exchanges associated with SO{sub 2} degassing may

  15. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.


    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  16. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera (United States)

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.


    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  17. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera. (United States)

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E


    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  18. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.


    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  19. Is magma cooling responsible for the periodic activity of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies? (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Neuberg, Jürgen


    After 400 years of quiescence, Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat (SHV) started erupting in 1995. Ongoing deformation and sulphur dioxide emission demonstrate that this volcanic systems is still restless, however, after 5 years of inactivity it remains unclear whether magma extrusion will restart. Also, if such periodically observed activity at SHV will restart, can we use past monitoring data to attempt to forecast the reawakening of this volcano? Cooling of volatile saturated magma leads to crystallisation, the formation of gas bubbles and expansion. Such volumetric variations are not only potentially responsible for deformation signals observed at the surface (Caricchi et al., 2014), but also lead to pressurisation of the magmatic reservoir and eventually renewed magma extrusion (Tait et al., 1989). We postulate that volcanic activity observed at SHM over the last 20 years could be essentially the result of the unavoidable progressive cooling of a magmatic body, which was probably assembled over thousands of years and experienced internal segregation of eruptible lenses of magma (Christopher et al., 2015). To test this hypothesis, we performed thermal modelling to test if the cooling of a shallow magma body emplaced since 1990 could account for the monitoring signals observed at SHV. The results show that progressive cooling of a 4km3 volume of melt could explain the deformation rate currently observed. Using the deformation rate obtained from the modelling for the first 15 years of cooling, a reservoir volume of about 13 km3 (Paulatto et al., 2012) and a critical value of overpressure of 10 MPa, it would have taken approximately only 3 years to pressurise the reservoir to the critical pressure and restart magma extrusion. This is in agreement with the time interval between previous pauses at SHV before 2010. Considering the current deformation rates, we speculate that magma extrusion could restart in 6-8 years after the end of the last event in 2010, hence

  20. Oxygen isotopes reveal crustal contamination and a large, still partially molten magma chamber in Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central) (United States)

    France, Lydéric; Demacon, Mickael; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Briot, Danielle


    The two main magmatic properties associated with explosive eruptions are high viscosity of silica-rich magmas and/or high volatile contents. Magmatic processes responsible for the genesis of such magmas are differentiation through crystallization, and crustal contamination (or assimilation) as this process has the potential to enhance crystallization and add volatiles to the initial budget. In the Chaîne des Puy series (French Massif Central), silica- and H2O-rich magmas were only emitted during the most recent eruptions (ca. 6-15 ka). Here, we use in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in zircons from two of the main trachytic eruptions from the Chaîne des Puys to track the crustal contamination component in a sequence that was previously presented as an archetypal fractional crystallization series. Zircons from Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme display homogeneous oxygen isotope compositions with δ18O = 5.6 ± 0.25‰ and 5.6 ± 0.3‰, respectively, and have therefore crystallized from homogeneous melts with δ18Omelt = 7.1 ± 0.3‰. Compared to mantle derived melts resulting from pure fractional crystallization (δ18Odif.mant. = 6.4 ± 0.4‰), those δ18Omelt values are enriched in 18O and support a significant role of crustal contamination in the genesis of silica-rich melts in the Chaîne des Puys. Assimilation-fractional-crystallization models highlight that the degree of contamination was probably restricted to 5.5-9.5% with Rcrystallization/Rassimilation varying between 8 and 14. The very strong intra-site homogeneity of the isotopic data highlights that magmas were well homogenized before eruption, and consequently that crustal contamination was not the trigger of silica-rich eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys. The exceptionally strong inter-site homogeneity of the isotopic data brings to light that Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme were fed by a single large magma chamber. Our results, together with recent thermo-kinetic models and an experimental

  1. The Ignimbrite Campana Magma Chamber: Pre-eruptive P-t-x Conditions From Melt Inclusion Data (United States)

    Marianelli, P.; Proto, M.; Sbrana, A.

    The Ignimbrite Campana (36 ka) represents the most powerful eruption characterizing the volcanic history of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The eruption was fed by a stratified magma chamber (Civetta et al., 1997). This study, based on melt inclusion investigations in phenocrysts of pumice, is aimed to better constrain depth, thermal conditions and composition of magmas hosted in the magma chamber. Samples from the Breccia Museo products (proximal deposits of the Ignimbrite Campana) were selected, due to their sin-eruptive and sin-depositional quenching. On the basis of melt inclusions investigations important informations about crystallization conditions (P, T, X) and volatile contents have been obtained. Glass compositions fall in the trachyte field close to the trachyte-phonolite boundary, similarly to the others Ignimbrite Campana products. The temperature of homogenization ranges between 850 and 1135°C. These values of temperature, that can be assumed as crystallization temperatures, correlate to the host crystal compositions with the highest one corresponding to melt inclusions trapped in less Fe-rich pyroxene. FTIR analyses on double -polished melt inclusions were carried out in order to investigate H2O and CO2 contents. Preliminary results indicate values of H2O that range from about 2 up to 8.0wt%, whereas CO2 was not detected. Lowest values of H2O (modal value = 2- 3wt%) correspond to the melt inclusions from layers at the top of the Breccia Museo (pumice flow deposits). Minimum pressures of crystallization are estimated in the range 100-200 MPa, assuming saturation conditions for the trapped melts and calculating the solubility of H2O in trachytic magmas according to the model of Moore et al. (1998). References Civetta L., Orsi G., Pappalardo L., Fisher R.V., Heiken G., Ort M. (1997): Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes ­ the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 75: 183

  2. Temporal evolution of granitic magmas in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, east Qinling Orogen, central China: Implications for Mo metallogenesis (United States)

    Li, Dong; Han, Jiangwei; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Cao, Huawen; Song, Yaowu


    The Luanchuan metallogenic belt, located within the eastern part of the Qinling Orogen, central China, hosts a number of world-class Mo deposits that are closely related to small late Mesozoic granitic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of distinct plutons in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded ages of 153 ± 1, 154 ± 2, 152 ± 2, and 148 ± 1 Ma. Molybdenite Re-Os isotopic compositions of Yuku ore district in the southern part of Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded an isochron age of 146 ± 1 Ma, which is consistent with the large-scale mineralization ages in the northern part of the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. A combination of previous studies and new geochronological and isotopic data show a concordant temporal and genetic link between granitic magmatism and Mo mineralization in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, suggesting that this mineralization episode formed the most extensive Mo mineralization belt in the east Qinling Orogen. Zircon grains from Mo-related granitic plutons show similar trace element distributions. High-precision Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Pb isotope analysis of K-feldspar megacrysts from mineralization-related granites suggest that they were derived from the lower crust. Similarly, the Pb isotopic compositions of pyrite coprecipitated with molybdenite also suggest that the metals were derived form the lower crust, with probably minor mantle contribution. A continuum mineralization model that describes the sourcing of Mo from an evolving granitic magma over successive differentiation events, possibly in separate but connected magma chambers, could explain the remarkable Mo enrichment in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. The volatile- and Mo-bearing granitic magmas ascended as diapirs from the deep crust, and were emplaced as dikes in the upper crust. Lithological differences between these Mo-bearing granites may relate to different stages in the evolution of individual magmas. Finally, ore

  3. Exoplanet Magma Ocean Magnetic Fields may be Common (United States)

    Bourzutschky, Alexander; Stevenson, David


    Kepler data suggest that many exoplanets have low densities for their mass, and therefore probably have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. For all but very thin atmospheres, these have a convective zone beneath the radiative outer region, and as a consequence have high temperatures at the assumed silicate surface, usually above the liquidus, implying a magma ocean. In many cases, the resulting high internal temperatures are sufficient to allow for dynamo action in the magma. There, the electrical conductivities are high enough to support such a dynamo but not so high that the thermal conductivity favors conduction over convection. High conductivity is bad for a dynamo so this lower thermal conductivity makes such magma ocean dynamos preferable to a putative iron core dynamo.In our simple models, the atmospheres of exoplanets will contain a convective zone beneath a radiative zone if sufficiently thick. We develop a simple model for the surface temperature of a rocky exoplanet with atmosphere-to-planet mass ratios 0.001% to 10%, planet masses 1-10 M⊕, and effective temperatures 150-1000 K. In most models with atmosphere mass ratios greater than 0.1% the rocky surface is above 1500 K, above the liquidus for silicate magma. Assuming a fully molten silicate magma ocean planet of Earthlike composition, the primary mode of heat transport is convection except at the high-temperature, high atmosphere mass ratio end. From that, even with conservative estimates of the electrical conductivity of the liquid silicate magma, the nominal magnetic Reynolds number at the surface seldom falls below 10. Thus the tentative conclusion is that rocky exoplanets with sufficiently thick atmospheric envelopes to melt the surface can generate magnetic fields irrespective of their putative cores. Estimates of the magnetic field were done following Christensen, yielding surface values in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 Gauss.

  4. Efficiency of differentiation in the Skaergaard magma chamber (United States)

    Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.; Holness, M. B.; Jakobsen, J. K.; Salmonsen, L.; Humphreys, M.; Thy, P.


    Although it is largely agreed that crystallization occurs inwardly in crystal mushes along the margins of magma chambers, the efficiency and mechanisms of differentiation are not well constrained. The fractionation paradigm hinges on mass exchange between the crystal mush and the main magma reservoir resulting in coarse-grained, refractory (cumulate) rocks of primary crystals, and complementary enrichment of incompatible elements in the main reservoir of magma. Diffusion, convection, liquid immiscibility and compaction have been proposed as mechanisms driving this mass exchange. Here we examine the efficiency of differentiation in basaltic crystal mushes in different regions of the Skaergaard magma chamber. The contents of incompatible elements such as phosphorus and calculated residual porosities are high in the lowermost cumulate rocks of the floor (47-30%) and decrease upsection, persisting at low values in the uppermost two-thirds of the floor rock stratigraphy (~5% residual porosity). The residual porosity is intermediate at the walls (~15%) and highest and more variable at the roof (10-100%). This is best explained by compaction and expulsion of interstitial liquid from the accumulating crystal mush at the floor and the inefficiency of these processes elsewhere in the intrusion. In addition, the roof data imply upwards infiltration of interstitial liquid. Remarkably uniform residual porosity of ~15% for cumulates formed along the walls suggest that their preservation is related to the rheological properties of the mush, i.e. at ≤ 15% porosity the mush is rigid enough to adhere to the wall, while at higher porosity it is easily swept away. We conclude that the efficiency of compaction and differentiation can be extremely variable along the margins of magma chambers. This should be taken into account in models of magma chamber evolution.

  5. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  6. On efficient Bayesian inference for models with stochastic volatility


    Griffin, Jim E.; Sakaria, Dhirendra Kumar


    An efficient method for Bayesian inference in stochastic volatility models uses a linear state space representation to define a Gibbs sampler in which the volatilities are jointly updated. This method involves the choice of an offset parameter and we illustrate how its choice can have an important effect on the posterior inference. A Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is developed to robustify this approach to choice of the offset parameter. The method is illustrated on simulated data with known p...

  7. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.


    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  8. Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes (United States)

    Wadge, G.


    For part of their historic records, nine of the most active volcanoes on earth have each erupted magma at a nearly constant rate. These output rates are very similar and range from 0.69 to 0.26 cu m/s. The volcanoes discussed - Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nyamuragira, Hekla, Piton de la Fournaise, Vesuvius and Etna - represent almost the whole spectrum of plate tectonic settings of volcanism. A common mechanism of buoyantly rising magma-filled cracks in the upper crust may contribute to the observed restricted range of the rates of output.

  9. Magma mixing during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (United States)

    Portnyagin, M.; Borisova, A. Y.; Plechov, P.; Shkurski, B.; Stefansson, A.


    We performed detailed study of matrix glasses, olivines and melt inclusions in 6 samples of tephras of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Tephras erupted during the early basaltic stage (March 20 - April 13) are very homogeneous with respect to matrix glass compositions and host assemblage of primitive phenocrysts (olivine Fo75-87, Cr-spinel Cr# = 0.14 - 0.55). The olivines have normal or rhythmic zoning which suggests multiple episodes of mixing with more primitive magmas and crystallization before eruption. Glasses of the initial andesitic stage (April 14 - 30) fall into three groups: basaltic (group 2a, andesitic (group 2b, >80% ) and dacitic (group 2c, andesitic stage (May 1 - 22, group 3) have exclusively andesitic composition, slightly more primitive than on the early stage. The compositions of olivine cores and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine in the late stage andesites are identical to those in basalts and suggest injection of basaltic magma into silicic magma shortly before eruption of andesite. The composition of shallow magma reservoir before the 2010 eruption could have composition similar to the group 2c glasses. A remarkable peculiarity of silicic Eyjafjallajökull glasses is high Cl (0.2-0.45 wt%) and high Cl/K2O (0.07-0.13) which are higher compared to basaltic glasses and primitive inclusions in olivine (Cl=0.02-0.09 wt%, Cl/K2O=0.04-0.09). The Cl enrichment in silicic Eyjafjallajökull melts may be an indicator of assimilation of crustal rocks altered via interaction with Cl-rich surface or oceanic waters. To estimate the residence time of basaltic xenocrysts in andesitic magma erupted on May 11, we measured compositional profiles in olivine xenocrysts and calculated the time required to form such a zoning via Fe-Mg diffusion. Orientation of the studied olivine sections has been determined with universal table and verified by comparing the facet angles with the ideal olivine crystal shape. Our modeling indicates that the high-Mg olivine

  10. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio


    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  11. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, Robert


    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  12. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun


    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  13. Petrology of Volcán Tequila, Jalisco, Mexico: disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages and evolution of the subvolcanic magma system (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.


    Volcán Tequila is an extinct stratovolcano in the western Mexican Volcanic Belt that has erupted lavas ranging from andesite to rhyolite during the last 0.9 Ma. Following an early period of rhyolitic volcanism, the main edifice of the volcano was constructed by central vent eruptions that produced ˜ 25 km3 of pyroxene-andesite. At about 0.2 Ma central activity ceased and numerous flows of hornblende-bearing andesite, dacite, and rhyodacite erupted from vents located around the flanks of the volcano. Bimodal plagioclase phenocryst rim compositions in lavas from both the main edifice and the flanks indicate that magma mixing commonly occurred shortly prior to or during eruption. Compositions of endmember magmas involved in mixing, as constrained by whole-rock major and trace element abundances, phenocryst compositions, and mineral-melt exchange equilibria, are similar to those of some lavas erupted from the central vent and on the flanks of the volcano. Estimated pre-eruptive temperatures for hornblende-bearing lavas (970° 830°C) are systematically lower than for lavas that lack hornblende (1045° 970°C), whereas magmatic H2O contents are systematically higher for hornblende-bearing lavas. In addition to stabilizing hornblende, high magmatic water contents promoted crystallization of calcic plagioclase (An70 82). Frequent injections of magma into the base of the subvolcanic plumbing system followed by eruption of mixed magma probably prevented formation of large volumes of silicic magma, which have caused paroxysmal, caldera-forming eruptions at other stratovolcanoes in western Mexico. The later stages of volcanic activity, represented by the flank lavas, indicate a change from a large magma storage reservoir to numerous small ones that developed along a NW-trending zone parallel to regional fault trends. Sr and Nd isotopic data for lavas from the Tequila region and other volcanoes in western Mexico demonstrate that differentiated calc-alkaline magmas are formed

  14. Conduit Magma Storage during the 800 BP Quilotoa Eruption, Ecuador (United States)

    Ort, M. H.; Cashman, K. V.; Di Muro, A.; Best, J. A.; Rosi, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Bustillos, J.


    The 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa produced two large ignimbrites, U1 (~5.8 km3 DRE) and U3 (~1.8 km3 DRE). These eruptions were separated by a series of much smaller eruptions over one to several weeks, as inferred from 1) the intercalation of secondary pyroclastic and debris flow deposits between U1 and U3, 2) deposits from phreatic explosions from the U1 ignimbrite surface, 3) oxidation of the upper 2 m of U1, and 4) a lack of erosion of the U1 surface. Why did the main phase of the eruption (U1) stall when eruptable magma was available? How did explosive activity stop and restart? We address these questions by examining deposits (U2) emplaced during the 'hiatus' that provide information on the conditions in the conduit and vent area between explosive episodes. The lowest sub-unit, U2a, forms a series of pumiceous surge deposits found only within 5 km of the crater rim. U2b is a vitric-poor, crystal- and lithic-rich fall deposit distributed to about 15 km from the crater. U2c is a thin gray fine ash containing 2-5-mm-diameter rhyolite lapilli that is present within 6 km of the vent. Similar lapilli also occur in the lowermost few centimeters of U3 and appear to be from a dome that exploded as the new magma arrived at the surface; their presence as small ballistic fragments ties U2c to lowermost U3 in time. U2a appears to have been emplaced by episodic surges and weak fallout plumes, whereas U2b and U2c were deposited from a series of sustained eruption columns. Moreover, the lack of U2b grain-size variation with distance suggests that the grain size was determined at the vent, not by transport. FTIR analysis of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions (MIs) indicates that a deep magma chamber (>400 MPa; ~12 km) fed U1. U2a and U2b MIs plot along vapor isopleths, suggesting equilibration at pressures to about 300 MPa as CO2 outgassed. U2b MIs have lower CO2 than U2a, perhaps indicating continued degassing during the 'hiatus'. MIs from the lower few centimeters of U3 lie along

  15. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  16. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate d...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  17. Magma energy research project: state-of-the-project report, October 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L.; Traeger, R.K.


    The feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is investigated. The work done in FY 76, 77, and 78 in the following tasks are summarized; resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization and materials compatibility, and energy extraction. (MHR)

  18. Bimodal magmatism during the Diego Hernández Formation, Tenerife, Canary Islands: genesis and eruption-triggering of phonolitic magmas during ongoing mafic volcanism (United States)

    Olin, P. H.; Wolff, J. A.; Edgar, C. J.; Cas, R.; Martí, J.


    The Diego Hernández Formation (DHF) represents the explosive eruption of nearly 70 cubic km of phonolite over approximately 200 k.y. from the Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife. Four chemostratigraphic units are distinguished on the basis of trace element contents: DHF bs (represented by the 370 ka Fortaleza and 347 ka Roque Members), DHF I (319 ka Aldea, 309 ka Fasnia, and 268 ka Poris Members), DHF II (Arafo and 223 ka Caleta Members), and DHF III (Cruz Sequence and the 196 ka Abrigo Member); all named units involve plinian and/or ignimbrite components that devastated a significant fraction of the island [1]. These chemostratigraphic units demarcate two dominant compositional trends distinct in incompatible element contents, and in Nb/Ta and REE ratios. DHF bs and DHF III plot along a high-Nb trend, and DHF I and DHF II plot along a low-Nb trend, a feature consistent with divergent fractionation histories involving titanite. Mafic magma was an important component of the DHF magmatic system and flanking mafic volcanism was ongoing during DHF time. Major phonolitic eruptions are conformably bounded by basanitic lavas and scoria deposits. Mafic magmatic components are identifiable in many of the phonolitic pyroclastic deposits as mafic, mingled and banded pumices, or as quenched mafic enclaves. Mafic components in the Abrigo, Caleta, and Poris Members are nearly geochemically identical to the underlying scoria or lava, suggesting that flanking mafic volcanism may in some cases be associated with subcaldera intrusive events that remobilize phonolitic magma to trigger major explosive eruptions. We envisage that the DHF represents a time when the intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magma in the lower crust supplied heat sufficient for the generation of intermediate tephriphonolite and phonotephrite magmas via melting of gabbroic/basaltic crust. Some of these intermediate magmas evolved to phonolite by crystal fractionation, a scenario consistent with DHF III

  19. Mantle ingredients for making the fingerprint of Etna alkaline magmas: implications for shallow partial melting within the complex geodynamic framework of Eastern Sicily (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco


    able to produce magmas with variable compositions and volatile contents, which can then undergo distinct histories of ascent and evolution, leading to the wide range of eruptive styles observed at Mt. Etna volcano. Being partial melting confined in the spinel facies of the mantle, our model implies that the source of Mt. Etna magmas might be rather shallow (<2 GPa; i.e., lesser than ca. 60 km), excluding the presence of deep, plume-like mantle structures responsible for magma generation. Partial melting should occur consequently as a response of mantle decompression within the framework of regional tectonics affecting the Eastern Sicily, which could be triggered by extensional tectonics and/or subduction-induced mantle upwelling.

  20. Geochemical monitoring of volcano unrest and multi-step magma propagation: the example of the 2007-2011 Piton de la Fournaise activity. (United States)

    Di Muro, Andrea; Métrich, Nicole; Deloule, Etienne; Civetta, Lucia


    between our petrological estimates of the potential SO2 release and the remotely derived fluxes, together with absence of hydrothermal signature in bulk rocks and melt inclusions, rule out a significant contribution of external fluids to PdF volatile budget. Regular monitoring of magma, crystal and glass compositions is an effective strategy for monitoring and interpreting magma storage and dynamics at a very active volcano like Piton de la Fournaise.

  1. Structure of magma reservoirs beneath Merapi and surrounding volcanic centers of Central Java modeled from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Maksotova, Gulzhamal; Jaxybulatov, Kayrly; Kasatkina, Ekaterina; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Luehr, Birger-G.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir


    We present a three-dimensional model of the distribution of S-wave velocity in the upper crust to a depth of 20 km beneath Central Java based on the analysis of seismic ambient noise data recorded by more than 100 seismic stations in 2004 associated with the MERAMEX project. To invert the Rayleigh wave dispersion curves to construct 2-D group-velocity maps and 3-D distributions of S-wave velocity, we have used a new tomographic algorithm based on iterative linearized inversion. We have performed a series of synthetic tests that demonstrate significantly higher resolution in the upper crust with this model compared to the local earthquake travel-time tomography (LET) model previously applied for the same station network. Beneath the southern flank of Merapi, we identify a large low-velocity anomaly that can be split into two layers. The upper layer reflects the ˜1 km thick sedimentary cover of volcanoclastic deposits. The deeper anomaly at depths of ˜4-8 km may represent a magma reservoir with partially molten rock that feeds several volcanoes in Central Java. Beneath the Merapi summit, we observe another low-velocity anomaly as deep as 8 km that may be associated with the active magma reservoir that feeds the eruptive activity of Merapi. In the southern portion of the study area, in the lower crust, we identify a low-velocity anomaly that may represent the top of the pathways of volatiles and melts ascending from the slab that was previously inferred from the LET model results. We observe that this anomaly is clearly separate from the felsic magma reservoirs in the upper crust.

  2. Electrical conductivity of intermediate magmas from Uturuncu Volcano (Bolivia) (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Sifre, David


    Magmas erupted at Uturuncu volcano (South Bolivia) comes from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB, Chile-Bolivia), a crustal massive body of 80 km long by 10 km thick located at ~ 35 km depth named. Recent magneto telluric surveys reveal a resistivity lower than 1 ohm.m due to the presence of melt which could result in the reactivation of the volcano. In order to better constrain the resistivity profiles and thus the conditions of magma storage of the APMB, we have performed in situ electrical measurements on natural dacites and andesites from Uturuncu with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. The results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature and the water content but slightly decreases with the pressure. Then a model was built from these results so as to help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas, (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage location and (iii) providing information on the interior structure of a volcano and its reservoir.

  3. On the cooling of a deep terrestrial magma ocean (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Andrault, D.; Samuel, H.


    In its early evolution, the Earth mantle likely experienced several episodes of complete melting enhanced by giant impact heating, short-lived radionuclides heating and viscous dissipation during the metal/silicate separation. We have developed numerical models to monitor the thermo-chemical evolution of a cooling and crystallizing magma ocean from an initially fully molten mantle. For this purpose, we use a 1D approach accounting for turbulent convective heat transfer. Our numerical model benchmarked with analytical solutions solves the heat equation in spherical geometry. This model also integrates recent and strong experimental constraints from mineral physics such as adiabatic temperature profiles and liquidus/solidus up 140 GPa for different mantle compositions. Our preliminary results show that a deep magma ocean starts to crystallize rapidly after its formation. The cooling efficiency of the magma ocean is strongly dependent on the coupling with the core cooling. Hence, depending on the thermal boundary layer thickness at the CMB, the thermal coupling between the core and magma ocean can either insulate the core during the MO solidification and favor a hot core, generate the formation of a thin basal molten layer or empty the heat from the core. Then, once the melt fraction reaches a critical value, the cooling efficiency becomes limited.

  4. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.


    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  5. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris


    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  6. Crystallization of Magma. CEGS Programs Publication Number 14. (United States)

    Berry, R. W.

    Crystallization of Magma is one of a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate geology and earth science courses. Through problems and observations based on two sets of experiments, this module leads to an understanding of how an igneous rock can form from molten material. Environmental factors responsible for…

  7. A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Paterson, Scott R.; Jellinek, A. Mark


    Direct constraints on the ascent, storage and eruption of mantle melts come primarily from exhumed, long-frozen intrusions. These structures, relics of a dynamic magma transport network, encode how Earth's crust grows and differentiates over time. Furthermore, they connect mantle melting to an evolving distribution of surface volcanism. Disentangling magma transport processes from the plutonic record is consequently a seminal but unsolved problem. Here we use field data analyses, scaling theory and numerical simulations to show that the size distribution of intrusions preserved as plutonic complexes in the North American Cordillera suggests a transition in the mechanical response of crustal rocks to protracted episodes of magmatism. Intrusion sizes larger than about 100 m follow a power-law scaling expected if energy delivered from the mantle to open very thin dykes and sills is transferred to intrusions of increasing size. Merging, assimilation and mixing of small intrusions into larger ones occurs until irreversible deformation and solidification dissipate available energy. Mantle magma supply over tens to hundreds of thousands of years will trigger this regime, a type of reverse energy cascade, depending on the influx rate and efficiency of crustal heating by intrusions. Identifying regimes of magma transport provides a framework for inferring subsurface magmatic processes from surface patterns of volcanism, information preservation in the plutonic record, and related effects including climate.

  8. Volatile signals during pregnancy. (United States)

    Vaglio, Stefano


    Scents play a key role in mediating reproductive interactions in many vertebrates including mammals. Nowadays, several studies indicate that humans seem to use remarkably olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive pheromones. Furthermore, over the past several years, it became increasingly clear that pheromone-like chemical signals probably play a role in offspring identification and mother recognition. Recently developed technical procedures (solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace extraction) now allow investigators to characterize volatile compounds with high reliability. We analyzed the volatile compounds in sweat patch samples collected from the para-axillary and nipple-areola regions of women during pregnancy and after childbirth. We hypothesized that, at the time of birth and during the first weeks of life, the distinctive olfactory pattern of the para-axillary area is probably useful to newborn babies for recognizing and distinguishing their own mother, whereas the characteristic pattern of the nipple-areola region is probably useful as a guide to nourishment.

  9. Molecular plant volatile communication. (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D


    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  10. Extensive, water-rich magma reservoir beneath southern Montserrat (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Kohn, S. C.; Hauri, E. H.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Cassidy, M.


    South Soufrière Hills and Soufrière Hills volcanoes are 2 km apart at the southern end of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Their magmas are distinct geochemically, despite these volcanoes having been active contemporaneously at 131-129 ka. We use the water content of pyroxenes and melt inclusion data to reconstruct the bulk water contents of magmas and their depth of storage prior to eruption. Pyroxenes contain up to 281 ppm H2O, with significant variability between crystals and from core to rim in individual crystals. The Al content of the enstatites from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is used to constrain melt-pyroxene partitioning for H2O. The SHV enstatite cores record melt water contents of 6-9 wt%. Pyroxene and melt inclusion water concentration pairs from South Soufriere Hills basalts independently constrain pyroxene-melt partitioning of water and produces a comparable range in melt water concentrations. Melt inclusions recorded in plagioclase and in pyroxene contain up to 6.3 wt% H2O. When combined with realistic melt CO2 contents, the depth of magma storage for both volcanoes ranges from 5 to 16 km. The data are consistent with a vertically protracted crystal mush in the upper crust beneath the southern part of Montserrat which contains heterogeneous bodies of eruptible magma. The high water contents of the magmas suggest that they contain a high proportion of exsolved fluids, which has implications for the rheology of the mush and timescales for mush reorganisation prior to eruption. A depletion in water in the outer 50-100 μm of a subset of pyroxenes from pumices from a Vulcanian explosion at Soufrière Hills in 2003 is consistent with diffusive loss of hydrogen during magma ascent over 5-13 h. These timescales are similar to the mean time periods between explosions in 1997 and in 2003, raising the possibility that the driving force for this repetitive explosive behaviour lies not in the shallow system, but in the deeper parts of a vertically

  11. Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas: insights into in-situ melt segregation from crystal mushes (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Arzilli, F.; Dobson, K. J.; Cordonnier, B.; Reusser, E.; Ulmer, P.; Marone, F.; Whittington, A. G.; Mancini, L.; Fife, J.; Blundy, J. D.


    Gas-driven filter pressing is the process of melt expulsion from a volatile-saturated crystal mush, induced by the buildup and subsequent release of gas pressure. Filter pressing is inferred to play a major role in magma fractionation at shallow depths (bubbles and crystals (~74 vol%). Above this threshold, the mush tends to fracture and gas escapes via fractures. Therefore, the efficiency of gas-driven filter pressing is promoted close to the percolation threshold and in situations where a mush inflates slowly relative to build-up of pressure and expulsion of melt. Such observations offer a likely explanation for the production of eruptible, crystal-poor magmas within Earth's crust. Figure = Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy 3D renderings of representative haplogranite (A-D) and dacite (E-H) samples, with different crystal (Φ) and bubble fractions (β) at representative temperatures and experimental times (t, in minutes). Black objects are bubbles and fractures; dark gray field is silicic glass/melt; light gray objects are corundum crystals in haplogranite sample, and quartz in dacite sample. White and black arrows indicate representative fractures and directions of melt expulsion during vesiculation, respectively. In H, white contours highlight quartz cluster boundaries and melt channels where melt is driven by gas bubbles. During experiments, gas exsolution mainly consists of (1) bubble nucleation and growth (white circles) and (2) crystal clustering and/or compaction (white rectangles).

  12. The partitioning of sulfur and chlorine between andesite melts and magmatic volatiles and the exchange coefficients of major cations (United States)

    Zajacz, Zoltán; Candela, Philip A.; Piccoli, Philip M.; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen


    Andesite melts were equilibrated with an H-O-S-bearing volatile phase to determine the partition coefficients for S and Cl as a function of melt composition and oxygen fugacity. The experiments were conducted in rapid-quench MHC vessel assemblies at 200 MPa and 1000 °C, and over a range of imposed fO2 between NNO-1.2 and NNO+1.8. High fluid/melt mass ratios (∼15) were employed, allowing precise and accurate partition coefficients to be obtained by mass balance calculations. Chlorine exhibits Henrian behavior at ClO-0.5 activities typical for arc magmas, with D Cl volatile/melt = 1.36 ± 0.06 (1σ) below 0.2 wt.% Cl in the melt; at higher ClO-0.5 activities, D Cl volatile/melt increases linearly to 2.11 ± 0.02 at 1 wt.% Cl in the melt. In the volatile phase: FeCl2 ∼ NaCl > KCl ∼ HCl. The determination of cation exchange coefficients for major cations yielded: K K,Na volatile/melt = 1.23 ± 0.10 (1σ) and ∗K Fe,Na volatile/melt = D Fe volatile/melt / D Na volatile/melt = 1.08 ± 0.16 (1σ). Under these conditions, the concentration of HCl in the vapor is negatively correlated with the (Na + K)/(Al + Fe3+) ratio in the melt. Reduced sulfur (S2-) appears to obey Henry's law in andesite melt-volatile system at fH2S below pyrrhotite saturation. The partition coefficient for S at fO2 = NNO-0.5 correlates negatively with the FeO concentration in the melt, changing from 254 ± 25 at 4.0 wt.% FeO to 88 ± 6 at 7.5 wt.% FeO. Pyrrhotite saturation is reached when approximately 3.2 mol% S is present in the volatile phase at fO2 = NNO-0.5. At the sulfide/sulfate transition, the partition coefficient of S drops from 171 ± 23 to 21 ± 1 at a constant FeO content of ∼6 wt.% in the melt. At fO2 = NNO+1.8, anhydrite saturation is reached at ∼3.3 mol% S present in the volatile phase. Aqueous volatiles exsolving from intermediate to mafic magmas can efficiently extract S, and effect its transfer to sites of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposit formation.

  13. Age, geochemical and isotopic variations in volcanic rocks from the Coastal Range of Taiwan: Implications for magma generation in the Northern Luzon Arc (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Ming; Song, Sheng-Rong; Lo, Ching-Hua; Lin, Te-Hsien; Chu, Mei-Fei; Chung, Sun-Lin


    This paper reports the first systematic analysis of age and geochemical variations in volcanic rocks from the Coastal Range of Taiwan, the Northern Luzon Arc. The rocks, recovered from four main volcanoes, vary from low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline basalts to dacites. The rocks are typical of arc magmatic products, exhibiting enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high field strength elements. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age data constrain the youngest eruption time in each of the four volcanoes, i.e., from north to south, at 7.2 Ma (Yuemei), 4.2 Ma (Chimei), 6.2 Ma (Chengkuang'ao) and 8.5 Ma (Tuluanshan), respectively. These data indicate that volcanism in the Northern Luzon Arc did not cease progressively from north to south, as previously alleged. The high and broadly uniform Nd isotope ratios [εNd = + 10.1 to + 8.8] and trace element characteristics of the rocks suggest a principal magma source from the depleted mantle wedge. Their overall geochemical variations are ascribed to magma chamber processes. The effects of magmatic differentiation and crustal contamination differ among each volcano, most likely owing to the discrepancy of residence time in individual magma chambers. Consequently, we propose a binary mixing model for the magma generation that involves arc magmas sourced from the depleted mantle wedge and up to 5% crustal contamination with a continental fragment split off from the Eurasian margin.

  14. Mezcla de magmas en Vulcanello (Isla Vulcano, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, A.


    Full Text Available Volcanic activity in Vulcano starts about 350 ka ago and continues up to present day with the development of thre main episodes corresponding to the calderas of Piano and La Fossa, and Vulcanello. These cover a compositional range from rhyolitic to trachybasaltic rocks. This lithological diversity is produced by different petrogenetic processes such as fractional crystallization, assimilation coupled to fractional crystallization (AFC, mixing, etc.The eruption of Vulcanello area emitted trachyandesitic materials, including shoshonites and latites. A magma-mixing process is established between trachytes and shoshonites to origine latites. Trachytes and rhyolites are produced by fractional crystallization and by ACF processes (assimilation of sedimentary rocks from trachyandesitic magmas.La actividad volcánica de Isla Vulcano comienzó aproximadamente hace 350.000 años y continúa hasta la actualidad con el desarrollo de tres grandes episodios correspondientes a las caldera de Piano, caldera de Fossa y a Vulcanello, que han emitido piroclastos y coladas de composiciones muy variadas, desde riolitas a traquibasaltos. Esta variedad litológica ha sido relacionada con procesos petrogenéticos tan diversos como cristalización fraccionada, asimilación simultánea con cristalización (ACF, mezcla de magmas, etc.El episodio de Vulcanello emite rocas traquiandesíticas, con composiciones shoshoníticas y latíticas. Un proceso de mezcla de magmas es reconocido entre traquitas y shoshonitas para generar latitas. Traquitas y riolitas son producidas por procesos de cristalización fraccionada simple y por ACF con asimilación de rocas sedimentarias a partir de magmas traquiandesíticos.

  15. Bubble plumes generated during recharge of basaltic magma reservoirs (United States)

    Phillips, Jeremy C.; Woods, Andrew W.


    CO 2 is relatively insoluble in basaltic magma at low crustal pressures. It therefore exists as a gas phase in the form of bubbles in shallow crustal reservoirs. Over time these bubbles may separate gravitationally from the magma in the chamber. As a result, any new magma which recharges the chamber from deeper in the crust may be more bubble-rich and hence of lower density than the magma in the chamber. Using scaling arguments, we show that for typical recharge fluxes, such a source of low-viscosity, bubble-rich basalt may generate a turbulent bubble plume within the chamber. We also show that the bubbles are typically sufficiently small to have a low Reynolds number and to remain in the flow. We then present a series of analogue laboratory experiments which identify that the motion of such a turbulent bubble-driven line plume is well described by the classical theory of buoyant plumes. Using the classical plume theory we then examine the effect of the return flow associated with such bubble plumes on the mixing and redistribution of bubbles within the chamber. Using this model, we show that a relatively deep bubbly layer of magma may form below a thin foam layer at the roof. If, as an eruption proceeds, there is a continuing influx at the base of the chamber, then our model suggests that the bubble content of the bubbly layer may gradually increase. This may lead to a transition from lava flow activity to more explosive fire-fountaining activity. The foam layer at the top of the chamber may provide a flux for the continual outgassing from the flanks of the volcano [Ryan, Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr. 91 (1990)] and if it deepens sufficiently it may contribute to the eruptive activity [Vergniolle and Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 95 (1990) 2793-3001].

  16. Seismic Tremors and Magma Wagging During Explosive Volcanism (United States)

    Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.


    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This ground oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies (i.e., ~0.5 - 7 Hz). Prior to major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with ground deformation probably related to a buildup of magmatic gas. Volcanic tremor is, thus, of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or "wag" against the restoring "gas-spring" force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, thereby predicting the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as observed.

  17. Staged storage and magma convection at Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu (United States)

    Sheehan, Fionnuala; Barclay, Jenni


    New mineral-melt thermobarometry and mineral chemistry data are presented for basaltic scoriae erupted from the Mbwelesu crater of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu, during persistent lava lake activity in 2005 and 2007. These data reveal crystallisation conditions and enable the first detailed attempt at reconstruction of the central magma plumbing system of Ambrym volcano. Pressures and temperatures of magma crystallisation at Ambrym are poorly constrained. This study focuses on characterising the magma conditions underlying the quasi-permanent lava lakes at the basaltic central vents, and examines petrological evidence for magma circulation. Mineral-melt equilibria for clinopyroxene, olivine and plagioclase allow estimation of pressures and temperatures of crystallisation, and reveal two major regions of crystallisation, at 24-29 km and 11-18 km depth, in agreement with indications from earthquake data of crustal storage levels at c. 25-29 km and 12-21 km depth. Temperature estimates are 1150-1170 °C for the deeper region, and 1110-1140 °C in the mid-crustal region, with lower temperatures of 1090-1100 °C for late-stage crystallisation. More primitive plagioclase antecrysts are thought to sample a slightly more mafic melt at sub-Moho depths. Resorption textures combined with effectively constant mafic mineral compositions suggest phenocryst convection in a storage region of consistent magma composition. In addition, basalt erupted at Ambrym has predominantly maintained a constant composition throughout the volcanic succession. This, coupled with recurrent periods of elevated central vent activity on the scale of months, suggest frequent magmatic recharge via steady-state melt generation at Ambrym.

  18. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger


    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  19. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob


    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  20. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline


    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  1. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk


    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  2. Governmentally amplified output volatility (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito


    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  3. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation


    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta


    The authors examine the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. They consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. An analytical framework, which offers pragmatic solutions for long-term investors who seek exposure to volatility, is used to calibrate and assess the risk-return profiles of portfolios. The benefit of volatility exposure for a...

  4. Reduced Heart Rate Volatility (United States)

    Grogan, Eric L.; Morris, John A.; Norris, Patrick R.; France, Daniel J.; Ozdas, Asli; Stiles, Renée A.; Harris, Paul A.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Speroff, Theodore


    Objective: To determine if using dense data capture to measure heart rate volatility (standard deviation) measured in 5-minute intervals predicts death. Background: Fundamental approaches to assessing vital signs in the critically ill have changed little since the early 1900s. Our prior work in this area has demonstrated the utility of densely sampled data and, in particular, heart rate volatility over the entire patient stay, for predicting death and prolonged ventilation. Methods: Approximately 120 million heart rate data points were prospectively collected and archived from 1316 trauma ICU patients over 30 months. Data were sampled every 1 to 4 seconds, stored in a relational database, linked to outcome data, and de-identified. HR standard deviation was continuously computed over 5-minute intervals (CVRD, cardiac volatility–related dysfunction). Logistic regression models incorporating age and injury severity score were developed on a test set of patients (N = 923), and prospectively analyzed in a distinct validation set (N = 393) for the first 24 hours of ICU data. Results: Distribution of CVRD varied by survival in the test set. Prospective evaluation of the model in the validation set gave an area in the receiver operating curve of 0.81 with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.1 and 80.0, respectively. CVRD predict death as early as 24 hours in the validation set. Conclusions: CVRD identifies a subgroup of patients with a high probability of dying. Death is predicted within first 24 hours of stay. We hypothesize CVRD is a surrogate for autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:15319726

  5. Magmatic MORB Volatiles, Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems and Abiotic Organic Synthesis (United States)

    Holloway, J. R.


    A plausible model for the origin of the observed C-O-H volatiles observed in MORB glasses is that they were incorporated in primary melts of the upwelling mantle. Based on the observed ferric/ferrous ratios in MORB glass, it is probable that the MORB source mantle contained diamond or graphite, depending on pressure. If true, then during partial mantle melting the graphite/diamond would react with FeO1.5 in garnet/spinel and clinopyroxene to form CO2 which would dissolve in the melt as carbonate ion. Using equation of state models for CO2 activity and ferric/ferrous ratios in the magma it is possible to model the amount of carbonate dissolved in the basaltic magma as a function of the degree of melting (Holloway and O'Day, 2000). The results require that rising MORB magma will become saturated in CO2 at depths much greater than those proposed for MORB magma chambers. Conversely H2O values observed in MORB glasses are far below saturation. However as CO2 reaches saturation and exsolves from the melt the low fO2 imposed by the low ferric/ferrous ratio results in a high H2/H2O ratio in the exsolving supercritical fluid. We have shown that fluids with this composition produce methanol (CH3OH) in the presence of magnetite at seafloor hydrothermal P-T conditions in a flow-through system (Voglesonger, et al., 2001) and that aqueous methanol solutions react in montmorillonite clay interlayers to form a wide variety of complex hydrocarbon molecules, the most abundant being hexamethyl benzene (Williams, et al., 2005). Methyl stearate (C17H35COOCH3) was also observed in moderate amounts. Holloway, J. R. and P. A. O'Day (2000). "Production of CO2 and H2 by Diking-Eruptive Events at Mid-Ocean Ridges: Implications for Abiotic Organic Synthesis and Global Geochemical Cycling." International Geology Review 42: 673-683. Voglesonger, K. M., J. R. Holloway, E. E. Dunn, P. J. Dalla-Betta and P. A. O'Day (2001). "Experimental Abiotic Synthesis of Methanol in Seafloor Hydrothermal

  6. Magma Energy Research Project. Project summary, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colp, J.L.; Davis, M.J.; Graeber, E.J.; Hardee, H.C.


    The objective of the Magma Energy Research Project now under way at Sandia Laboratories is to investigate the feasibility of extracting energy directly from deeply buried circulating magma sources. Project plans describe a concept whereby a fully closed heat exchanger system is inserted directly into such a magma source to allow the heat energy to be brought to the surface with minimal environmental impact. A summary of previous efforts is given. The achievements and future plans for source location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma materials compatibilities studies, and energy extraction studies are outlined. (LBS)

  7. Permeability of alkaline magmas: a study from Campi Flegrei, Italy (United States)

    Polacci, M.; Bouvet de Maissoneuve, C.; Giordano, D.; Piochi, M.; Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Mancini, L.


    Knowledge of permeability is of paramount importance for understanding the evolution of magma degassing during pre-, syn- and post-eruptive volcanic processes. Most permeability estimates existing to date refer to magmas of calc-alkaline compositions. We report here the preliminary results of permeability measurements performed on alkali-trachyte products erupted from the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Monte Nuovo (MTN), two explosive eruptions from Campi Flegrei (CF), an active, hazardous caldera west of Naples, Southern Italy. Darcian (viscous) permeability spans a wide range between 10^-11 and 10^-14 m^2. We observe that the most permeable samples are the scoria clasts from the upper units of MTN; pumice samples from the Breccia Museo facies of CI are instead the least permeable. Non-Darcian (inertial) permeability follows the same trend as Darcian permeability. The first implication of this study is that porosity in alkaline as well as calc-alkaline magmas does not exert a first order control on permeability (e.g. the MTN samples are the most permeable but not the most porous). Second, sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy (higher permeability in the direction of vesicle elongation), suggesting stronger degassing in the vertical direction in the conduit. In addition, inertial effects are higher across the sample. As inertial effects are potentially generated by tortuosity (or tortuous vesicle paths), tortuosity is likely higher horizontally than vertically in the conduit. Finally, the measured CF permeability values overlap with those of rhyolitic pumice clasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al., 2009), together with CI one of the major Quaternary explosive eruptions of the Mediterranean region. This indicates that gas flow is strongly controlled by the geometry of the porous media, which is generated by the bubble dynamics during magma ascent. Therefore, permeability will depend on composition through the rheological properties

  8. Terrestrial magma ocean and core segregation in the earth (United States)

    Ohtani, Eiji; Yurimoto, Naoyoshi


    According to the recent theories of formation of the earth, the outer layer of the proto-earth was molten and the terrestrial magma ocean was formed when its radius exceeded 3000 km. Core formation should have started in this magma ocean stage, since segregation of metallic iron occurs effectively by melting of the proto-earth. Therefore, interactions between magma, mantle minerals, and metallic iron in the magma ocean stage controlled the geochemistry of the mantle and core. We have studied the partitioning behaviors of elements into the silicate melt, high pressure minerals, and metallic iron under the deep upper mantle and lower mantle conditions. We employed the multi-anvil apparatus for preparing the equilibrating samples in the ranges from 16 to 27 GPa and 1700-2400 C. Both the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and the Secondary Ion Mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used for analyzing the run products. We obtained the partition coefficients of various trace elements between majorite, Mg-perovskite, and liquid, and magnesiowustite, Mg-perovskite, and metallic iron. The examples of the partition coefficients of some key elements are summarized in figures, together with the previous data. We may be able to assess the origin of the mantle abundances of the elements such as transition metals by using the partitioning data obtained above. The mantle abundances of some transition metals expected by the core-mantle equilibrium under the lower mantle conditions cannot explain the observed abundance of some elements such as Mn and Ge in the mantle. Estimations of the densities of the ultrabasic magma Mg-perovskite at high pressure suggest existence of a density crossover in the deep lower mantle; flotation of Mg-perovskite occurs in the deep magma ocean under the lower mantle conditions. The observed depletion of some transition metals such as V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in the mantle may be explained by the two stage process, the core-mantle equilibrium under the lower

  9. Magma ascent, fragmentation and depositional characteristics of "dry" maar volcanoes: Similarities with vent-facies kimberlite deposits (United States)

    Berghuijs, Jaap F.; Mattsson, Hannes B.


    Several maar craters within the Lake Natron-Engaruka monogenetic volcanic field (LNE-MVF) of northern Tanzania show compelling evidence for magmatic fragmentation and dry deposition. This is in contradiction of the common belief that most maars are formed through the explosive interaction between ascending magma and ground- or surface water. We here present a detailed study on the eruptive and depositional characteristics of the Loolmurwak and Eledoi maar volcanoes, two of the largest craters in the LNE-MVF, focusing on high-resolution stratigraphy, sedimentology, grain size distribution, pyroclast textures and morphologies, bulk geochemistry and mineral chemistry. At both maars, ejected material has been emplaced by a combination of pyroclastic surges and fallout. Indicators of phreatomagmatic fragmentation and wet deposition, such as impact sags, accretionary lapilli, vesiculated tuffs and plastering against obstacles, are absent in the deposits. Juvenile material predominantly occurs as fluidal-shaped vesicular melt droplets and contains no glass shards produced by the breakage of bubble walls. The Eledoi deposits comprise a large amount of inversely graded beds and lenses, which result from grain flow in a dry depositional environment. Preferential deposition of fine material toward the northern side of its crater can be related to effective wind winnowing in a dry eruption plume. This large variety of observations testifies to the dominance of magmatic fragmentation as well as dry deposition at the Loolmurwak and Eledoi maars, which is in line with what has been found for other structures in the LNE-MVF but contrasts with current ideas on maar formation. We infer that a volatile-rich, olivine melilitic magma was formed by small amounts of partial melting at upper mantle depths. With minimum average ascent rates of 5.3 m s- 1 for Loolmurwak and 26.2 m s- 1 for Eledoi, this magma rapidly moved toward the surface and exsolved a substantial amount of volatiles

  10. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian Eruptions fed by mafic magma: insights from bubbles in melt inclusions (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Redi, D.; Cannatelli, C.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Lima, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; De Vivo, B.


    Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian eruptions were first described by Pliny the younger in 79 AD during the infamous eruption that destroyed Pompeii. Today, such eruptions are still a concern to the nearly 3 million people living in the Naples metropolitan area. Understanding the source for Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magma and the coexisting volatile phase is vital to better constrain the long-term eruptive behavior of this volcano. In the present study, ~ 50 olivine phenocrysts were selected from lavas and pumices produced during mild effusive events referred to as inter-Plinian eruptions, and from highly explosive Plinian eruptions that occurred at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius between 33000 ka and 1631 AD. Selected olivine phenocrysts containing MI were examined petrographically and analyzed for Fo content. Fo varies from 69 to 73 mole% for inter-Plinian olivine crystals and from 84 to 90 mole% with one zoned olivine containing 76-81 mole% Fo, for Plinian olivine crystals. Investigated MI vary from slightly crystallized to highly crystallized. Selected crystallized MI were reheated using the Vernadsky stage, and quenched to a homogeneous glass (Group 1) or glass plus a vapor bubble (Group 2). On one hand, MI of Group 1 are hosted in olivine ranging from Fo72 to Fo76 and were all erupted from the Pompeii eruption (white pumice deposit). On the other hand, MI of Group 2 are trapped in olivine ranging from Fo69 to Fo81 and from Fo84 to Fo90, and the hosts are representative of both Plinian and inter-Plinian events. The only eruption where Group-1 and Group-2 MI coexist is the Pompeii eruption. Group 2 MIs were further analyzed by Raman to test for the presence of volatiles (CO2 or H2O) in the vapor bubbles. CO2 was detected in all MI analyzed. CO2 density was determined using the distance between the two Fermi-diad peaks, and ranges between 0.14 and 0.55 g/cm3. Six MI also showed evidence for H2O in the vapor bubble. In addition, carbonates were detected at the glass-vapor interface of five

  11. Copper isotope behavior during extreme magma differentiation and degassing: a case study on Laacher See phonolite tephra (East Eifel, Germany) (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wörner, Gerhard; Yu, Huimin; Xiao, Yilin


    Copper (Cu) isotopic analyses were performed on a set of samples from the Laacher See tephra (LST) (Eifel, Germany) to investigate whether Cu isotopes are fractionated during extreme magma differentiation and degassing. The LST represents a continuous fractional crystallization series from parental basanite through mafic to highly differentiated phonolites. Samples analyzed here include phonolites of variable degrees of differentiation, phonolite-basanite hybrid rocks formed by mixing basanite and phonolite magmas, and basanite-derived mega-crystals (i.e., clinopyroxene, amphibole, phlogopite). In addition, we analyzed a series of mafic parental lavas from surrounding volcanic centers to constrain the Cu isotopic features of the Eifel mantle. Mafic phonolites show strong depletion in Cu compared to their parental basanites from ~50 to ~3 ppm, indicating sulfide fractionation during the basanite-to-phonolite differentiation. Mass balance calculations, based on the most Cu-rich hybrid rock (δ65Cu = -0.21 ‰, [Cu] = 46.2 ppm), show that the parental basanite magmas have δ65Cu of ca. -0.21 ‰, lighter than those of the mafic phonolites (~0.11 ‰). This suggests that sulfide fractionation preferentially removes the lighter Cu isotope (63Cu) in S-saturated magmas. By contrast, all phonolites have a limited range of Cu contents (1.1 to 4.0 ppm) with no systematic variations with S, suggesting that Cu is not controlled by sulfide fractionation during the evolution of mafic to highly differentiated phonolites. The identical δ65Cu values (0.11 ± 0.03 ‰, 2SD, n = 10) of the phonolites, irrespective of highly diverse composition and extents of differentiation, indicate that fractional crystallization of silicates (e.g., plagioclase, sanidine, amphibole, pyroxene, olivine), Fe-Ti-oxides and phosphate (e.g., apatite) generates insignificant Cu isotope fractionation. The lack of correlations between δ65Cu and volatile contents (e.g., S, Cl) in the LST sequence implies

  12. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas. (United States)

    Hamilton, W


    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  13. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.


    by contemporaneous mafic magmas; the transition between the two now preserved as a zone of chilled mafic sheets and pillows in granite. Mafic components have highly variably isotopic compositions as a result of contamination either at depth or following injection into the magma chamber. Intermediate dikes...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...... lithologies have Nd isotopic compositions (eNd=+3.5) that are the lowest in the region and similar to the granite and suggestive of prolonged interactions and homogenization of the two components. Sr and Nd isotopic data for felsic enclaves are inconsistent with previously suggested models of diffusional...

  14. Water content of primitive low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate Volcano, NE Japan arc: implications for differentiation mechanism of frontal-arc basalt magmas (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Hirahara, Yuka; Takahashi, Toshiro


    The water content of low-K tholeiitic basalt magma from Iwate volcano, which is located on the volcanic front of the NE Japan arc, was estimated using multi-component thermodynamic models. The Iwate lavas are moderately porphyritic, consisting of ~8 vol.% olivine and ~20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts. The olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts show significant compositional variations, and the Mg# of olivine phenocrysts (Mg#78-85) correlates positively with the An content of coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts (An85-92). The olivine phenocrysts with Mg# > ~82 do not form crystal aggregates with plagioclase phenocrysts. It is inferred from these observations that the phenocrysts with variable compositions were primarily derived from mushy boundary layers along the walls of a magma chamber. By using thermodynamic calculations with the observed petrological features of the lavas, the water content of the Iwate magma was estimated to be 4-5 wt.%. The high water content of the magma supports the recent consensus that frontal-arc magmas are remarkably hydrous. Using the estimated water content of the Iwate magma, the water content and temperature of the source mantle were estimated. Given that the Iwate magma was derived from a primary magma solely by olivine fractionation, the water content and temperature were estimated to be ~0.7 wt.% and ~1,310 °C, respectively. Differentiation mechanisms of low-K frontal-arc basalt magmas were also examined by application of a thermodynamics-based mass balance model to the Iwate magma. It is suggested that magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily through fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of a magma chamber when it is located at ~200 MPa.

  15. Slab melting and magma generation beneath the southern Cascade Arc (United States)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.


    Magma formation in subduction zones is interpreted to be caused by flux melting of the mantle wedge by fluids derived from dehydration of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere. In the Cascade Arc and other hot-slab subduction zones, however, most dehydration reactions occur beneath the forearc, necessitating a closer investigation of magma generation processes in this setting. Recent work combining 2-D steady state thermal models and the hydrogen isotope composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Lassen segment of the Cascades (Walowski et al., 2014; in review) has shown that partial melting of the subducted basaltic crust may be a key part of the subduction component in hot arcs. In this model, fluids from the slab interior (hydrated upper mantle) rise through the slab and cause flux-melting of the already dehydrated MORB volcanics in the upper oceanic crust. In the Shasta and Lassen segments of the southern Cascades, support for this interpretation comes from primitive magmas that have MORB-like Sr isotope compositions that correlate with subduction component tracers (H2O/Ce, Sr/P) (Grove et al. 2002, Borg et al. 2002). In addition, mass balance calculations of the composition of subduction components show ratios of trace elements to H2O that are at the high end of the global arc array (Ruscitto et al. 2012), consistent with the role of a slab-derived melt. Melting of the subducted basaltic crust should contribute a hydrous dacitic or rhyolitic melt (e.g. Jego and Dasgupta, 2013) to the mantle wedge rather than an H2O-rich aqueous fluid. We are using pHMELTS and pMELTS to model the reaction of hydrous slab melts with mantle peridotite as the melts rise through the inverted thermal gradient in the mantle wedge. The results of the modeling will be useful for understanding magma generation processes in arcs that are associated with subduction of relatively young oceanic lithosphere.

  16. Magma genesis, plate tectonics, and chemical differentiation of the Earth


    Wyllie, Peter J.


    Magma genesis, migration, and eruption have played prominent roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth. Plate tectonics has provided the framework of tectonic environments for different suites of igneous rocks and the dynamic mechanisms for moving masses of rock into melting regions. Petrology is rooted in geophysics. Petrological and geophysical processes are calibrated by the phase equilibria of the materials. The geochemistry of basalts and mantle xenoliths demonstrates that the m...

  17. Ecocrítica e erotismo nos poemas de Magma


    Santana, Patricia Maria dos Santos; UFRJ


    Olga Savary nos mostra, através da poesia registrada no livro Magma, que a força erótica e a interdependência do homem com a Natureza são fatores que regem seu trabalho criativo no que tange a valorização da mulher como um ser que tem domínio de seu próprio corpo e que sabe muito bem o que realmente quer. 

  18. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.


    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Atmosphere-magma ocean modeling of GJ 1132 b (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura; Wordsworth, Robin; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Sasselov, Dimitar


    GJ 1132 b is a nearby Earth-sized exoplanet transiting an M dwarf, and is amongst the most highly characterizable small exoplanets currently known. Using a coupled atmosphere-magma ocean model, we determine that GJ 1132 b must have begun with more than 5 wt% initial water in order to still retain a water-based atmosphere. We also determine the amount of O2 that can build up in the atmosphere as a result of hydrogen dissociation and loss. We find that the magma ocean absorbs at most ~ 10% of the O2 produced, whereas more than 90% is lost to space through hydrodynamic drag. The results of the model depend strongly on the initial water abundance and the XUV model. The most common outcome for GJ 1132 b from our simulations is a tenuous atmosphere dominated by O2, although for very large initial water abundances, atmospheres with several thousands of bars of O2 are possible. A substantial steam envelope would indicate either the existence of an earlier H2 envelope or low XUV flux over the system's lifetime. A steam atmosphere would also imply the continued existence of a magma ocean on GJ 1132 b. Preliminary modeling with the addition of CO2 gas will be presented.

  20. Search for shallow magma accumulations at Augustine Volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, J.; Lalla, D.J.; Pearson, C.F.; Barrett, S.A.


    A search was made for shallow magma accumulations beneath Augustine Volcano using primarily three geophysical techniques: (1) temperature and heat flow measurements, (2) active and passive seismic refraction, and (3) three-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic data. With these studies it was hoped to gain insight into the interval structure of Augustine Volcano, to delineate, if possible, the size and shape of near surface magma bodies and to assess the potential of the volcano as a natural laboratory for hot rock and magma geothermal energy research. Augustine was chosen because it is a very young and very active volcano with several historic eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1935, 1964/64. One of the main targets for the geophysical studies was a summit lava dome of about 0.05 km/sup 3/ volume, extruded in 1963/64 and suspected to still contain considerable residual heat, perhaps be still partially molten years after its intrusion. Five months after the field work in 1975 this dome was exploded in January 1976. One month later, a hot (about 650 to 800/sup 0/C) viscous dome was intruded into the January summit crater.

  1. Dropping stones in magma oceans - Effects of early lunar cratering (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.


    A new methodology is used to calculate the accumulation rate of megaregolith materials for two models of early lunar cratering, both with and without episodes of late cataclysmic cratering. Results show that the pulverization of early rock layers was an important process competing with the formation of a coherent rock lithosphere at the surface of the hypothetical lunar magma ocean. If a magma ocean existed, then its initial cooling was marked by a period of pre-lithospheric chaos in which impacts punched through the initially thin rocky skin, mixing rock fragments with splashed magma. Furthermore, the results show that intense brecciation and pulverization of rock materials must have occurred to a depth of at least tens of kilometers in the first few hundred years of lunar history regardless of whether a 'terminal lunar cataclysm' occurred around 4.0 G.y. ago. The predicted pattern of brecciation and the ages of surviving rock fragments is similar to that actually observed among lunar samples. More reliable dating of basin-forming events and models of rock exhumation and survival are needed in order to understand better the relation between the early intense bombardment of the moon and the samples collected on the moon today.

  2. Differentiation of Vesta: Implications for a shallow magma ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Wladimir; Spohn, Tilman


    The Dawn mission confirms predictions that the asteroid 4 Vesta is differentiated with an iron-rich core, a silicate mantle and a basaltic crust, and confirms Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites. To better understand its early evolution, we perform numerical calculations of the thermo-chemical evolution adopting new data obtained by the Dawn mission such as mass, bulk density and size of the asteroid. We have expanded the model of Neumann et al. (2012) that includes accretion, compaction, melting and associated changes of material properties and partitioning of 26Al, advective heat transport, and differentiation by porous flow, to include convection and effective cooling in a magma ocean. Depending on the melt fraction, the heat transport by melt segregation is modelled either by porous flow or by convection and heat flux of a magma ocean with a high effective thermal conductivity. We show that partitioning of 26Al and its transport with the silicate melt is crucial for the formation of a magma oce...

  3. Influence of Non-Newtonian rheology on magma degassing

    CERN Document Server

    Divoux, Thibaut; Ripepe, Maurizio; Géminard, Jean-Christophe


    Many volcanoes exhibit temporal changes in their degassing process, from rapid gas puffing to lava fountaining and long-lasting quiescent passive degassing periods. This range of behaviors has been explained in terms of changes in gas flux and/or magma input rate. We report here a simple laboratory experiment which shows that the non- Newtonian rheology of magma can be responsible, alone, for such intriguing behavior, even in a stationary gas flux regime. We inject a constant gas flow-rate Q at the bottom of a non-Newtonian fluid column, and demonstrate the existence of a critical flow rate Q* above which the system spontaneously alternates between a bubbling and a channeling regime, where a gas channel crosses the entire fluid column. The threshold Q* depends on the fluid rheological properties which are controlled, in particular, by the gas volume fraction (or void fraction) {\\phi}. When {\\phi} increases, Q* decreases and the degassing regime changes. Non-Newtonian properties of magma might therefore play a...

  4. Magma ascent pathways associated with large mountains on Io (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Kirchoff, Michelle R.; White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.


    While Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, the largest mountains seen on Io are created by tectonic forces rather than volcanic construction. Pervasive compression, primarily brought about by subsidence induced by sustained volcanic resurfacing, creates the mountains, but at the same time inhibits magma ascent in vertical conduits (dikes). We superpose stress solutions for subsidence, along with thermal stress, (both from the "crustal conveyor belt" process of resurfacing) in Io's lithosphere with stresses from Io mountain-sized loads (in a shallow spherical shell solution) in order to evaluate magma ascent pathways. We use stress orientation (least compressive stress horizontal) and stress gradient (compression decreasing upwards) criteria to identify ascent pathways through the lithosphere. There are several configurations for which viable ascent paths transit nearly the entire lithosphere, arriving at the base of the mountain, where magma can be transported through thrust faults or perhaps thermally eroded flank sections. The latter is consistent with observations of some Io paterae in close contact with mountains.

  5. The chlorine isotope fingerprint of the lunar magma ocean. (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Treiman, Allan H; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Eiler, John M; Gross, Juliane; Greenwood, James P; Stolper, Edward M


    The Moon contains chlorine that is isotopically unlike that of any other body yet studied in the Solar System, an observation that has been interpreted to support traditional models of the formation of a nominally hydrogen-free ("dry") Moon. We have analyzed abundances and isotopic compositions of Cl and H in lunar mare basalts, and find little evidence that anhydrous lava outgassing was important in generating chlorine isotope anomalies, because (37)Cl/(35)Cl ratios are not related to Cl abundance, H abundance, or D/H ratios in a manner consistent with the lava-outgassing hypothesis. Instead, (37)Cl/(35)Cl correlates positively with Cl abundance in apatite, as well as with whole-rock Th abundances and La/Lu ratios, suggesting that the high (37)Cl/(35)Cl in lunar basalts is inherited from urKREEP, the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean. These new data suggest that the high chlorine isotope ratios of lunar basalts result not from the degassing of their lavas but from degassing of the lunar magma ocean early in the Moon's history. Chlorine isotope variability is therefore an indicator of planetary magma ocean degassing, an important stage in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  6. Earliest detection of magma movements by measuring transient streaming potential (United States)

    Fujinawa, Yukio; Matsumoto, Takumi; Iitaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Nakano, Hiroshi; Doi, Takuya; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Naoko; Sato, Sohjun

    Volcanic eruptions are generally preceded by magma intrusion. Volcanic forecasting is sure to make considerable progress if we have a practical means to detect magma movements. Electric potential variations have been observed since April 1999 at Miyake Island, a volcanic island in Japan. Measurements have been conducted by a special long vertical antenna using a steel casing pipe and a short horizontal dipole. Beginning about half a day before as well as at the time period of the largest eruption in 2000 of Miyake-jima volcano on August 18, 2000, conspicuous electric field variations were observed on the horizontal and vertical components in the frequency bands of DC, ULF and ELF/VLF. And several types of anomalies were found to occur in association with different stage of volcanic activities. We suggest that transient self-potential variations are induced by confined ground water pressure fluctuations through interaction between intruding magma and hydrothermal circulation through electro-kinetic effect. Subsurface transient self-potential measurement has been suggested to be useful means for monitoring volcanic eruption and to provide an efficient window for looking into modification of hydrothermal circulation induced by the volcanic activity.

  7. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range, South China: in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although a number of petrographic observations and isotopic data suggest that magma mixing is common in genesis of many granite plutons, it is still controversial whether the mantle-derived magmas were involved in granites. We carried out in this study a systematic analysis of in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes for three early Yanshanian intrusions dated at ca. 160 Ma from the Nanling Range of Southeast China. The Qinghu monzonite has very homogeneous zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, εHf(t) =11.6±0.3 and δ18O=5.4‰±0.3‰. In combination with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite were likely derived from the partial melting of recently-metasomatized, phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle without appreciable crustal contamination. The Lisong and Fogang granites and the mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) within the Lisong granites have a wide range of zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, with Hf and O isotopes being negatively correlated within each pluton. The Lisong MMEs were crystallized from a mantle-derived magma, similar to the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite, with small amount of crustal assimilation. The Lisong and Fogang granites were formed by reworking of meta-sedimentary materials by mantle-derived magmas and mixing of the mantle-and sediment-derived melts to varying degrees. It is thus concluded that these two Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range were formed associated with growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  8. The petrogenesis of anorogenic felsic magmas and AMCG suites: Insights on element mobility and mutual cryptic contamination from polythermal experiments (United States)

    Martin, Robert F.


    The close association of mantle-derived mafic rocks and crust-derived felsic rocks in AMCG suites the world over is now interpreted in terms of delamination of the lithospheric keel of an orogen within a short time after the cessation of a major collision. The stage is set for the ascent of an asthenospheric diapir, which is accompanied by the ascent of a stream of H2O-CO2 representing regional degassing of the mantle in the ensuing extensional setting. The crust gets variably metasomatized prior to melting, and this episode of melting seems to involve almost complete melting rather than the expected films of leucosome. Results of polythermal experiments with a large array of target rocks (pulverized) + H2O show that it is possible to mobilize the major elements K, Na, Al, Si and Fe such that the transported fractions resembles an A-type granite or syenite. The open-system process increases in efficiency with increasing temperature and increasing pressure. A stream of such fluid interacting with gabbro or basic magma could create anorthositic and ultrabasic assemblages that are candidates for contamination of pools of basic magma in the uppermost mantle and lower crust. The same stream continues its buoyant rise and makes over the sterile granulitic lower and middle crust into a geochemically fertile protolith for the generation of A-type felsic magmas by wholesale anatexis.

  9. Buffered and unbuffered dike emplacement on Earth and Venus - Implications for magma reservoir size, depth, and rate of magma replenishment (United States)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, J. W., III


    Models of the emplacement of lateral dikes from magma chambers under constant (buffered) driving pressure conditions and declining (unbuffered) driving pressure conditions indicate that the two pressure scenarios lead to distinctly different styles of dike emplacement. In the unbuffered case, the lengths and widths of laterally emplaced dikes will be severely limited and the dike lengths will be highly dependent on chamber size; this dependence suggests that average dike length can be used to infer the dimensions of the source magma reservoir. On Earth, the characteristics of many mafic-dike swarms suggest that they were emplaced in buffered conditions (e.g., the Mackenzie dike swarm in Canada and some dikes within the Scottish Tertiary). On Venus, the distinctive radial fractures and graben surrounding circular to oval features and edifices on many size scales and extending for hundreds to over a thousand km are candidates for dike emplacement in buffered conditions.

  10. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  11. Isolation and quantification of volatiles in fish by dynamic headspace sampling and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Benny


    determined by use of this sample preparation method and for samples chewed for 10 s. Effects of sampling time, temperature, and purge flow on level of volatiles were tested. Purging at 340 mL/min for 30 min at 45 degrees C was found to be optimal. Detection Emits for a number of aldehydes were 0.2-2.7 mu g......A dynamic headspace sampling method for isolation of volatiles in fish has been developed. The sample preparation involved freezing of fish tissue in liquid nitrogen, pulverizing the tissue, and sampling of volatiles from an aqueous slurry of the fish powder. Similar volatile patterns were...

  12. Application of a new multiphase multicomponent volcanic conduit model with magma degassing and crystallization to Stromboli volcano. (United States)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia


    reproduce both effusive and explosive eruptive activities at Stromboli volcano. Three different crystal components (olivine, pyroxene and feldspar) and two different gas species (water and carbon dioxide) are taken into account. The equilibrium profiles of crystallization as function of pressure, temperature and water content are modeled using the numerical codes AlphaMELTS and DAKOTA. The equilibrium of dissolved gas content, instead, is obtained using a non-linear fitting of data computed using VolatileCALC. With these data, we simulate numerically the lava effusion that occurred at Stromboli between 27 February and 2 April 2007, and find good agreement with the observed data (vesicularity, exsolved gas composition, crystal content and mass flow rate) at the vent. We find that the model is highly sensitive to input magma temperature, going from effusive to explosive eruption with temperature changes by just 20 °C. We thoroughly investigated through a sensitivity analysis the control of the temperature of magma chamber and of the radius of the conduit on the mass flow rate, obtaining also a set of admissible temperatures and conduit radii that produce results in agreement with the real observations.

  13. Garnet-bearing tonalitic porphyry from East Kunlun, Northeast Tibetan Plateau: implications for adakite and magmas from the MASH Zone (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wilde, Simon; Li, Xianhua; Liu, Xiaohan; Long, Xiaoping; Xia, Xiaoping; Ye, Kai; Li, Jiliang


    A garnet-bearing tonalitic porphyry from the Achiq Kol area, northeast Tibetan Plateau has been dated by SHRIMP U-Pb zircon techniques and gives a Late Triassic age of 213 ± 3 Ma. The porphyry contains phenocrysts of Ca-rich, Mn-poor garnet (CaO > 5 wt%; MnO 17 wt%) contents, and is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ACNK = 0.89-1.05). The rock samples are enriched in LILE and LREE but depleted in Nb and Ti, showing typical features of subduction-related magmas. The relatively high Sr/Y (~38) ratios and low HREE (Yb residual phase, while suppressed crystallization of plagioclase and lack of negative Eu anomalies indicate a high water fugacity in the magma. Nd-Sr isotope compositions of the rock (ɛNdT = -1.38 to -2.33; 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7065-0.7067) suggest that both mantle- and crust-derived materials were involved in the petrogenesis, which is consistent with the reverse compositional zoning of plagioclase, interpreted to indicate magma mixing. Both garnet phenocrysts and their ilmenite inclusions contain low MgO contents which, in combination with the oxygen isotope composition of garnet separates (+6.23‰), suggests that these minerals formed in a lower crust-derived felsic melt probably in the MASH zone. Although the rock samples are similar to adakitic rocks in many aspects, their moderate Sr contents (residual melt. It is suggested that extensive crystallization of apatite as an early phase may prevent some arc magmas from evolving into adakitic rocks even under high water fugacity.

  14. Timescales for permeability reduction and strength recovery in densifying magma (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.


    Transitions between effusive and explosive behaviour are routine for many active volcanoes. The permeability of the system, thought to help regulate eruption style, is likely therefore in a state of constant change. Viscous densification of conduit magma during effusive periods, resulting in physical and textural property modifications, may reduce permeability to that preparatory for an explosive eruption. We present here a study designed to estimate timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery during viscous magma densification by coupling measurements of permeability and strength (using samples from a suite of variably welded, yet compositionally identical, volcanic deposits) with a rheological model for viscous compaction and a micromechanical model, respectively. Bayesian Information Criterion analysis confirms that our porosity-permeability data are best described by two power laws that intersect at a porosity of 0.155 (the "changepoint" porosity). Above and below this changepoint, the permeability-porosity relationship has a power law exponent of 8.8 and 1.0, respectively. Quantitative pore size analysis and micromechanical modelling highlight that the high exponent above the changepoint is due to the closure of wide (∼200-300 μm) inter-granular flow channels during viscous densification and that, below the changepoint, the fluid pathway is restricted to narrow (∼50 μm) channels. The large number of such narrow channels allows porosity loss without considerable permeability reduction, explaining the switch to a lower exponent. Using these data, our modelling predicts a permeability reduction of four orders of magnitude (for volcanically relevant temperatures and depths) and a strength increase of a factor of six on the order of days to weeks. This discrepancy suggests that, while the viscous densification of conduit magma will inhibit outgassing efficiency over time, the regions of the conduit prone to fracturing, such as the margins, will

  15. Advancing dynamic and thermodynamic modelling of magma oceans (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron; Sanan, Patrick; Tackley, Paul


    The techniques for modelling low melt-fraction dynamics in planetary interiors are well-established by supplementing the Stokes equations with Darcy's Law. But modelling high-melt fraction phenomena, relevant to the earliest phase of magma ocean cooling, necessitates parameterisations to capture the dynamics of turbulent flow that are otherwise unresolvable in numerical models. Furthermore, it requires knowledge about the material properties of both solid and melt mantle phases, the latter of which are poorly described by typical equations of state. To address these challenges, we present (1) a new interior evolution model that, in a single formulation, captures both solid and melt dynamics and hence charts the complete cooling trajectory of a planetary mantle, and (2) a physical and intuitive extension of a "Hard Sphere" liquid equation of state (EOS) to describe silicate melt properties for the pressure-temperature (P-T) range of Earth's mantle. Together, these two advancements provide a comprehensive and versatile modelling framework for probing the far-reaching consequences of magma ocean cooling and crystallisation for Earth and other rocky planets. The interior evolution model accounts for heat transfer by conduction, convection, latent heat, and gravitational separation. It uses the finite volume method to ensure energy conservation at each time-step and accesses advanced time integration algorithms by interfacing with PETSc. This ensures it accurately and efficiently computes the dynamics throughout the magma ocean, including within the ultra-thin thermal boundary layers (important for multi-component systems). Our new high P-T liquid EOS accurately captures the energetics and physical properties of the partially molten system whilst retaining the largest number of familiar EOS parameters. We demonstrate the power of our integrated dynamic and EOS model by exploring two crystallisation scenarios for Earth that are dictated by the coincidence of the liquid

  16. On forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility.


    Hafner, Christian


    In an efficient market, foreign exchange rates have to guarantee absence of triangular arbitrage. This note shows that the no-arbitrage condition can be exploited for forecasting the volatility of a single rate by using the information contained in the other rates. Linearly transforming the volatility forecasts of a bivariate model is shown to be more efficient than using a univariate model for the cross-rate.

  17. The relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in cooling basaltic magma chambers (United States)

    Kuritani, Takeshi


    In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation). In this study, the relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in basaltic magma bodies were examined using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. Model calculations show that boundary layer fractionation cannot be a dominant fractionation mechanism when magma chambers are located at low pressures (magmatic evolution. On the other hand, boundary layer fractionation can occur effectively when magmas are hydrous (> ~ 2 wt.%), such as arc basalt, and the magma chambers are located at depth (> ~ 100 MPa). Because the melt derived from mush zones is enriched in alkalis and H 2O, crystallization from the main magma is suppressed by mixing with the mush melt as a consequence of depression of the liquidus temperature. Therefore, homogeneous fractionation is more effectively suppressed in magma chambers in which boundary layer fractionation is more active. If magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily by boundary layer fractionation, magmas can remain free of crystals for long periods during magmatic evolution.

  18. Storage and interaction of compositionally heterogeneous magmas from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Roman, Diana C.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Wallace, Paul J.; Donovan, John J.


    Compositional heterogeneity (56–64 wt% SiO2 whole-rock) in samples of tephra and lava from the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, raises questions about the physical nature of magma storage and interaction beneath this young and frequently active volcano. To determine conditions of magma storage and evolutionary histories of compositionally distinct magmas, we investigate physical and chemical characteristics of andesitic and dacitic magmas feeding the 1986 eruption. We calculate equilibrium temperatures and oxygen fugacities from Fe-Ti oxide compositions and find a continuous range in temperature from 877 to 947°C and high oxygen fugacities (ΔNNO=1–2) for all magmas. Melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis are dacitic to rhyolitic and have water contents ranging from Augustine, and we interpret the mafic endmember to have been intruded from depth. Mixing appears to have continued as magmas ascended towards the vent. We suggest that the physical structure of the magma storage system beneath Augustine contributed to the sustained compositional heterogeneity of this eruption, which is best explained by magma storage and interaction in a vertically extensive system of interconnected dikes rather than a single coherent magma chamber and/or conduit. The typically short repose period (∼10 years) between Augustine's recent eruptive pulses may also inhibit homogenization, as short repose periods and chemically heterogeneous magmas are observed at several volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska.

  19. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng


    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  20. Isotopic disequilibrium and lower crustal contamination in slowly ascending magmas: Insights from Proterozoic anorthosites (United States)

    Bybee, G. M.; Ashwal, L. D.


    disequilibrium geometries cannot be explained by melting of the lower crust. Assimilation of crust with distinctive Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions does, however, explain the origin of decoupling in internal mineral isotopic compositions. We also find unexpected patterns of internal isotopic disequilibrium, such as isotopically radiogenic orthopyroxene relative to plagioclase and differences in plagioclase isotopic disequilibrium between orthopyroxene- and olivine-bearing samples. These various lines of evidence provide strong support for the generation of crustal isotopic signatures through assimilation, and not anatexis, of the lower crust. These isotopic data show that anorthosite petrogenesis likely involves significant differentiation and solidification at lower crustal depths, followed by ascent of high-crystallinity bodies (⩾50% crystallinity) to mid- or upper crustal levels. We show that protracted lower crustal differentiation imparts a clear chemical and isotopic signature on mantle-derived magmas of Proterozoic anorthosites and that this process is central in the development of such slowly ascending, plagioclase-rich magmas.

  1. A multi-decadal view of seismic methods for detecting precursors of magma movement and eruption (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard A.; Matoza, Robin S.


    noise interferometry, in which the ambient seismic noise is used to probe temporal changes in volcanic structures; (2) the measurement of seismic anisotropy, where changes in the alignment of fluid-filled microcracks and pore space are monitored to assess the response of the crust to pressurization of a magmatic system; and (3) the detection of systematic changes in fault plane solutions of volcano-tectonic earthquakes caused by local stress perturbations during conduit pressurization. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources and behavior of volcanic structures, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Future important goals toward meeting those challenges must include a better understanding of the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena, along with a quantitative understanding of multiphase fluid behavior under dynamic volcanic conditions. Realizing these goals will be essential for the development of an integrated model of volcanic behavior and will require multidisciplinary research involving detailed field measurements, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling.

  2. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  3. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng


    REEs contents, and Th/U ratios, but reveal high F contents (0.35-0.76 wt.%) and extreme high Nb/Ta ratios (up to 65.6). Such titanites are perceived to record late-stage mingling, during which F-rich and REE-poor hybrid granodioritic magma squeezed into the incompletely consolidated dioritic enclaves with accompanying fluid-rock interaction. Combining our results with previous isotopic studies, a new genetic model for Guojialing-type granodiorites is envisaged, which involves multi-stage magma mixing between Archean lower crust-derived felsic magma and mafic lower crust-derived dioritic magma, triggered by mantle-derived mafic magma underplating during the course of asthenospheric upwelling in Early Cretaceous. Such process further implicates the reactivation of Jiaodong lower crust during the destruction of NCC.

  4. Calc-alkali rocks derived from tholeiite magma in Hakone volcano; pyroxene crystallization trends and pyroxene geothermometry to estimate the magma temperature (United States)

    Ishii, T.


    Calc-alkali rocks are widely distributed in the island arcs. The several models of their magma-genesis were proposed by many geoscientists (e.g. Kuno 1950, Osborn 1959, Sakuyama 1981, Tatsumi 2011) on the bases of precise petrological investigations. Crystallization trends of rock forming minerals (pyroxene, feldspar etc.) in the individual lava flow of the hydrous tholeiitic magma are represented by chemical zoning from phenocryst through microphenocryst to the groundmass in each lava. Those trends indicate degassing (or dehydrating) trends of erupted lava (Ishii 1991). Crystallization trend of minerals of hydrous magma in the subvolcanic magma reservoir is represented by core of phenocrysts throughout lava-flow strata in each volcano. Those trends indicate water-enrichment (or hydrating) trend in the magma reservoir. On the bases of the detailed analyses of the pyroxene crystallization sequences as well as estimated magmatic temperatures using pyroxene geothermometer, for calc-alkali rocks from the Central Cone (CC) in the Hakone volcano, the following working hypothesis is suggested, i.e. those calc-alkali rocks are induced by magma mixing between high temperature (about 1120 Degree Centigrade) tholeiite magma and low temperature (about 970 Degree Centigrade) magma, the latter is originated from fractional crystallization of the primitive high temperature hydras island-arc tholeiite magma within magma reservoir under closed environment for water. Reference Ishii, T., 1991. Lava-flow and subvolcanic magma reservoir composition trends in the Ca-poor pyroxenes of Hakone Volcano, Japan. Jour. Petrol., 32, 429-450 Kuno, H., 1950. Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent areas, Japan. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 61, 957-1019. Sakuyama, M., 1981. Petrological study of the Myoko and Kurohime volcanoes, Japan: crystallization sequence and evidence for magma mixing. Jour. Petrol., 22, 553-583. Osborn, E. F., 1959. Role of oxygen pressure in the crystallization and

  5. Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: An empirical approach (United States)

    Pistone, Mattia; Cordonnier, Benoît; Ulmer, Peter; Caricchi, Luca


    The physical properties of magmas play a fundamental role in controlling the eruptive dynamics of volcanoes. Magmas are multiphase mixtures of crystals and gas bubbles suspended in a silicate melt and, to date, no flow laws describe their rheological behaviour. In this study we present a set of equations quantifying the flow of high-viscosity (> 105 Pa·s) silica-rich multiphase magmas, containing both crystals (24-65 vol.%) and gas bubbles (9-12 vol.%). Flow laws were obtained using deformation experiments performed at high temperature (673-1023 K) and pressure (200-250 MPa) over a range of strain-rates (5 · 10- 6 s- 1 to 4 · 10- 3 s- 1), conditions that are relevant for volcanic conduit processes of silica-rich systems ranging from crystal-rich lava domes to crystal-poor obsidian flows. We propose flow laws in which stress exponent, activation energy, and pre-exponential factor depend on a parameter that includes the volume fraction of weak phases (i.e. melt and gas bubbles) present in the magma. The bubble volume fraction has opposing effects depending on the relative crystal volume fraction: at low crystallinity bubble deformation generates gas connectivity and permeability pathways, whereas at high crystallinity bubbles do not connect and act as "lubricant" objects during strain localisation within shear bands. We show that such difference in the evolution of texture is mainly controlled by the strain-rate (i.e. the local stress within shear bands) at which the experiments are performed, and affect the empirical parameters used for the flow laws. At low crystallinity ( 44 vol.%) the viscosity decreases with increasing strain-rate. Because these behaviours are also associated with modifications of sample textures during the experiment and, thus, are not purely the result of different deformation rates, we refer to "apparent shear-thickening" and "apparent shear-thinning" for the behaviours observed at low and high crystallinity, respectively. At low

  6. Reconstructing Magma Degassing and Fragmentation: The 1060 CE Plinian Eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Crozier, J.


    Magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions occurs when the bubble overpressure exceeds some threshold. Because bubble coalescence and ensuing permeable outgassing allow partial release of bubble overpressure, high magma permeabil
ity is thought to adversely affect magma fragmentation and the ability of magma to erupt explosively. We used the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, to show that this is not necessarily the case. We performed numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and bubble growth to predict the development of magma porosity, permeability, and the built-up of gas pressure inside bubbles. We explicitly took into account permeable outgassing in the model. We used the measured porosity and permeability of the Plinian pyroclasts, together with percolation modeling, to reconstruct the conditions for magma degassing and fragmentation. Our results show that the porosity and permeability of pyroclasts coincide with the conditions required for fragmentation of the erupting magma. The onset of fragmentation occurs when the decompression rate reaches about 2 MPa.s-1, corresponding to a constant melt viscosity of ˜107 Pa.s and a magma porosity of approximately 0.75, conditions met for a mass discharge rate of about 107 kg.s-1, a cross sectional area of about 2,000 m2, and at a depth of approximately 1 km. Pyroclasts formed from magma that fragmented over a depth range of several tens of meters, probably reflecting some degree of lateral variability in magma porosity in the conduit. The model also indicates that, even if the magma was highly permeable at the onset of fragmentation, permeable outgassing did not affect fragmentation. The transition to an effusive activity and the emission of obsidian after the Plinian phase of the Glass Mountain eruption is most probably due to a decrease in decompression rate.

  7. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse (United States)

    Gavrilenko, Maxim; Ozerov, Alexey; Kyle, Philip R.; Carr, Michael J.; Nikulin, Alex; Vidito, Christopher; Danyushevsky, Leonid


    A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361-38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700-361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ˜3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ˜QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123-1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ˜5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ˜3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

  8. Assimilation of carbonate country rock by the parent magma of the Panzhihua Fe-Ti-V deposit (SW China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Ganino


    Full Text Available The Panzhihua intrusion in southwest China is part of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province and host of a large Fe-Ti-V ore deposit. During emplacement of the main intrusion, multiple generations of mafic dykes invaded carbonate wall rocks, producing a large contact aureole. We measured the oxygen-isotope composition of the intrusions, their constituent minerals, and samples of the country rock. Magnetite and plagioclase from Panzhihua intrusion have δ18O values that are consistent with magmatic equilibrium, and formed from magmas with δ18O values that were 1–2‰ higher than expected in a mantle-derived magma. The unmetamorphosed country rock has high δ18O values, ranging from 13.2‰ (sandstone to 24.6–28.6‰ (dolomite. The skarns and marbles from the aureole have lower δ18O and δ13C values than their protolith suggesting interaction with fluids that were in exchange equilibrium with the adjacent mafic magmas and especially the numerous mafic dykes that intruded the aureole. This would explain the alteration of δ18O of the dykes which have significantly higher values than expected for a mantle-derived magma. Depending on the exact δ18O values assumed for the magma and contaminant, the amount of assimilation required to produce the elevated δ18O value of the Panzhihua intrusion was between 8 and 13.7 wt.%, assuming simple mixing. The exact mechanism of contamination is unclear but may involve a combination of assimilation of bulk country rock, mixing with a melt of the country rock and exchange with CO2-rich fluid derived from decarbonation of the marls and dolomites. These mechanisms, particularly the latter, were probably involved in the formation of the Fe-Ti-V ores.

  9. Spiral mining for lunar volatiles (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Carrier, W. D., III

    Lunar spiral mining, extending outward from a periodically mobile central power and processing station represents an alternative for comparison with more traditional mining schemes. In this concept, a mining machine would separate regolith fines and extract the contained volatiles. Volatiles then would be pumped along the miner's support arm to the central station for refining and for export or storage. The basic architecture of the central processing station would be cylindrical. A central core area could house the power subsystem of hydrogen-oxygen engines or fuel cells. Habitat sections and other crew occupied areas could be arranged around the power generation core. The outer cylinder could include all volatile refining subsystems. Solar thermal power collectors and reflectors would be positioned on top of the central station. Long term exploitation of a volatile resource region would begin with establishment of a support base at the center of a long boundary of the region. The mining tract for each spiral mining system would extend orthogonal to this boundary. New spiral mining systems would be activated along parallel tracts as demand for lunar He-3 and other solar wind volatiles increased.

  10. Peridotitic lithosphere metasomatised by volatile-bearing melts, and its association with intraplate alkaline HIMU-like magmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Brenna, Marco; Crase, Jordan;


    .4 and eHf 0 +5 to +8) indistinguishable from the host low-silica basalts and, except for 207Pb/204Pb, overlapping with the HIMU mantle reservoir. Laser line scans across grain boundaries in the xenoliths show, however, that the host magma contribution is restricted to minor degrees of melt infiltration...... along grain boundaries during ascent, with the distinctive peridotite isotopic compositions having been imparted earlier by mantle metasomatism. Two mantle metasomatic styles are distinguished from pyroxene trace element concentrations (in particular, rare earth elements, Ti, Zr and Hf......) and are interpreted to be the result of reaction of peridotite with CO2- bearing magmas. The occurrence of two subtly chemically different but isotopically indistinguishable styles of metasomatism in rocks with the same equilibrium temperatures within the same mantle column may be due to separate volatile-rich melts...

  11. Códigos binarios no lineales en MAGMA


    Ovalle Arce, Víctor


    La finalitat d'aquest projecte és aconseguir representar codis binaris no lineals de manera eficient en un ordinador. Per fer-ho, hem desenvolupat funcions per representar un codi binari a partir del super dual. Hem millorat la funció de càlcul del kernel d'un codi binari, implementada en projectes d'anys anteriors. També hem desenvolupat un paquet software per l'intèrpret MAGMA. Aquest paquet ens proveeix d'eines per al tractament de codis binaris no necessàriament lineals. La finalidad d...

  12. Codis Z2Z4-additius en Magma


    Gastón Brasó, Bernat


    En aquest projecte es presenta el desenvolupament d'un paquet d'aplicacions en l'entorn de programació matemàtica Magma, per al tractament dels codis anomenats Z2Z4-additius. Els codis Z2Z4-additius permeten representar alguns codis binaris, com a codis lineals en l'espai dels codis Z2Z4-additius. Aquest fet permetrà l'estudi de tota una sèrie de codis binaris no lineals que fins ara eren intractables. En este proyecto se presenta el desarrollo de un paquete de aplicaciones en el entorno d...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati R.Y.E.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is analyzing the volatility and volatility spillover of monthly price of paddy at the level of farmers and consumers in 2010-2016. ARCH/GARCH used to analyze volatility and GARCH BEKK-model is used to analyze the volatility spillover. The results of the analysis show that price volatility at the farmer level is very high (extremely high volatility, price volatility at the consumer level is low (low volatility, and volatility spillover does not occur between the farmers and the consumers market. The need to guarantee an effective floor price as well as information disclosure related to the market commodity prices so that the pattern of prices transmission among interrelated markets can be symmetrical.

  14. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio


    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  15. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.


    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  16. Magma Generation and Transport in Subduction Zones: Numerical Simulations of Chemical, Thermal and Mechanical Coupling During Magma Ascent by Porous Flow (United States)

    Arcay, D.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P.


    Most subduction zones are characterized by significant magmatic activity responsible for building trench-parallel volcanic arcs above descending slabs. High magma production rates observed within the arcs result from infiltration of water-rich fluids released by slab dehydration. The released water triggers hydrous melting of hot mantle wedges located above the cold slabs. However, the process of magma transport from the melt generation region located above the hydrated slab surface at 100-300 km depth to the magma extraction zone at the volcanic arc surface, and its influence on mantle wedge deformation, are not well known. In particular, during basaltic liquid ascent through the mantle wedge, decreasing pressure and temperature changes are likely to induce significant compositional variations, especially in terms of dissolved water content. Relationships between melt transport and mantle wedge deformation are also not clearly understood. We present a numerical model of magma generation and transport in subduction zones, that simulates chemical, thermal, and mechanical interactions between fluids and solid rocks along the magma ascent pathway. Magma migration is modelled by a porous flow across a constant permeability matrix, while the solid downward current associated with subduction in the mantle wedge, is included. The heat advected by the percolating liquid phase as well as latent heat effect associated with melting will be included. Water exchanges between the molten rock and the solid matrix are computed as a function of pressure, temperature, and solubilities laws in melt. We will first present benchmark results to validate the porous flow modelling as well as the ernery equation resolution for a two- phase flow. The aqueous and magmatic fluid repartition within the mantle wedge will then be presented. Magma productivity rates, varying along the magma ascent path way, will be discussed as a function of magma viscosity.

  17. HS-GC-MS Volatile compounds recovered in freshly pressed and commercial Wonderful pomegranate juices (United States)

    Consumption and production of superfruits has been increasing. Highly colored fruits often have bitter and astringent components that may make them undesirable, especially when processed. Many pomegranate volatile reports involved commercial samples, complicated isolation methods, or blending and ...

  18. Clinopyroxene in postshield Haleakala ankaramite: 2. Texture, compositional zoning and supersaturation in the magma (United States)

    Welsch, Benoit; Hammer, Julia; Baronnet, Alain; Jacob, Samantha; Hellebrand, Eric; Sinton, John


    We investigated the external morphologies and internal compositional zoning patterns of clinopyroxene phenocrysts in an ankaramite of Haleakala volcano (Hawaii) to constrain magma crystallization conditions in the volcano's postshield stage. The phenocrysts are characterized by euhedral faceted morphologies and crystallographically coherent subcrystals. Quantitative EPMA and X-ray element mapping reveal two domains within the crystals: porous, Si-Mg-Ca-Cr-rich zones associated with the forms {100}, {010} and {110}, and nonporous, Al-Ti-Na-rich zones associated with the forms {-111}. The chemical variations, internal porosity and parallel subcrystals are consistent with nonconcentric crystal growth at varying degrees of supersaturation. We infer that initial growth occurred in a diffusion-limited regime to produce dendritic crystals; subsequent growth was markedly slower, with lesser supersaturation allowing dendrites to infill and produce polyhedral external morphologies. This sequence promoted the evolution of crystals from an hourglass shape with dominant {-111} forms, to sector-zoned euhedral crystals in which elements were partitioned according to: (Al + Ti + Na){-111} = (Si + Mg + Cr + Ca){110},{100},{010}. Infilling of dendritic crystals occurred to a greater extent on faster-growing sectors and was interrupted by the eruption, resulting in porosity of the slower-growing {hk0} sectors. Outermost Na-poor rims formed on all sectors due to slower growth rate under interface-limited conditions. Paradoxically, high levels of supersaturation producing large crystals of clinopyroxene (and olivine) are indicated in the volcano's deep-seated reservoir and lower degrees of supersaturation characterize syn-eruptive crystal growth. The presence of vapor bubbles within the melt-filled crystal embayments and inclusions suggests rapid clinopyroxene growth caused volatile saturation and reservoir pressurization, leading to eruption of the ankaramite.

  19. Grain to outcrop-scale frozen moments of dynamic magma mixing in the syenite magma chamber, Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Renjith


    Full Text Available Magma mixing process is unusual in the petrogenesis of felsic rocks associated with alkaline complex worldwide. Here we present a rare example of magma mixing in syenite from the Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India. Yelagiri syenite is a reversely zoned massif with shoshonitic (Na2O + K2O=5–10 wt.%, Na2O/K2O = 0.5–2, TiO2 <0.7 wt.% and metaluminous character. Systematic modal variation of plagioclase (An11–16 Ab82–88, K-feldspar (Or27–95 Ab5–61, diopside (En34–40Fs11–18Wo46–49, biotite, and Ca-amphibole (edenite build up three syenite facies within it and imply the role of in-situ fractional crystallization (FC. Evidences such as (1 disequilibrium micro-textures in feldspars, (2 microgranular mafic enclaves (MME and (3 synplutonic dykes signify mixing of shoshonitic mafic magma (MgO = 4–5 wt.%, SiO2 = 54–59 wt.%, K2O/Na2O = 0.4–0.9 with syenite. Molecular-scale mixing of mafic magma resulted disequilibrium growth of feldspars in syenite. Physical entity of mafic magma preserved as MME due to high thermal-rheological contrast with syenite magma show various hybridization through chemical exchange, mechanical dilution enhanced by chaotic advection and phenocryst migration. In synplutonic dykes, disaggregation and mixing of mafic magma was confined within the conduit of injection. Major-oxides mass balance test quantified that approximately 0.6 portions of mafic magma had interacted with most evolved syenite magma and generated most hybridized MME and dyke samples. It is unique that all the rock types (syenite, MME and synplutonic dykes share similar shoshonitic and metaluminous character; mineral chemistry, REE content, coherent geochemical variation in Harker diagram suggest that mixing of magma between similar composition. Outcrop-scale features of crystal accumulation and flow fabrics also significant along with MME and synplutonic dykes in syenite suggesting that Yelagiri syenite magma chamber had evolved

  20. Observability of market daily volatility (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio


    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  1. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger


    result in an inferior model being chosen as "best" with a probability that converges to one as the sample size increases. We document the practical relevance of this problem in an empirical application and by simulation experiments. Our results provide an additional argument for using the realized...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable.......We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  2. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  3. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)


    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  4. Wells for In Situ Extraction of Volatiles from Regolith (WIEVR) (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.


    A document discusses WIEVRs, a means to extract water ice more efficiently than previous approaches. This water may exist in subsurface deposits on the Moon, in many NEOs (Near- Earth Objects), and on Mars. The WIEVR approach utilizes heat from the Sun to vaporize subsurface ice; the water (or other volatile) vapor is transported to a surface collection vessel where it is condensed (and collected). The method does not involve mining and extracting regolith before removing the frozen volatiles, so it uses less energy and is less costly than approaches that require mining of regolith. The only drilling required for establishing the WIEVR collection/recovery system is a well-bore drill hole. In its simplest form, the WIEVRs will function without pumps, compressors, or other gas-moving equipment, relying instead on diffusive transport and thermally induced convection of the vaporized volatiles for transport to the collection location(s). These volatile extraction wells could represent a significant advance in extraction efficiency for recovery of frozen volatiles in subsurface deposits on the Moon, Mars, or other extraterrestrial bodies.

  5. MAGMIX: a basic program to calculate viscosities of interacting magmas of differing composition, temperature, and water content (United States)

    Frost, T.P.; Lindsay, J.R.


    MAGMIX is a BASIC program designed to predict viscosities at thermal equilibrium of interacting magmas of differing compositions, initial temperatures, crystallinities, crystal sizes, and water content for any mixing proportion between end members. From the viscosities of the end members at thermal equilibrium, it is possible to predict the styles of magma interaction expected for different initial conditions. The program is designed for modeling the type of magma interaction between hypersthenenormative magmas at upper crustal conditions. Utilization of the program to model magma interaction at pressures higher than 200 MPa would require modification of the program to account for the effects of pressure on heat of fusion and magma density. ?? 1988.

  6. Pre-eruption recharge of the Bishop magma system (United States)

    Wark, D.A.; Hildreth, W.; Spear, F.S.; Cherniak, D.J.; Watson, E.B.


    The 650 km3 rhyolitic Bishop Tuff (eastern California, USA), which is stratigraphically zoned with respect to temperatures of mineral equilibration, reflects a corresponding thermal gradient in the source magma chamber. Consistent with previous work, application of the new TitaniQ (Ti-in-quartz) thermometer to quartz phenocryst rims documents an ???100 ??C temperature increase with chamber depth at the time of eruption. Application of TitaniQ to quartz phenocryst cores, however, reveals lower temperatures and an earlier gradient that was less steep, with temperature increasing with depth by only ???30 ??C. In many late-erupted crystals, sharp boundaries that separate low-temperature cores from high-temperature rims cut internal cathodoluminescent growth zoning, indicating partial phenocryst dissolution prior to crystallization of the high-temperature rims. Rimward jumps in Ti concentration across these boundaries are too abrupt (e.g., 40 ppm across a distance of <10 ??m) to have survived magmatic temperatures for more than ???100 yr. We interpret these observations to indicate heating-induced partial dissolution of quartz, followed by growth of high-temperature rims (made possible by lowering of water activity due to addition of CO2) within 100 yr of the climactic 760 ka eruption. Hot mafic melts injected into deeper parts of the magma system were the likely source of heat and CO2, raising the possibility that eruption and caldera collapse owe their origin to a recharge event. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  7. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution. (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  8. Experimental study of lunar and SNC (Mars) magmas (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    The overall objectives of this research were to evaluate the role of C-O-S-Cl degassing processes in explaining vesiculation, oxidation state and fire-fountaining of lunar magmas by analysis of individual lunar glass spherules, and by experimental determination of equilibrium abundances and diffusion rates of C, S and Cl melt species in lunar glass compositions; and to determine possible primitive SNC magma compositions and the mineralogy of the mantle from which they were derived, and to evaluate P, T, XH2O etc. conditions at which they crystallize to form the SNC meteorites. After funding for one year, a project on the A15 volcanic green glass has been completed to the point of writing a first manuscript. Carbon-oxygen species C-O and CO2 are below detection limits (20 ppm) in these glasses, but there is up to 500 ppm S with concentrations both increasing and decreasing toward the spherule margins. Calculations and modeling indicate that C species could have been present in the volcanic gases, however. In a second project, experiments with low PH2O have resulted in refined estimates of the early intercumulus melt composition in the Chassigny meteorite which is generally accepted as a sample from Mars.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid


    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  10. Sixty thousand years of magmatic volatile history before the caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Sisson, Thomas W.


    The well-documented eruptive history of Mount Mazama, Oregon, provides an excellent opportunity to use pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to study the growth of an explosive silicic magmatic system. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from eight dacitic–rhyodacitic eruptive deposits (71–7.7 ka) were analyzed to determine variations in volatile-element concentrations and changes in magma storage conditions leading up to and including the climactic eruption of Crater Lake caldera. Temperatures (Fe–Ti oxides) increased through the series of dacites, then decreased, and increased again through the rhyodacites (918–968 to ~950 to 845–895 °C). Oxygen fugacity began at nickel–nickel-oxide buffer (NNO) +0.8 (71 ka), dropped slightly to NNO +0.3, and then climbed to its highest value with the climactic eruption (7.7 ka) at NNO +1.1 log units. In parallel with oxidation state, maximum MI sulfur concentrations were high early in the eruptive sequence (~500 ppm), decreased (to ~200 ppm), and then increased again with the climactic eruption (~500 ppm). Maximum MI sulfur correlates with the Sr content (as a proxy for LREE, Ba, Rb, P2O5) of recharge magmas, represented by basaltic andesitic to andesitic enclaves and similar-aged lavas. These results suggest that oxidized Sr-rich recharge magmas dominated early and late in the development of the pre-climactic dacite–rhyodacite system. Dissolved H2O concentrations in MI do not, however, correlate with these changes in dominant recharge magma, instead recording vapor solubility relations in the developing shallow magma storage and conduit region. Dissolved H2O concentrations form two populations through time: the first at 3–4.6 wt% (with a few extreme values up to 6.1 wt%) and the second at ≤2.4 wt%. CO2 concentrations measured in a subset of these inclusions reach up to 240 ppm in early-erupted deposits (71 ka) and are below detection in climactic deposits (7.7 ka). Combined H2O and

  11. Analysis of magma-thermal conversion of biomass to gaseous fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T.M.


    A wide range of magma types and pluton geometries believed to occur within the upper 10 km of the crust provide suitable sources of thermal energy for conversion of water-biomass mixtures to higher quality gaseous fuel. Gaseous fuel can be generated within a magma body, within the hot subsolidus margins of a magma body, or within surface reaction vessels heated by thermal energy derived from a magma body. The composition, amount, and energy content of the fuel gases generated from water-biomass mixtures are not sensitive to the type, age, depth, or temperature of a magma body thermal source. The amount and energy content of the generated fuel is almost entirely a function of the proportion of biomass in the starting mixture. CH/sub 4/ is the main gas that can be generated in important quantities by magma thermal energy under most circumstances. CO is never an important fuel product, and H/sub 2/ generation is very limited. The rates at which gaseous fuels can be generated are strongly dependent on magma type. Fuel generation rates for basaltic magmas are at least 2 to 3 times those for andesitic magmas and 5 to 6 times those for rhyolitic magmas. The highest fuel generation rates, for any particular magma body, will be achieved at the lowest possible reaction vessel operating temperature that does not cause graphite deposition from the water-biomass starting mixture. The energy content of the biomass-derived fuels is considerably greater than that consumed in the generation and refinement process.

  12. Utilising Geological Field Measurements and Historic Eruption Volumes to Estimate the Volume of Santorini's Magma Chamber (United States)

    Browning, J.; Drymoni, K.; Gudmundsson, A.


    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber, of which Santorini must possess. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. We combine previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions at Santorini together with geodetic measurements. Measurements of dykes within the caldera wall provide an estimate of the volume of magma transported during eruptions, assuming the dyke does not become arrested. When the combined volume of a dyke and eruption are known (Ve) they can be used to estimate using fracture mechanics principles and poro-elastic constraints the size of an underlying shallow magma chamber. We present field measurements of dykes within Santorini caldera and provide an analytical method to estimate the volume of magma contained underneath Santorini caldera. In addition we postulate the potential volume of magma required as input from deeper sources to switch the shallow magma chamber from an equilibrium setting to one where the pressure inside the chamber exceeds the surrounding host rocks tensile strength, a condition necessary to form a dyke and a possible eruption.

  13. 2D and 3D analyses of bubbles and minerals in an Etnean dyke: Insights on turbulence (non-laminar) and solidification during magma ascent (United States)

    Lanzafame, Gabriele; Iezzi, Gianluca; Mancini, Lucia; Lezzi, Federica; Mollo, Silvio; Ferlito, Carmelo


    Laminar and turbulent regimes during magma uprise through the plumbing systems of several volcanoes in the world are generally predicted by numerical models. In this work, we investigated a trachybasaltic aphyric 4.3 m thick dyke solidified at shallow depth (100-300 m below the pristine surface level) at Mount Etna (Italy). Two- and three-dimensional imaging analyses have been conducted on bubbles and minerals, in order to attest the non-laminar characteristic of the intruding magma. Seven samples along a cross profile from dyke rim (DK1) to core (DK7) have been analysed by means of i) 2D techniques such as high-resolution scanner, transmission optical microscope and scanning electron microscope imaging with back-scattered electrons and ii) a 3D technique as microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Despite limited changes in textures and compositions of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, titanomagnetite, and olvine, the amount, size and shape of bubbles change irregularly from dyke rim to core. Bubble and plagioclase contents show opposite saw-like trends due to the solidification from different portions of a H2O-rich magma and vice-versa. Along the cross profile of the dyke, bubbles with anisotropic shapes (average aspects 3:1) are randomly oriented in space, with strong variations in abundance, size and shape. These features could be attributed to transitional to turbulent, i.e. non-laminar, regimes (Reynolds number > 1000). Models to constrain the intrusive conditions of the dyke indicate that the crystal-free magma containing 1 wt.% H2O intruded and rapidly solidified at depth > 100-300 m, i.e. P > 10 MPa. The sudden and marked crystallization was favoured by the rapid volatile exsolution at very shallow level, coupled with the increase of viscosity and deceleration (a few meters per seconds) or even stop of the magma uprise. The retrieved results indicate that bubbles were frozen in, whereas crystals continued to grow under the effect of an increasing cooling rate from

  14. Magma degassing and eruption dynamics of the Avellino pumice Plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy). Comparison with the Pompeii eruption (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Boudon, G.; Ucciani, G.; Villemant, B.; Cioni, R.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.


    The eruptive history of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius is characterised by large explosive events: Pomici di Base eruption (22,030 ± 175 yr cal BP), Mercato (8890 ± 90 yr cal BP), Avellino (3945 ± 10 yr cal BP) and Pompeii (79 AD). Pre-eruptive conditions and sin-eruptive degassing processes of the Avellino eruption, the highest-magnitude Plinian event, have been investigated, using volatile contents (F, Cl, H2O) in melt inclusions and residual glass, and textural characteristics of pumice clasts of the 9 fallout layers sampled in detail in a representative sequence. The sequence displays an up-section sharp colour change from white to grey, corresponding to variations in both magma composition and textural characteristics. The pre-eruptive conditions have been constrained by systematic measurements of Cl content in both melt inclusions and matrix glass of pumice clasts. The pumice glass composition varies from Na-rich phonolite (white pumice) to K-rich phonolite (grey pumice). The measured Cl values constantly cluster at 5200 ± 400 ppm (buffer value), whatever the composition of the melt, suggesting that the entire magma body was saturated with sub-critical fluids. This Cl saturation constrains the pre-eruptive pressures and maximum H2O contents at 200 ± 10 MPa and 6.3 ± 0.2 wt.% H2O for the white pumice melt and 195 ± 15 MPa and 5.2 ± 0.2 wt.% H2O for the grey pumice melt. The fluid phase, mainly composed of a H2O-rich vapour phase and brine, probably accumulated at the top of the reservoir and generated an overpressure able to trigger the onset of the eruption. Magma degassing was rather homogeneous for the white and grey eruptive units, mostly occurring through closed-system processes, leading to a typical Plinian eruptive style. A steady-state withdrawal of an H2O-saturated magma may explain the establishment of a sustained Plinian column. Variation from white to grey pumice is accompanied by decrease of mean vesicularity and increase of mean microcrystallinity

  15. Triple oxygen isotope composition of the Campi Flegrei magma systems (United States)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Pack, Andreas; Sengupta, Sukanya; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo


    Sr-O isotope relationships in igneous rocks are a powerful tool to distinguish magma sources and quantify assimilation processes in magmatic rocks. Isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O-17O/16O) data have been acquired on whole rocks and separated minerals (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, olivine phenocrysts) from pyroclastic products of the Campi Flegrei volcanic complex (Gulf of Naples, Southern Italy). Oxygen isotope ratios were measured by infrared laser fluorination using a Thermo MAT253 gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer in dual inlet mode, on ˜2 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Variations in triple oxygen isotope ratios (17O/16O, 18O/16O) are expressed as the δ notation relative to VSMOW. Sr isotopic compositions were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked phenocrysts (˜300 mg), and on whole rocks, in case of insufficient sample size to separate crystals. Sr-isotopes in Campi Flegrei minerals range from 0.707305 to 0.707605 and δ18O varies from 6.5 to 8.3‰ . Recalculated δ18Omelt values accordingly show a large range between 7.2 and 8.6‰ . Our data, compared with published δ18O-isotope data from other Italian volcanic centers (Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia, Mt. Vesuvius, Aeolian Islands, Tuscany and Sardinia) and from subduction zones worldwide (Kamchatka, Lesser Antilles, Indonesia and Central Andean ignimbrites), show compositions that are very different from typical mantle values. Distinct trends and sources are recognized in our compilation from global data: (1) serpentinized mantle (Kamchatka), (2) sediment-enrichment in the mantle source (Indonesia, Lesser Antilles, Eolian arc), (3) assimilation of old radiogenic continental crust affecting magmas derived from sediment-modified mantle sources (Tuscany, Sardinia), (4) assimilation of lower crustal lithologies (Central Andes, Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia). Sr-O-isotope values of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius magmas

  16. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001 (United States)

    Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L.; Cifuentes, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, R.; Correa, F.; Mendiola, I. F.


    Magnetic anomalies may be used to constrain magma ascent and are useful as precursors to eruptions especially when correlated with other geophysical and geochemical data. In this paper we present multiparameter data on the magnetics, dome morphology, geochemistry and seismicity associated with the December 2000-January 2001 eruptions, the largest of the recent eruptions at Popocatepetl Volcano. A 6-month data period was studied in order to evaluate the precursors and post-eruption processes. Several cycles of dome construction and destruction occurred from September 2000 through February 2001. In December, large amplitude tremor associated with a higher effusion rate resulted in the formation of a large dome which filled the crater to within about 50 m of the lowest part of the crater rim. Seismic activity in December was marked by many volcanotectonic earthquakes and both high frequency and harmonic tremor. On December 12 and 13, an increase in the tremor amplitude was followed by ash eruptions with 1.7-5-km-high columns. Tremor amplitude increased again on December 15 and oscillated for the next four days. Activity remained high until the end of the month. On January 22, an 18-km-high plume produced ash and pumice fall to the east as well as pyroclastic flows and mudflows which reached 6 km from the crater. The eruption left three concentric explosion pits, partially destroying the December dome. Mixing of a mafic olivine-bearing melt with a more evolved magma triggered the larger eruption on January 22 as can be seen from the higher MgO concentrations in some of the ejecta and the presence of a dark andesitic scoria with lower silica content and a white andesitic pumice with higher silica content. Precursory negative magnetic anomalies up to 5 nT (-3.2 nT, -5 nT, -2.9 nT) were associated with the ascent of the larger batches of magma which preceded the increases in seismicity, before the December 2000-January 22 VEI 3-4 eruptions. No significant increases in

  17. Progress Towards a Thermo-Mechanical Magma Chamber Forward Model for Eruption Cycles, Applied to the Columbia River Flood Basalts (United States)

    Karlstrom, L.; Ozimek, C.


    Magma chamber modeling has advanced to the stage where it is now possible to develop self-consistent, predictive models that consider mechanical, thermal, and compositional magma time evolution through multiple eruptive cycles. We have developed such a thermo-mechanical-chemical model for a laterally extensive sill-like chamber beneath free surface, to understand physical controls on eruptive products through time at long-lived magmatic centers. This model predicts the relative importance of recharge, eruption, assimilation and fractional crystallization (REAFC, Lee et al., 2013) on evolving chemical composition as a function of mechanical magma chamber stability regimes. We solve for the time evolution of chamber pressure, temperature, gas volume fraction, volume, elemental concentration in the melt and crustal temperature field that accounts for moving boundary conditions associated with chamber inflation (and the possibility of coupled chambers at different depths). The density, volume fractions of melt and crystals, crustal assimilation and the changing viscosity and crustal properties of the wall rock are also tracked, along with joint solubility of water and CO2. The eventual goal is to develop an efficient forward model to invert for eruptive records at long-lived eruptive centers, where multiple types of data for eruptions are available. As a first step, we apply this model to a new compilation of eruptive data from the Columbia River Flood Basalts (CRFB), which erupted 210,000 km3 from feeder dikes in Washington, Oregon and Idaho between 16.9-6Ma. Data include volumes, timing and geochemical composition of eruptive units, along with seismic surveys and clinopyroxene geobarometry that constrain depth of storage through time. We are in the process of performing a suite of simulations varying model input parameters such as mantle melt rate, emplacement depth, wall rock compositions and rheology, and volatile content to explain volume, eruption timescales, and

  18. Geochemical and isotopic profile of Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl) volcano, Mexico: Insights for magma generation processes (United States)

    Schaaf, Peter; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo


    Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltépetl volcano is the easternmost and highest stratovolcano of the subduction-related Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) located > 400 km NNE of the Middle America Trench. This active volcano comprises four evolutionary stages, ranging in age from 0.65 Ma to the Holocene, and is surrounded by Quaternary monogenetic scoria cones and maar volcanoes. Magmatic products of the stratocone range from basaltic andesites to rhyolites and the cinder cones erupted basalts and basaltic andesites. All rock compositions form a continuous calc-alkaline suite. Petrogenetic processes involved in magma generation and evolution include fractional crystallization and mid-crustal assimilation. Trace element patterns with elevated Ba/Nb, positive Pb spikes, and Th enrichments indicate contributions from subducted sediment. Low Ba/Th ratios suggest melting of hydrous sediment without significant loss of fluid-mobile elements prior to melting. Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of Pico de Orizaba and cinder cones are nearly chondritic and are located on a mixing curve between Pacific MORB and Paleozoic crust of SE Mexico. However, vertical Nd distributions in an 87Sr/ 86Sr vs. ɛNd diagram cannot be explained by crustal assimilation and indicate contributions of a sedimentary component with unradiogenic Nd. In contrast to other eastern MVB volcanic centres, Pico de Orizaba magmas are derived almost exclusively from a depleted mantle source. Compared to other MVB stratocones, Pico de Orizaba shows the least radiogenic Nd isotope ratios at nearly identical 87Sr/ 86Sr. Steep trends in a 206Pb/ 204Pb vs. 207Pb/ 204Pb diagram favour the involvement of young, 207Pb-enriched oceanic sediments in magma generation processes of Pico de Orizaba volcano. The Pb isotope data do not support any assimilation of lower crustal Grenvillian basement.

  19. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee


    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  20. One hundred volatile years of volcanic gas studies at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: Chapter 7 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, Tamar; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    The first volcanic gas studies in Hawai‘i, beginning in 1912, established that volatile emissions from Kīlauea Volcano contained mostly water vapor, in addition to carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This straightforward discovery overturned a popular volatile theory of the day and, in the same action, helped affirm Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr.’s, vision of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) as a preeminent place to study volcanic processes. Decades later, the environmental movement produced a watershed of quantitative analytical tools that, after being tested at Kīlauea, became part of the regular monitoring effort at HVO. The resulting volatile emission and fumarole chemistry datasets are some of the most extensive on the planet. These data indicate that magma from the mantle enters the shallow magmatic system of Kīlauea sufficiently oversaturated in CO2 to produce turbulent flow. Passive degassing at Kīlauea’s summit that occurred from 1983 through 2007 yielded CO2-depleted, but SO2- and H2O-rich, rift eruptive gases. Beginning with the 2008 summit eruption, magma reaching the East Rift Zone eruption site became depleted of much of its volatile content at the summit eruptive vent before transport to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō. The volatile emissions of Hawaiian volcanoes are halogen-poor, relative to those of other basaltic systems. Information gained regarding intrinsic gas solubilities at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, as well as the pressure-controlled nature of gas release, have provided useful tools for tracking eruptive activity. Regular CO2-emission-rate measurements at Kīlauea’s summit, together with surface-deformation and other data, detected an increase in deep magma supply more than a year before a corresponding surge in effusive activity. Correspondingly, HVO routinely uses SO2 emissions to study shallow eruptive processes and effusion rates. HVO gas studies and Kīlauea’s long-running East Rift Zone eruption also demonstrate that volatile emissions can

  1. The sensitivity of conduit flow models to basic input parameters: there is no need for magma trolls! (United States)

    Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.


    Many conduit flow models now exist and some of these models are becoming extremely complicated, conducted in three dimensions and incorporating the physics of compressible three phase fluids (magmas), intricate conduit geometries and fragmentation processes, to name but a few examples. These highly specialised models are being used to explain observations of the natural system, and there is a danger that possible explanations may be getting needlessly complex. It is coherent, for instance, to propose the involvement of sub-surface dwelling magma trolls as an explanation for the change in a volcanoes eruptive style, but assuming the simplest explanation would prevent such additions, unless they were absolutely necessary. While the understanding of individual, often small scale conduit processes is increasing rapidly, is this level of detail necessary? How sensitive are these models to small changes in the most basic of governing parameters? Can these changes be used to explain observed behaviour? Here we will examine the sensitivity of conduit flow models to changes in the melt viscosity, one of the fundamental inputs to any such model. However, even addressing this elementary issue is not straight forward. There are several viscosity models in existence, how do they differ? Can models that use different viscosity models be realistically compared? Each of these viscosity models is also heavily dependent on the magma composition and/or temperature, and how well are these variables constrained? Magma temperatures and water contents are often assumed as "ball-park" figures, and are very rarely exactly known for the periods of observation the models are attempting to explain, yet they exhibit a strong controlling factor on the melt viscosity. The role of both these variables will be discussed. For example, using one of the available viscosity models a 20 K decrease in temperature of the melt results in a greater than 100% increase in the melt viscosity. With changes of

  2. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo


    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

  3. In Vitro Toxicity Assessment Technique for Volatile ... (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is tasked with evaluating the human health, environmental, and wildlife effects of over 80,000 chemicals registered for use in the environment and commerce. The challenge is that sparse chemical data exists; traditional toxicity testing methods are slow, costly, involve animal studies, and cannot keep up with a chemical registry that typically grows by at least 1000 chemicals every year. In recent years, High Throughput Screening (HTS) has been used in order to prioritize chemicals for traditional toxicity screening or to complement traditional toxicity studies. HTS is an in vitro approach of rapidly assaying a large number of chemicals for biochemical activity using robotics and automation. However, no method currently exists for screening volatile chemicals such as air pollutants in a HTS fashion. Additionally, significant uncertainty regarding in vitro to in in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) remains. An approach to bridge the IVIVE gap and the current lack of ability to screen volatile chemicals in a HTS fashion is by using a probe molecule (PrM) technique. The proposed technique uses chemicals with empirical human pharmacokinetic data as PrMs to study toxicity of molecules with no known data for gas-phase analysis. We are currently studying the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A6 using transfected BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line. The CYP2A6 pathway activity is studied by the formation of cotinine from nicot

  4. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH (EGARC

  5. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan


    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  6. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  7. Quantitative simulation of the hydrothermal systems of crystallizing magmas on the basis of transport theory and oxygen isotope data: an analysis of the Skaergaard intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson); Taylor, H.P. Jr.


    Application of the principles of transport theory to studies of magma-hydrothermal systems permits quantitative predictions to be made of the consequences of magma intruding into permeable rocks. Transport processes which redistribute energy, mass, and momentum in these environments can be represented by a set of partial differential equations involving the rate of change of extensive properties in the system. Numerical approximation and computer evaluation of the transport equations effectively simulate the crystallization of magma, cooling of the igneous rocks, advection of chemical components, and chemical and isotopic mass transfer between minerals and aqueous solution. Numerical modeling of the deep portions of the Skaergaard magma-hydrothermal system has produced detailed maps of the temperature, pressure, fluid velocity, integrated fluid flux, delta/sup 18/O-values in rock and fluid, and extent of nonequilibrium exchange reactions between fluid and rock as a function of time for a two-dimensional cross-section through the pluton. An excellent match was made between calculated delta/sup 18/O-values and the measured delta/sup 18/O-values in the three principal rock units, basalt, gabbro, and gneiss, as well as in xenoliths of roof rocks that are now embedded in Layered Series; the latter were evidently depleted in /sup 18/O early in the system's cooling history, prior to falling to the bottom of the magma chamber. The best match was realized for a system in which the bulk rock permeabilities were 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 2/ for the intrusion, 10/sup 11/ cm/sup 2/ for basalt, and 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ for gneiss; reaction domain sizes were 0.2 cm in the intrusion and gneiss and 0.01 cm in the basalts, and activation energy for the isotope exchange reaction between fluid and plagioclase was 30 kcal/ mole.

  8. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  9. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L. (OFM Res.); (Vanderbilt); (UC)


    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  10. Combined effect of permeability and crystallization on the explosive eruption of basaltic magma (United States)

    Moitra, P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Houghton, B. F.; Crozier, J.


    Plinian eruptions are the most dangerous style of eruptive activity of basaltic magma. In this study, we focus on the two best studied Plinian eruptions of basaltic magma at Mt. Tarawera, New Zealand (1886 CE) and Mt. Etna, Italy (122 BCE). We measured and analyzed the porosity-permeability relationships of the pyroclasts from both eruptions. We then used numerical modeling to assess the relative importance of two competing processes during eruptive magma ascent, which are the syneruptive crystallization that increases viscosity, potentially increasing bubble overpressure, and the open-system degassing of the permeable magma that allows the pressurized gas to escape, potentially reducing bubble overpressure. We find that the onset of crystallization is likely to have occurred prior to the onset of magma percolation. The orders of magnitude increase in magma viscosity due to the nucleation and growth of microlites had the combined effect of rapidly increasing the decompression rate, due to viscous pressure losses associated with magma flow within the volcanic conduit, and decreasing the rates of bubble growth, thus building up large overpressures inside bubbles. Although measured permeabilities of the studied pyroclasts are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their silicic counterpart, our model results show that crystallization and subsequent increase in viscosity are likely to surpass the effect of open-system gas loss, thus increasing bubble overpressure, required for explosive magma fragmentation.

  11. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body. (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L


    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  12. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.


    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  13. Business Cycles, Financial Crises, and Stock Volatility


    G. William Schwert


    This paper shows that stock volatility increases during recessions and financial crises from 1834-1987. The evidence reinforces the notion that stock prices are an important business cycle indicator. Using two different statistical models for stock volatility, I show that volatility increases after major financial crises. Moreover. stock volatility decreases and stock prices rise before the Fed increases margin requirements. Thus, there is little reason to believe that public policies can con...

  14. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  15. The january effect across volatility regimes


    Agnani, Betty; Aray, Henry


    Using a Markov regime switching model, this article presents evidence on the well-known January effect on stock returns. The specification allows a distinction to be drawn between two regimes, one with high volatility and other with low volatility. We obtain a time-varying January effect that is, in general, positive and significant in both volatility regimes. However, this effect is larger in the high volatility regime. In sharp contrast with most previous literature we find two major result...

  16. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extensi...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  17. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.


    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  18. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 2: Predicted emplacement processes and observations) (United States)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel


    , inhibiting dike emplacement and surface eruptions. In contrast to small dike volumes and low propagation velocities in terrestrial environments, lunar dike propagation velocities are typically sufficiently high that shallow sill formation is not favored; local low-density breccia zones beneath impact crater floors, however, may cause lateral magma migration to form laccoliths (e.g., Vitello Crater) and sills (e.g., Humboldt Crater) in floor-fractured craters. Dikes emplaced into the shallow crust may stall and produce crater chains due to active and passive gas venting (e.g., Mendeleev Crater Chain) or, if sufficiently shallow, may create a near-surface stress field that forms linear and arcuate graben, often with pyroclastic and small-scale effusive eruptions (e.g., Rima Parry V). Effusive eruptions are modulated by effusion rates, eruption durations, cooling and supply limitations to flow length, and pre-existing topography. Relatively low effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to small shield volcanoes (e.g., Tobias Mayer, Milicius); higher effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to compound flow fields (e.g., most mare basins) and even higher effusion rate, long-duration flows lead to thermal erosion of the vent, effusion rate enhancement, and thermal erosion of the substrate to produce sinuous rilles (e.g., Rimae Prinz). Extremely high effusion rate flows on slopes lead to volume-limited flow with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers (e.g., the young Imbrium basin flows). Explosive, pyroclastic eruptions are common on the Moon. The low pressure environment in propagating dike crack-tips can cause gas formation at great depths and throughout dike ascent; at shallow crustal depths both the smelting reaction and the recently documented abundant magmatic volatiles in mare basalt magmas contribute to significant shallow degassing and pyroclastic activity associated with the dike as it erupts at the surface. Dikes penetrating to the surface produce a wide range of

  19. Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere by Basal Magma Accretion (United States)

    Hamza, V. M.; Cardoso, R. R.; Alexandrino, C. H.


    The thermal models of the lithosphere proposed to date have failed to provide satisfactory accounts of some of the important features in large-scale variations of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow. The systematic difference between model calculations and observational data have given rise to the so-called “oceanic heat flow paradox”, for which no satisfactory solution has been found for over the last forty years. In the present work, we point out that this paradox is a consequence of the assumption that lateral temperature variations are absent in the sub-lithospheric mantle. In the present work we propose a simple magma accretion model and examine its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, similar in character to those observed in magma solidification processes in the upper crust. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer (the Peclet number) is considered a space dependent variable. The solution to the problem of variable basal heat input has been obtained by the method of integral transform. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling and Plate models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main observational features in the thermal behavior of both young and old oceanic lithosphere. Thus, heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. More importantly, the improved fits to bathymetry and heat flow have been achieved for the entire age range of oceanic lithosphere and without the need to invoke

  20. Preliminary insights into a model for mafic magma fragmentation (United States)

    Edwards, Matt; Pioli, Laura; Andronico, Daniele; Cristaldi, Antonio; Scollo, Simona


    Fragmentation of mafic magmas remains a poorly understood process despite the common occurrence of low viscosity explosive eruptions. In fact, it has been commonly overlooked based on the assumption that low viscosity magmas have very limited explosivity and low potential to undergo brittle fragmentation. However, it is now known that highly explosive, ash forming eruptions can be relatively frequent at several mafic volcanoes. Three questions arise due to this - What is the specific fragmentation mechanism occuring in these eruptions? What are the primary factors controlling fragmentation efficiency? Can a link between eruption style and fragmentation efficiency be quantified? We addressed these questions by coupling theoretical observations and field analysis of the recent May 2016 eruption at Mount Etna volcano. Within this complex 10-day event three paroxysmal episodes of pulsating basaltic lava jets alternating with small lava flows were recorded from a vent within the Voragine crater. The associated plumes which were produced deposited tephra along narrow axes to the east and south east. Sampling was done on the deposits associated with the first two plumes and the third one. We briefly characterise the May 2016 eruption by assessing plume height, eruption phases, total erupted masses and fallout boundaries and comparing them to previous eruptions. We also analyse the total grainsize distribution (TGSD) of the scoria particles formed in the jets. Conventional methods for obtaining grainsize and total distributions of an eruption are based on mass and provide limited information on fragmentation though. For this reason, the TGSD was assessed by coupling particle analyser data and conventional sieving data to assess both particle size and number of particle distributions with better precision. This allowed for more accurate testing of several existing models describing the shape of the TGSD. Coupled further with observations on eruption dynamics and eruption

  1. The timescales of magma evolution at mid-ocean ridges (United States)

    Brandl, Philipp A.; Regelous, Marcel; Beier, Christoph; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Nebel, Oliver; Haase, Karsten M.


    Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-ocean ridges by decompression melting of the upper mantle as it upwells due to plate separation. Decades of research on active spreading ridges have led to a growing understanding of the complex magmatic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes linked to the formation of new oceanic igneous crust. However, less is known about the timescales of magmatic processes at mid-ocean ridges, including melting in and melt extraction from the mantle, fractional crystallisation, crustal assimilation and/or magma mixing. In this paper, we review the timescales of magmatic processes by integrating radiometric dating, chemical and petrological observations of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and geophysical models. These different lines of evidence suggest that melt extraction and migration, and crystallisation and mixing processes occur over timescales of 1 to 10,000 a. High-resolution geochemical stratigraphic profiles of the oceanic crust using drill-core samples further show that at fast-spreading ridges, adjacent flow units may differ in age by only a few 100 a. We use existing chemical data and new major- and trace-element analyses of fresh MORB glasses from drill-cores in ancient Atlantic and Pacific crust, together with model stratigraphic ages to investigate how lava chemistry changes over 10 to 100 ka periods, the timescale of crustal accretion at spreading ridges which is recorded in the basalt stratigraphy in drilled sections through the oceanic crust. We show that drilled MORBs have compositions that are similar to those of young MORB glasses dredged from active spreading ridges (lavas that will eventually be preserved in the lowermost part of the extrusive section covered by younger flows), showing that the dredged samples are indeed representative of the bulk oceanic crust. Model stratigraphic ages calculated for individual flows in boreholes, together with the geochemical stratigraphy of the drilled sections, show that at

  2. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  3. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.


    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures o

  4. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.


    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  5. Ammonia volatilization from intensively managed dairy pastures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, D.W.


    The objectives of this thesis are (i) to quantify NH 3 volatilization from grassland, (ii) to gain understanding of the NH3 volatilization processes on grassland and (iii) to study measures how to reduce NH 3 volatilization from gra

  6. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  7. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...

  8. Evidence for crustal recycling during the Archean: The parental magmas of the stillwater complex (United States)

    Mccallum, I. S.


    The petrology and geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, an Archean (2.7 Ga) layered mafic intrusion in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana is discussed. Efforts to reconstruct the compositions of possible parental magmas and thereby place some constraints on the composition and history of their mantle source regions was studied. A high-Mg andesite or boninite magma best matches the crystallization sequences and mineral compositions of Stillwater cumulates, and represents either a primary magma composition or a secondary magma formed, for example, by assimilation of crustal material by a very Mg-rich melt such as komatiite. Isotopic data do not support the extensive amounts of assimilation required by the komatiite parent hypothesis, and it is argued that the Stillwater magma was generated from a mantle source that had been enriched by recycling and homogenization of older crustal material over a large area.

  9. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust. (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent


    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, prod