WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatile substance misuse

  1. Volatile substance misuse: an updated review of toxicity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jonathan B; Sutter, Mark E; Owen, Kelly P; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Educational campaigns and legislative actions may have led to an overall decrease in the prevalence of volatile substance misuse (VSM) in many countries; however, it is still a common practice throughout the world. Studies currently suggest that girls are misusing volatile substances more than before and at a prevalence rate equal to or exceeding that of boys in several countries. Products that may be misused are ubiquitous and relatively easy to acquire. The most commonly misused substances in recent studies are fuels such as butane or petrol and compressed gas dusters and deodorants that may contain fluorocarbons and/or butane. Detection of VSM is challenging, therefore physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion based on history and clinical presentation. Clues to misuse are often subtle and may include the patient's proximity to a volatile substance or paraphernalia when found intoxicated, dermal burns, blisters, pigments, or rashes, and chemical odors. The primary targets of toxicity are the brain and the heart. The leading cause of death from VSM is from ventricular dysrhythmias. Treatment of toxicity begins with support of airway, breathing, and circulation. Exogenous catecholamines should be avoided if possible due to the theoretical "sensitized" and irritable myocardium. In the case of ventricular dysrhythmias, direct current defibrillation and/or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism should be used. New evidence demonstrates the addictive potential of VSM yet effective therapy remains uncertain. Further research is needed in developing methods for preventing, detecting, and treating the harmful effects of VSM.

  2. Volatile Substance Misuse Among High School Students in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes-Dowell, Marya; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Barros, Helena Maria Taunhauser; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a 2004 study of over 300,000 high school students (aged 13–18 years) in nine South American countries. A probabilistic sample targeted urban secondary schools, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on prevalence and frequency of substance use. Multivariate analysis showed that volatile substances were the first or second most commonly reported substances used after alcohol and cigarettes in all countries (lifetime prevalence range: 2.67% [Paraguay] to 16.55% [Brazil]). Previous studies have highlighted volatile substance misuse among street children, whereas this study demonstrates that it is common among South American high school students. PMID:21609142

  3. Best practice in substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  4. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  5. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  6. Young People's Involvement in a Substance Misuse Communications Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew; Salmon, Debra; Orme, Judy

    2004-01-01

    There is growing emphasis in public policy on involving young people in the development of health promotion campaigns and information resources on substance misuse. To date there has been little literature that explores the level and nature young people's involvement in such initiatives. This paper reports on an evaluation of a substance misuse…

  7. Examining the Interface Between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Monti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  8. Improving school ethos may reduce substance misuse and teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; McCambridge, J

    2007-01-01

    Substance misuse and teenage pregnancy are major public health challenges. Existing responses generally focus on individual characteristics, such as knowledge and attitudes about substances and sexual risk, rather than wider social and institutional influences, and seem to have brought about only limited benefits. We review evidence suggesting that interventions aiming to promote one such wider influence—positive school ethos—might provide an effective complement to existing interventions.

  9. Substance misuse problems during pregnancy with special emphasis on buprenorphine

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Maternal drug abuse during pregnancy endangers the future health and wellbeing of the infant and growing child. On the other hand, via maternal abstinence, these problems would never occur; so the problems would be totally preventable. Buprenorphine is widely used in opioid maintenance treatment as a substitute medication. In Finland, during 2000 s buprenorphine misuse has steadily increased. In 2009 almost one third of clientele of substance treatment units were in treatment because of bupre...

  10. Substance misuse and sexual function in adolescents with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Priscila; Carvalho, Márcio Guilherme Nunes; van Weelden, Marlon; Lourenço, Benito; Queiroz, Lígia Bruni; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug misuse in Chronic Diseases (CDs). A cross-sectional study with 220 CDs adolescents and 110 healthy controls including: demographic/anthropometric data; puberty markers; modified questionnaire evaluating sexual function, alcohol/smoking/illicit drug misuse and bullying; and the physician-conducted CRAFFT (car/relax/alone/forget/friends/trouble) screen tool for substance abuse/dependence high risk. The frequencies of alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug use were similar in both groups (30% vs. 34%, p=0.529), likewise the frequencies of bullying (42% vs. 41%, p=0.905). Further analysis solely in CDs patients that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug versus those that did not use showed that the median current age [15 (11-18) vs. 14 (10-18) years, p<0.0001] and education years [9 (5-14) vs. 8 (3-12) years, p<0.0001] were significant higher in substance use group. The frequencies of Tanner 5 (p<0.0001), menarche (p<0.0001) and spermarche (p=0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with CDs that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit, likewise sexual activity (23% vs. 3%, p<0.0001). A trend of a low frequency of drug therapy was observed in patients that used substances (70% vs. 82%, p=0.051). A positive correlation was observed between CRAFFT score and current age in CD patients (p=0.005, r=+0.189) and controls (p=0.018, r=+0.226). A later age was evidenced in CDs patients that reported licit/ilicit drug misuse. In CDs adolescent, substance use was more likely to have sexual intercourse. Our study reinforces that these patients should be systematically screened by pediatricians for drug related health behavioral patterns. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department: neighborhood correlates and behavioral comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Carter, Patrick M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about characteristic profiles of substance use - and their individual- and neighborhood-level correlates - among high-risk youth. To identify characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department (ED) and explore how those profiles relate to individual- and community-level factors. Individual-level measures came from screening surveys administered to youth aged 14-24 at an ED in Flint, Michigan (n = 878); alcohol outlet and crime data came from public sources. Binary misuse indicators were generated by using previously established cut-points on scores of alcohol and drug use severity. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified classes of substance use; univariate tests and multinomial models identified correlates of class membership. Excluding non-misusers (51.5%), LCA identified three classes: marijuana-only (27.9%), alcohol/marijuana (16.1%), and multiple substances (polysubstance) (4.6%). Moving from non-misusers to polysubstance misusers, there was an increasing trend in rates of: unprotected sex, motor vehicle crash, serious violence, weapon aggression, and victimization (all p < .001). Controlling for individual-level variables, polysubstance misusers lived near more on-premises alcohol outlets than non-misusers (RRR = 1.42, p = .01) and marijuana-only misusers (RRR = 1.31, p = .03). Alcohol/marijuana misusers were more likely to live near high violent crime density areas than non-misusers (RRR = 1.83, p = .01), and were also more likely than marijuana-only misusers to live in areas of high drug crime density (RRR = 1.98, p = .03). No other relationships were significant. Substance-misusing youth seeking ED care have higher risk for other problem behaviors and neighborhood-level features display potential for distinguishing between use classes. Additional research to elucidate at-risk sub-populations/locales has potential to improve interventions for substance misuse by incorporating geographic information.

  12. Time perspective, depression, and substance misuse among the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Lauder, Hannah E; Fox, James M; Spence, Sean A; Parks, Randolph W

    2008-03-01

    Using the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; P. G. Zimbardo & J. N. Boyd, 1999), the authors found that homeless people, in comparison with a control group, had a significantly more negative outlook concerning their past and present as evinced by high Past-Negative and Present-Fatalistic scores and low Past-Positive scores on the ZTPI. However, the homeless individuals were almost indistinguishable from control participants on measures of Present-Hedonism and Future thinking. The homeless individuals had significantly higher levels of depression, with 31 out of 50 (62%) reaching criteria for probable depression. However, this finding was unrelated to their atypical time perspective. There was no significant relation between substance misuse and time perspective. Despite their current difficulties, including depression and drug abuse, the homeless individuals maintained a propensity toward future thinking characterized by striving to achieve their goals.

  13. Young adults today:substance misuse and young adults in the criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Having a drug or alcohol problem seriously increases the chances of an offender committing further crimes. In 2010, 71% of poly-drug using offenders were reconvicted of an offence within a year of being discharged from custody1. The following document explores key facts and figures about substance misuse amongst young adult offenders, aged 18-24. It covers topics relating to alcohol misuse, drug misuse and smoking.

  14. Crime and substance misuse in adjudicated delinquent youth: the worst of both worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether comorbid offending and substance misuse in previously adjudicated delinquents correlated better with measures of concurrent antisocial cognition and personality and subsequent criminality and substance misuse than offending or substance misuse alone. A sample of 1,177 youths was divided into four groups based on self-reported crime and substance misuse data from Wave 4 (ages 16-21) of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012): a no-crime and substance-misuse (NCS) group, a crime-only (CO) group, a substance-misuse-only (SO) group, and a crime and substance-misuse (C&S) group. As predicted, youths in the C&S group earned significantly higher scores on concurrent measures of neuroticism, grandiosity/manipulation, callousness/unemotionality, impulsivity/irresponsibility, and moral disengagement, and significantly lower scores on measures of agreeableness, conscientiousness, impulse control, suppression of aggression, and consideration of others than did youths in the other three groups. Prospective analyses revealed that C&S participants engaged in more subsequent crime and experienced more substance-related social problems than participants in the other three groups and reported significantly more substance-related dependency symptoms and episodes of alcohol/drug treatment than participants in the NCS and CO groups. Hence, previously adjudicated youths who experienced problems with crime and substances in late adolescence/early adulthood were at increased risk for concurrent antisocial cognition and personality problems and subsequent crime and substance-misuse problems compared with participants in the other three groups. The prospective effects were found to be partially mediated by antisocial cognition in the form of moral disengagement.

  15. Substance use and misuse among professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Peric, Mia; Rodek, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated substance use and misuse among 16 female and 9 male Croatian ballet professionals in 2008 using an original questionnaire. We analyzed social, personal, activity- and training-related, and educational factors, and criteria such as: binge alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, appetite suppressant consumption, analgesic use, and actual and potential "doping" habits. Frequency tables and rank-order correlation were calculated. More than one third of the male dancers reported binge drinking, while 20% of the females smoked more than a box of cigarettes per day. Almost 25% of these dancers will use "doping" if it will ensure successful ballet performance, regardless of negative health consequences. In males, the risk of potential "doping" behavior increased with age. In females, education level was negatively related to cigarette smoking, but positively correlated to potential "doping" habits and behavior. In both genders, religiousness was the factor negatively related to the following: (1) potential "doping" behavior and (2) belief that "doping" exists in professional ballet. Results suggest that there is evident need for more specific medical and/or psychological services in professional ballet. The study's limitations are noted.

  16. Childhood family income, adolescent violent criminality and substance misuse : a quasi-experimental total population study

    OpenAIRE

    Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; D’Onofrio, Brian; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low socioeconomic status in childhood is a well-known predictor of subsequent criminal and substance misuse behaviors but the causal mechanisms are questioned. Aims: To investigate if the associations between childhood family income and subsequent adolescent criminality and substance misuse are explained by unobserved familial risk factors. Method: Swedish population-based quasi-experimental, family-based study following cohorts born 1989-1993 (ntotal=529,428; ncousins...

  17. Psychosis, psychedelic substance misuse and head injury: A case report and 23 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Musa; Piggott, Katie; Coysh, Claire; Fialho, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the case of a 57 year old gentleman with a previous severe brain injury who developed a severe psychotic disorder 19 years after the injury. This appears to have been precipitated by heavy psychedelic substance use, including cannabis, salvia divinorum, ketamine, LSD, cocaine and DMT amongst others. The psychosis remained in the absence of drug intoxication and was associated with prominent apathy, lack of concern and abulia. This study discusses the heavy psychedelic substance misuse possibly potentiating a transition to psychosis in this individual. Little work has been undertaken in this area as substance misuse has traditionally been an exclusion criteria for investigating psychosis in this patient group. It is suggested that psychedelic substance misuse should be investigated as a risk factor for psychotic illness in patients with brain injury, as this case clearly suggests.

  18. Differentiating patterns of substance misuse by subtypes of antisocial traits in male offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, G.M.; Stuppy-Sullivan, A.M.; Brazil, I.A.; Baskin-Sommers, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Among criminal offenders, two subtypes of antisocial traits, psychopathy and externalizing-only, are associated with an especially elevated risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined the associations of these traits with patterns of substance misuse. In a sample of 1410 male

  19. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population.

  20. Classical and novel psychoactive substances: rethinking drug misuse from an evolutionary psychiatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Smith, Paul; McQueen, Daniel; Edwards, Lindsey; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    In this article, ontogenetic and phylogenetic causes of drug abuse and links to human emotional development are considered. Some evolutionary perspectives (e.g. that under certain conditions, consumption of otherwise toxic alkaloids may confer both physical and cultural advantages) are reviewed. As described in the 'mismatch theory', the capacity of the human genome to evolve defences against toxins has been outstripped by the pace of cultural change and technological development, such as purposeful fermentation of alcohol and more recently distillation of alcohol; purification and chemical manipulation of plant alkaloids; and the engineering of entirely novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The functions of the neurobiological substrates that mediate substance misuse and dependence are reviewed. Reasons are given why NPSs present greater cause for concern than plant-derived substances of abuse. We argue that evolutionary biology provides an important orientation for the research agenda in substance misuse.

  1. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  2. Drug Testing US Student-Athletes for Performance-Enhancing Substance Misuse: A Flawed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students.

  3. Recovery-Promoting Care as Experienced by Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Gunilla; Ojehagen, Agneta; Nordstrom, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores recovery-promoting care as experienced by persons with concomitant severe mental illness and substance misuse. Sixteen in-depth interviews, based on an interview guide concerning their experiences of health, life situation and care, were held with eight participants in an outpatient treatment programme. The analysis aimed to…

  4. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223...

  5. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-08-03

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  7. Locus of control of behaviour: is high externality associated with substance misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, P; Ayliffe, G

    1991-09-01

    Personal control and responsibility are key themes in the therapeutic use of 'motivational interviewing'. This popular method of counselling has suggested that clients need to believe they have a significant degree of control over their behaviour if they are to make progress. Using a well validated psychological test on locus of control of behaviour, our research sought to establish whether active misusers really believed they had less personal control than non-misusers. To establish this a sample of misusers was tested and compared with three diverse, comparable groups. Possible confounding factors such as age, sex and class were controlled for. T tests established a significant difference between the active misusers and the other sampled groups. Further, a regression analysis of variance, calculated to explain the differing external scores offered no reasonable explanation as far as age, sex and class were concerned. Alternatively, self diagnosed substance misuse accounted for 23% of the variation in scores. We concluded, therefore, that high externality scores are a good indicator of active misusing behaviour and that beliefs about personal control are important to address, if one is to increase the chances of a positive client outcome.

  8. Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Use and Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Personality factors have been implicated in risk for substance use disorders through longitudinal and neurobiologic studies for over four decades. Only recently, however, have targeted interventions been developed to assist individuals with personality risk factors for substance use disorders manage their risk. This article reviews current practices in personality-targeted interventions and the eight randomised trials examining the efficacy of such approaches with respect to...

  9. Cultural-level influences on substance use & misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    This presentation discusses potential associations between dimensions of culture and patterns of substance use. Several well-known frameworks for organizing cultural values and orientations are presented. As an illustration, one framework (Hofstede, 2001) is examined for its relevance in understanding national-level variations in patterns of alcohol and illicit drug use. Two of four cultural dimensions examined, individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance, are found to be independently associated with one or more substance use measures in a diverse sample of 64 nations. Future multi-level analyses that integrate cultural values and orientations into empirical studies will enable more systematic assessments of the role of socio-cultural contexts in substance use epidemiology.

  10. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  11. Too frightened to care? Accounts by district nurses working with clients who misuse substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue; Chidlaw, Robert G

    2007-05-01

    Drug misusers have complex health and social care needs, and experience considerable difficulties in accessing the assessment, care and treatment that they require. Despite the development of specialist services in many parts of the UK, substance misuse is often marginalised within mainstream general healthcare, and many practitioners are unprepared for the challenges of working with this client group. The present paper reports findings from a qualitative study that aimed to explore district nurses' understandings and practices in relation to discrimination and inequalities issues. The research took place during 2003 in two city-based primary care trusts in the North of England. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with 18 'G' grade district nurses. The authors present findings that highlight some of the challenges and tensions district nurses encounter when providing care to clients who misuse substances. The discourses of 'prejudice' and 'risk' were intertwined throughout the data, and served to shape service provision for clients who misuse substances. This was reflected in the district nurses' accounts of their own practice and that of other services, suggesting that these clients receive suboptimal care. The discourse of 'risk' was also used by district nurses to construct themselves as 'vulnerable', and this helped to explain some of their own practices of care provision. Many participants acknowledged their limited knowledge and experience of working with this client group. There is an urgent need for district nurses and other health professionals to develop their practice with these clients, who may present as both vulnerable and dangerous, in order to ensure that care is provided equitably and safely.

  12. Potential radiating effects of misusing substances among medical patients receiving brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Ondersma, Steven J; O'Grady, Kevin E; Schwartz, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    The societal benefits of substance use interventions are largely driven not by reducing use per se, but by the broader implications of those reductions. This encompasses "potential radiating effects of misusing substances" (PREMiS) such as utilization of high-cost hospital and emergency care, injury, productivity losses, incarceration, and driving while impaired. This study is a secondary analysis from a randomized trial comparing in-person vs. computerized brief intervention among 360 adult community health center patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use (N = 302 with complete data through 12 months of follow-up). This study aims to examine four aspects of PREMiS outcomes in this sample: (1) their frequency; and their association with (2) type of brief intervention received (by random assignment), (3) type of drug misused, and (4) baseline drug problem severity (within the moderate risk range). 12-month prevalence was 18.5% for hospitalization (399 cumulative days), 33.1% for emergency department utilization (166 cumulative visits), 39.1% for injury (1818 injury-days), and 8.3% for incarceration (278 days of detention). There were 729 missed work days among those who reported employment. Fifty percent reported driving under the influence (DUI) of substances. There were no differences in PREMiS outcomes by type of brief intervention. Participants with only marijuana misuse at baseline were not at lower risk of experiencing PREMiS events than participants with other drug misuse. Higher baseline drug problem severity was predictive of future hospitalization (p < .05) and number of hospitalization days (p < .01). This community health center sample with moderate-risk illicit drug use reported considerable high-cost healthcare utilization, injury, missed work, and DUI. Interventions are needed that can reliably lower risk of negative outcomes among drug users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Kraanen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  14. A National Snapshot of Substance Misuse among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Anton; Axiak, Sally

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on a patient record survey that was undertaken with the central aim of establishing reliable, baseline information to inform strategic planning and organisation of future CAMHS in Malta. The records of the total population of children and adolescents admitted into the psychatric hospital over a five year period were surveyed. Results showed that the characteristics and circumstances of children and adolescents with mental disorder and comorbid substance misuse in Malta are similar to those described in international studies. The survey emphasised the pressing need for further research into this sub group and also highlighted gaps in reliable data systems locally.

  15. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Tobacco, Alcohol, Substance Use and Drug Misuse in General Population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Mustafa Necmi; Arikan, Zehra; Kotan, Zeynep; Tunçoğlu, Tolga; Pinarci, Mustafa; Taşdemir, Ahmet; Ay, Bülent; Koçak, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine prevalence ratios of tobacco, alcohol, substance use and drug misuse in a large scale sample of general population and recognize related socio-demographic factors. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted with a nationally representative sample of 8045 individuals with face-to-face, in-house interviews implemented by a trained team of interviewers. Life-time prevalences of tobacco, alcohol, substance use and drug misuse are 51.8%, 28.3%, 2.8% and 10.5% respectively. Age, gender, education level and marital status are important socio-demographic determinants for tobacco, alcohol use and drug misuse. Income level is an important determinant for alcohol and substance use. Tobacco, alcohol, substance use and drug misuse are significant health concerns in Turkey. Socio-demographic status is an important determinant of several aspects of tobacco, alcohol, substance use and drug misuse and should therefore be evaluated carefully to develop effective protective and preventive strategies.

  16. Perceived empowerment in people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder and substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Allott, Rory; Emsley, Richard; Ennion, Sarah; Barrowclough, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to validate a measure of empowerment in a British population of people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance misuse and assess relationships between empowerment and other key outcomes. Patients participating in a large randomised control trial for Motivational Interviewing for Drug and Alcohol misuse in Schizophrenia or psychosis (MIDAS trial) completed measures of empowerment, symptoms, global functioning and substance use at baseline, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. A three factor model of empowerment: self-efficacy and control; power and anger; and activism provided the best fit of the data across all three time points. There was some evidence of associations between empowerment and both symptoms and global functioning, although these associations were not consistent across subscales. Changes in empowerment predicted changes in symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Empowerment is a broadly defined construct and its meaning may differ across different populations of people with severe and enduring mental health problems. Empowerment is a key component of recovery and should be assessed in treatments in addition to more traditional outcome measures of symptoms and functioning.

  17. Misuse of Psychologically Active Substances of Convicts being in Prisons and their Treatment

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    Safuadan Plojovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions. More than a half of our examinees (60%, misuses narcotics and alcohol occasionally or permanently, the alcohol users only 12.7%, and only narcotics 7.3% of the ones, meaning that a treatment of addiction disease should have a significant role in prevention of recidivism.

  18. Triply troubled: criminal behaviour and mental health in a cohort of teenage pregnant substance misusers in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Wesley; Ismail, Khaled M K; Crome, Ilana B

    2010-12-01

    Teenage substance misuse and pregnancy are major public health problems in the UK, where the most recent figures on maternal deaths suggest that they have doubled among young substance misusers. In general, little is known about their pregnancy outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of a sample of teenage pregnant drug users in the UK, to examine their psychosocial risk and complicating factors at presentation, to evaluate adherence to current national guidelines and to assess the adequacy of guidelines in relation to identified characteristics. A six-year records survey of young people attending a specialist adolescent drug misuse service in the west midlands of the UK. Ten pregnant adolescents were identified from records. These girls have had unstable or abusive experiences through childhood, half having other substance misusers in the family. All were with substantially older partners, who were also substance misusers. All had required a mental health assessment and 90% had a history of self-harm. There were no maternal or neonatal deaths, and only one girl had a miscarriage, but in four cases, the child had to be fostered. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of this kind in the UK. Available guidelines were followed, but our findings suggest that more detailed and comprehensive guidelines are required. Preventive measures through education are likely to be hampered by the early age at which these girls cease attending school. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Substance use and misuse and potential doping behaviour in rugby union players.

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    Sekulic, Damir; Bjelanovic, Luka; Pehar, Miran; Pelivan, Katarina; Zenic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to compile evidence on substance-use-and-misuse (SUM) and to identify factors related to potential-doping-behaviour (PDB) in rugby union. The subjects were 105 rugby athletes (all males; 23.4 ± 4.1 years; 99% respondents). The variables included socio-demographic factors, SUM-data, sport-factors, knowledge-on-doping (KD), and PDB. Data showed high alcohol consumption, with more than 30% of the athletes binge drinking at least once per week. Approximately 52% of the subjects used dietary-supplementation (DS) and 23% reported PDB, whereas 55% believed that doping is present in rugby. Forward conditional logistic regression revealed that less rugby experience (OR:1.286; 95%CI:1.058-1.563; p rugby (OR:0.305; 95%CI:0.066-0.638; p rugby.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Association between School Bullying Victimization and Substance Misuse

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    Hong, Jun Sung; Davis, Jordan P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Yoon, Jina; Choi, Shinwoo; Smith, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the two. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent SM, followed by a proposed conceptual framework that includes co-occurring risk factors for victimization and SM within family, peer, and school/community contexts. Next, we discuss potential mediators linking victimization and SM, such as internalizing problems, traumatic stress, low academic performance, and school truancy/absence. We then identify potential moderating influences of age, gender/sex, social supports, and school connectedness that could amplify or abate the association between victimization and SM. Finally, we discuss practice and policy implications. PMID:25545436

  1. An Exploratory Study of Substance Use and Misuse among College Students with and without ADHD and Other Disabilities

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    Janusis, Grace M.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated potential differences between college students with and without disabilities (including ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, executive functioning disorder, and learning, mental health, vision, hearing, and physical/chronic disabilities) regarding self-reported substance use and misuse, perceived stress, and…

  2. Personality Correlates of the Common and Unique Variance across Conduct Disorder and Substance Misuse Symptoms in Adolescence

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    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Externalising behaviours such as substance misuse (SM) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms highly co-ocurr in adolescence. While disinhibited personality traits have been consistently linked to externalising behaviours there is evidence that these traits may relate differentially to SM and CD. The current study aimed to assess whether this was the…

  3. Counting Girls Out: A Review of Suicide among Young Substance Misusers and Gender Difference Implications in the Evaluation of Risk

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    Webb, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This literature review examines the evidence of suicide risk among young female substance misusers in comparison with their male counterparts, and considers arguments that suicide risk is underestimated for this group due to the methodological difficulties presented by small cohort numbers. Existing evidence indicates significant gender…

  4. Substance use and misuse in the Croatian Army Special Forces: prevalence and influencing factors

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    Damir Sekulic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In addition to being a serious health-hazard, substance-use-and-misuse (SUM in military forces negatively infl uences physical fi tness and army readiness. The aim of this study was to defi ne the prevalence of SUM, which includes cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and multiple SUM (i.e. practice of daily smoking and harmful alcohol drinking, and factors infl uencing SUM in the Croatian Special Army Forces (SAF. Materials and Methods: We studied 73 SAF members. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic and military-professionrelated data, and SUM factors. The associations between studied variables were established by the Chi2 test, and forward conditional logistic regression (FCLR. Results: With less than 40% of daily smokers, smoking was within expected values. Almost 80% of the examinees reported no binge drinking, while 54% reported harmful drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test scale. Paternity and education level were negatively associated with daily smoking, while higher incidence of daily smoking was found for privates and those who practiced harmful drinking (all at p < 0.05. The FCLR demonstrated a higher risk of harmful alcohol consumption for younger commissioned offi cers (OR for military rank = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.19-13.99; OR for age = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95. Conclusion: Although SUM incidence was not alarming compared to the overall population and the previously reported military data, additional efforts are necessary in order to decrease cigarette consumption. The study showed that protective/risk structure of the substance misuse in the military should be investigated specifi cally with regard to particular military services, corps, and socio-cultural environment.

  5. A Household Study on the Prevalence of Substance Misuse in Tehran: The need for other methods to estimate the prevalence

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    Mehdi Nassr

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance misuse is a major public health threat in Iran. The total number of addicts in Iran is estimated to be between 700,000 and 4,000,000. A few limited household studies on the prevalence of substance misuse have been performed in Iran. Method: The residents of the sixth district of the municipality of Tehran who were over the age of 15 were selected as the study population. The sample size was 2,705. The instrument of the study was face-to-face interviews. Results: 184(6.8% of the subjects had used at least one substance in their lives and 142(5.2% used a substance during the month before the interviews. 132(4.88%, 10(0.37%, 3(0.11%, 5(0.19% and 4(15% of the subjects reported the use of alcohol, opium, opium residue, heroin, and cannabis respectively during the month before the interviews. Conclusion: The estimate and profile of substance use are different from other methodologies. This household study indicated lower than expected prevalence of opioids and higher than expected alcohol use. Indirect estimation methods are probably more appropriate for the prevalence studies of substance misuse in Iran.

  6. Hospital Admission and Criminality Associated with Substance Misuse in Young Refugees – A Swedish National Cohort Study

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    Manhica, Hélio; Gauffin, Karl; Almqvist, Ylva B.; Rostila, Mikael; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of mental health problems have been described in young refugees, but few studies have been conducted on substance misuse. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of hospital care and criminality associated with substance misuse in refugees who settled in Sweden as teenagers. Methods Gender stratified Cox regression models were used to estimate the risks of criminal convictions and hospital care associated with substance misuse from national Swedish data for 2005–2012. We focused on 22,992 accompanied and 5,686 unaccompanied refugees who were aged 13–19 years when they settled in Sweden and compared them with 1 million native Swedish youths from the same birth cohort. Results The risks of criminal conviction associated with substance misuse increased with the length of residency in male refugees, after adjustment for age and domicile. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 5.21 (4.39–6.19) for unaccompanied and 3.85 (3.42–4.18) for accompanied refugees after more than 10 years of residency, compared with the native population. The risks were slightly lower for hospital care, at 2.88 (2.18–3.79) and 2.52(2.01–3.01) respectively. Risks were particularly pronounced for male refugees from the Horn of Africa and Iran. The risks for all male refugees decreased substantially when income was adjusted for. Young female refugees had similar risks to the general population. Conclusion The risks of criminality and hospital care associated with substance misuse in young male refugees increased with time of residency in Sweden and were associated with a low level of income compared with the native Swedish population. Risks were similar in accompanied and unaccompanied refugees. PMID:27902694

  7. "He Was the Story of My Drug Use Life": A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of the Impact of Partner Incarceration on Substance Misuse Patterns Among African American Women.

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    Cooper, Hannah Lf; Clark, Claire Ducharme; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Caruso, Bethany; Comfort, Megan

    2013-08-21

    This NIH-funded longitudinal qualitative study explored pathways through which partner incarceration affected substance misuse among African American women. Four waves of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 substance-misusing African American women whose partners had recently been incarcerated. Data were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, during 2010-2011. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Analyses suggest that partner incarceration initially precipitated multiple crises in women's lives (e.g., homelessness); over time, and with formal and informal support, women got their lives "back on track." Substance misuse declined over time, though spiked for some women during the crisis period. We discuss implications for research and interventions.

  8. Disordered eating, amenorrhea, and substance use and misuse among professional ballet dancers: Preliminary analysis

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    Mia Peric

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and misuse (SUM, eating disorders (ED and consequent amenorrhea (AM occur frequently in professional ballet dancing. The objective of this study has been to explore the prevalence and association between ED, AM and SUM in ballet. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 21 ballet dancers, 23.1±4.5 years old, members of the professional National Ballet Ensemble from Croatia. Variables were collected by questionnaires examining SUM, occurrence of amenorrhea, and corresponding ballet-specific and socio-demographic factors (Questionnaire on Substance Use – QSU and the level of ED (Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire – BEDA-Q. Results: Smoking is prevalent in 40% of dancers (25% smoke on a daily basis, 36% often use analgesics, and 25% engage in binge drinking at least once a month. Smoking and binge drinking are less frequent in ballerinas with a higher academic level (r = 0.60 and r = 0.54 for binge drinking and smoking, respectively; p < 0.05. Alcohol drinking is higher among dancers who consume analgesics more often and those with a higher BEDA-Q score (r = 0.53 and r = 0.54 for analgesics and BEDA-Q, respectively; p < 0.05. Amenorrhea is more prevalent among those dancers with a higher BEDA-Q score. Women who consume nutritional supplements are less likely to use analgesics (Mann Whitney U test = 2.11; p < 0.05. Conclusions: Efforts seeking to prevent ED in ballet should target dancers who consume alcohol to a greater extent. Future studies should specifically explore the less frequent consumption of analgesics among dancers who consume nutritional supplements. Med Pr 2016;67(1:21–27

  9. A Portuguese version of the Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services: a simple outcome evaluation tool

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    Christo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services (CISS is a single page outcome evaluation tool completed by drug alcohol service workers either on the basis of direct client interviews or of personal experience of their client supplemented by existing assessment notes. It was developed to assist substance misuse services to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their treatments to their respective funding bodies. Its 0 to 20 unidimensional scale consists of 10 items reflecting clients' problems with social functioning, general health, sexual/injecting risk behavior, psychological functioning, occupation, criminal involvement, drug/alcohol use, ongoing support, compliance, and working relationships. Good reliability and validity has already been demonstrated for the CISS [Christo et al., Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000; 59: 189-197] but the original was written in English and a Portuguese version is presented here. The present review explores its applicability to a Brazilian setting, summarizes its characteristics and uses, and describes the process of translation to Portuguese. A pilot study conducted in a substance misuse service for adolescents indicated it is likely to be suitable for use among a Brazilian population. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of the CISS make it a useful tool allowing comparison of clients within and between many different service settings.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the relationship between substance misuse and violent offending among female prisoners.

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    Howard, Ruth; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Mahoney, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. A cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. History of traumatic events, DSM-5 PTSD, drug use, and offending behaviour were assessed. Traumatic experiences had occurred in 97.8 % of the sample, while 60.5 % met criteria for a PTSD diagnosis. The majority of the sample (70.8 %) reported using illicit drugs, and 59.6 % had committed at least one violent offence. History of drug use was significantly correlated with trauma, PTSD status, and violent offending. A mediation analysis identified an indirect effect of PTSD symptoms on the relationship between history of drug use and violent offending. The result of our mediation analysis further highlights the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms and substance misuse, among female offenders, to help prevent violent offending.

  11. Well-being of medical students and their awareness on substance misuse: a cross-sectional survey in Pakistan

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    Iqbal Saman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate psychological well-being and substance abuse among medical students in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in six medical colleges across Pakistan. Final-year medical students were interviewed by either a postgraduate trainee in psychiatry or a consultant psychiatrist. Results A total of 540 medical students were approached; 342 participated and the response rate was 64.5%. Mean age was 23.73 years (SD 2.45 years; 52.5% were male and 90% single. Two out of every five respondents reported that work/study at medical school affected their personal health and well-being. A considerable proportion of students were aware of alcohol and smoking as coping strategies for stress in medical students. The main factors causing stress were heavy workload (47.4%, relationship with colleagues (13.5% and staff (11.9%. A total of 30% reported a history of depression and 15% among them had used an antidepressant. More than half were aware of depression in colleagues. The majority of respondents said that teaching provided on substance misuse in the areas of alcohol and illegal drugs, management/treatment of addiction, and models of addiction was poor. There was significant association (p = 0.044 between stress and awareness about alcohol as a coping strategy for stress among medical students. A significant negative association was also found between medical colleges in public sector (p = 0.052, female gender (p = 0.003 and well-being. Conclusion The majority of the medical students reported a negative impact of heavy workload on their psychological well-being. Significant numbers of medical students think that substance misuse is a coping strategy for stress. Teaching on addiction/addictive substances is poor at undergraduate level in Pakistani medical colleges.

  12. Comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity and mental health service utilization by female inmates: testing the worst of both worlds hypothesis with the PAI.

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    Walters, Glenn D; Magaletta, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether female inmates with comorbid proclivity for antisocial behavior and substance misuse, as measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007), use more mental health-related services than female inmates with either antisocial or substance misuse proclivity alone. A second purpose was to determine whether the effect of comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity on mental health service utilization is cumulative or interactive. In a survey of 421 female federal prison inmates, it was noted that proclivity for both antisocial behavior and substance misuse was associated with significantly greater subsequent use of mental health services in female inmates than either proclivity alone, even after preexisting mental health diagnoses and treatment were controlled. In addition, the effect was additive rather than interactive. These findings provide further support for the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis, which holds that comorbid antisocial and substance involvement/proclivity portend poorer future outcomes than either antisocial or substance involvement/proclivity alone. The implications of these results for development of a comprehensive training model that provides mental health professionals with the skills to properly screen and effectively treat female inmates are discussed, along with the need to clarify the theory behind the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis.

  13. Manual-assisted cognitive therapy for self-harm in personality disorder and substance misuse: a feasibility trial.

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    Davidson, Kate M; Brown, Tom M; James, Vairi; Kirk, Jamie; Richardson, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Aims and method To assess the feasibility of conducting a larger, definitive randomised controlled trial of manual-assisted cognitive therapy (MACT), a brief focused therapy to address self-harm and promote engagement in services. We established recruitment, randomisation and assessment of outcome within a sample of these complex patients admitted to a general hospital following self-harm. We assessed symptoms of depressed mood, anxiety and suicidality at baseline and at 3 months' follow-up. Results Twenty patients were randomised to the trial following an index episode of self-harm, and those allocated to MACT demonstrated improvement in anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. Clinical implications It is feasible to recruit a sample of these complex patients to a randomised controlled trial of MACT following an index episode of self-harm. There is preliminary support that MACT could be an acceptable and effective intervention in patients with personality disorder and substance misuse.

  14. Characteristics of Non-Opioid Substance Misusers Among Patients Enrolling in Opioid Treatment Programs: A Latent Class Analysis.

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    Fong, Chunki; Matusow, Harlan; Cleland, Charles M; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using latent class analysis, this study examined the pattern of non-opioid substance misuse among 19,101 enrollees into 85 opioid treatment programs. The most frequent non-opioid drugs were cannabis, anti-anxiety medications, and cocaine. Four non-opioid drug use latent classes were identified: low-use (73%), prescription drug use (16%), marijuana and cocaine use (8.5%), and poly-drug use (2.5%). Compared to the low-use class, participants in the other classes were more likely to be female, Caucasian, use tobacco, have chronic pain, and use prescription opioids either with or without heroin. Recognition of characteristics derived from these classes can improve opioid treatment program services.

  15. Suicide trends in discharged patients with mood disorders: associations with selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and comorbid substance misuse.

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    Fazel, Seena; Grann, Martin; Goodwin, Guy M

    2006-03-01

    We determined the rates of suicide in two consecutive time intervals of low and high selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescribing for men and women with mood disorders, who were at relatively high risk of suicide, in a discharged hospitalized sample. High quality Swedish national registers were cross-linked to estimate rates of suicide. The results were stratified by three age-bands, and rates of comorbid substance misuse were explored. These were compared with general population suicide rates. There were 1606 suicides in discharged patients with mood disorders. Suicide rates decreased for all women during 1989-94 and 1995-2000 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-0.85] and a trend was found towards lower rates in men (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78-1.02). Approximately 90% of suicides occurred in those aged over 40 years; thus, the inpatient sample lacked the power to discriminate clear effects in the younger age groups. There was no increase or decrease in the rates of substance use disorders in patients who committed suicide. There were 20 851 suicides in the general population during 1989-2000. Suicide rates were lower at all ages for men and women in the general population in the interval of high SSRI prescribing. We conclude that there is no evidence from this study of an increase in suicide rates following the introduction of SSRIs in the general population or in a high-risk inpatient sample.

  16. Risk of Pain Medication Misuse After Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Substance Use, Personality, and Depression.

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    Clark, Jillian M R; Cao, Yue; Krause, James S

    2017-02-01

    Our purpose was to identify risk of pain medication misuse (PMM) among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining associations with multiple sets of risk factors including demographic and injury characteristics, pain experiences, frequency of pain medication use, substance use, personality, and depressive symptoms. Risk of PMM was defined by a cutoff score ≥30 measured using the Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) and examined in 1,619 adults with traumatic SCI of at least 1 year duration who reported at least 1 painful condition and use of prescription pain medication using a cross-sectional design. Results indicated 17.6% of participants had scores of ≥30 on the PMQ. After controlling for demographic, injury, and pain characteristics, logistic regression analysis showed that being a current smoker, recently using cannabis (behavioral factors), and multiple psychological factors were associated with risk of PMM, as indicated by scores on the PMQ. These included elevated depressive symptomatology and exhibiting impulsive or anxious personality traits. Because risk of PMM is indicated in individuals with SCI, prescribers should assess and monitor multiple risk factors for PMM including substance use behaviors and psychological indicators.

  17. Quality of medical care for people with and without comorbid mental illness and substance misuse: systematic review of comparative studies.

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    Mitchell, Alex J; Malone, Darren; Doebbeling, Caroline Carney

    2009-06-01

    There has been long-standing concern about the quality of medical care offered to people with mental illness. To investigate whether the quality of medical care received by people with mental health conditions, including substance misuse, differs from the care received by people who have no comparable mental disorder. A systematic review of studies that examined the quality of medical care in those with and without mental illness was conducted using robust critical appraisal techniques. Of 31 valid studies, 27 examined receipt of medical care in those with and without mental illness and 10 examined medical care in those with and without substance use disorder (or dual diagnosis). Nineteen of 27 and 10 of 10, respectively, suggested inferior quality of care in at least one domain. Twelve studies found no appreciable differences in care or failed to detect a difference in at least one key area. Several studies showed an increase in healthcare utilisation but without any increase in quality. Three studies found superior care for individuals with mental illness in specific subdomains. There was inadequate information concerning patient satisfaction and structural differences in healthcare delivery. There was also inadequate separation of delivery of care from uptake in care on which to base causal explanations. Despite similar or more frequent medical contacts, there are often disparities in the physical healthcare delivered to those with psychiatric illness although the magnitude of this effect varies considerably.

  18. Psychiatric morbidity and socio-occupational dysfunction in residents of a drug rehabilitation centre: challenges of substance misuse management in a Bruneian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hilda; Adanan, Anddy Maz; Omar, Radiah

    2015-10-01

    Aims and method In 2011, a psychiatric clinic was started in Pusat Al-Islah, a drug rehabilitation centre. Our aim was to record self-reported socio-occupational dysfunction and patterns of drug misuse and to evaluate the usefulness of a psychiatric screening tool. A two-phased approach using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to examine the rates of psychiatric diagnoses. Results Methamphetamine was the most commonly misused substance in 94.5% of residents. High levels of socio-occupational dysfunction were reported. In total, 5.5% met criteria for major depressive disorder, 4.8% for lifetime psychotic disorder and 11.5% for suicidal ideation. In addition, 13.3% reported previous untreated mental health problems. Clinical implications A screening tool such as the SRQ can be used to identify those needing further psychiatric assessment. Interventions to address amphetamine misuse and associated socio-occupational dysfunction are required. Societal views and legislation influence the management of substance misuse problems in Brunei.

  19. Applying Behavior Change Theories and Qualitative Methods in Substance Misuse Implementation Research: Conceptualizing the Adoption of Breaking Free Online in Real-World Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Stephanie; Elison, Sarah; Davies, Glyn; Ward, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    There is insufficient research examining the implementation of complex novel interventions within health care. This may be due to a lack of qualitative research providing subjective insights into these implementation processes. The authors investigate the advantages of applying behavior change theories to conceptualize qualitative data describing the processes of implementation of complex interventions. Breaking Free Online (BFO), a digital treatment intervention for substance misuse, is described as an example of a complex intervention. The authors review previous qualitative research which explored initial diffusion, or spread, of the BFO program, and its subsequent normalization as part of standard treatment for substance misuse within the health and social care charity, "Change, Grow, Live" (CGL). The use of behavior change models to structure qualitative interview findings enabled identification of facilitators and barriers to the use of BFO within CGL. These findings have implications for the development of implementation research in novel health care interventions.

  20. Substance use and misuse among 17- to 18-year-old Croatian adolescents: correlation with scholastic variables and sport factors.

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    Modric, Toni; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Substance use and misuse (SUM) and the relation to physical activity/exercise/athletic participation (sport factors) and scholastic achievement are rarely studied in Croatia. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the SUM habits in Croatian adolescents (17-18 years of age, 254 males, and 218 females), and (2) to study potential gender-specific interrelationships between scholastic and sport factors in relation to SUM. The testing was done using an extensive, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire that consisted of scholastic variables, sport factors, and SUM data. Descriptive statistics, counts, and proportions were calculated. Gender differences were established using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Gender-specific correlations within and between studied variables were established using the Spearman's correlation. The incidence of smoking habits and alcohol consumption among Croatian adolescents was alarming, and a serious intervention program should be developed to address this issue. Educational achievement was negatively related to SUM, with no gender-specific relationships. The data indicated some "protective" effects of the sport factors against SUM in boys, but a significant positive correlation between alcohol drinking and sport participation in girls was also noted.

  1. Substance misuse and related infectious diseases in a soup kitchen population.

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    Magura, S; Nwakeze, P C; Rosenblum, A; Joseph, H

    2000-03-01

    Representative samples of female (N = 119) and male (N = 100) guests were selected at two inner city soup kitchens. In the preceding month, 75% used cocaine/crack and 25% used heroin/opiates as determined by hair analysis. Relatively few guests (25%) were in substance dependency treatment. Infectious disease rates were: HIV (16%), hepatitis B exposure (21%), hepatitis B carrier (6%), syphilis exposure (15%). Years of injecting drug use and homelessness/marginal housing were associated with HIV infection and hepatitis B exposure. Soup kitchens should be prime locations for outreach to cocaine/crack and heroin users in need of treatment, medical care, and interventions to prevent infectious disease transmission.

  2. New estimates of the number of children living with substance misusing parents: results from UK national household surveys

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    Faulkner Nathan

    2009-10-01

    children whilst using drugs. Conclusion Whilst harm from parental substance use is not inevitable, the number of children living with substance misusing parents exceeds earlier estimates. Widespread patterns of binge drinking and recreational drug use may expose children to sub-optimal care and substance-using role models. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed.

  3. Cannabis expectancies in substance misusers: French validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire.

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    Guillem, Eric; Notides, Christine; Vorspan, Florence; Debray, Marcel; Nieto, Isabel; Leroux, Mayliss; Lépine, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (α= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant κ ≥ .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders.

  4. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents

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    Natasa Zenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM. Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys. Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM, and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.86–1.49, 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.48–2.54, multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.79–1.56, while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.89–4.70. Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence.

  5. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse%人脑功能显像研究药物成瘾的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕荣彬; 韩梅; 刘兴党

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment.%神经功能影像技术为认识人类药物成瘾的神经药理学机制提供了很大帮助.该文在阅读神经功能影像技术在药物成瘾研究中应用的及国内外相关文献的基础上,探讨药物成瘾者在依赖、戒断、复发等不同状态下脑内血流灌注、葡萄糖代谢、神经受体及转运体等发生的形态和功能活动的改变,以寻求与药物成瘾相关的神经核团、神经通路以及受体作用系统,从而了解药物成瘾的神经生物学基础,为寻找有效的治疗措施提供理论基础.

  6. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  7. Volatility of mixed atmospheric humic-like substances and ammonium sulfate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Hong, Juan; Häme, Silja A. K.; Ding, Aijun; Li, Yugen; Yan, Chao; Hao, Liqing; Mikkilä, Jyri; Zheng, Longfei; Xie, Yuning; Zhu, Caijun; Xu, Zheng; Chi, Xuguang; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Lin, Peng; Virtanen, Annele; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Yu, Jianzhen; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2017-03-01

    The volatility of organic aerosols remains poorly understood due to the complexity of speciation and multiphase processes. In this study, we extracted humic-like substances (HULIS) from four atmospheric aerosol samples collected at the SORPES station in Nanjing, eastern China, and investigated the volatility behavior of particles at different sizes using a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VTDMA). In spite of the large differences in particle mass concentrations, the extracted HULIS from the four samples all revealed very high-oxidation states (O : C > 0.95), indicating secondary formation as the major source of HULIS in Yangtze River Delta (YRD). An overall low volatility was identified for the extracted HULIS, with the volume fraction remaining (VFR) higher than 55 % for all the regenerated HULIS particles at the temperature of 280 °C. A kinetic mass transfer model was applied to the thermodenuder (TD) data to interpret the observed evaporation pattern of HULIS, and to derive the mass fractions of semi-volatile (SVOC), low-volatility (LVOC) and extremely low-volatility components (ELVOC). The results showed that LVOC and ELVOC dominated (more than 80 %) the total volume of HULIS. Atomizing processes led to a size-dependent evaporation of regenerated HULIS particles, and resulted in more ELVOC in smaller particles. In order to understand the role of interaction between inorganic salts and atmospheric organic mixtures in the volatility of an organic aerosol, the evaporation of mixed samples of ammonium sulfate (AS) and HULIS was measured. The results showed a significant but nonlinear influence of ammonium sulfate on the volatility of HULIS. The estimated fraction of ELVOC in the organic part of the largest particles (145 nm) increased from 26 %, in pure HULIS samples, to 93 % in 1 : 3 (mass ratio of HULIS : AS) mixed samples, to 45 % in 2 : 2 mixed samples, and to 70 % in 3 : 1 mixed samples, suggesting that the interaction with ammonium sulfate

  8. Staff Perspectives of Substance Use and Misuse Among Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Enrolled in Dutch Disability Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Vries, M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of psychoactive substances seems to be a growing problem among clients of intellectual disability services (IDS) in the Netherlands, rates of such substance use are unknown, and it is unclear how the services deal with substance-related problems. This study explored the perspectives

  9. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  10. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Storage and sustained release of volatile substances from a hollow silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Ding Haomin [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao Xia [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Jianfeng [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2007-06-20

    Porous hollow silica nanospheres (PHSNSs) prepared by adopting a nanosized CaCO{sub 3} template were utilized for the first time as a novel carrier for the storage and sustained release of volatile substances. Two types of volatile substances, Indian pipal from perfumes and peroxyacetic acid from disinfectants, were selected and then tested by one simple adsorption process with two separate comparative carriers, i.e. activated carbon and solid porous silica. It was demonstrated that a high storage capacity (9.6 ml{sub perfume}/mg{sub carrier}) of perfume could be achieved in a PHSNS matrix, which was almost 14 times as much as that of activated carbon. The perfume release profiles showed that PHSNSs exhibited sustained multi-stage release behaviour, while the constant release of activated carbon at a low level was discerned. Further, a Higuchi model study proved that the release process of perfume in both carriers followed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. For peroxyacetic acid as a disinfectant model, PHSNSs also displayed a much better delayed-delivery process than a solid porous silica system owing to the existence of unique hollow frameworks. Therefore, the aforementioned excellent sustained-release behaviours would make PHSNSs a promising carrier for storage and sustained delivery applications of volatile substances.

  12. European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems- a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne

    2015-08-28

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems

  13. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-09-01

    Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with

  14. Volatile substance abuse: a review of possible long-term neurological, intellectual and psychiatric sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, M A

    1986-03-01

    The possibility that chronic abuse of volatile substances can cause permanent neurological, psychiatric, and intellectual sequelae is critically reviewed. Toluene, present in the commonly used adhesives, is most often implicated in 'glue sniffing'; this review focuses on its potential long-term effects. Many criticisms--particularly poor matching of control samples and inability to distinguish between acute and chronic effects--can be levelled at the available studies, while no adequate follow-up studies have been performed. In the light of present knowledge, the possibility that permanent structural brain damage, with accompanying psychiatric manifestations, results from solvent abuse remains inconclusive.

  15. Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, sociodemographic and sport-specific factors. Methods Elite athletes (N = 187; mean age = 22 ± 2.3; 64% male) representing one of the three racket sports, table tennis, badminton, and tennis, completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on substance use habits. Athletes in this sample had participated in at least one of the two most recent competitions at the highest national level and had no significant difference in competitive achievement or status within their sport. Results A significant proportion of athletes (46% for both sexes) reported using nutritional supplements. Between 10% and 24% of the studied males would use doping if the practice would help them achieve better results in competition and if it had no negative health consequences; a further 5% to 10% indicated potential doping behaviour regardless of potential health hazards. Females were generally less oriented toward SUM than their male counterparts with no significant differences between sports, except for badminton players. Substances that have no direct effect on sport performance (if timed carefully to avoid detrimental effects) are more commonly consumed (20% binge drink at least once a week and 18% report using opioids), whereas athletes avoid substances that can impair and threaten athletic achievement by decreasing physical capacities (e.g. cigarettes), violating anti-doping codes or potentially transgressing substance control laws (e.g. opiates and cannabinoids). Regarding doping issues, athletes' trust in their coaches and physicians is low. Conclusion SUM in sports spreads beyond doping-prone sports and drugs that

  16. Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojic Ljerka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, sociodemographic and sport-specific factors. Methods Elite athletes (N = 187; mean age = 22 ± 2.3; 64% male representing one of the three racket sports, table tennis, badminton, and tennis, completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on substance use habits. Athletes in this sample had participated in at least one of the two most recent competitions at the highest national level and had no significant difference in competitive achievement or status within their sport. Results A significant proportion of athletes (46% for both sexes reported using nutritional supplements. Between 10% and 24% of the studied males would use doping if the practice would help them achieve better results in competition and if it had no negative health consequences; a further 5% to 10% indicated potential doping behaviour regardless of potential health hazards. Females were generally less oriented toward SUM than their male counterparts with no significant differences between sports, except for badminton players. Substances that have no direct effect on sport performance (if timed carefully to avoid detrimental effects are more commonly consumed (20% binge drink at least once a week and 18% report using opioids, whereas athletes avoid substances that can impair and threaten athletic achievement by decreasing physical capacities (e.g. cigarettes, violating anti-doping codes or potentially transgressing substance control laws (e.g. opiates and cannabinoids. Regarding doping issues, athletes' trust in their coaches and physicians is low. Conclusion SUM in sports spreads beyond doping

  17. Do specialized services exist for LGBT individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse? A study of available treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Robohm, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse research has demonstrated that client sexual orientation influences treatment outcomes. Consequently, many substance user treatment programs offer services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In a recent search of SAMHSA treatment listings, 11.8% (N=911) of substance user treatment programs (including residential, outpatient, and partial hospitalization) in the United States and Puerto Rico indicated that they offer specialized services for LGBT clients. However, a telephone survey we conducted in 2003-2004 revealed that 70.8% of these "LGBT" programs were no different from services offered to the general population, and only 7.4% could identify a service specifically tailored to the needs of LGBT clients. Implications for LGBT individuals seeking services are discussed, the study's limitations are noted, and future research directions are identified.

  18. Alcohol Misuse Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Julie McCulloh; Nemeth, Lynne S; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw; Newman, Susan D; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    The self-reported prevalence of alcohol use among U.S. college students decreased from 90.5% in 1980 to 79.2% in 2012. National efforts exist to reduce alcohol misuse among college students in the United States, yet little research addresses substance abuse among nursing students and even less addresses alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse in nursing students may result in patient harm. This scoping study describes the state of the science of alcohol misuse among nursing students, guided by the research question: "What is the current state of alcohol misuse among U.S. nursing students?" Evidence was drawn from several scholarly sources. Articles were included if they addressed U.S. nursing students; alcohol misuse; substance abuse or chemical impairment; prevalence rates; and/or characteristics including nursing student behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. Using thematic analysis, common themes were extracted, followed by hand coding those themes and using NVivo qualitative software. Six studies met inclusion criteria. Three themes, eight subthemes, and several gaps in knowledge were identified. The themes include "high prevalence exists," "necessity of supportive environments," and "hopelessness without policies." Subthemes include "root cause," "vulnerable population," "scholarship and substance use," "education," "identification of risk factors," "prevention and deterrents," "safety," "ethical and legal issues," and "consequences." On the basis of this analysis, several research questions were developed to explore alcohol misuse in this population. Alcohol was the most often used substance. Nursing students were unaware of a safe level of consumption and the potential negative health-related and professional effects associated with alcohol misuse.

  19. Mothering from the Inside out: A Mentalization-Based Therapy for Mothers in Treatment for Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E.

    2017-01-01

    Not all mothers who struggle with drug addiction have difficulties parenting, but many of them do. Moreover, evidence-based parenting programs that have proven efficacious with other parent populations often fail with mothers who are fighting chronic substance addiction, perhaps because of the neurobiological changes in neural reward circuitry…

  20. A systematic review of the relationship between staff perceptions of organizational readiness to change and the process of innovation adoption in substance misuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Hegarty, Josephine; Barry, Joe; Dyer, Kyle R; Horgan, Aine

    2017-09-01

    Translating innovation, such as contemporary research evidence, into policy and practice is a challenge, not just in substance misuse treatment programs, but across all spheres of healthcare. Organizational readiness to change (ORC) has been described as a fundamental concept, and an important determinant of the process of innovation adoption. The aim of this review was to describe the relationship between staff perceptions of ORC and the process of innovation adoption: exposure, adoption, implementation and integration into practice, in substance misuse treatment programs. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and fourteen papers were identified as being eligible for inclusion. This review was designed to include all constructs of ORC, but only one tool was used in all of the included papers. Despite this, the heterogeneity of studies in this review made a direct comparison of ORC related variables challenging. None of the included papers clearly related to one stage of the process of innovation adoption, and all of the included papers related to the early stages of the process. Only one paper attempted to measure the sustained integration of an innovation into practice. Overall, the papers were assessed as being low in terms of evidential hierarchy and the quality of the papers was assessed as being on average fair. ORC measurements provide us with a measure of organizational functioning which can be important in terms of predicting how successfully new innovations are adopted. Motivation for change was high in programs where staff identified more program deficits and these staff could also identify more specific needs, but were less likely to have exposure to new innovations. Better program resources and specific staff attributes, increase the likely hood of successful innovation adoption. A good organizational climate is potentially the strongest predictor for the adoption of new practices. It may be beneficial to measure ORC

  1. An improved method for the analysis of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in environmental air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Annika; Ahrens, Lutz [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Geesthacht (Germany); University of Lueneburg, Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Lueneburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Geesthacht (Germany); Berger, Urs [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway); Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden); Barber, Jonathan L. [Lancaster University, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    This article describes the optimisation and validation of an analytical method for the determination of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental air samples. Airborne fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs) were enriched on glass-fibre filters (GFFs), polyurethane foams (PUFs) and XAD-2 resin by means of high-volume air samplers. Sensitive and selective determination was performed using gas chromatography/chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (GC/CI-MS). Five mass-labelled internal standard (IS) compounds were applied to ensure the accuracy of the analytical results. No major blank problems were encountered. Recovery experiments were performed, showing losses of the most volatile compounds during extraction and extract concentration as well as strong signal enhancement for FOSEs due to matrix effects. Breakthrough experiments revealed losses of the most volatile FTOHs during sampling, while FOSAs/FOSEs were quantitatively retained. Both analyte losses and matrix effects could be remediated by application of adequate mass-labelled IS. Method quantification limits (MQLs) of the optimised method ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 pg/m{sup 3} for individual target compounds. As part of the method validation, an interlaboratory comparison of instrumental quantification methods was conducted. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by means of environmental air samples from an urban and a rural location in Northern Germany. (orig.)

  2. [Methylphenidate misuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggisser, M; Bodmer, M; Liechti, M E

    2012-02-29

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is mainly used for treatment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHS). Non-medical use of methylphenidate as recreational drug or performance enhancer has increased in recent years. Methylphenidate is also misused in combination with other drugs. Patients with ADHD are also at risk to misuse their prescribed methylphenidate medication. Oral and nasal abuse of methylphenidate is most common and is in general associated with minor or moderate sympathomimetic toxicity. In contrast, severe toxicity has been reported for both intravenous and intraarterial administration of crushed methylphenidate tablets.

  3. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-05-16

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25-2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87-1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35-2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent-average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tahiraj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  5. Effect of volatile substances released from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum on the rhizosphere and phyllosphere fungi of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A F

    1978-01-01

    Differences were found in the counts and occurrence of fungi in the phyllosphere and thizosphere of two representatives of the Lamiacea family, Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum, and in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing separately or in coenosis with O. majorana or O. basilicum. Both the volatile substances released from ground leaves of the two latter plant species and the root exudates affected considerably spore germination of isolated phylospheric and rhizospheric fungi. The results indicated a possible role of root exudates and volatile substances released from leaves in colonization of rhizosphere and/or phyllosphere by fungi, especially in associations of various plants.

  6. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Derya; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Gokhan

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T(1/2)) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T(1/2) of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T(1/2) of left and right lung. The T(1/2) values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86 ± 8.44, and 62.14 ± 26.12 min (p = 0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function.

  7. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavioral and Substance Misuse Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Dan; Carr, Alan; Hamilton, Elena; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-09-01

    A systematic review of published and unpublished English language articles identified 14 studies containing 18 comparisons between functional family therapy (FFT) and another condition in the treatment of adolescent disruptive behavior and substance use disorders. In 11 of these comparisons, assignment to conditions was random, while nonrandom assignment occurred in seven studies. For both random and nonrandom comparisons, separate meta-analyses were conducted for subgroups of studies depending on the type of comparison group used. Data from studies of untreated control groups (CTL), treatment as usual (TAU), and well-defined alternative treatments (ALTs) were analyzed separately. Effect sizes from these six meta-analyses were as follows: random assignment FFT versus CTL (k = 3, d = 0.48, p < .01); random assignment FFT versus TAU (k = 3, d = .20, ns); random assignment FFT versus ALT (k = 5, d = .35, p < .05); nonrandom assignment FFT versus CTL (k = 2, d = .90, ns); nonrandom assignment FFT versus TAU (k = 2, d = .08, ns); and nonrandom assignment FFT versus ALT (k = 3, d = .75, p < .001). These results provide support for the effectiveness of FFT compared with untreated controls and well-defined ALTs, such as cognitive behavior therapy, other models of family therapy, and individual and group therapy for adolescents. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. Substance Misuse Prevention: Addressing Anhedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset,…

  9. Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Galassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse.

  10. Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Alexandra; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James

    2015-06-19

    This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse.

  11. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  12. DETERMINATION OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE OF LOW VOLATILE SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE STUDY OF EVAPORATION RATE BY THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS

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    R. V. Ralys

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.Research of vapor pressure of low volatile substances is a complicated problem due to both direct experimental implementation complexity and, most significantly, the issues faced correctness of the analysis and processing of experimental data. That is why it is usually required engaging the reference substances (with vapor pressures well studied. The latter drastically reduces the effectiveness of the experimental methods used and narrows their applicability. The paper deals with an approach to the evaporation process description (sublimation of low volatile substances based on molecular kinetic description in view of diffusive and convection processes. The proposed approach relies on experimental thermogravimetricfindingsina wide range of temperatures, flow rates ofthe purge gas and time. Method. A new approach is based on the calculation of the vapor pressure and uses the data about the speed of evaporation by thermogravimetric analysis depending on the temperature, the flow rate of the purge gas, and the evaporation time. The basis for calculation is the diffusion-kinetic description of the process of evaporation (mass loss of the substance from the exposed surface. The method is applicable to determine the thermodynamic characteristics for both the evaporation (the equilibrium liquid - vapor and sublimation (the equilibrium solid - vapor. We proposed the appropriate method of the experiment and analysis of its data in order to find the saturated vapor pressure of individual substances of low volatility. Main Results. The method has been tested on substances with insufficiently reliable and complete study of the thermodynamic characteristics but, despite this, are often used (because of the other data limitations as reference ones. The vaporization process (liquid-vapor has been studied for di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 at 323,15–443,15 К, and sublimation for benzoic acid C7H6O2at 303,15–183,15 К. Both processes have

  13. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed.

  14. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Mewton, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Birrell, Louise; Brownhill, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-02-05

    Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785.

  15. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  16. Examination of Over-the-Counter Drug Misuse Among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Farley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of intentional over-the-counter (OTC drug misuse among teens and the relationship between OTC drug misuse and the misuse of other substances including illicit prescription drugs. Ten percent of 8th graders reported past year use of OTC drugs to get high. Misuse was more common among females than males. Among students who reported past year OTC drug misuse, the three most commonly reported past year drug use included pain relievers (56.2%, sedatives (48.3% and stimulants (45.8%. Logistic regression analysis revealed females were 1.5 times more likely than males to report past year OTC drug use. In addition, past year OTC drug misuse was more common among those who had reported using cigarettes, alcohol, albuterol, inhalants, illicit pain relievers, illicit stimulants, and cocaine.

  17. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

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    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  18. Volatile substances from male Anastrepha fraterculus wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae: identification and behavioural activity

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    Lima Ivanildo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds produced by calling males of Anastrepha species have previously been reported from A. ludens and A. suspensa. Both species mate in the afternoon, release a similar range of compounds in different proportions, and only differ in the production of monoterpenes. When calling, male A. fraterculus releases two isomers of the sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene, three lactones (anastrephin, epianastrephin and (E,E-suspensolide, and two monoterpenes (limonene and (Z-beta-ocimene. The dimorphic male salivary glands produce and/or store the same isomers of alpha-farnesene and suspensolide, and four pyrazines. Two of these compounds have been previously reported from male A. ludens and A. suspensa. Salivary glands from virgin calling male A. fraterculus showed behavioural activity when bioassayed with virgin mature female flies, but immature females were not attracted.

  19. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric and substance-misuse comorbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Rothlind, Johannes C.; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Comorbidies that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common comorbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the...

  20. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

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    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  1. The search for organic substances and inorganic volatile compounds in the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, K.; Oro, J.; Toulmin, P., III; Orgel, L. E.; Nier, A. O.; Anderson, D. M.; Flory, D.; Diaz, A. V.; Rushneck, D. R.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    A total of four Martian samples, one surface and one subsurface sample at each of the two Viking landing sites, Chryse Planitia and Utopia Planitia, have been analyzed for organic compounds by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. In none of these experiments could organic material of Martian origin be detected at detection limits generally of the order of parts per billion and for a few substances closer to parts per million. The evolution of water and carbon dioxide, but not of other inorganic gases, was observed upon heating the sample to temperatures of up to 500 C. The absence of organic compounds seems to preclude their production on the planet at rates that exceed the rate of their destruction. It also makes it unlikely that living systems that behave in a manner similar to terrestrial biota exist, at least at the two Viking landing sites.

  2. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 2: Clinical Implications for Chronic Pain, Substance Misuse, and Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly utilized in the management of chronic pain since 1982. This second review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for chronic pain, substance use disorder, tobacco use disorder, and insomnia frequently co-occurring after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 72 relevant systematic reviews and clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. The Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of recommendation (SOR) for each clinical condition. Mindfulness-based interventions effectively and durably reduce pain intensity, improve functional status, pain-related psychological consequences, quality of life (SOR B). They can also be utilized as an adjunctive intervention aimed at improving health-related quality of life in individuals with substance use disorders interested in self-management strategies (SOR B). Mindfulness training for smokers used adjunctively with pharmacotherapy shows efficacy in maintaining abstinence comparable to that of the current standard of care (SOR B). Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials using active controls in service members and veterans with co-occurring pain and psychological health conditions are necessary to provide more precise clinical guidance.

  3. Drug Misuse in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoul, Paul R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Drug misuse of prescription and OTC drugs was studied among 67 older subjects to determine the frequency of misuse and relationship to various psychosocial, medical and pharmacological factors. Drug misuse was found among 43 percent of subjects with number of prescribing physicians and number of pharmacies directly related to misuse. (Author)

  4. Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streete, P J; Ruprah, M; Ramsey, J D; Flanagan, R J

    1992-07-01

    Headspace gas chromatography with split flame-ionization-electron-capture detection is a simple method of screening for a wide range of volatile substances in biological fluids. A 60 m x 0.53 mm i.d. thick-film (5 microns) fused-silica capillary coated with SPB-1 (Supelchem) with split flame-ionization-electron-capture detection provides a valuable alternative to packed columns in this work. Most commonly abused compounds, including many with very low boiling-points such as bromochlorodifluoromethane (BCF), butane, dimethyl ether, FC 11, FC 12, isobutane and propane, can be retained and differentiated at an initial column temperature of 40 degrees C followed by programming to 200 degrees C. The total analysis time is 26 min. Retention and detector response data were generated for 244 compounds. Good peak shapes are obtained for polar analytes such as ethanol and injections of up to 0.30 cm3 of headspace can be performed with no discernable loss of efficiency. The sensitivity is thus at least as good as that attainable with packed columns. Of the commonly encountered compounds, only isobutane-methanol and paraldehyde-toluene are at all difficult to differentiate. Quantitative measurements can be performed either isothermally or by using the temperature programme.

  5. A Tale of Two Towns: A Comparative Study Exploring the Possibilities and Pitfalls of Social Capital among People Seeking Recovery from Substance Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Samantha; Honor, Stuart; Best, David

    2017-08-30

    Social capital has become an influential concept in debating and understanding the modern world. Within the drug and alcohol sector, the concept of 'recovery capital' has gained traction with researchers suggesting that people who have access to such capital are better placed to overcome their substance use-related problems than those who do not (Cloud and Granfield, 2008), leading to requests for interventions that focus on building social capital networks (Neale & Stevenson, 2015). While accepting that the concept of social capital has enormous potential for addressing the problems associated with drug use, this paper also considers its 'dark side'. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews with 180 participants including 135 people who use drugs and 45 people who formerly used drugs. High levels of trust, acquired through the establishment of dense social networks, are required to initiate recovery. However, these 'strong bonds' may also lead to the emergence of what is perceived by others as an exclusive social network that limits membership to those who qualify and abide by the 'rules' of the recovery community, particularly around continuous abstinence. Depending on the nature of the networks and the types of links participants have into them being socially connected can both inhibit and encourage recovery. Therefore, the successful application of social capital within the drugs and alcohol field requires a consideration of not only the presence or absence of social connections but their nature, the value they produce, and the social contexts within which they are developed.

  6. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment Estudo brasileiro sobre abuso de substâncias por adolescentes: fatores associados e adesão ao tratamento

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    Vilma A da Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission to the service by using a semistructured interview including sociodemographic data, family relationship, perinatal and pregnancy histories, psychomotor and educational development, social relations, history of previous illnesses and family diseases, including drug abuse. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly male (90%. Adolescents referred from the criminal justice were older than those originating from other sources (16.4 x 15.4 years old p=.00. Forty-four percent of adolescents reported school failure, a level which is two times higher than Brazilian statistics. Forty percent of the sample had criminal involvement, mainly drug dealing. Cannabis was the most prevalent reported drug. Living with both parents was protective, delaying the age of initiation by one year. Domestic violence was more frequent among parents with illicit drugs abuse (38.1% x 12.5%, pOBJETIVOS: Investigar fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento e ambiente associados ao abuso de substâncias por adolescentes atendidos em hospital universitário brasileiro. Comparar esses fatores com a literatura científica disponível e sugerir intervenções preventivas para uma política nacional no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 86 adolescentes na admissão ao serviço através de uma entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada ao guardião do adolescente e incluindo dados sociodemográficos, relacionamento familiar, história da gravidez e perinatal, desenvolvimento psicomotor, educacional

  7. A comprehensive, multi-level investigation of the implementation of a novel digital substance misuse intervention, Breaking Free Online: conceptualising implementation processes within services using the MRC framework and health psychology theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dugdale

    2015-08-01

    Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with staff, peer mentors and service users to investigate initial diffusion and subsequent normalisation of BFO within CRI, and the impact of BFO on peer mentors’ own substance misuse recovery journeys. Thematic analyses were conducted, and models derived from health psychology and implementation science used to conceptualise implementation processes from an organisational level. Further analyses using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA expanded investigation down to the level of individual people within CRI, and the role of peer mentors delivering the programme within the organisation. Results: ‘Diffusion of innovation theory’ conceptualised initial implementation and diffusion of BFO throughout CRI. Although there were perceived barriers to implementation, such as lack of IT equipment, anxieties around staff and service user IT skills and the impact on staff’s professional roles, intentions to continue using BFO were reported. Analyses investigating continued implementation processes of the programme used ‘normalisation process theory’ to demonstrate how a process of normalisation of the programme is underway following initial diffusion. Findings suggested that staff were beginning to take greater ‘ownership’ of BFO since it was initially introduced into the organisation, and that the programme was influencing changes to work-role responsibilities in delivering BFO. Data using the ‘trans-theoretical model’ also indicated that peer mentors benefited from implementing BFO to support others and assist their own recovery maintenance. Conclusion: Whilst the principal focus must always be on establishing clinical effectiveness when developing and evaluating complex behaviour change interventions, such as digital interventions, implementation process analysis is also key. This analysis is important in order for interventions to be translated into real-world outcomes, as without

  8. An Examination of the Ethnicity-Specific Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Croatian and Bosniak Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Dusko Bjelica

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Substance use and misuse (SUM in adolescence is a significant public health problem and the extent to which adolescents exhibit SUM behaviors differs across ethnicity. This study aimed to explore the ethnicity-specific and gender-specific associations among sports factors, familial factors, and personal satisfaction with physical appearance (i.e., covariates and SUM in a sample of adolescents from Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this cross-sectional study the participants were 1742 adolescents (17–18 years of age from Bosnia and Herzegovina who were in their last year of high school education (high school seniors. The sample comprised 772 Croatian (558 females and 970 Bosniak (485 females adolescents. Variables were collected using a previously developed and validated questionnaire that included questions on SUM (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and consumption of other drugs, sport factors, parental education, socioeconomic status, and satisfaction with physical appearance and body weight. The consumption of cigarettes remains high (37% of adolescents smoke cigarettes, with a higher prevalence among Croatians. Harmful drinking is also alarming (evidenced in 28.4% of adolescents. The consumption of illicit drugs remains low with 5.7% of adolescents who consume drugs, with a higher prevalence among Bosniaks. A higher likelihood of engaging in SUM is found among children who quit sports (for smoking and drinking, boys who perceive themselves to be good looking (for smoking, and girls who are not satisfied with their body weight (for smoking. Higher maternal education is systematically found to be associated with greater SUM in Bosniak girls. Information on the associations presented herein could be discretely disseminated as a part of regular school administrative functions. The results warrant future prospective studies that more precisely identify the causality among certain variables.

  9. How to Misuse Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Edwards

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of us, during our training, are taught about the actions of drugs and their side-effects, but very few of us are taught how to misuse drugs. However, this is an art that seems to be acquired through practice in handling drugs, by various members of the medical and nursing professions, as well as by the general population. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a few of the ways in which drugs can be, and are, misused.

  10. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

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    Sasha A. Fleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.

  11. Gabapentin: can it be misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analog drug, appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Gabapentin is not a controlled drug, but there are anecdotal reports of its misuse and abuse as well as reports of withdrawal symptoms associated with abrupt discontinuation. The risk of gabapentin misuse is inconsistent, the magnitude of the risk is small, and the risk is not comparable to the much higher risks associated with alcohol use; benzodiazepine, opioid, and stimulant drug use; or illicit drug use. Reports of gabapentin misuse are not unique to this drug, as misuse of prescription medications not typically considered "drugs of abuse" can also occur.

  12. Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perhac J Stephen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a chronic pain disease management program within an academic internal medicine practice. Methods One-hundred and ninety-six opioid-treated patients with chronic, non-cancer pain of at least three months duration were monitored for opioid misuse at pre-defined intervals. Opioid misuse was defined as: 1. Negative urine toxicological screen (UTS for prescribed opioids; 2. UTS positive for opioids or controlled substances not prescribed by our practice; 3. Evidence of procurement of opioids from multiple providers; 4. Diversion of opioids; 5. Prescription forgery; or 6. Stimulants (cocaine or amphetamines on UTS. Results The mean patient age was 52 years, 55% were male, and 75% were white. Sixty-two of 196 (32% patients committed opioid misuse. Detection of cocaine or amphetamines on UTS was the most common form of misuse (40.3% of misusers. In bivariate analysis, misusers were more likely than non-misusers to be younger (48 years vs 54 years, p Conclusion Opioid misuse occurred frequently in chronic pain patients in a pain management program within an academic primary care practice. Patients with a history of alcohol or cocaine abuse and alcohol or drug related convictions should be carefully evaluated and followed for signs of misuse if opioids are prescribed. Structured monitoring for opioid misuse can potentially ensure the appropriate use of opioids in chronic pain management and mitigate adverse public health effects of diversion.

  13. Misuse of randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The quality of randomization of Chinese randomized trials on herbal medicines for hepatitis B was assessed. Search strategy and inclusion criteria were based on the published protocol. One hundred and seventy-six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 20,452 patients with chronic hepatitis B....../150) of the studies were imbalanced at the 0.05 level of probability for the two treatments and 13.3% (20/150) imbalanced at the 0.01 level in the randomization. It is suggested that there may exist misunderstanding of the concept and the misuse of randomization based on the review....

  14. Prescription drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monheit, Benny

    2010-08-01

    Recognising and dealing with patients who seek drugs for nonmedical purposes can be a difficult problem in general practice. 'Prescription shoppers' and patients with chronic nonmalignant pain problems are the main people who constitute this small but problematic group. The main drugs they seek are benzodiazepines and opioids. To provide data on current trends in prescription drug abuse and to discuss different strategies on how to deal with this issue in the clinic setting. Misuse of prescription drugs can take the form of injecting oral drugs, selling them on the street, or simply overusing the prescribed amount so that patients run short before the due date and then request extra prescriptions from the doctor. Currently oxycontin and alprazolam are the most abused drugs in Australia. Adequate prescription monitoring mechanisms at the systems level are lacking so we need to rely on our clinical skills and the patient's behaviour pattern over time to detect problematic prescription drug misuse. Management strategies may include saying 'no' to patients, having a treatment plan, and adopting a universal precaution approach toward all patients prescribed drugs of addiction. Among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain, requests for increasing opioid doses need careful assessment to elucidate any nonmedical factors that may be at play.

  15. Management of C&D waste from generation to final sink - do we forget the volatile harmful substances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) are produced. Buildings in many countries are thermally insulated by insulation foam containing large amounts of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are both strong ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. The CFCs are released...

  16. Tetracycline removal and effect on the formation and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances and volatile fatty acids in the process of hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangying; Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-07-01

    Many research indicate antibiotics show adverse effect on methane fermentation, while few research focus on their effect on hydrogen fermentation. The present study aimed to gain insight of the effect of antibiotics on hydrogen fermentation with waste sludge and corn straw as substrate. For this purpose, tetracycline, as a model, was investigated with regard to tetracycline removal, hydrogen production, interaction with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of substrate and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on concentration and composition. Results show that tetracycline could be removed efficiently by hydrogen fermentation, and relative low-dose tetracycline (200mg/l) exposure affects little on hydrogen production. While tetracycline exposure could change hydrogen fermentation from butyric acid-type to propionic acid-type depending on tetracycline level. Based upon three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis tetracycline changed the component and content of EPSs, and static quenching was the main mechanism between EPSs with tetracycline.

  17. 苏云金芽胞杆菌挥发性物质的测定%Determination of Bacillus thuringiensis volatile substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑梅霞; 潘志针; 刘波; 陈峥; 车建美; 唐建阳; 朱育菁; 陈梅春

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析、鉴定苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt)的挥发性成分。方法采用顶空固相微萃取技术(HS-SPME)对 Bt 的挥发性成分进行捕集,再通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对挥发性成分进行鉴定。以本实验室分离的高效苏云金芽胞杆菌 FJAT-12菌株为实验菌株,探索 Bt 菌株的不同培养方式、不同固相微萃取吸附方式及不同萃取头的选择对挥发性成分鉴定结果的影响,确定 Bt 菌株挥发性物质测定的最优方法。结果采用NA液体培养基培养,选择水浴至气-液平衡再吸附的吸附方式,采用65µm PDMS/DVB萃取头的萃取效果最佳。Bt菌株的挥发性成分主要为6-甲基-2-庚酮、2,4-二氨基甲苯、苯甲醇、2,3-二乙基-5-甲基吡嗪、2-甲基萘、2,3-Dimethyl-5-isopentylpyrazine、十四烷、正十二烷、2-甲硫基苯并噻唑。结论 HS-SPME/GC-MS效果好,方法实用,便于操作,适用于对Bt挥发性成分进行分析,从而为食品安全评估提供理论依据。%Objective To analyze and identify the volatile substances of Bacillus thuringiensis. Methods The volatile constituents of Bacillus thuringiensis were captured by headspace solid phase micro-extraction technology (HS-SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) tech-nology. The optimal method was used to analyze the volatile constituents of Bacillus thuringiensis FJAT-12, which was a high efficient strain separated by our lab, investigated from the culture way, adsorption pattern and fibers type. Results Bacillus thuringiensis FJAT-12 was better cultured by NA liquid medium, and volatile vial was maintained in a water bath at 50 ℃ for equilibrating (180 min) and then extracted by 65 µm PDMS/DVB fibers for 60 min. The mainly volatile constituents of Bt were 6-methyl-2-Heptanone, 4-methyl-1,3-Benzenediamine, Benzyl Alcohol, 3,5-diethyl-2-methyl-Pyrazine, 2-methyl-Naphthalene, 2,3-Dimethyl-5-isopentylpyrazine

  18. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus. PMID:28223849

  19. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus.

  20. Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, E S; Campos, V P; Pinho, R S C; Oliveira, D F; Faria, M R; Pohlit, A M; Noberto, N P; Rezende, E L; Pfenning, L H; Silva, J R C

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  1. Effect of atmospheric humic-like substances on the enhanced dissolution of volatile organic compounds into dew water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, H.; Sato, E.; Matsubayashi, Y.; Igawa, M.

    2008-03-01

    Simultaneous sampling of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), potentially harmful to humans and/or responsible for the formation of ozone and secondary particles, in dew water and in the ambient air was carried out from August 2004 to July 2005 in Hino City, situated in the western part of Greater Tokyo, Japan. CHs were less contained in dew water than MAHs. Toluene (volume-weighted mean concentration, VWM: 4.77 nM) and m, p-Xylenes (VWM: 5.07 nM) except dichloromethane, which was abnormally high (VWM: 1.14 μM), were abundant among eleven VOCs determined in dew water. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, and benzene were not detected in dew water during the study period. Dew water contained higher amounts of VOCs than would have been expected from the ambient gas-phase concentrations and the temperature-corrected Henry's law constants. Following the determination method of humic substances in river water proposed by Hiraide et al. [Hiraide, M., Shima, T., Kawaguchi, H., 1994. Separation and determination of dissolved and particulate humic substances in river water. Mikrochim. Acta 113, 269-276], the VWM of soluble humic and fulvic acid fractions in dew water was found to be 1.00 mg/L and 0.87 mg/L ( n = 20), respectively, while the VWM of particulate humic and fulvic acid fractions was found to be 0.61 mg/L and 0.42 mg/L ( n = 20), respectively. Surface tension decreased with an increase in dissolved fulvic acid fraction in dew water, indicating that humic-like substances with relatively lower molecular weight, which is soluble in acid solution, could be an effective surface-active species within dew water. The enrichment factors, which were defined as the ratio of the observed VOCs concentration to the estimated, were over 10 2 for MAHs except for benzene and increased as the increment of total humic-like substances (HULIS) concentration (the sum of humic and fulvic acid fractions in both dissolved and

  2. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  3. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in alcohol misusers in Chennai, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooban T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of various oral mucosal lesions (OML among alcohol misusers attending a rehabilitation center in Chennai, south India. Materials and Methods: Qualified dental surgeons examined 500 consecutive alcohol misusers at Ragas Dental College and Hospital and TTK Hospital, India. Thorough history and oral findings were recorded in a pre-determined format. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS 10.0.5β. The variables for this study were OML, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI, age, smoking, and alcohol misuse (type and units consumed and duration of misuse. Results: Of the 500 patients, 77% were in the 25-44 years old age group and 84% were married. The mean age of initiation of alcohol misuse was 34 years. In addition to alcohol, 72% smoked tobacco and 96% used other psychoactive substances. The mean alcohol use duration was 12.6 years. A total of 25% of the study group had at least one OML. The common oral lesions were smoker′s melanosis (10.2%, oral submucous fibrosis (8%, and leukoplakia (7.4%. Those who misused spirits had a higher incidence of OML than those who misused beer or both. Patients with fair oral hygiene had an odds ratio (OR of 2.96 for OML compared with an OR of 2.08 for those who had OML with good oral hygiene. Conclusion : This study indicates that subjects who misuse alcohol have poor oral hygiene and are at risk for the development of periodontal disease and OML. This survey indicates that oral examination and treatment should be a part of the standard care for alcohol misusers at rehabilitation centers.

  5. Pregnant substance-abusing women in involuntary treatment: Attachment experiences with the unborn child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Siv Merete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.

  6. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  7. Substance use and health related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Duijvenbode, N. van

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have an increased risk for developing problems related to use and misuse of substances such as alcohol and drugs. The consequences for mental and somatic health are often detrimental. Substance use disorder is a chronic and

  8. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Furnell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can potentially be applied for insider misuse detection. General guidelines for countermeasures against insider misuse are also provided to protect data and systems.

  9. Stimulant medication use in college students: comparison of appropriate users, misusers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Cynthia M; Canu, Will H; Cleveland, Carolyn S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Mignogna, Melissa J; Fedele, David A; Correia, Christopher J; Leffingwell, Thad R; Clapp, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    While stimulant medication is commonly prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents (Merikangas, He, Rapoport, Vitiello, & Olfson, 2013; Zuvekas & Vitiello, 2012) and is considered an empirically supported intervention for those groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Safren et al., 2005) surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of stimulants in the slightly older emerging adult population. A focus has emerged, however, on illicit stimulant use among undergraduates, with studies suggesting such behavior is not uncommon (e.g., Arria et al., 2013). Unfortunately, details are lacking regarding outcomes and personal characteristics associated with different patterns of stimulant misuse. The current study compares the characteristics of four groups of college students, including those with stimulant prescriptions who use them appropriately (i.e., appropriate users), those who misuse their prescription stimulants (i.e., medical misusers), those who obtain and use stimulants without a prescription (i.e., nonmedical misusers), and those who do not use stimulant medications at all (i.e., nonusers). Undergraduates (N = 1,153) from the Southeastern, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions completed online measures evaluating patterns of use, associated motives, side effects, ADHD symptomatology, and other substance use. Both types of misusers (i.e., students who abused their prescriptions and those who obtained stimulants illegally) reported concerning patterns of other and combined substance use, as well as higher prevalence of debilitating side effects such as insomnia and restlessness. Research and practical implications are discussed.

  10. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  11. Preventing prescription drug misuse: field test of the SmartRx Web program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Diane K; Cook, Royer F; Hendrickson, April

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the project was to test a Web-based program designed to prevent prescription drug misuse. Study sample consisted of 346 working women randomized into either an experimental or wait-list control condition. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to compare responses. Women receiving the intervention had greater knowledge of drug facts and greater self-efficacy in medication adherence and ability to manage problems with medications compared with controls. Women receiving the intervention also had reduced symptoms reported on the CAGE for prescription medications. Findings suggest that multimedia Web-based programs can be a beneficial addition to substance misuse prevention services. The study's limitations are noted.

  12. Substance use in remand prisoners: a consecutive case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, D.; Birmingham, L.; Grubin, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among newly remanded prisoners, assess the effectiveness of prison reception screening, and examine the clinical management of substance misusers among remand prisoners. DESIGN: A consecutive case study of remand prisoners screened at reception for substance misuse and treatment needs and comparison of findings with those of prison reception screening and treatment provision. SETTING: A large adult male remand prison (Durham). SU...

  13. UNICORN: Misuse detection for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph, G.G; Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.

    1995-03-29

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, by changes in the vulnerability posture of the system configuration, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. In 1989 we started developing an automatic misuse detection system for the Integrated Computing Network (ICN) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 1990 this system has been operational, monitoring a variety of network systems and services. We call it the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. During the last year and a half, we expanded NADIR to include processing of audit and activity records for the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Real-time NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration information in statistical profiles. In near real-time, it can compare current activity to historical profiles and test activity against expert rules that express our security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. UNICORN is currently operational on four Crays in Los Alamos` main computing network, the ICN.

  14. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  15. [Ketamine: psychiatric indications and misuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimbeuf, N; Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine or -ketamine hydrochloride- is used as an anesthesic and a painkiller. It may also, in some indications, be prescribed in psychiatry and addictology. A literature review was conducted from 2003 to 2013, in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Psyclnfo, using the following key words (alone or combined): "ketamine", "abuse", "addiction", "dependence" and "misuse". Various studies have shown the benefit of kétamine in some psychiatric conditions such as major depressive episodes and electroconvulsive therapy. Others have demonstrated beneficial effects in alcohol or opiate abstinence maintenance. Ketamine seems to be a promising molecule in psychiatry and in the treatment of addictions, despite the absence of marketing approval for those specific uses. Being a strong psycho-stimulant, ketamine can be the source of abuse and dependence with somatic, psychiatric and cognitive complications.

  16. A Systematic Review of Opioid and Benzodiazepine Misuse in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Rachel D; Marcum, Zachary A; Saghafi, Ester; Weiner, Debra K; Karp, Jordan F

    2016-11-01

    The authors assessed the prevalence of opioid and benzodiazepine prescription drug misuse in older adults, the risk factors associated with misuse, and age-appropriate interventions. Following PRISMA guidelines, a literature search of PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed journal articles in English through April 2014 with updates through November 2015 was conducted for reports on misuse of prescription benzodiazepines and opioids in older adults. Relevant publications were reviewed that included participants age ≥65 years. Reference lists were manually searched for key identified articles and geriatric journals through April 2016. Information on the study design, sample, intervention, comparators, outcome, time frame, and risk of bias were abstracted for each article. Of 4,932 reviewed reports, 15 were included in this systematic review. Thirteen studies assessed the prevalence of prescription drug misuse and included studies related to opioid shopping behavior, assessment of morbidity and mortality associated with opioid and/or benzodiazepine use, frequency and characteristics of opioid prescribing, frequency of substance use disorders and nonprescription use of pain relievers, and health conditions and experiences of long-term benzodiazepine users. One study identified risk factors for misuse, and one study described the effects of provider education and an electronic support tool as an intervention. There is a dearth of high quality research on prescription drug misuse in older adults. Existing studies are heterogeneous, making it difficult to draw broad conclusions. The need for further research specific to prescription drug misuse among older adults is discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diverting the Pathway to Substance Misuse by Improving Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    and chills or sweating. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure are a special risk for people with circulatory or heart disease. Sleep and...impaired short-term memory, attention, judgment, coordination and balance; increased heart rate ; increased appetite Long-term Addiction: About 9...America. It produces short-term euphoria, energy, and talkativeness in addition to potentially dangerous physical effects like raising heart rate and

  18. Factors associated with prescription opioid misuse in a cross-sectional cohort of patients with chronic non-cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Jennifer M; Sturgeon, John A; Zocca, Jennifer; Sharifzadeh, Yasamin; Mackey, Sean C

    2017-01-01

    To examine demographic features, psychosocial characteristics, pain-specific behavioral factors, substance abuse history, sleep, and indicators of overall physical function as predictors of opioid misuse in patients presenting for new patient evaluation at a tertiary pain clinic. Overall, 625 patients with chronic non-cancer pain prospectively completed the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry, assessing pain catastrophizing, National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System standardized measures (pain intensity, pain behavior, pain interference, physical function, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, anger, depression, anxiety, and fatigue), and substance use history. Additional information regarding current opioid prescriptions and opioid misuse was examined through retrospective chart review. In all, 41 (6.6%) patients presented with some indication of prescription opioid misuse. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, those with a history of illicit drug use (odds ratio [OR] 5.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-11.98, p<0.0001) and a current opioid prescription (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.62-10.18, p=0.003) were at elevated risk for opioid misuse. Conversely, every 1-h increase in average hours of nightly sleep decreased the risk of opioid misuse by 20% (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, p=0.02). These findings indicate the importance of considering substance use history, current opioid prescriptions, and sleep in universal screening of patients with chronic non-cancer pain for opioid misuse. Future work should target longitudinal studies to verify the causal relationships between these variables and subsequent opioid misuse.

  19. Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162790.html Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey Consumer Reports finds the non-prescription drugs ... people taking so many over-the-counter sleep aids, and doing so much longer than they were ...

  20. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Furnell; Aung Htike Phyo

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can po...

  1. The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, David B; Walker, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication misuse, abuse, dependence, diversion, and malingering. The review covers nonmedical use (NMU) of both stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamine) and nonstimulant (α-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine) prescription medications, and provides a discussion on the relevance for ADHD treatment today. The neural basis for ADHD medication mechanisms of action (increased norepinephrine and dopamine signaling) and their neurobiochemical relationship to the abuse potential is explored. Regionally-specific, stimulant-induced elevations in brain dopamine appear to be integral to both efficacy in ADHD and potential for abuse. In addition to the prevalence of misuse and diversion, additional topics discussed include the potential safety concerns associated with NMU of prescription ADHD medications and the cost to payers of prescription drug diversion (eg, increased emergency department visits associated with misuse). The evidence describing the difficulty in detecting malingering for the purpose of illicit access to ADHD medications for subsequent misuse or diversion is also summarized. Moreover, the effect of ADHD medications in patients with comorbid substance use disorder and the controversial potential linkage of stimulant prescription use with subsequent substance use disorder are explored. Overall, the data suggest that ADHD medication misuse and diversion are common health care problems for stimulant medications, with the prevalence believed to be approximately 5% to 10% of high school students and 5% to 35% of college students, depending on the study. Stimulant effectiveness and speed of action are deemed desirable to enhance attention and focus performance for activities like studying, but stimulants are also misused recreationally. Conversely, the data suggest a lack of abuse potential and lack of actual medication misuse for the nonstimulant medications

  2. Social functioning trajectories of young first-episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis misuse: a 30-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blanch, César; Gleeson, John F; Koval, Peter; Cotton, Sue M; McGorry, Patrick D; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use). In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.

  3. Social functioning trajectories of young first-episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis misuse: a 30-month follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Blanch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use. In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.

  4. Renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misuse of drugs. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity caused by contrast media and drugs is a frequent cause of renal failure in medical practice. However, there are only sporadic cases of renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misused or illegal drugs, and standard medical textbooks are limited in the coverage given to the subject. This review provides a referenced compilation of these lesser-known nephrotoxins and gives an overview of renal failure caused by substances other than properly used medications.

  5. Opioid medication misuse among unhealthy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; McCarthy, Rebecca; Gordon, Adam J; Tarter, Ralph E

    2017-10-01

    Combining opioid medications and alcohol has serious implications for patient health, including overdose. Information regarding those who use/misuse opioid medications and engage in unhealthy alcohol use is limited to pharmacological and epidemiological descriptions. This study presents opioid medication misuse and behavioral, mental, and physical health characteristics of persons filling opioid medications that are engaged in unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at 5 community pharmacies in Southwestern, Pennsylvania among patients filling opioid medications. Respondents completed validated opioid medication misuse, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical health functioning assessments. We present univariate and multivariate statistics describing opioid medication misuse and health risks among those positive for unhealthy alcohol use. A total of 344 patients completed the survey (75.8% response). A total of 15.9% of respondents screened positive for opioid medication misuse, of whom 20.3% reported unhealthy alcohol use. Taking opioid medications too often was reported among a larger proportion of the sample with unhealthy alcohol use (34.3%) compared to those without (22.1%, p=0.04). Further, among respondents with unhealthy alcohol use, illicit drug use (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=12.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.64-89.72) and PTSD (AOR=9.77, 95% CI=1.70-56.11) were associated with increased odds for opioid medication misuse. Results suggest respondents with unhealthy alcohol use had distinct health profiles, which may place them at risk for opioid misuse and adverse events, such as overdose. Continued research must work to further understand these relationships and identify intervention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  7. Benzodiazepines misuse: The study community level Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkot Sukdepat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Benzodiazepines (BZD misuse, abuse, and dependence are becoming a new problem in medicine, in Thailand, and the pharmacoepidemiology knowledge is insufficient. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population of the Ubon Rachathani province, in Thailand. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional household survey research was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009, with a target population age of 15 years and above. This took place in Ubon Ratchathani Province, in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 2280 were selected from three-stage stratified random sampling. BZD were identified with an accuracy of generic name, trade name, and drug characteristics. The DSM-IV questionnaire was used to define misuse, abuse, and dependence. The accuracy of dependence was interpreted with the help of the judgment of a psychiatric nurse. Statistical analysis: For the statistical analyses, prevalence was estimated with weight adjustment, variances estimated by the Teylor Series Linearization method, and interpreted with 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: There were 46,805 current users [3.9% (95% CI: 2.2-6.4], 26,404 misusers [2.2% (95% CI: 1.6-6.2], 7,203 abusers [0.6% (95% CI: 0.1 - 4.1], and 2,402 with dependence [0.2% (0.1-9.2]. When considering the group of current users in this study, 57.2% misusers, 16.6% abusers, and 5.9% with dependence were found, respectively. Conclusions: All prevalence of use was higher than previously reported, in Thailand, while more than half of the current users had a behavior of misuse. Surveillance of misuse should be undertaken in the current use. The medical professional should counsel the patient on the harm of misuse and limit the amount of medicine, with necessary dispensing.

  8. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  9. ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160405.html ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs ... misuse stimulant drugs are more likely to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other psychiatric problems, a new study ...

  10. Opioid addiction and misuse in adult and adolescent patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Ross; Hardy, Janet R

    2017-06-01

    In the context of a therapeutic opioid epidemic, particularly in the USA, where increasingly stringent screening for 'at risk' individuals and close monitoring of opioid prescription and use is strongly recommended, the issue of misuse within the cancer population must be addressed. Most patients with advanced cancer will have pain requiring opioid therapy at some stage during their disease course. In the majority, this will provide good pain relief with no short- or longer-term adverse sequelae. A subset will present with substance misuse issues that will influence management and prescribing practice. The potential ethical issues of limiting effective analgesia on the basis of addiction risk or history must be acknowledged. Both a judgemental or 'relaxed' approach to such patients is problematic. Ignoring the situation will not be in the patient's best interest, but an undue focus on this aspect may damage therapeutic relationships with clinicians and adversely affect a holistic approach to care. Clinical practitioners must be aware of the risk factors for opioid misuse and in patients who are not under palliative care consider screening prior to commencing opioids. Clinicians must be able to manage and monitor those identified as having an opioid misuse problem. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. The Annual Societal Cost of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Susan J. Varney; Guest, Julian F

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the annual socioeconomic burden imposed by alcohol misuse on Scottish society. Design and setting: Resource use attributable to alcohol misuse was obtained from appropriate databases, published literature and a Working Party on Social Work Caseload and Alcohol Misuse. Unit resource costs at 2001/2002 prices were applied to the resource use estimates to determine the annual direct cost attributable to alcohol misuse. Indirect costs arising from excess unemployment, absen...

  12. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  14. Outreach for the Middle Class Drug Misuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Fred F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Clients enrolled in drug programs tend to be young, counter-culture, or ethnic minority individuals. Describes efforts of a non-opiate drug treatment program to reach middle American drug misusers. Attempts included television public service messages and newspaper articles. This campaign was not cost-effective for attracting clients. (Author)

  15. Textbook Forum: The Misuse of Markovnikov's Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the continued misuse of Markovnikov's Rule in organic chemistry texts. Claims that the results of several studies that show the reaction to be more complex than it appears at first. Criticizes authors of new texts who have perpetrated the rule based on reading older texts. (TW)

  16. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  17. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  18. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  19. Educational intervention of undergraduate nursing students' confidence skills with alcohol and drug misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-04-01

    There is a paucity literature on the educational interventions and evaluation programmes in alcohol and drug with undergraduate nursing students in the United Kingdom and this study intends to add a body of knowledge to this area. The aim of the study was to assess the intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students before and after an educational intervention on alcohol and drug misuse. The research study is a quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test design. The sample was made of four cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n=110) enrolled at a course leading to a diploma or BSc in nursing from three educational institutions. A visual analogue scale was used to measure intervention confidence skills before and after the educational programme in alcohol and drug. The findings showed an improvement in the level of intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of educational interventions in working with substance misusers and whether substance misuse education is the key predictor of changing in changing intervention confidence skills.

  20. 黑壳楠叶片精油挥发性成分的GC/MS 鉴定与应用分析%GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Substances in Essential Oil of Lindera megaphylla Blade and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞京军; 程密密; 罗思源; 陈思伶; 刘世尧; 白志川

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of the Lauraceae plant L indera megaphylla with steam distillation, and the volatile substances in it were analyzed and identified with GC-MS. A total of 87 volatile aromatic substances were separated and identified, accounting for 95.6% of the total essential oil, hydrocarbons (37% ) and alcohols (34.74% ) being the principal components. The first ten kinds of volatile components were Phytol (14.3% ), n-Hexadecanoic acid (6.09% ), D-Limonene (4.67% ), 2H-Pyran, 2-(2-heptadecynyloxy)tetrahydro-(4.65% ), Copaene (4.3% ), alpha-Cadinol (4.23% ), Caryophyllene ox-ide (4.11% ), 1, 6, 10-Dodecatrien-3-ol, 3, 7, 11-trimethyl-(3.32% ), Cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2, 4-bis (1-methyle thenyl)-, [1S-(1.alpha., 2. beta., 4. beta. )]-(3.24% ), Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol, 1, 7, 7-trimethyl-, acetate, (1S-endo)-(2.62% ), of which Phytol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and D-Limonene might be of considerable value of development and utilization.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法对樟科植物黑壳楠叶片进行精油提取,并对其挥发性成分进行气相色谱质谱联用仪(GC/MS)分离鉴定与应用分析.结果表明:在重庆黑壳楠叶片中分离鉴定出挥发性成分87种,占精油总量的95.6%,以烃类(37%)、醇类(34.74%)化合物为主.前10种挥发性成分分别为:植物醇(14.3%)、棕榈酸(6.09%)、右旋柠檬烯(4.67%)、2H-Pyran ,2-(2-heptadecynyloxy)tetrahydro-(4.65%)、古巴烯(4.3%)、荜茄醇(4.23%)、氧化石竹烯(4.11%)、反式橙花叔醇(3.32%)、β榄香烯(3.24%)、乙酸龙脑酯(2.62%),其中植物醇、棕榈酸、右旋柠檬烯等有较大开发利用价值.

  1. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  2. Detection of the misuse of steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    The list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) classifies the administration of several steroids in sports as doping. Their analysis is generally performed using urine specimen as matrix. Lots of the steroids are extensively metabolised in the human body. Thus, knowledge of urinary excretion is extremely important for the sensitive detection of steroid misuse in doping control. The methods routinely used in steroid screening mainly focus on substances, that are excreted unconjugated or as glucuronides. Common procedures include deconjugation using a beta-glucuronidase enzyme. Following extraction and concentration the analytes are submitted to LC-MS(/MS) analysis and/or GC-MS(/MS) analyses. Besides the classical steroids, more and more products appear on the market for "dietary supplements" containing steroids that have never been marketed as approved drugs, mostly without proper labelling of the contents. To cover the whole range of potential products comprehensive screening tools have to be utilised in addition to the classical methods. Endogenous steroids, e.g. testosterone, represent a special group of compounds. As classical chemical methodology is incapable of discriminating synthetic hormones from the biosynthesised congeners, the method of steroid profiling is used for screening purpose. Additionally, based on isotope signatures a discrimination of synthetic and natural hormones can be achieved.

  3. Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Bernstein, L; Lazarus, R S

    1987-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the misuse of drugs among the elderly. We assessed misuse, including drug usage, drug interactions across pharmacologic classes, and multiple drugs in the same pharmacologic class, in a community sample of 65 to 74-year-olds, and evaluated its relation to stress and coping processes and psychological and somatic health. Assessments were made repeatedly over a 6-month period. Results indicated that misuse was multidimensional and widespread. Misusers did not differ from nonmisusers on antecedent psychosocial variables, nor did they report more hassles or cope differently than nonmisusers. However, misusers and nonmisusers differed on their subjective experience of stressful encounters; misusers experienced their hassles as more intense, and they experienced more threat emotions and more dissatisfaction with their coping than did nonmisusers. Misuse was also associated with long-term psychological satisfaction, psychological symptoms, and somatic health.

  4. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  5. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  6. 汽车修理养护企业挥发性有机物排放控制标准探讨%Discussion on Volatile Organic Substance Emission Control Standard of Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建芬; 唐访良; 阮东德

    2012-01-01

    The problem was discussed on "Integrated emission standards of air pollutants" ( GB 16297 -1996) in practical application,used in China to control exhaust gas emission of vehicle repair and maintenance company. In this standard,the controlled environmental factor didnt contain the main pollution agents of exhaust gas emission,without controlling the emission of Total Volatile Organic Compounds ( TVOC ) which would affect atmospheric environment quality. Based on "Technical methods for making local emission standards of air pollutants" ( GB/T 3840 - 1991 ) ," Occupational Exposure Limit for Hazardous Agents in the Workplace" ( GBZ 2. 1 - 2007) ," Hygienic Standards for the Design of Industrial Enterprises" ( TJ 36 - 1979) ,and USEPA multilay-ered medium environmental model,the study calculated the limit value of emission concentration and emission rate of several volatile organic substances of exhaust gas discharged by vehicle repair and maintenance company with different methods. The data was analyzed to make suggestion on drafting standard for exhaust gas emission of vehicle repair and maintenance company.%通过对汽车修理养护企业喷烤漆废气排放现状进行调查分析,指出中国目前适用于控制汽车修理养护企业废气排放的标准《大气污染物综合排放标准》(GB 16297 - 1996)在实际运用中存在的问题.依据《制定地方大气污染物排放标准的技术方法》(GB/T 3840 - 1991)《大气污染物综合排放标准详解》《工作场所有害因素职业接触限值化学有害因素》(GBZ 2.1 - 2007)《工业企业设计卫生标准》(TJ 36-1979)、美国环保局多介质环境模型等,用不同方法计算汽车修理养护企业排放的废气中几种挥发性有机物的排放浓度和排放速率限值,并对监测结果进行评价分析,提出编制汽车修理养护企业废气排放控制标准的建议.

  7. ["I'll tell you if you ask me"; screening young people for substance use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Germond-Burquier, V; Haller, D M; Narring, F

    2010-06-16

    Substance use among young people is an important issue for educational, social and medical providers. More than 75% young people have had a medical visit in the last 12 months, making primary care settings ideal for screening and early intervention programs. The prevalence of substance misuse was assessed with the DEP-ADO screen test among young patients attending the primary care consultation of Geneva University Hospitals. The screen was well accepted by both patients and providers and only took about 10 minutes to complete. One in five screened positive for problematic substance use, supporting the current guidelines recommending annual screening for substance misuse in adolescent primary care outpatients.

  8. Drug misuse in sport: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, David

    2015-12-04

    This editorial draws comparisons between the recent revelations of drug misuse in Russian sport, and the State-sponsored programme of the former German Democratic Republic. While 50 years separates these two regimes, there are commonalities. The history of major incidents involving drug abuse by serious national players in sport suggests a 20-year cycle, with the GDR, China and now Russia employing similar strategies. These events underscore the value placed upon international sporting success by politicians.

  9. 广佛手不同成熟期果实挥发性物质含量分析%Content of Volatile Substances in Citrus Bergamot of Different Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟云; 袁显; 曾继吾; 姜波; 蒋侬辉

    2013-01-01

    以广佛手不同成熟期的鲜果为材料,采用顶空固相萃取及GC-MS法,分析其挥发性物质含量成分及变化.结果表明:从花后160~200 d的5个成熟期共鉴定出25种成分,各成熟期成分的种类、数量基本相同.挥发性物质成分以烯类为主,占含量的96%以上,其中又以柠檬烯和松油烯为主,分别占含量的44%和27%以上.这些主要成分的含量之和先上升后下降,在花后180 d达最高值,说明花后180 d应为佛手采收最佳期.%In this study,flesh citrus bergamot fiuits in 5 different mature periods were used for content analysis of volatile substances using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS).No obvious differences of the component amount were found in different periods and total 25 components were identified.Terpenes,including isolimonene (accounting for more than 44%) and terpinene (more than 27%) and so on,are the main component amounting for more than 96%.Changes of the total contents display a rising first and then falling trend,and achieve the highest level 180 days post-flowering,when half of the fruit is yellow.These results showed that 180 days post-flowering might be the best time for citrus bergamot harvesting.

  10. Solid phase extraction in tandem with GC/MS for the determination of semi-volatile organic substances extracted from pharmaceutical packaging/delivery systems via aqueous solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Steven A

    2015-08-10

    An extractable survey is one of several studies performed on a pharmaceutical storage/delivery system as part of the process of demonstrating that the system is suitable for its intended use. In this paper, a solid phase extraction method for the preparation of aqueous extracts generated during an extractable survey is presented. The method offers a convenient means to isolate semi-volatile organic extractable compounds from aqueous extraction solvents for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Following the solid phase extraction procedure, derivatization is performed to convert problematic functionalities (such as amines and acids) into appropriate chromatographically friendly derivatives. Demonstration of method performance is achieved in three ways using a set of 31 commonly observed extractable substances as model compounds. First, a breakthrough experiment was performed with a 2 solvent system consisting of water and 10/90 isopropanol/water over a range of 6 mL to 100 mL. Results from this experiment show only caprolactam possessed a significant level of breakthrough in either solvent over the range of volumes evaluated. Second, a formal accuracy/precision study was conducted using a three solvent system consisting of water, 10/90 isopropanol/water and 1% polysorbate 80. This experiment demonstrates the quantitative ability of the method at levels ranging from 20 ng/mL to 50 μg/mL. Recovery values of 70% to 130% of the theoretical concentration, with relative standard deviation values of less than 15% for replicate preparations, are obtained for a majority of the compounds evaluated. Finally, a case study involving the extraction of an intravenous drug delivery bag with multiple aqueous solvent systems further demonstrates the viability of solid phase extraction for use in an extractables survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  12. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  13. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  14. Building a Model Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns and Their Families: From Needs Assessment to Intervention, Evaluation, and Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Eda; Herriott, Anna; Paris, Ruth; Sommer, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing concern about substance misuse in pregnancy and infants born substance-exposed, few programs have been developed that address the complex needs of this vulnerable population. This article describes the process of developing Project NESST® (Newborns Exposed to Substances: Support and Therapy), from needs assessment to program…

  15. 100 words almost everyone confuses and misuses

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 100 Words series continues to set the standard for measuring and improving vocabulary, with a new title focusing on words that are best known for getting people into linguistic trouble. 100 Words Almost Everyone Confuses and Misuses is the perfect book for anyone seeking clear and sensible guidance on avoiding the recognized pitfalls of the English language. Each word on the list is accompanied by a concise and authoritative usage note based on the renowned usage program of the American Heritage® Dictionaries. These notes discuss why a particular usage has been criticized and explain the r

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  17. The Separation of Trace Substance With High Boiling Point and Refractory Volatility From Liquor%白酒中微量高沸点难挥发性物质的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴惠东; 张良均; 黎金霞

    2013-01-01

      采用复合溶剂间歇萃取精馏提取白酒中的微量高沸点难挥发性物质(主要是邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)),并同时考察溶剂种类、溶剂流率和回流比对分离效果的影响。实验结果表明:复合溶剂的最佳配比为7∶3(正戊烷与无水乙醚质量比);随着溶剂流率与回流比的增大,复合溶剂分离效果增强;在最佳配比下,当回流比为2、溶剂流率为13mL/min 时,塔釜中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯的质量分数可达95.56%。%The trace substances with high boiling point and refractory volatility in liquor (mainly are Dibutyl phthalate, DBP and Diisobutyl phthalate, DIBP) were extracted by batch extractive distillation with mixed solvent, at the same time the effect of different types of solvent, solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on separation efficiency was investigated. The results shows that the best proportion of n-pentane to diethyletheranhydrous is 7∶3, and the separation effect is improved with the increasing of solvent rate and reflux ratio, and under the conditions that the optimum value of solvent m (n-pentane):m (diethyletheranhydrous)=7∶3, reflux ratio is 2, and flow rate of solvent is 13mL/min, the mass fraction of DBP and DIBP in the bottom reaches 98.56%.

  18. Lagos "Area Boys", Substance Usage and Potential Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi; Brown, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the rate at which members of Lagos' "area boys" engage in drug and alcohol use, and determines the predictive roles of parental and neighbourhood characteristics in the gang patterns of psychoactive substance misuse behaviour. The study approached gang members (N = 129) aged from 18 to 38 years (M = 25.83, SD = 4.82)…

  19. The use of psychotropic substances among students: The prevalence, factor association, and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Fadhilah bt Mamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.

  20. 19 CFR 111.37 - Misuse of license or permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misuse of license or permit. 111.37 Section 111.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.37 Misuse of license...

  1. 14 CFR 120.19 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.19 Section 120.19... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.19 Misuse of alcohol. (a) This section applies to covered employees...

  2. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  3. [Neocodion misuse: evolution between 1992 and 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Catherine; Thirion, Xavier; Saillard, Carine; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Lambert, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Neocodion, a codeine antitussive preparation (codeine camphosulfonate + Grindelia + sulfogaiacol) is known to be misused by opiate addicts. This study aimed to examine the evolution in Neocodion use between 1992 and 2002. Since 1992, three surveys (1992, 1997 and 2002) investigating Neocodion misuse were performed via several community networks of pharmacists. During the same time, data on Neocodion use were extracted from the French drug-dependence monitoring programme (OPPIDUM [Observation des Produits Psychotropes Illicites ou Détournés de leur Utilisation Médicamenteuse]). A marked and continuous decrease in Neocodion consumption was observed. The number of requests for Neocodion per pharmacy and per week largely decreased from 9.9 to 2.1 between 1992 and 2002. OPPIDUM data also showed a reduction in the rate of Neocodion consumption (from 8% in 1992 to 0.4% in 2002). Patients were older (30.4 years in 1992 and 33.7 years in 2002) and their socioeconomic conditions were better. Eighty-six percent of the subjects studied were poly-drug consumers. In fact, Neocodion was less sought after for opiate maintenance than for its psychoactive effects. Despite the reduction in the consumption of Neocodion, the changes observed in the consumption patterns for this medication suggest that vigilance is still required.

  4. Homelessness and drug misuse in developing countries: A mathematical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunu, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    Homelessness and drug-misuse are known to exist like siamese twins. We present a model to capture the dynamics in the growth in the number of homeless (street kids and street adults) and drug misusers. The reproduction numbers of the model are determined and analyzed. Results from this study suggests that adult peer pressure plays a more significant role in the growth of drug-misuse and the number of street kids. This result suggests that in resource constrained settings intervention strategies should be tailor made to target adults whose behaviour influence others to misuse drugs and abuse children. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that homelessness and drug-misuse positively enhances, the growth of each other. Thus, to effectively control these two social problems require strategies targeting both of them.

  5. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  6. Alternate Routes of Administration among Prescription Opioid Misusers and Associations with Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests that young adult prescription opioid misusers who are using alternate routes of administration (e.g., snorting, injecting) may be engaging in sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors. This study examines demographics, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and health and social problems associated with alternate routes of administration of prescription opioids among a sample of young adult prescription opioid misusers. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial. Eligible participants were ages 18-39, and reported recent (past 90 days) heterosexual sex, and recent and regular substance use and attendance at large, recognized local nightclubs. The analyses include 446 racially/ethnically diverse participants. In bivariate regression models, compared to those who did not, participants reporting alternate routes of administration (n = 209) were more likely to be White (p routes of administration of prescription opioids are associated with sexual HIV transmission risk behaviors. Early prevention and intervention efforts that address sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors are warranted.

  7. Three common misuses of P values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Bang, Heejung

    2016-01-01

    “Significance” has a specific meaning in science, especially in statistics. The p-value as a measure of statistical significance (evidence against a null hypothesis) has long been used in statistical inference and has served as a key player in science and research. Despite its clear mathematical definition and original purpose, and being just one of the many statistical measures/criteria, its role has been over-emphasized along with hypothesis testing. Observing and reflecting on this practice, some journals have attempted to ban reporting of p-values, and the American Statistical Association (for the first time in its 177 year old history) released a statement on p-values in 2016. In this article, we intend to review the correct definition of the p-value as well as its common misuses, in the hope that our article is useful to clinicians and researchers. PMID:27695640

  8. Legislation Alone is Enough to Combat Antibiotic Misuse? Certainly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certainly Not! Sir. There is no doubt that increasing bacterial resistance against ... knowledge about antibiotic misuse is still scarce and the number of individuals ... antibiotics and to avoid public health and economic negative consequences.

  9. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and involuntary leg movements. 29 Misuse of prescription opioids is also a risk factor for transitioning to heroin use. Read more about ...

  10. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  11. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder predict cannabis misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Alexander; Mauzay, Dakota; Cuttler, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis use has been linked to many psychological disorders. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the link between cannabis use and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to examine this link by exploring associations between severity of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, and cannabis misuse; determining whether these associations exist above and beyond symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress; and testing the mediating role of cannabis coping motives (i.e., using cannabis to cope with negative affect and other problems). A large sample of young adult cannabis users (n=430) completed an online survey containing measures of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, cannabis misuse, and cannabis use motives. Severity of OCD (as indexed by higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised) was unrelated to frequency and quantity of cannabis use, but it was significantly, positively related to increased cannabis misuse. These effects persisted after controlling for anxiety, depression, and stress. The specific feature of obsessing was found to consistently predict cannabis misuse. Finally, an indirect effect of severity of OCD on cannabis misuse via coping motives was discovered. Together, these findings indicate that there may be an association between OCD and cannabis misuse that is independent of anxiety, depression, and stress, and that is mediated by coping motives. Based on these findings, we recommend that individuals with OCD symptoms avoid using cannabis because they may be more vulnerable to the development of problematic use and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risky use and misuse of alcohol and cigarettes in psychiatric inpatients: a screening questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Casetti, Valentina; Panzani, Patrizia; Unterhauser, Juliane; Mulas, Stefania; Fanolla, Antonio; Zitelli, Claudia; Briani, Alessandro; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maremmani, Icro; Conca, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Mental disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite this comorbidity being firmly established, alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are not routinely and systematically assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of risky use of alcohol, alcohol use disorder (AUD), smoking, and nicotine use disorder in people with psychiatric diagnoses and their association with age, gender, and occupational functioning. Participants were 210 patients from an inpatient psychiatric ward. Three self-reporting questionnaires were used: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Lübeck Alcoholism Screening Test (LAST), and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Risky alcohol use or AUD was found in more than one third of patients and was more common in males than in females (p<0.01) and in young people as compared to older adults (p=0.04). Current nicotine consumption concerned over a half participants and was significantly associated with risky alcohol use and AUD (p<0.01). Patients with current SUD had the highest prevalence of both smoking (80%) and alcohol misuse (80%). Low occupational functioning was associated with both alcohol use (p=0.02) and concurrent alcohol and SUDs (p=0.03). Both alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders and their concurrent abuse is common. The simultaneous use of different screening questionnaires allows the identification not only of people with frank use disorders, but also those with harmful use, facilitating early detection of people at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  14. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  15. Substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Chapter 11. Narratives of clients' experiences of drug use and treatment of substance use-related dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Braun, Therese; Larsson, Sam; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    The article focuses on narratives of clients' experiences of using/misusing alcohol and drugs and includes comments on their therapeutic process during treatment for dependency on psychoactive drugs. It discusses the role of narratives that focus on clients' experiences of understanding the use/misuse of psychoactive drugs, emphasizing the importance of the narratives. Narrative therapy for substance-use-related dependency is discussed. Insight into the treatment processes of dependency, based on narrative case illustrations, is also provided.

  17. Meconium drug testing reveals maternal misuse of medicinal opioids among addicted mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launiainen, Terhi; Nupponen, Irmeli; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-07-01

    Meconium drug testing is a non-invasive method to detect prenatal drug exposure, which can cause severe problems for the infant, indicating the need for follow-up measures to ensure the welfare of the child. Meconium samples for drug testing were collected from 143 infants as part of routine clinical work among addicted mothers. The drug testing findings were combined with medical records including clinical background and follow-up data. The substances screened for included medicinal opioids, 6-monoacetylmorphine (a metabolite of heroin), amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. At least one of the 13 target drugs was detected in 57 (40%) meconium samples. In 21 cases, the findings were unexpected on the basis of clinical data or denied by the mother. Medicinal opioids, especially the opioid substitution treatment drugs buprenorphine and methadone, comprised the majority of the findings of both admitted and unexpected drug misuse. Meconium drug testing methods should target not just traditional illicit drugs but also prescription drugs with misuse potential. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Adults with ADHD: use and misuse of stimulant medication as reported by patients and their primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Michael B; Zeiner, Pål; Sandvik, Leiv; Opjordsmoen, Stein

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the agreement on treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between adults with ADHD and the primary care physicians responsible for their treatment. Adults with ADHD and the primary care physicians responsible for their ADHD treatment completed a survey. The κ-statistic assessed physician-patient agreement on ADHD treatment variables. The eligible sample consisted of 274 patients with confirmed current or previous psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD and the physicians responsible for their treatment. We received 159 questionnaires (58.0 %) with sufficient information from both sources. There were no significant differences between participants and nonparticipants (N = 115) on ADHD sample characteristics. Participants' mean age was 37.6 years, and 75 (47.2 %) were females. There was high agreement for current pharmacological treatment for ADHD, current and last ADHD drug prescription, treatment for substance use, and misuse of stimulant medication. Agreement for nonpharmacological treatment for ADHD and treatment termination because of the side effects was low. A minority of participants from both sources reported misuse of stimulant medication. There was a moderate correlation between the physicians' clinical judgment and patients' self-report on current functioning. The study showed that primary care physicians and their patients agreed on the pharmacological but not the nonpharmacological, treatments given. They also agreed on patients' current functioning. Physicians and patients reported low levels of misuse of stimulant medication. The results show that pharmacological treatment for adults with ADHD can be safely undertaken by primary care physicians.

  19. Controlling the misuse of cobalt in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emmie N M; Chan, George H M; Wan, Terence S M; Curl, Peter; Riggs, Christopher M; Hurley, Michael J; Sykes, David

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is a well-established inducer of hypoxia-like responses, which can cause gene modulation at the hypoxia inducible factor pathway to induce erythropoietin transcription. Cobalt salts are orally active, inexpensive, and easily accessible. It is an attractive blood doping agent for enhancing aerobic performance. Indeed, recent intelligence and investigations have confirmed cobalt was being abused in equine sports. In this paper, population surveys of total cobalt in raceday samples were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary threshold of 75 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 2 ng/mL could be proposed for the control of cobalt misuse in raceday or in-competition samples. Results from administration trials with cobalt-containing supplements showed that common supplements could elevate urinary and plasma cobalt levels above the proposed thresholds within 24 h of administration. It would therefore be necessary to ban the use of cobalt-containing supplements on raceday as well as on the day before racing in order to implement and enforce the proposed thresholds. Since the abuse with huge quantities of cobalt salts can be done during training while the use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements are also allowed, different urinary and plasma cobalt thresholds would be required to control cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples. This could be achieved by setting the thresholds above the maximum urinary and plasma cobalt concentrations observed or anticipated from the normal use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements. Urinary threshold of 2000 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 10 ng/mL were thus proposed for the control of cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Consulting for substance abuse: mental disorders among adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, S; Tengström, A; Bylin, S; Göranson, M; Hagen, L; Janson, M; Larsson, A; Lundgren-Andersson, C; Lundmark, C; Norell, E; Pedersen, H

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted outside of Scandinavia indicate that most adolescents with substance misuse problems suffer from co-morbid mental disorders. The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents seeking help for substance misuse problems in a large Swedish city. Parents' mental health was also examined. The sample included 97 girls with their 90 mothers and 52 fathers, and 81 boys with their 72 mothers and 37 fathers. The adolescents completed a diagnostic interview, either the Kiddie-SADs or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) depending on their age. Their parents underwent diagnostic interviews with the SCID. Ninety per cent of the girls and 81% of the boys met criteria for at least one disorder other than substance misuse, and on average, they suffered from three other disorders, most of which had onset before substance misuse began. Almost 80% of the mothers and 67% of the fathers met criteria for at least one mental disorder other than alcohol and drug-related disorders. The findings concur with those reported from studies conducted in North America. The results suggest that in Sweden mental disorders are not being identified and effectively treated among some children and young adolescents who subsequently abuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Adolescents who consult for substance abuse problems require assessments and treatment by mental health professionals.

  1. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  2. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Hemsing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women’s use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women’s vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  3. Adolescent use and misuse of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John D

    2006-06-01

    Substance use by adolescents and young adults continues to be a serious problem. Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance with close to 50% of high school seniors admitting use at some time. Each year 2.6 million individuals in this country become new users and most are under 19 years old. Individuals who provide health care services to this age group must have an understanding of the drug, its pharmacokinetics, and the many short- and long-term adverse effects. Familiarity with risk factors associated with initiating use can be helpful in screening older children and targeting anticipatory guidance toward those most likely to benefit. This article reviews these issues and includes commentary on a recently published review of treatment programs.

  4. Developing Core Competencies for the Prevention and Management of Prescription Drug Misuse: A Medical Education Collaboration in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Karen H; Berman, Harris A; Flotte, Terence R; Flier, Jeffrey; Dimitri, Dennis M; Bharel, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury death in the United States. More than half of those deaths involve prescription drugs, specifically opioids. A key component of addressing this national epidemic is improving prescriber practices.A review of the curricula at the four medical schools in Massachusetts revealed that, although they taught components of addiction medicine, no uniform standard existed to ensure that all students were taught prevention and management strategies for prescription drug misuse. To fill this gap, the governor and the secretary of health and human services invited the deans of the state's four medical schools to convene to develop a common educational strategy for teaching safe and effective opioid-prescribing practices. With leadership from the Department of Public Health and Massachusetts Medical Society, the deans formed the Medical Education Working Group in 2015. This group reviewed the relevant literature and current standards for treating substance use disorders and defined 10 core competencies for the prevention and management of prescription drug misuse.The medical schools have incorporated these competencies into their curricula and have committed to assessing students' competence in these areas. The members of the Medical Education Working Group have agreed to continue to work together on key next steps, including connecting these competencies to those for residents, equipping interprofessional teams to address prescription drug misuse, and developing materials in pain management and opioid misuse for practicing physicians. This first-in-the-nation partnership has yielded cross-institutional competencies that aim to address a public health emergency in real time.

  5. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio [National Institute of Health Services, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  7. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  8. Effects of minerals in ferric bauxite on sodium carbonate decomposition and volatilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文韬; 王化军; 刘欣伟; 孙传尧

    2015-01-01

    Direct reduction is an emerging technology for ferric bauxite utilization. However, because of sodium volatilization, its sodium carbonate consumption is considerably higher than that in ordinary bauxite processing technology. TG-DSC and XRD were applied to detecting phase transformation and mass loss in direct reduction to reveal the mechanism on sodium volatilization. The results show that the most significant influence factor of ferric bauxite on sodium volatilization in direct reduction system is its iron content. Sodium volatilization is probably ascribed to the instability of amorphous substances structure. Amorphous substances are the intermediate-products of the reaction, and the volatilization rate of sodium increases with its generating rate. These amorphous substances are volatile, thus, more sodium is volatilized with its generation. A small amount of amorphous substances are generated in the reaction between Na2CO3and Al2O3; thus, only 3.15% of sodium is volatilized. Similarly, the volatilization rate is 1.87% in the reaction between Na2CO3and SiO2. However, the volatilization rate reaches 7.64% in the reaction between Na2CO3 and Fe2O3 because of the generation of a large amount of amorphous substances.

  9. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  10. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems.

  11. Narcotics Misuse Victims: Is Physical Exercise for Their Fitness Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, B.

    2017-03-01

    This research is purposed to find out whether physical exercise needed to improve physical fitness of narcotics misuse victims in Social Rehabilitation Center Pamardi Putera West Java Province. Survey method and field test were applied in this research. Population is all members of rehabilitation in BRSPP and the sampling technique used in this research was purposive sampling. Indonesia Physical Fitness Test (TKJI) was used as the instrument. The result of the research showed that level of narcotics misuse victims’ physical fitness is in ‘low’ category so that regular and measurable physical activity is needed in developing their physical fitness.

  12. Benzodiazepine Use and Misuse Among Patients in a Methadone Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Adamo Christopher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines (BZD misuse is a serious public health problem, especially among opiate-dependent patients with anxiety enrolled in methadone program because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening multiple drug overdoses. Both elevated anxiety and BZD misuse increase the risk for ex-addicts to relapse. However, there is no recent study to assess how serious the problem is and what factors are associated with BZD misuse. This study estimates the prevalence of BZD misuse in a methadone program, and provides information on the characteristics of BZD users compared to non-users. Methods An anonymous survey was carried out at a methadone program in Baltimore, MD, and all patients were invited to participate through group meetings and fliers around the clinic on a voluntary basis. Of the 205 returned questionnaires, 194 were complete and entered into final data analysis. Those who completed the questionnaire were offered a $5 gift card as an appreciation. Results 47% of the respondents had a history of BZD use, and 39.8% used BZD without a prescription. Half of the BZD users (54% started using BZD after entering the methadone program, and 61% of previous BZD users reported increased or resumed use after entering methadone program. Compared to the non-users, BZD users were more likely to be White, have prescribed medication for mental problems, have preexistent anxiety problems before opiate use, and had anxiety problems before entering methadone program. They reported more mental health problems in the past month, and had higher scores in anxiety state, depression and perceived stress (p Conclusions Important information on epidemiology of BZD misuse among methadone-maintenance patients suggests that most methadone programs do not address co-occurring anxiety problems, and methadone treatment may trigger onset or worsening of BZD misuse. Further study is needed to explore how to curb misuse and abuse of BZD in the

  13. Predicting Alcohol Misuse Among College Students in the US and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Ahn, Seokhoon; Lim, Tae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed.

  14. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. Case presentation A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Conclusion Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  15. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  16. Students' Source Misuse in Language Classrooms: Sharing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Kowkabi, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first provide a brief discussion of what is generally referred to as "student plagiarism," which we prefer to call "source misuse" or "inappropriate textual borrowing," and then provide some of the factors that may contribute to this problem in language classes. Moreover, we provide our views and…

  17. Factors that Influence Physician Identification of Potential Opioid Misusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    severe pain when you enter the room 19 21 Patient refers to drugs by name 17 24 When you present your plan for analgesia (NSAIDs), Pt states...Signs for opioid misuse 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Abdominal pain Back pain Extremity pain Dental pain Headache

  18. Use and Misuse of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, B. Jean Van; Herrmann, Beth Ann

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) and compares the use and misuse of the test as revealed through published surveys. Finds problems in the use of the NDRT to diagnose the specific reading needs and deficiencies of low-achieving students and to measure individual growth. (CBC)

  19. Misuse of topical corticosteroids over face: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Manchanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical corticosteroids (TCS have been widely used in various dermatological diseases. However, because of inadvertent use, TCS misuse has become a common problem faced by dermatologists in various parts of the world. Prolonged use over the face can cause various side effects such as steroid rosacea, acneiform eruptions, and hypertrichosis. Aim: To study the effects of TCS misuse and analyze various factors promoting its use on face. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients presenting with various facial dermatoses following the misuse of TCS on the face were studied. Detailed history was noted and the various side effects were recorded. Results: Majority of the patients (70% were females with maximum number of patients belonging to the age group of 11–20 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were applying TCS for medical conditions, with acne being the most common indication, and the rest were applying as a general face cream. Pruritus and acneiform eruptions were the most common side effects observed and the other reported were erythema, photosensitivity, steroid dependent face, and telangiectasia. Conclusion: TCS misuse especially over the face can lead to a multitude of side effects. It is high time to create awareness among the patients as well as doctors regarding the proper usage of this wonder drug.

  20. Misuse of restraint systems for children in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C. Huijskens, C.G. & Heijkamp, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works commissioned the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research and TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute to carry out a research project. The aim is to establish the extent and type of misuse of both child seats and standard seat belts. This paper deals only

  1. Postoperative morbidity among symptom-free alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Petersen, K R; Højgaard, L

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that there is an increased postoperative morbidity among alcohol misusers. We have prospectively studied the risk of alcohol intake among patients undergoing surgery. We investigated 15 symptom-free subjects who required colorectal surgery and who were drinking at le...

  2. Forgiveness and Cohesion in Familial Perceptions of Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Worthington, Everett L.; Hook, Joshua N.; Campana, Kathryn L.; West, Steven L.; Gartner, Aubrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the relationships between forgiveness, family cohesion, and alcohol. In Study 1 (N = 190), participants reported lower levels of trust and forgiveness for family members who misuse alcohol. In Study 2 (N = 141), the authors present a model demonstrating family cohesion and trait forgiveness related to state forgiveness of an…

  3. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  5. Misuse of stimulant medication among college students: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S

    2015-03-01

    The misuse of stimulant medication among college students is a prevalent and growing problem. The purpose of this review and meta-analysis is to summarize the current research on rates and demographic and psychosocial correlates of stimulant medication misuse among college students, to provide methodological guidance and other ideas for future research, and to provide some preliminary suggestions for preventing and reducing misuse on college campuses. Random-effects meta-analysis found that the rate of stimulant medication misuse among college students was estimated at 17 % (95 % CI [0.13, 0.23], p Students are misusing primarily for academic reasons, and the most common source for obtaining stimulant medication is peers with prescriptions. Interpretation of findings is complicated by the lack of a standard misuse definition as well as validated tools for measuring stimulant misuse. The relation between stimulant medication misuse and extra curricular participation, academic outcomes, depression, and eating disorders requires further investigation, as do the reasons why students divert or misuse and whether policies on college campuses contribute to the high rates of misuse among students. Future research should also work to develop and implement effective prevention strategies for reducing the diversion and misuse of stimulant medication on college campuses.

  6. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  7. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications, and alcohol are commonly misused. Addiction to nicotine (cigarette, pipe, or cigar smoking) is also a ... life increase falls and injuries impair sleep impair memory Also, any drinking that is linked to mental ...

  8. [Misuse of drugs in recreational sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, N

    2001-04-01

    The extent of drug abuse in mass sport is only poorly documented. Studies about drug abuse investigated only the prohibited substances according to the Olympic movement antidoping code. So for instance about the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by school children or young students. But only few investigations point to the drug abuse in mass sport regarding the easily accessible over-the-counter drugs of the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). These drugs permit an athlete to compete at his normal level of performance despite injuries or pain. However, the masking of pain may exacerbate the injury. Precautions should be taken to prevent the unwarranted or unmonitored use of anti-inflammatory agents during treatment of sport injuries. The abuse may be extensive since most people consider over-the-counter drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, harmless. Studies in Switzerland among endurance athletes in mass sport examining the use of medications before an event showed a prevalence between 5 and 10% of NSAID. Even if this seems a small number, further investigations should focus on the use of medications among different age groups and preventive information to abstain from the use of certain medication for competitors in mass sport should be worked out.

  9. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  10. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  11. Pathways to Violence in Schizophrenia : The role of antisocial personality, substance misuse, delusions, and delusional distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. van Dongen (Josanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a long held general belief in society that persons with a major mental disorder are dangerous. The media play an important role in the maintenance of this belief by highlighting cases of violent acts by mentally disordered individuals. Though, during the seventies, this belief

  12. Substance misuse in young people in Ireland - a focus on benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that are prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Due to the powerful tolerance that can develop as a result of sustained use, benzodiazepines can also be dependence-forming. Benzodiazepine dependence can occur from prescribed and from recreational use, and is a significant issue for young people. The consequences of benzodiazepine dependence include cognitive and learning impairment, depressive symptoms, and increased suicide risk. Despite th...

  13. Pathways to Violence in Schizophrenia : The role of antisocial personality, substance misuse, delusions, and delusional distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. van Dongen (Josanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a long held general belief in society that persons with a major mental disorder are dangerous. The media play an important role in the maintenance of this belief by highlighting cases of violent acts by mentally disordered individuals. Though, during the seventies, this belief b

  14. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative morbidity among symptom-free alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Petersen, K R; Højgaard, L;

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that there is an increased postoperative morbidity among alcohol misusers. We have prospectively studied the risk of alcohol intake among patients undergoing surgery. We investigated 15 symptom-free subjects who required colorectal surgery and who were drinking...... at least 60 g of alcohol per day. These patients were matched for sex, nutrition, age, weight, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, diagnosis, anaesthesia, and surgery to 15 control subjects who were consuming below 25 g of alcohol daily. Those drinking at least 60 g of alcohol per day developed more...... postoperative complications than controls (67% vs 20%, p less than 0.05) and hospital stay was prolonged (20 vs 12 days, p less than 0.05). Preoperatively, alcohol misusers had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (median, 54% vs 68%, p less than 0.01). Delayed hypersensitivity responses were smaller...

  16. Misuse and intrusion detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in system audit records, in system vulnerability postures, and in other evidence found through active system testing. Since 1989 we have implemented a misuse and intrusion detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. NADIR currently audits a Kerberos distributed authentication system, file activity on a mass, storage system, and four Cray supercomputers that run the UNICOS operating system. NADIR summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations, As NADIR is constantly evolving, this paper reports its development to date.

  17. An automated computer misuse detection system for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-09-27

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, in the system vulnerability posture, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. During the last several years we have implemented an automatic misuse detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR). We are currently expanding NADIR to include processing of the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Realtime NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. The first phase of UNICORN development is nearing completion, and will be operational in late 1994.

  18. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Gabriel C.

    2017-01-01

    Gabriel C Quintero Florida State University – Republic of Panama, Clayton, Panama Abstract: The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and rev...

  19. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    began an in- tensive research for the clarification of the mechanism of the effect of psychotomimetic substances. In addition to the semi-synthetically...Dibenamine i.v. 200,000 ... 6oo,000 Ethyl ether p.o. 200,000 ... 400,000 Cocaine s.c. 80,000 ... 300,000 Mescaline p.o. 10,000 ... 20,000 Morphia s.c. 5,000...Autonomic functions Excitement, mood Pyramidal and extra- Meso-diencephalic changes: pyramidal effects: effects: Euphoria , depres- Ataxia, spastic

  20. Emerging Equity Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.

    1995-01-01

    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  1. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  2. Intravenous misuse of buprenorphine: characteristics and extent among patients undergoing drug maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratti, Enrico; Kashanpour, Hamid; Lombardelli, Tiziana; Maisto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Sublingual buprenorphine [Subutex(R)] is used to treat opioid dependence. However, illicit intravenous (IV) injection of buprenorphine is a widespread problem. This survey investigated the IV misuse of buprenorphine among patients receiving drug replacement therapy at the Drug Addiction Centre in Udine, Italy. All patients who were receiving treatment with buprenorphine or methadone at the Drug Addiction Centre were invited to fill in a voluntary and anonymous questionnaire consisting of five questions. The questions asked if the patient had ever misused buprenorphine intravenously, when the misuse had occurred, the patient's reasons for misusing buprenorphine, the patient's perception of their experience, and the patient's perception of how widespread IV misuse of buprenorphine is. 307 patients completed the questionnaire, 93 and 214 of whom, respectively, were receiving buprenorphine and methadone. In total, 23.12% of patients admitted an IV misuse of buprenorphine, with a significantly greater prevalence among patients currently receiving buprenorphine (35.48%) than those receiving methadone (17.75%; p IV misuse was treatment of heroin addiction or withdrawal symptoms (50.71%), while only 12.67% of patients reported that their motivation was to experience pleasure or euphoria. The majority of patients who had misused buprenorphine intravenously (53.52%) had a negative experience, and methadone recipients were significantly more likely to find the experience negative than buprenorphine recipients (68.42% vs 36.36%; p = 0.007). Almost half of the patients (45.93%) thought that at least 50% of patients had taken buprenorphine by IV injection. The results of our study confirm the widespread IV misuse of buprenorphine. Misuse was most common among patients currently receiving buprenorphine treatment and younger patients. For the majority of patients, the reason for IV misuse was to treat their dependence. We believe that the prevalence of buprenorphine misuse could

  3. Connecting to young adults: an online social network survey of beliefs and attitudes associated with prescription opioid misuse among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah; Brevard, Julie; Budman, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A survey of motives and attitudes associated with patterns of nonmedical prescription opioid medication use among college students was conducted on Facebook, a popular online social networking Web site. Response metrics for a 2-week random advertisement post, targeting students who had misused prescription medications, surpassed typical benchmarks for online marketing campaigns and yielded 527 valid surveys. Respondent characteristics, substance use patterns, and use motives were consistent with other surveys of prescription opioid use among college populations. Results support the potential of online social networks to serve as powerful vehicles to connect with college-aged populations about their drug use. Limitations of the study are noted.

  4. Determinants of Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine Misusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Tamburin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BZDs are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries, but they have a high potential for tolerance, dependence and misuse. High-dose BZD misuse represents an emerging addiction phenomenon, but data on quality of life (QoL in high-dose BZD misusers are scant. This study aimed to explore QoL in high-dose BZD misuse. We recruited 267 high-dose BZD misusers, compared the QoL scores in those who took BZD only to poly-drug misusers, and explored the role of demographic and clinical covariates through multivariable analysis. Our data confirmed worse QoL in high-dose BZD misusers and showed that (a QoL scores were not negatively influenced by the misuse of alcohol or other drugs, or by coexisting psychiatric disorders; (b demographic variables turned out to be the most significant predictors of QoL scores; (c BZD intake significantly and negatively influenced QoL. Physical and psychological dimensions of QoL are significantly lower in high-dose BZD misusers with no significant effect of comorbidities. Our data suggest that the main reason for poor QoL in these patients is high-dose BZD intake per se. QoL should be considered among outcome measures in these patients.

  5. Determinants of Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine Misusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburin, Stefano; Federico, Angela; Faccini, Marco; Casari, Rebecca; Morbioli, Laura; Sartore, Valentina; Mirijello, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni; Lugoboni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries, but they have a high potential for tolerance, dependence and misuse. High-dose BZD misuse represents an emerging addiction phenomenon, but data on quality of life (QoL) in high-dose BZD misusers are scant. This study aimed to explore QoL in high-dose BZD misuse. We recruited 267 high-dose BZD misusers, compared the QoL scores in those who took BZD only to poly-drug misusers, and explored the role of demographic and clinical covariates through multivariable analysis. Our data confirmed worse QoL in high-dose BZD misusers and showed that (a) QoL scores were not negatively influenced by the misuse of alcohol or other drugs, or by coexisting psychiatric disorders; (b) demographic variables turned out to be the most significant predictors of QoL scores; (c) BZD intake significantly and negatively influenced QoL. Physical and psychological dimensions of QoL are significantly lower in high-dose BZD misusers with no significant effect of comorbidities. Our data suggest that the main reason for poor QoL in these patients is high-dose BZD intake per se. QoL should be considered among outcome measures in these patients.

  6. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  9. The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Robinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified.

  10. The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sean M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-08-18

    This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs) and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified.

  11. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over time. Wi

  12. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  13. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  14. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  15. Potential misuse and inappropriate prescription practices involving opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Logan, Joseph E; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Zhang, Kun; Jones, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    Opioid misuse and abuse are growing concerns among the medical and public health communities. To examine the prevalence of indicators for potential opioid misuse in a large, commercially insured adult population. We adapted existing indicators developed by expert panels to include having overlapping opioid prescriptions, overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, long-acting/ extended release (LA/ER) opioids for acute pain,and high daily doses of opioids (>100 morphine milligram equivalents). These indicators were assessed among continuously enrolled individuals aged 18-64 years from the 2009 Truven Health MarketScan databases. Analyses were stratified by sex. We identified 3,391,599 eligible enrollees who received at least 1 opioid prescription. On average, enrollees obtained 3.3 opioid prescriptions, and the average annual days of supply was 47 days. Twice as many enrollees received opioid prescriptions for acute pain as for chronic pain. About a quarter of the enrollees had at least 1 indicator of either potential misuse by patients or inappropriate prescription practices by providers. About 15% of enrollees had high daily doses;7.8% had opioid overlap; and 7.9% had opioid and benzodiazepine overlap. Among those prescribed LA/ER opioids, 24.3% were treated for acute pain. Overlap indicators were more common among women. Our findings underscore the critical need to develop programs aimed at promoting appropriate use of opioids. Retrospective opioid utilization reviews similar to our analyses can potentially help managed care organizations and healthcare providers improve patient care and reduce the risk of adverse outcomes related to these medications.

  16. Misuse of statistical test in three decades of psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, R; Serlin, R C; Omer, H

    1994-02-01

    This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. It focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.

  17. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  18. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  19. 32 CFR 147.15 - Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.15 Guideline M—Misuse of Information technology systems. (a)...

  20. 17 CFR 240.17g-4 - Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. 240.17g-4 Section 240.17g-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Organizations § 240.17g-4 Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. (a) The written policies...

  1. A ten-year assessment of anabolic steroid misuse among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, J C; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, J L

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000-2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000-2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region.

  2. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  3. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  4. Drug misuse and suicide: assessing the impact of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H

    1995-01-01

    The mortality rate among drug users is higher than that of the general population. There is some evidence that the risk of suicide is also higher, although major methodological difficulties tend to cast doubt on their accuracy. The factors generally known to be associated with suicide such as mental and physical health problems, poor family relationships, social isolation and stressful life events are also associated with drug misuse. Illicit drugs may be used as a form of self-medication for anxiety and depression, but this draws an individual into a life that is likely to increase stress levels. For a drug user already stigmatized and detached from conventional society, becoming HIV positive can lead to greater stress and isolation. The impact of HIV on individuals physically and psychologically damaged by drug misuse is difficult to predict. There is little research that is attempting to determine who is most at risk and the nature of the factors that will predict an attempt at self-harm. If those who are most likely to attempt suicide are to be detected and adequate care provided by health professionals, risk and protective factors need to be identified in drug-using communities in which HIV is present or likely to occur.

  5. Over the counter ophthalmic drug misuse, are we aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Kadri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the misuse of ‘over the counter’ ophthalmic medications in our city. Method: Responses of a structured questionnaire covering various aspects of over the counter drug use was obtained from pharmacy workers in and around our city. Results: Eighty nine pharmacy workers took part in this cross–sectional study. An average number of seven patients per day with ophthalmic complaints were seen by the pharmacy workers. Dispensing over the counter was practiced by 89.9% of the pharmacists. The most common complaint of the patients visiting the pharmacy, was redness and itching (86.5%. Antibiotics (96.6% were the most common eye drops dispensed over the counter, followed by steroids (55.1%, decongestants (54.1%, antibiotic-steroid combination eye drops (29.2% and lubricants (16.8%. Awareness regarding complications of steroid use was seen in 40.6% of pharmacists. 6.7% pharmacists had seen patients with complications following use of over the counter medications. In our study, majority of the eye drops dispensed were prescription drugs. Conclusion: Availability of prescription eye drops over the counter is an immense public threat. Educating the pharmacist and the population can decrease ocular morbidity. Research into methods to effectively deal with over-the-counter drug misuse is required and law can be enforced based on the findings.

  6. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong......In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...

  7. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  8. Sample preparation and separation techniques for bioanalysis of morphine and related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2009-03-01

    In present time the use or misuse of morphine and its derivatives are monitored by assaying the presence of the drug and its metabolites in biofluids. In the present review, focus is placed on the sample preparation and on the separation techniques used in the current best practices of bioanalysis of morphine and its major metabolites. However, as methods for testing the misuse of heroin, a morphine derivative, often involve bioanalytical methods that cover a number of other illicit drug substances, such methods are also included in the review. Furthermore, the review also includes bioanalysis in a broader perspective as analysis of plant materials, cell cultures and environmental samples. The review is not intended to cover all publications that include bioanalysis of morphine but is more to be considered a view into the current best practices of bioanalysis of morphine, its metabolites and other related substances.

  9. Substance use disorders: Recent advances in treatment and models of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T

    2006-09-01

    Drug and alcohol misuse is a global health problem with great health economic costs to substance misusers, their families, and their communities. It is associated with high physical and psychiatric morbidity, and with high mortality. There are serious obstacles to its treatment, including the stigma associated with it. Major advances in assessment and treatment have enabled health professionals to tackle drug and alcohol problems in a variety of settings, including primary care setting. This overview focuses on recent advances in the treatment of substance use disorders and on optimal models of care and services, with reference to studies conducted in the United Arab Emirates. Community surveys in Dubai and Al-Ain have shown a high prevalence of these disorders. It is proposed that these problems be dealt with in primary care settings, and it has been found that primary health care workers have a key role to play and are often in an ideal position to coordinate the community's response.

  10. 77 FR 11997 - Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau Seeks To Refresh the Record Regarding Misuse of Internet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Misuse of Internet Protocol Relay Service AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... (Bureau) seeks comment to refresh the record regarding misuse of Internet Protocol relay service. Further... intended effect of reducing or eliminating misuse of Internet Protocol Relay. DATES: Submit comments on...

  11. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  12. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  13. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  14. Using Social Listening Data to Monitor Misuse and Nonmedical Use of Bupropion: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael; Davidson, Julie E; Winter, Christina; Barratt, Monica J; Win, Beta; Painter, Jeffery L; Menone, Christopher; Sayegh, Jonathan; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2017-01-01

    Background The nonmedical use of pharmaceutical products has become a significant public health concern. Traditionally, the evaluation of nonmedical use has focused on controlled substances with addiction risk. Currently, there is no effective means of evaluating the nonmedical use of noncontrolled antidepressants. Objective Social listening, in the context of public health sometimes called infodemiology or infoveillance, is the process of identifying and assessing what is being said about a company, product, brand, or individual, within forms of electronic interactive media. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether content analysis of social listening data could be utilized to identify posts discussing potential misuse or nonmedical use of bupropion and two comparators, amitriptyline and venlafaxine, and (2) to describe and characterize these posts. Methods Social listening was performed on all publicly available posts cumulative through July 29, 2015, from two harm-reduction Web forums, Bluelight and Opiophile, which mentioned the study drugs. The acquired data were stripped of personally identifiable identification (PII). A set of generic, brand, and vernacular product names was used to identify product references in posts. Posts were obtained using natural language processing tools to identify vernacular references to drug misuse-related Preferred Terms from the English Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 18 terminology. Posts were reviewed manually by coders, who extracted relevant details. Results A total of 7756 references to at least one of the study antidepressants were identified within posts gathered for this study. Of these posts, 668 (8.61%, 668/7756) referenced misuse or nonmedical use of the drug, with bupropion accounting for 438 (65.6%, 438/668). Of the 668 posts, nonmedical use was discouraged by 40.6% (178/438), 22% (22/100), and 18.5% (24/130) and encouraged by 12.3% (54/438), 10% (10/100), and 10

  15. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  16. Legislation affecting governmental assistance for children of parents with substance use: a policy analysis of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Phyllis; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2012-11-01

    There is legislation that withdraws governmental assistance where parents are using drugs. Social justice is an important consideration in any policy that modifies governmental assistance that benefits vulnerable children. The purpose of this policy analysis is to analyze identified legislation that effect governmental assistance for children in response to parents' substance misuse. A selective review of data-driven studies examined findings describing actual or potential effects on children of legislation targeting parental substance misuse. Challenges in design, processes, and implementation contribute to poor child outcomes. Identifiable constructs of social justice were missing in the reviewed legislation. Social injustice is a potential outcome for children when legislative intent focuses solely on addressing parental drug behaviors. Legislative alternatives to withdrawing support can address substance abuse while maintaining health promotion for these vulnerable children.

  17. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  18. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Michael; Norman, Ian; Foley, Michelle; Harris, Richard; Rapca, Anna; Rich, Eileen; Van Hout, Marie-Claire

    2015-12-01

    Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  19. Misuse of statistical tests in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Jay, Kristin A; McComb, Jason; McLaughlin, Jason R

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the (mis)use of statistical tests in neuropsychology research studies published in the Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology in the years 1990-1992 and 1996-2000, and 2001-2004, prior to, commensurate with the internet-based and paper-based release, and following the release of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Statistical Inference. The authors focused on four statistical errors: inappropriate use of null hypothesis tests, inappropriate use of P-values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rates. Despite the recommendations of the Task Force on Statistical Inference published in 1999, the present study recorded instances of these statistical errors both pre- and post-APA's report, with only the reporting of effect size increasing after the release of the report. Neuropsychologists involved in empirical research should be better aware of the limitations and boundaries of hypothesis testing as well as the theoretical aspects of research methodology.

  20. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  1. The misuse and abuse of statistics in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Arnold, Zachary C; Walker, Skyler D

    2015-01-01

    Statistics are the primary tools for assessing relationships and evaluating study questions. Unfortunately, these tools are often misused, either inadvertently because of ignorance or lack of planning, or conspicuously to achieve a specified result. Data abuses include the incorrect application of statistical tests, lack of transparency and disclosure about decisions that are made, incomplete or incorrect multivariate model building, or exclusion of outliers. Individually, each of these actions may completely invalidate a study, and often studies are victim to more than one offense. Increasingly there are tools and guidance for researchers to look to, including the development of an analysis plan and a series of study specific checklists, in order to prevent or mitigate these offenses.

  2. A progress report on UNICOS misuse detection at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.L.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; Simmonds, D.D.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Pedicini, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computing, Information and Communications Div.

    1995-10-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. During the past year, Los Alamos enhanced its Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) to include analysis of user activity on Los Alamos` UNICOS Crays. In near real-time, NADIR compares user activity to historical profiles and tests activity against expert rules. The expert rules express Los Alamos` security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes the implementation to date of the UNICOS component of NADIR, along with the operational experiences and future plans for the system.

  3. A Neural Network Approach for Misuse and Anomaly Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; YU Ge; GAO Fu-xiang

    2005-01-01

    An MLP(Multi-Layer Perceptron)/Elman neural network is proposed in this paper, which realizes classification with memory of past events using the real-time classification of MLP and the memorial functionality of Elman. The system's sensitivity for the memory of past events can be easily reconfigured without retraining the whole network. This approach can be used for both misuse and anomaly detection system. The intrusion detection systems(IDSs) using the hybrid MLP/Elman neural network are evaluated by the intrusion detection evaluation data sponsored by U. S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The results of experiment are presented in Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The capabilites of these IDSs to identify Deny of Service(DOS) and probing attacks are enhanced.

  4. Work organisation conditions, alcohol misuse: the moderating role of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Sabine L; Marchand, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of personality traits between work organization conditions and alcohol misuse by Canadian workers was examined. Longitudinal data came from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Data had a hierarchical structure and were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. The multilevel analyis revealed that skill utilisation at work increased by 7% the risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. Similarly, psychological demands at work, and being confronted with an irregular work schedule increased alcohol misuse respectively by 69 and 611%. Inversely, workers confronted with a job insecurity and those benefitting from social support at work had a respective 12 and 5% lower risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. As for personnality traits, self-esteem increased by 17% the risk of alcohol misuse, while sense of coherence decreased the risk by 1%. Finally, self-esteem moderated by 3% the impact of physical demands at work on workers'alcohol misuse. This study builds upon previous research, since no prior study was able to identify the moderating role that self-esteem plays between physical demands at work, and worker's alcohol misuse.

  5. Best Practices and Innovations for Managing Codeine Misuse and Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ian J; Bergin, Michael; Parry, Charles D; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    Promoting and ensuring safe use of codeine containing medicines remains a public health issue given the rise in reporting of misuse and dependence particularly in countries where available over-the-counter (OTC). The aim of this unique study was to identify best practices in management of opioid abuse and dependence, particularly codeine, and innovations to meet challenges surrounding safe and compliant use, patient awareness-raising, reducing health harms and enhancing successful treatment of dependence. A mixed methods approach using three data points was used that included : (1) analysis of data from existing scoping reviews to identify potential areas for innovation (2) interviews with key national stakeholders from public health, pharmaceutical, regulatory, primary care and addiction practice in three distinct regulatory regimes (Ireland, United Kingdom and South Africa); and (3) a circular email request for information on potential innovations to members of the European Medicine's Agency European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCEPP). Data from these three sources were analysed to identify best practices and opportunities for innovation. Best practices and potential innovations were identified under the nine headings: (1) manufacture; (2) product information and public education; (3) responsible prescribing; (4) monitoring and surveillance; (5) dispensing, screening and brief interventions in community pharmacies; (6) safety in the workplace and on the road; (7) internet supply of codeine and online support; (8) treatment of codeine dependence; and (9) learning resources and training for health professionals. Challenges ensuring availability of codeine containing medicines for legitimate therapeutic use, while minimising misuse, dependence and related health harms warrant consideration of new innovations. Most promising innovative potential lies across the products' retail lifecycle from manufacture to prescriber and

  6. Unsafe from the Start: Serious Misuse of Car Safety Seats at Newborn Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Benjamin D; Gallardo, Adrienne R; Carlson, Kathleen F

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence of car safety seat (CSS) misuse for newborns on hospital discharge; and to identify potential risk and protective factors for CSS misuse. We randomly sampled 291 mother-baby dyads from the newborn unit of an academic health center. Participants completed a survey and designated someone (themselves or another caregiver) to position their newborn in the CSS and install the CSS in their vehicle. Certified child passenger safety technicians assessed positioning and installation using nationally standardized criteria. To examine factors associated with CSS misuse, we used logistic regression to compute ORs and 95% CIs. A total of 291 families (81% of those eligible) participated. Nearly all (95%) CSSs were misused, with 1 or more errors in positioning (86%) and/or installation (77%). Serious CSS misuse occurred for 91% of all infants. Frequent misuses included harness and chest clip errors, incorrect recline angle, and seat belt/lower anchor use errors. Families with mothers of color (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.8-21.6), non-English language (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.1-21.2), Medicaid (OR, 10.3; 95% CI, 2.4-44.4), or lower educational level (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7-12.4) were more likely to misuse CSSs. However, families that worked with a child passenger safety technician before delivery were significantly less likely to misuse their CSSs (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.4). Nearly all parents of newborn infants misused CSSs. Resources should be devoted to ensuring families with newborns leave the hospital correctly using their CSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  8. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  9. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  10. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  11. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  12. Use and misuse of Data in Advocacy, Media and Opinion Polls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    This article offers a reflective perspective of the uses and misuses of data and statistics in public ..... certain indicators and instances where government data did not match the data from ..... Open Journal of Political Science, 3 (4) 167-174.

  13. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...

  14. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âgem.â 23.25 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “gem” to describe, identify, or refer to a ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, or...

  15. Self-Perceived Weight and Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampel, Jonathan D.; Murray, Stuart B.; Griffiths, Scott; Blashill, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic steroid misuse is a growing concern among adolescent boys, and chronic misuse is associated with multisystemic health consequences. However, little is known about weight related predictors of anabolic steroid misuse. We examined the prediction of lifetime anabolic steroid misuse as a function of self-perceived weight status among US adolescent boys. Methods Analysis was undertaken using the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative data set sampling public and private high school students throughout the United States. Data from a total of 6,000 US adolescent boys were used in the present study. Results The prevalence of ever misusing anabolic androgenic steroids was 12.6% among boys who viewed themselves as very underweight, 11.9% for boys who viewed themselves as very overweight, compared with 3.8% for boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight. Compared to boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight, boys who self-perceived themselves as very underweight (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.7–17.7, p < .001) and very overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–7.7, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risk of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. Conclusions Large effect size estimates were revealed, suggesting that anabolic androgenic steroid misuse is not solely a function of boys desiring increased mass; boys who desire leanness are also likely to misuse anabolic androgenic steroids. Future prevention efforts should target not only boys who view themselves as underweight but also those who perceive themselves as overweight. PMID:26598061

  16. Multiple and substitute addictions involving prescription drugs misuse among 12th graders: gateway theory revisited with Market Basket Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; YoussefAgha, Ahmed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sequential patterns of drug use initiation, which included prescription drugs misuse (PDM), among 12th-grade students in Indiana. The study also tested the suitability of the data mining method Market Basket Analysis (MBA) to detect common drug use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Data from 2007 to 2009 Annual Surveys of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use by Indiana Children and Adolescents were used for this study. A close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was used to ask adolescents about the use of 21 substance categories and the age of first use. "Support%" and "confidence%" statistics of Market Basket Analysis detected multiple and substitute addictions, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of using any addictive substance was 73.3%, and it has been decreasing during past few years. Although the lifetime prevalence of PDM was 19.2%, it has been increasing. Males and whites were more likely to use drugs and engage in multiple addictions. Market Basket Analysis identified common drug use initiation sequences that involved 11 drugs. High levels of support existed for associations among alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, whereas associations that included prescription drugs had medium levels of support. Market Basket Analysis is useful for the detection of common substance use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Before initiation of prescription drugs, physicians should consider the adolescents' risk of addiction. Prevention programs should address multiple addictions, substitute addictions, common sequences in drug use initiation, sex and racial differences in PDM, and normative beliefs of parents and adolescents in relation to PDM.

  17. Stock markets liberalization affects volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alin NISTOR; Maria-Lenuţa CIUPAC-ULICI; GHERMAN Mircea-Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the impact of liberalization, the results show that, in general, market opening is accompanied by a significant increase in market volatility. In particular, volatility tends to decrease due to large capital inflows and domestic growth.The study analyzes the impact of stock market liberalization on volatility in six emerging stock markets by using GARCH methodology. Theory on the effects of financial liberalization on volatility has been ambiguous, and empirical work has yielded con...

  18. Opioid Attentional Bias and Cue-Elicited Craving Predict Future Risk of Prescription Opioid Misuse Among Chronic Pain Patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some chronic pain patients receiving long-term opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy are at risk for misusing opioids. Like other addictive behaviors, risk of opioid misuse may be signaled by an attentional bias (AB) towards drug-related cues. The purpose of this study was to examine opioid AB as a potential predictor of opioid misuse among chronic pain patients following behavioral treatment. Methods Chronic pain patients taking long-term opioid analgesics (N = 47) completed a dot probe task designed to assess opioid AB, as well as self-report measures of opioid misuse and pain severity, and then participated in behavioral treatment. Regression analyses examined opioid AB and cue-elicited craving as predictors of opioid misuse at 3-months posttreatment follow-up. Results Patients who scored high on a measure of opioid misuse risk following treatment exhibited significantly greater opioid AB scores than patients at low risk for opioid misuse. Opioid AB for 200 ms cues and cue-elicited craving significantly predicted opioid misuse risk 20 weeks later, even after controlling for pre-treatment opioid dependence diagnosis, opioid misuse, and pain severity (Model R2 = .50). Conclusion Biased initial attentional orienting to prescription opioid cues and cue-elicited craving may reliably signal future opioid misuse risk following treatment. These measures may therefore provide potential prognostic indicators of treatment outcome. PMID:25282309

  19. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eLo Cantore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas tolaasii is the main bacterial pathogen of several mushroom species. In this paper we report that strains of P. tolaasii produce volatile substances inducing in vitro mycelia growth inhibition of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii, and Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus basidiome tissue blocks brown discoloration. P. tolaasii strains produced the volatile ammonia but not hydrogen cyanide. Among the volatiles detected by GC-MS, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-undecene were identified. The latter, when assayed individually as pure compounds, led to similar effects noticed when P. tolaasii volatiles natural blend was used on mushrooms mycelia and basidiome tissue blocks. Furthermore, the natural volatile mixture, resulted toxic toward lettuce and broccoli seedling growth. In contrast, pure volatiles showed different activity according to their nature and/or doses applied. Indeed, methanethiol resulted toxic at all the doses used, while dimethyl disulfide toxicity was assessed till a quantity of 1.25 µg, below which it caused, together with 1-undecene ( 10 µg, broccoli growth increase.

  20. Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Blumenstock, Shari M

    2016-02-01

    Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females' prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males' in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples' time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts.

  1. Misuse of ICTs among Turkish children and youth: A study on newspaper reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tanrıkulu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the misuse of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs among children and youth. The data source was newspaper reports obtained from three Turkish daily newspapers, between January 2006 and December 2012. In that seven years period, a total of 66 ICT misuse incidents were reported in the selected newspapers. Document analysis was performed on the newspaper reports. Themes and codes were entered as variables to manage the data quantitatively. Results revealed that ICT misuse was most commonly conducted through cell phones, social networking sites, instant messaging and web pages. Young people’s involvement of ICT misuse had three forms; from young perpetrator/s to the young victim/s, from young perpetrator/s to adult victim/s and from adult perpetrator/s to young victim/s. ICTs were commonly misused for sexual abuse, insulting or taking revenge. While perpetrators were mostly males whose ages ranged between 14 and 52, a great majority of ICT misuse victims were females, with an age range from 8 to 46. Negative psychological and physiological impacts were reported by the victims.

  2. Respiratory health screening for opiate misusers in a specialist community clinic: a mixed-methods pilot study, with integrated staff and service user feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline Anne; Pitt, Alice; Hulin, Joe; Lawson, Rod; Ashby, Fleur; Appelqvist, Ivan; Delaney, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. Setting Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. Participants All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period. The sample included 26 males and 10 females. Outcome measures Spirometry without bronchodilation; health related quality of life EQ-5D-3L; Asthma Control Test; Mini Asthma Quality of Life; Clinical COPD Questionnaire and the Treatment Outcome Profile were used to assess the respiratory health of participants. Findings were discussed with staff and service users in 2 patient and public involvement events and feedback was analysed thematically. Results 34 participants reported that they had smoked heroin. 8 participants diagnosed with asthma, scored under 13 on the Asthma Control Test, suggesting poorly controlled asthma. Participants (n=28), without a diagnosis of asthma completed the Lung Function Questionnaire. Of these, 79% produced scores under 18, indicating symptoms associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Spirometry showed 14% of all participants had forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.7 (without bronchodilator), indicating potential obstructive lung disease. Feedback from service users and staff suggested a willingness and capacity to deliver respiratory health screening programmes. Insight towards the difficulties service users have in accessing services and the burden of respiratory health was also provided. Conclusions It is feasible to undertake respiratory health screening of OMUs in a community clinic. Larger screening studies are warranted to determine the prevalence of respiratory health problems in this

  3. Losing faith and finding religion: religiosity over the life course and substance use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Arden; Mezuk, Briana

    2014-03-01

    Religion has only come into the light of scientific inquiry as a factor influencing health and behavior in the last few decades. While religiosity is a protective factor for contemporaneous substance misuse, the relationship between longitudinal changes in religiosity and substance use outcomes is understudied. Using data from the National Comorbidity Study - Replication (N=6203), we examined how changes in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are related to use and abuse/dependence of licit (alcohol and tobacco) and illicit drugs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for potential confounders including demographic characteristics, familial disruption during childhood, and comorbid major depression. Religiosity was inversely associated with use and misuse of both licit and illicit substances; however this relationship varied by level of childhood religiosity. Relative to stable levels of religiosity from childhood to adulthood, a 2-unit decrease in religiosity from childhood was associated with increased likelihood of illicit drug use in the past year (odds ratio (OR): 2.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-4.25). However, a 2-unit increase in religiosity was also associated with past-year illicit drug use (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.09-3.13). Comparable associations were found with a range of recent and lifetime measures of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. Substantial gains or losses in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are associated with substance use and misuse. Findings support the use of a life course approach to understanding the relationship between religiosity and substance use outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  5. Plant volatiles and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loreto, F.; Dicke, M.; Schnitzler, J.P.; Turlings, T.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted by plants represent the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, constitutively and after stress induction. In recent years, our understanding of the func

  6. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances. Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use. Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of ...

  7. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for opioid and other substance use during infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tricia E

    2017-08-01

    Opioid use and misuse have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, especially in women of childbearing age, some of whom seek infertility treatments. Substance use is much more common than many of the conditions routinely screened for during the preconception period, and it can have devastating consequences for the woman and her family. Substance use can worsen infertility, complicate pregnancy, increase medical problems, and lead to psychosocial difficulties for the woman and her family. The reproductive endocrinologist thus has an ethical and medical duty to screen for substance use, provide initial counseling, and refer to specialized treatment as needed. This article provides an overview of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT), a public health approach shown to be effective in ameliorating the harms of substance use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... fi…rst order Markov process and show that our model is closely related to the CEV and Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard (2001) models for local volatility. We show that if measurement noise in the observable volatility proxies is not accounted for, then the estimated autoregressive parameter in the latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  9. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  10. Misuse of social media marketing by alcohol companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirhusain A Shaikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.

  11. Misuses of biology in the context of the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, G C

    1988-04-15

    Public suspicion of science stems from science's challenging of perceptions and myths about reality, and a public fear of new technology. The result is a susceptibility to pseudoscience. In claiming that creation 'science' is as valid as evolution the creationists misquote scientists and seek to spread their own 'scientific' myths concerning a young age for the earth, an act of creation based on a particular literalist interpretation of the Christian Bible and a single worldwide flood. They use methods of debate and politics, rather than scientific research. A selection of their arguments is examined and the nature of the evidence for evolution is discussed. Problems with the creation 'science' model are noted. In the myth of the hundredth monkey phenomenon, original research is misquoted to denigrate scientific research and support sentimental ideas of paranormal events. The misuse of science is seen as damaging to society because it reduces the effective gathering and application of scientific information. However, pseudoscience provides a valuable guide to gaps in public scientific education.

  12. Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids for Cosmetic Purpose in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Sendrasoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8% used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16–73 years. Two hundred and sixty-one females (68% used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32% used TC alone. “Pandalao,” which contains salicylic acid, peppermint oil, lanolin, powder of Juanes de Vigo (mercury powder, and Vaseline, is the most handcrafted cosmetic combined with TC in our study (used by 29,4% respondents. Only one (0,26% had obtained the TC by physician’s prescription, 234 (61% from cosmetic retailers, 92 (23% directly from local pharmacies, 49 (12% from beauticians, and 15 (4% from unspecified sources. Lightening of skin color was the main reason for using TC in 44,8% of respondents in the absence of any primary dermatosis. Pigmentation disorders (63,2% and cutaneous atrophy (52,1% were the most adverse effects noted.

  13. Determination of Medronic Acid and Its Related Substances by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An isocratic liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the determination of medronic acid and its related substance. Volatile pentylamine was used as ion-pairing agent. Separations were performend

  14. Substance use over the military-veteran life course: an analysis of a sample of OEF/OIF veterans returning to low-income predominately minority communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of substance use patterns of recent veterans returning to low-income predominately minority communities over four periods of the military-veteran career. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was used so that unbiased estimates could be obtained for the characteristics of the target population. The majority of participants had used marijuana but no other illegal drugs. In the military, marijuana use was substantially lower and alcohol was the drug of choice; the majority were binge drinkers and nearly half were heavy drinkers. While deployed, alcohol and marijuana use were both lower, though some participants (6%) initiated the misuse of prescription painkillers. After separating from the military and returning to civilian life, heavy drinking was much lower, marijuana use increased, and some veterans misused prescription painkillers (7%). Further research based on these data will examine these distinct periods of substance use, contexts of use, related substance and mental health problems, treatment use and avoidance, and civilian reintegration.

  15. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    , cannabis, or hard drug misuse), date of death, primary cause of death, and education level. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios (SHRs) for cause-specific mortality associated with substance use disorder of alcohol, cannabis, or hard drugs. We calculated...... is far higher in individuals with substance use disorders than in those without, particularly in people who misuse alcohol and hard drugs. Mortality-reducing interventions should focus on patients with a dual diagnosis and seek to prevent or treat substance use disorders. FUNDING: The Lundbeck Foundation....... significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, both individually (alcohol, HR 1·52 [95% CI 1·40-1·65], pdrugs, 1·78 [1·56-2·04], p

  16. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis

    2001-01-01

    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  17. Validation of an extended method for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids in sports, including new hydroxylated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, P; Van Eenoo, P; Van Thuyne, W; Geyer, H; Schänzer, W; Delbeke, F T

    2008-12-15

    Endogenous steroids are amongst the most misused doping agents in sports. Their presence poses a major challenge for doping control laboratories. Current threshold levels do not allow for the detection of all endogenous steroid misuse due to great interindividual variations in urinary steroid concentrations. A method has been developed and validated to screen for traditionally monitored endogenous steroids in doping control as well as specific hydroxylated/oxygenated metabolites in order to enhance the detection capabilities for the misuse of endogenous steroids.

  18. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  19. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  20. Treating substance abuse and mental health issues as 'mutually-exclusive' entities: Best practice or an outmoded approach to intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Adrian; Clark, Jane; Kelly, David

    2016-02-01

    Addressing the psychological distress of individuals experiencing substance use disorders has too often been relegated to the 'too hard basket', leaving those affected with little choice but to receive treatments aimed solely at addressing their drug and alcohol issues. Conversely, individuals receiving support for psychological issues are often underdiagnosed with regards to any comorbid substance misuse problems. In fact, to date, no definitive treatment model exists that gives equal focus to the treatment of both psychological well-being and substance-related addictions. This is not to suggest, however, that existing treatment programmes for substance misuse are not impacting positively on clients' mental health, rather that further research is needed in order to determine what it is that is supporting such improvements. The aim of this study, therefore, was to address this imbalance by examining the correlation between substance dependence and psychological well-being. Using a descriptive correlation design, the Severity of Dependence and Kessler 10 scales were administered to 37 inpatient and outpatient clients at a rural drug and alcohol rehabilitation service, at intake and 2 months into treatment. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired-samples t-tests. Positive correlative factors of improvement between substance dependence and psychological well-being were found for both groups. In light of these findings, the authors recommend that future research be undertaken to investigate the causal factors for this correlation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. History of childhood abuse, sensation seeking, and intimate partner violence under/not under the influence of a substance: a cross-sectional study in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihai Zhan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. METHODS: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Of 299 women, 104 (34.8% and 113 (37.8% reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1% of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. CONCLUSIONS: IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking. Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.

  2. Alcohol misuse, firearm violence perpetration, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-10-01

    Firearm violence is a significant public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is frequently involved. This article reviews existing research on the relationships between alcohol misuse; ownership, access to, and use of firearms; and the commission of firearm violence, and discusses the policy implications of these findings. Narrative review augmented by new tabulations of publicly-available data. Acute and chronic alcohol misuse is positively associated with firearm ownership, risk behaviors involving firearms, and risk for perpetrating both interpersonal and self-directed firearm violence. In an average month, an estimated 8.9 to 11.7 million firearm owners binge drink. For men, deaths from alcohol-related firearm violence equal those from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Enforceable policies restricting access to firearms for persons who misuse alcohol are uncommon. Policies that restrict access on the basis of other risk factors have been shown to reduce risk for subsequent violence. The evidence suggests that restricting access to firearms for persons with a documented history of alcohol misuse would be an effective violence prevention measure. Restrictions should rely on unambiguous definitions of alcohol misuse to facilitate enforcement and should be rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Herbivore-induced volatile emission in black poplar: regulation and role in attracting herbivore enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Irmisch, Sandra; Reinecke, Andreas; Boeckler, G Andreas; Veit, Daniel; Reichelt, Michael; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-08-01

    After herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds from damaged foliage as well as from nearby undamaged leaves that attract herbivore enemies. Little is known about what controls the volatile emission differences between damaged and undamaged tissues and how these affect the orientation of herbivore enemies. We investigated volatile emission from damaged and adjacent undamaged foliage of black poplar (Populus nigra) after herbivory by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars and determined the compounds mediating the attraction of the gypsy moth parasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis (Braconidae). Female parasitoids were more attracted to gypsy moth-damaged leaves than to adjacent non-damaged leaves. The most characteristic volatiles of damaged versus neighbouring undamaged leaves included terpenes, green leaf volatiles and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as aldoximes and nitriles. Electrophysiological recordings and olfactometer bioassays demonstrated the importance of nitrogenous volatiles. Under field conditions, parasitic Hymenoptera were more attracted to traps baited with these substances than most other compounds. The differences in volatile emission profiles between damaged and undamaged foliage appear to be regulated by jasmonate signalling and the local activation of volatile biosynthesis. We conclude that characteristic volatiles from damaged black poplar foliage are essential cues enabling parasitoids to find their hosts.

  4. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p urban air were able to induce genetic mutations in S. typhimurium TA98 strain (± S9), but not in TA100 strain, with a revertants/plate number nine times higher than the negative control. Comet assay showed that winter extracts were more toxic and genotoxic than spring extracts. All the mutagenicity tests performed confirmed that urban air in North Italy in winter contains both volatile and non-volatile genotoxic substances able to induce genetic damage in bacteria, human cells and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence that the factor used by the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, to direct the foraging of its intermediate host, Tribolium confusum, is a volatile attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W S; Wong, A; Hardy, M; Currie, R W; Vanderwel, D

    1998-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, are more attracted to the feces from rats with patent Hymenolepis diminuta infections than to feces from uninfected rats. The objective of this study was to determine if this effect is due to a volatile attractant. Volatile substances emitted by feces from H. diminuta-infected rats or from uninfected controls were collected by aspirating fresh rat feces, while trapping the volatiles on Porapak Q (a solid adsorbant). The volatiles were eluted from the Porapak Q with diethyl ether, and the relative attractancy of the volatiles to prestarved beetles was assessed by bioassay. More beetles were attracted to volatiles of feces from infected rats than to volatiles of feces from uninfected controls (Pconfusum) through the use of attractive, volatile material released from the feces of its definitive host.

  6. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  7. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate d...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  8. Volatile signals during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Scents play a key role in mediating reproductive interactions in many vertebrates including mammals. Nowadays, several studies indicate that humans seem to use remarkably olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive pheromones. Furthermore, over the past several years, it became increasingly clear that pheromone-like chemical signals probably play a role in offspring identification and mother recognition. Recently developed technical procedures (solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace extraction) now allow investigators to characterize volatile compounds with high reliability. We analyzed the volatile compounds in sweat patch samples collected from the para-axillary and nipple-areola regions of women during pregnancy and after childbirth. We hypothesized that, at the time of birth and during the first weeks of life, the distinctive olfactory pattern of the para-axillary area is probably useful to newborn babies for recognizing and distinguishing their own mother, whereas the characteristic pattern of the nipple-areola region is probably useful as a guide to nourishment.

  9. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  10. Prevalence of alcohol misuse among men and women undergoing major noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili;

    2012-01-01

    Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption Questionnaire (AUDIT-C ≥5 points) have significantly increased postoperative complications. Severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥9 points) is associated with increased postoperative health care ...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1249 - Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by a representative payee. 416.1249 Section 416.1249 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Exclusions § 416.1249 Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by...

  12. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.71 False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. (a... or indirectly, to the U.S. Government, false or misleading export information through the AES,...

  13. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  14. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  15. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  16. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  17. Abused, confused, and misused words a writer's guide to usage, spelling, grammar, and sentence structure

    CERN Document Server

    Embree, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Have you been putting bullion in your soup? Is incorrect spelling starting to have a negative affect on your term papers? Do you wonder what someone is inferring when they tell you to pick up a dictionary? These are just a few of the commonly misunderstood words discussed and explained in Abused, Confused, and Misused Words, an entertaining and informative look at the ever-changing nature of the English language. An alphabetical list of words that are frequently misspelled or misused is accompanied by a style guide to usage rules that tells you how and why

  18. Abuse-deterrent formulations, an evolving technology against the abuse and misuse of opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Tammi

    2012-12-01

    The increased use of opioid pain medication has been mirrored by the increased misuse and abuse of these drugs. As part of a multidisciplinary approach to this epidemic, pharmaceutical companies, with the encouragement of the Food and Drug Administration, have increased the development of abuse-deterrent formulations. While all have the goal of treating pain while mitigating misuse and abuse, there are different technologies utilized to impart the abuse-deterrent properties. The goal of this paper is to review the basis of abuse-deterrent formulations, the different types and approaches of some of the abuse-deterrent products, and their current regulatory status in the USA.

  19. Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qin; JIN Youju; HU Yongiian; CHEN Huajun; LI Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer(TCT-GC-MS)technique,the composition and relative contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged(control),insect-damaged(ID)and artificially-damaged(AD)leaves ofPinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage.Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier in AD leaves plants,they were significantly less abundant in AD than in ID leaves treatments.Also,the damage level considerably influenced the changes of induced volatile products from leaves.Compared with the control,the emission rate of camphene,β-pinene,phellandrene,caryophyllene and(E)farnesene was high after 1 h in 25%-40% ID-affected leaves,whereas that of tricyclene,myrcene,camphene,β-Pinene,phellandrene and caryophyllene reached its maximum after 24 h in 60%-75% D-affected leaves.In the same manner,some volatile compounds in the AD leaves treatment displayed their peaks just after 1 h,but others after 24 h.The AD and ID leaves at the damage level of 25%-40% did not exhibit an obvious regularity with time;however,in 60%- 75% AD leaves,peaks of volatile substances were attained after 1 or 2 h.Our results also showed that the relative content ofβ-pinene increased and was higher in damaged than control plants,β-pinene plays an important role in inducing the insect resistance of P.massoniana trees.

  20. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-06-17

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56 different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC50 algae, while volatile compounds like chlorinated solvents or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene had less effect on trees than on these aquatic plants, due to volatilization from leaves and test media. In particular low (g/L range) toxicity was observed for tested nanomaterials. Effects of pharmaceuticals (typically weak acids or bases) depended strongly of the solution pH. Like for algae, baseline toxicity was observed for willows, which is related to the water solubility of the compounds, with absolute chemical activity ranging from 0.01 to 0.1, but with several exceptions. We conclude that the willow tree toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees.

  1. Organic substances in ashes; Organiska aemnen i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Based on a review of available literature the following conclusions have been reached: Organic substances constitute a minor part of the TOC, Total Organic Carbon, and inert, elemental carbon constitutes the major part, TOC being expressed as weight percent of the ash. Organic substances are trace substances, with concentrations of the order a few mg/kg, exceptionally g/kg, in screening analyses, and of the order of ng/kg to mg/kg in dedicated analyses. The results from a screening of organic content depend largely on sample preparation and the method of analysis. The substances that are commonly identified are aliphatic acids and n-alkanes (semi-volatile substances). However, in one investigation chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene were found instead, which are more volatile than acids and n-alkanes In the leachates, organic substances are mostly humus-like relatively high molecular products of degradation. There is not any experimental evidence for substances to be terminated, which evidence would allow an assessment of their importance. The concentrations of dioxins and furans in all ashes seem to be low, from a few ng/kg TEQ ta few tens of ng/kg TEQ. Their concentration in bioashes is significantly lower than the default value in UNEP's guidelines for national inventories of sources of dioxins. The exception is air pollution control residues from waste incineration, which residues contain 200 - 2,000 ng/kg TEQ depending on the type of plant. If combustion residues from waste incineration are well investigated, residues from other fuels are not. The concentration of PAH varies more widely and is more uncertain, from 0.015 mg/kg DS ta few hundreds of mg/kg DS. It is not feasible tassess the consequences for the environment of the presence of organic substances in ashes in this survey. This demands a separate study.

  2. Parent/child transactional processes predictive of resilience or vulnerability to "substance abuse disorders".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Bluth, Barye

    2004-04-01

    This article discusses implications of a theoretical model of resilience--the Resilience Framework, including the impact of parent/child transactional processes in moderating or mediating a child's biological or environmental risks and later substance misuse. Research is presented on behavioral and emotional precursors of substance abuse disorders in children of substance users. Detrimental processes within dysfunctional family environments are presented followed by a listing of strategies for increasing resilience in youth by improving family dynamics. The value in elucidating these interactive processes is to increase our understanding of ways to reduce the impact of risk factors. Prevention providers should use these strategies as benchmarks for selecting or developing effective family-focused prevention programs. Resources are presented for finding effective family interventions as well as an example of a family intervention based on resilience principles, namely the Strengthening Families Program. Recommendations are made for future research and better dissemination of evidence-based family interventions.

  3. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted.

  4. Evaluating the impact of a partnership for creating change in substance misuse practice in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anita J; Holloway, David G

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of an innovative education and training programme for nurses and narcologists in St. Petersburg, Russia. The aims of the evaluation were: first, to evaluate the effect of the education and training programme on the clinical practice of doctors and nurses who have had direct contact with the programme and, second, to evaluate the influence of the education and training programme on city-wide drug and alcohol policy and practice. Brief contextual information regarding the programme is provided prior to an account of the qualitative methodology. Particular attention was paid to the work of Patton [Utilisation-focused evaluation, second ed., Sage, London, 1986; Qualitative research and evaluation methods, third ed., Sage, London, 2002] for the theoretical framework and to Hantais and Mangen [Cross-national research methods in the social sciences, Pinter, London, 1996] regarding the methodological issues that surround international and cross-cultural research projects. Data collection was carried out in St. Petersburg and in the United Kingdom, which involved key participants in the programme. The data analysis followed Miles and Huberman [Qualitative data analysis. An expanded sourcebook, second ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994] which yielded six major themes: rehabilitation, the role and continuing professional development of the trained nurse; the status of the nurse training-college and the staff, small scale projects and their significance; sharing experiences/networking/face-to-face meetings; and, lack of resistance. The findings are discussed and recommendations for further involvement are identified.

  5. Intention and willingness in understanding Ritalin misuse among Iranian medical college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali; Aghaei, Abbas

    2014-06-30

    Ritalin misuse can create powerful stimulant effects and serious health risks. The main aim of present study was compared that two cognitive construct (behavioral intention or behavioral willingness) for predicting Ritalin misuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 Iranian medical college students; participants selected in random sampling, and data were collected by using self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 at 95% significant level. Our findings showed, the three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) prototype accounted for 29% of the variation in intention and 25% of the variation in willingness to Ritalin misuse. In addition, behavioral intention was a stronger prediction factor compared to willingness for Ritalin misuse, with odds ratio estimate of 1.607 [95% CI: 1.167, 2.213]. There is some support to use the prototype willingness model to design interventions to improve individuals' beliefs that academic goals are achievable without the misuse of Ritalin.

  6. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane.

  7. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  8. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  9. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  10. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  11. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. They consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. An analytical framework, which offers pragmatic solutions for long-term investors who seek exposure to volatility, is used to calibrate and assess the risk-return profiles of portfolios. The benefit of volatility exposure for a...

  12. Reduced Heart Rate Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Eric L.; Morris, John A.; Norris, Patrick R.; France, Daniel J.; Ozdas, Asli; Stiles, Renée A.; Harris, Paul A.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Speroff, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if using dense data capture to measure heart rate volatility (standard deviation) measured in 5-minute intervals predicts death. Background: Fundamental approaches to assessing vital signs in the critically ill have changed little since the early 1900s. Our prior work in this area has demonstrated the utility of densely sampled data and, in particular, heart rate volatility over the entire patient stay, for predicting death and prolonged ventilation. Methods: Approximately 120 million heart rate data points were prospectively collected and archived from 1316 trauma ICU patients over 30 months. Data were sampled every 1 to 4 seconds, stored in a relational database, linked to outcome data, and de-identified. HR standard deviation was continuously computed over 5-minute intervals (CVRD, cardiac volatility–related dysfunction). Logistic regression models incorporating age and injury severity score were developed on a test set of patients (N = 923), and prospectively analyzed in a distinct validation set (N = 393) for the first 24 hours of ICU data. Results: Distribution of CVRD varied by survival in the test set. Prospective evaluation of the model in the validation set gave an area in the receiver operating curve of 0.81 with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.1 and 80.0, respectively. CVRD predict death as early as 24 hours in the validation set. Conclusions: CVRD identifies a subgroup of patients with a high probability of dying. Death is predicted within first 24 hours of stay. We hypothesize CVRD is a surrogate for autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:15319726

  13. Monitoring substance use in prisons: Assessing the potential value of wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyken, Emma; Thai, Phong; Lai, Foon Yin; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Prison substance use is a major concern for prison authorities and the wider community. Australia has responded to this problem by implementing the National Corrections Drug Strategy. Across Australia, the true extent of prison substance use cannot be determined. As a result, the effectiveness of the interventions employed as part of this strategy cannot be properly assessed. This has important implications for the allocation of corrective services resources and future policy development. This article explores the benefits and limitations, as well as the ethical and practical issues in using wastewater analysis (WWA) to measure levels of substance use in prisons. It reports results from the first application of WWA to an Australian prison, which supports the use of WWA in this context. Given the increasing concern for prescription misuse in prisons, we also highlight the novel use of WWA to measure the extent of prescription misuse by prisoners. The article concludes that as a result of its objectivity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness, the use of WWA in prisons warrants further consideration in Australia.

  14. Over-, under- and misuse of pain treatment in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (Health Technology Assessment deals with over- and undertreatment of pain therapy. Especially in Germany chronic pain is a common reason for the loss of working hours and early retirement. In addition to a reduction in quality of life for the affected persons, chronic pain is therefore also an enormous economic burden for society. Objectives: Which diseases are in particular relevant regarding pain therapy? What is the social-medical care situation regarding pain facilities in Germany? What is the social-medical care situation in pain therapy when comparing on international level? Which effects, costs or cost-effects can be seen on the micro-, meso- and macro level with regard to pain therapy? Among which social-medical services in pain therapy is there is an over- or undertreatment with regard to the micro-, meso- and macro level? Which medical and organisational aspects that have an effect on the costs and/or cost-effectiveness have to be particularly taken into account with regard to pain treatment/chronic pain? What is the influence of the individual patient's needs (micro level in different situations of pain (e. g. palliative situation on the meso- and macro level? Which social-medical and ethical aspects for an adequate treatment of chronic pain on each level have to be specially taken into account? Is the consideration of these aspects appropriate to avoid over- or undertreatment? Are juridical questions included in every day care of chronic pain patients, mainly in palliative care? On which level can appropriate interventions prevent over- or undertreatment? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. In the HTA, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies and economic evaluations are included which report about pain therapy and in particular palliative care in the years 2005 till 2010. Results: 47 studies meet the inclusion criteria. An undertreatment of acupuncture, over- and misuse

  15. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  17. ASSOCIATION OF GUTKA/CANNABIS MISUSE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: History of drug abuse which included Gutka/cannabis and not alcohol intake has been found in psychiatric patients attending Psychiatry outpatients. AIMS: To find out prevalence of cannabis/Gutka misuse among psychiatric patients , to find out socio - demographic variables , and pattern of psychiatric disorders among cannabis/g utka misusers. METHOD: Out of 150 psychiatric patients 18 were identified for cannabis/gutka misuse. These patients were examined and categorized according to socio - demographic characteristics and types of mental disorders diagnosed by using DSM - IV. RESULT S: Most of the psychiatric patients who had history of cannabis/Gutka intake were male (96.4% and 76% were in age group of 15 - 35 years. 48.6% bipolar type - 1 , 23% schizophreniform psychosis , 14% had drug induced psychosis and 1.4% psychosis NOS patients we re found in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Young male patients were more commonly involved in drug misuse and most of them belong to rural area.

  18. Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine/Naloxone Diversion, Misuse, and Illicit Use: An International Review

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The diversion, misuse, and non-medically supervised use of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone by opioid users are reviewed. Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are used globally as opioid analgesics and in the treatment of opioid dependency. Diversion of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone represents a complex medical and social issue, and has been widely documented in various geographical regions throughout the world.

  19. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  20. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  1. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  2. Dispositional, Ecological and Biological Influences on Adolescent Tranquilizer, Ritalin, and Narcotics Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which two of the three sources of risk-taking--dispositional and ecological--in adolescence and demographic variables were related to Ritalin, tranquilizer and narcotics misuse. The secondary aim of this study was to distinguish subgroups of Ritalin, tranquilizer, and narcotics…

  3. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  4. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.11 Definition and misuse of the word... to represent, directly or by implication, that industrial grade diamonds or other non-jewelry quality diamonds are of jewelry quality. (c) The following are examples of descriptions that are not...

  5. Opioid Misuse/Abuse and Quality Persistent Pain Management in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ping; Compton, Peggy

    2016-12-01

    The United States is amid an epidemic of prescription opioid drug abuse, bringing with it not only high rates of overdose, but growing rates of heroin abuse and addiction. Liberal opioid drug prescribing on the part of well-meaning clinicians has in part fueled this epidemic, being correlated to opioid death and addiction treatment admission rates. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioid drugs is greatest among young adults (ages 18 to 25); however, the fastest growing age group for opioid drug misuse/abuse is older (ages 50 to 64). Prescription opioid drug use issues may emerge in the context of persistent pain, and risk factors for misuse/abuse and overdose in older patients with pain require further description. In keeping with national initiatives to combat prescription opioid drug abuse and overdose, current clinical guidelines reflect an "opioid-sparing" approach. To the degree that these guidelines improve persistent pain and opioid drug misuse/abuse outcomes, significant public health benefits will be accrued. Efforts to reduce both require action and are national priorities. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(12), 21-30.].

  6. 78 FR 14701 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications... Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services...) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (TTY). Synopsis As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  7. [Misuse of drugs: conclusions of the pharmacovigilance workshops at La Baule, France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermont, I

    2002-01-01

    Drug iatrogeny is a current Public Health issue; it is often related to misuse and is therefore preventable. The congress "Les Ateliers de Pharmacovigilance de La Baule" (May 2001) bringing together pharmacovigilance staff from both the industry and Health authorities, showed that misuse concerns every step of the drug process--prescription, dispensing and administration--and all health professionals as well as the patient. New concepts have been brought to light with regard to the definition of misuse: the medical point of view should be preferred, based on the risk taken by a given patient without the expected benefit. product characteristics alone are inadequate and should be enlarged by relevent scientific data. the main goal is to improve the quality of healthcare by preventing misuse. A working group including Pharmacovigilance staff from the industry, the CRPV and the Afssaps has: to reach a consensus on definition in France and then propose it to EMEA; to analyse and propose specific prevention actions; to write a vademecum of those involved in this prevention.

  8. Near-death states reported in a sample of 50 misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    Increase in recreational ketamine use may be a cause for concern. We aimed here at assessing, in a sample of ketamine misusers, concordance between the typical near-death experience (NDE) features and the on-drug psychoactive effects the subjects experienced. In 2003-2005, a sample of previous ketamine misusers recollecting a ketamine-related NDE were recruited through snowballing and screened with the means of the Greyson NDE Scale; 125 participants made an initial contact with the researcher and 50 reported a minimum score of seven at the "Greyson NDE Scale". Interviewees were in the range 21-66 years old; 27 participants (54%) were educated at BA level, 18 (36%) had an MSc, and 5 (10%) a PhD. Eight (16%) interviewees had a definite religious background. An average lifetime ketamine intake of 140 occasions was reported by the interviewees, who typically presented with a polydrug, including cannabis and MDMA/ecstasy, misuse history. In 45 (90%) cases, the NDE occurred during the first few occasions of intake. Most frequent features of reported NDE states included: altered perception of time (90%), strong sense of detaching from own physical body (88%), and a sense of peace/joy (76% of subjects). Although results here described were elicited from a self-selected, nonrandomized, limited size sample of misusers, we suggest that recreational ketamine intake may be associated with occurrence of near-death related states.

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  10. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  11. Stimulant Medication Use, Misuse, and Abuse in an Undergraduate and Graduate Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barbara Prudhomme; Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Grace-Bishop, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the characteristics of use, misuse, and abuse of stimulant medication (primarily methylphenidate and variants) among students at a northeastern US university. Researchers sent an invitation to take an Internet survey to student e-mail addresses and passed 150 paper surveys in undergraduate classes, analyzing…

  12. Students Use "STAMP-OUT" Program to Advance Seniors' Knowledge of Drug Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabrielle; Torres, Elisa; Wahler, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    This program assessed the impact of student presentations on 30 seniors and sought to improve their knowledge of prescription drug misuse and abuse. The six pharmacy students used the ASCP Foundation's "STAMP Out Prescription Drug Misuse and Abuse Tool Kit." Information presented to senior audiences included descriptions of drug misuse and abuse and preventive measures to uphold medication safety. Students assessed seniors' prior knowledge about the topics through audience participation. Afterwards, a self-assessment quiz was given that examined participants' learning about safe medication practices. Before the presentation, only 36% of participants recognized the difference between prescription drug misuse and abuse. The self-assessment quiz results showed that following the three presentations, all 30 participants received perfect scores: The results showed an improvement in knowledge after attending the student presentations. This program demonstrates advancement of the pharmacy profession through educating seniors on proper medication use to prevent drug abuse and improve medication safety. OTC = Over-the-counter, UB SPPS: University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

  13. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  14. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  15. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received...

  16. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  17. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  18. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. Results One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Conclusions Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. PMID:23380490

  19. Four Intoxication Cases Related to the Misuse of Sage Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Gündüz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile colic is excessive crying of infants younger than 4 months. Families of children suffering from infantile colic attend to the emergency department frequently and the etiology is not well-known. However many families of chil­dren suffering from infantile colic try pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment, they are sleepless and ex­hausted and are affected negatively. Sage oil is in volatile form and it is recommended to apply 1-2 drops on plantar and tummy region of the body by massage for the treat­ment of infantile colic. Most of drugs used for infantile colic are drops and used orally. Families who do not learn detailed usage information may use it orally or may pre­sumed another drug while suffering from sleepless and drowsiness. Herein we reported 4 cases of sage oil intoxi­cation because of wrong information of wrong application of sage oil. We aimed to reduce the prescribing of sage oil in the treatment of infantile colic and emphasize to give more information about proper use of sage oil.

  20. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  1. The Unspoken Shift From Quality to Quantity Standards In Substance Use(r) Treatment and Prevention: A Challenge to Unfinished Intervention Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    A common flaw when dealing with substance use and misuse is the over-inclination to (re)-act; a reflexive "knee-jerk" and not a well-planned act which is theoretically and empirically informed. It seems that a shift from quantity-driven standards back to quality-driven standards would be best achieved by encouraging politicians, stock holders, and decision makers to question more, before financially supporting any prevention intervention.

  2. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  3. Referral patterns and clinical characteristics of subjects referred to substance abuse clinic of a regional hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A; Liang, H J; Ungvari, G S; Tang, W K

    2011-03-01

    To examine the clinical characteristics of subjects referred to the Substance Abuse Clinic of the Prince of Wales Hospital between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009 in Hong Kong. A chart review of 131 subjects referred to the Substance Abuse Clinic during the study period was carried out. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by a psychiatrist, according to the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases. Social workers were increasingly a main source of referrals, accounting for 34% of referrals during the entire study period (and 43% in 2009). Another important referral source was the Hospital Authority system in Hong Kong, which accounted for 38% of referrals over the 3-year study period. Ketamine, methamphetamine, and cough mixtures were the most common drugs of primary misuse, the proportion of users being 34%, 24% and 12%, respectively. In these referals, the most common psychiatric diagnosis was substance-induced psychotic disorder, followed by depressive disorder, made in 44% and 22% of the subjects, respectively. Among Hong Kong substance abusers, psychotic and depressive disorders are common, and ketamine is the most commonly misused drug.

  4. Metacognitive mastery moderates the relationship of alexithymia with cluster C personality disorder traits in adults with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Olesek, Kyle; Buck, Kelly; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Vohs, Jenifer; Ringer, Jamie; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Outcalt, Jared

    2014-03-01

    Cluster C personality disorder traits have been observed in substance use disorders and linked with poorer outcome. One potential factor which may cause these disturbances in personality function is alexithymia, or the inability to name and express emotion. There may be other proximate factors which moderate the impact of alexithymia on the expression of cluster C traits, such as metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems. To examine the possibility that mastery mediated the effects of alexithymia on cluster C traits, we assessed each of these constructs using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and SCID II among 58 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance misuse disorders in a residential setting. Results of a multiple regression revealed that, after controlling for symptom severity and severity of substance misuse history, metacognitive mastery moderated the effect of alexithymia on number of cluster C traits. A median split and subsequent ANCOVA revealed that participants with higher levels of alexithymia and poorer metacognitive mastery had more cluster C traits than the other groups. These findings may have clinical implications, suggesting that patients with substance use disorders may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery.

  5. On forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In an efficient market, foreign exchange rates have to guarantee absence of triangular arbitrage. This note shows that the no-arbitrage condition can be exploited for forecasting the volatility of a single rate by using the information contained in the other rates. Linearly transforming the volatility forecasts of a bivariate model is shown to be more efficient than using a univariate model for the cross-rate.

  6. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  7. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming

    2016-01-05

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  8. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  9. 16 CFR 23.3 - Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.3 Misuse of the terms “hand... bulk sheet, strip, wire, and similar items that have not been cut, shaped, or formed into jewelry...

  10. Australian adolescents beliefs and help-seeking intentions towards peers experiencing symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D I Lubman; A Cheetham; A F Jorm; B J Berridge; C Wilson; F Blee; L Mckay-Brown; N Allen; J Proimos

    2017-01-01

    .... The current study examined adolescents’ ability to recognise symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse, perceived barriers to help-seeking, and their intentions to encourage a peer to seek help from a range of informal and formal help sources...

  11. Is "drunkorexia" an eating disorder, substance use disorder, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2016-08-01

    Researchers have identified a specific behavior pattern labeled "drunkorexia" to describe recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., fasting and self-induced vomiting) to avoid weight gain from consuming alcohol (referred to as ICB-WGA). Several studies have investigated the prevalence of these behaviors among college students, but few have tested whether this behavior pattern is more strongly related to substance use or disordered eating, which may have future implications for eating disorder and substance abuse research fields. The aim of this project was to test: (1) whether disordered eating or alcohol use adds incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA when controlling for the other variable and (2) the effect of sex on ICB-WGA. College participants (N=579; 53% female) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and several questions designed to measure ICB-WGA. Results indicated that EPSI Restricting and Body Dissatisfaction scales were not significant predictors of ICB-WGA, whereas the AUDIT and EPSI Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Purging, and Binge Eating scales significantly predicted ICB-WGAs. Results indicated that disordered eating and alcohol use both added incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA; however, ICB-WGA was more strongly related to disordered eating, and this was particularly true for women. Our findings suggest that individuals engaging in ICB-WGA may be at-risk for future development of both eating and substance disorders. Notably, our findings highlight the need for future research to focus on trans-diagnostic prevention programs that target mechanisms that underlie both disordered eating and substance misuse.

  12. Review of cases of patient risk associated with ginseng abuse and misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Jin Paik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng has long been used as a functional food or therapeutic supplement and it is empirically known to be safe and nontoxic. During recent decades, a number of in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies have been conducted to prove the safety of various types of ginseng samples and their components. Clinical trials, case reports, and in vitro and in vivo research articles addressing the safety, toxicity, and other adverse events of ginseng application were selected and reviewed. Patient risks associated with ginseng abuse and misuse such as affective disorder, allergy, cardiovascular and renal toxicity, genital organ bleeding, gynecomastia, hepatotoxicity, hypertension, reproductive toxicity, and anticoagulant-ginseng interaction were reviewed and summarized. There are some cases of patient risk associated with ginseng abuse and misuse depending on patients' conditions although further investigation in more cases is required to clarify these issues.

  13. Misuse of "Power" and Other Mechanical Terms in Sport and Exercise Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.

  14. [Psychological effects of alcohol misuse on the professional home caregivers in support with elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Alba; Varescon, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Very little research is made on professional home caregivers in support of seniors, especially those dealing with alcohol misuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between professional home caregivers and seniors with alcohol misuse, in terms of job satisfaction, professional life and emotional exhaustion. 99 professional home caregivers completed a professional data questionnaire (ESVP) and an inventory of professional burnout (MBI). Demographic and professional data, as well as dimensions of professional life satisfaction and professional exhaustion questionnaires were analyzed. Out of the 99 participants, 36 professional home caregivers reported difficulties dealing with alcohol misuse in seniors. The mean age of the home caregivers was 35 years old and half of them did not receive any training for support. The majority of them qualified the relationship with the aged as "distant and nonexistent". In contrast, most of them were satisfied with regard to the relationship with the relatives of the subjects, and were almost as many to call it "cordial" as well as "cold distant, non-existent". Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the satisfaction of the relationship with the relatives. Emotional exhaustion was negatively correlated with their job satisfaction in the support of the subjects. This study is, to our knowledge, the first one to highlight the importance for professional home caregivers to have good relationships with the relatives of seniors with alcohol misuse. Research in this area is scarce, despite the development of home care for the elderly, whatever their pathologies, and at the early start of a French ministerial plan on society's adaptation to ageing.

  15. NEGLIGENCE AND MISUSE OF AN OFFICIAL POSITION FAULT OR MENS REA OF THE CIVIL SERVANT?

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Daniela RUS; Laura Leda PANAIOT

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this paper concerns a thorough analysis of two crimes enshrined in the Romanian Criminal Code – negligence and misuse of an official position by a civil servant. Its content lies at the borderline of three areas of law: Criminal, Administrative and European Community Law. Within its first chapter the authors display a series of information regarding the concept of civil servant as perceived in several different legal systems, also comprising the European Union. Furthermore, there...

  16. A qualitative exploration of Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Millie J. Darvell; Kavanagh, David J; Connolly, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many Internet-based treatments for depression and for alcohol misuse have a positive impact, yet little is known about how these treatments work. Most research on web-based interventions involves efficacy trials which, while important, offer little explanation about how people perceive and use online programs. Objective: This study aimed to undertake a qualitative exploration of participants' experience, perceived impact and use of an integrated web-based program for comorbid d...

  17. Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Alain

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Methods Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Results Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Conclusion Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to

  18. Abuse of Rachel Carson and Misuse of DDT Science in the Service of Environmental Deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingxiang; Ward, Michael D; Kahr, Bart

    2017-08-14

    Fake news?? The contact insecticide DDT has been reappraised as a safe, life-saving compound by special interest groups committed to repealing environmental regulations. It is shown in this essay how some specific toxicological data has been misused by those aiming to disingenuously influence public policy. Graphic: Pestroy, a DDT-laced coating marketed in 1946 by Sherwin-Williams Research Laboratories. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Alcohol use and misuse: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain

    2008-09-24

    This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige) have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to avoid erroneous conclusions about the specific role of the

  20. Spiral mining for lunar volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Carrier, W. D., III

    Lunar spiral mining, extending outward from a periodically mobile central power and processing station represents an alternative for comparison with more traditional mining schemes. In this concept, a mining machine would separate regolith fines and extract the contained volatiles. Volatiles then would be pumped along the miner's support arm to the central station for refining and for export or storage. The basic architecture of the central processing station would be cylindrical. A central core area could house the power subsystem of hydrogen-oxygen engines or fuel cells. Habitat sections and other crew occupied areas could be arranged around the power generation core. The outer cylinder could include all volatile refining subsystems. Solar thermal power collectors and reflectors would be positioned on top of the central station. Long term exploitation of a volatile resource region would begin with establishment of a support base at the center of a long boundary of the region. The mining tract for each spiral mining system would extend orthogonal to this boundary. New spiral mining systems would be activated along parallel tracts as demand for lunar He-3 and other solar wind volatiles increased.

  1. RICE PRICE VOLATILITY IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati R.Y.E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is analyzing the volatility and volatility spillover of monthly price of paddy at the level of farmers and consumers in 2010-2016. ARCH/GARCH used to analyze volatility and GARCH BEKK-model is used to analyze the volatility spillover. The results of the analysis show that price volatility at the farmer level is very high (extremely high volatility, price volatility at the consumer level is low (low volatility, and volatility spillover does not occur between the farmers and the consumers market. The need to guarantee an effective floor price as well as information disclosure related to the market commodity prices so that the pattern of prices transmission among interrelated markets can be symmetrical.

  2. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  3. Substance Use and Partner Violence among Urban Women Seeking Emergency Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

  4. Substance use disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servies, Tammy; Hu, Zheng; Eick-Cost, Angelia; Otto, Jean Lin

    2012-11-01

    Drug misuse is associated with serious health consequences and has detrimental effects on military readiness. During 2000 to 2011, 70,104 service members received an incident diagnosis of a substance use disorder (SUD) (excluding alcohol and tobacco-related disorders). Incidence rates declined with increasing age, time in service, rank, and number of combat deployments. Service members in a combat occupation had 1.2 times the rate of individuals in a health care or administation/supply occupation. The median time to discharge after an SUD diagnosis was longest in the Air Force (327 days) and shortest in the Navy (133 days). The substances with the highest incidence rates were cannabis (160 per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]), "mixed/unspecified/other" (125 per 100,000 p-yrs), and cocaine (61 per 100,000 p-yrs). Incidence rates of cannabis and cocaine use diagnoses generally declined while rates of mixed/unspecified/other and opioid use increased over the surveillance period. The increasing trend in opioid-related diagnoses since 2002 may reflect an increase in prescription drug misuse. The Department of Defense recently expanded its drug testing program to screen for hydrocodone and benzodiazepines.

  5. Who Benefits from Chronic Opioid Therapy? Rethinking the Question of Opioid Misuse Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the late 1990s, a movement began within the pain management field focused upon the underutilization of opioids, thought to be a potentially safe and effective class of pain medication. Concern for addiction and misuse were present at the start of this shift within pain medicine, and an emphasis was placed on developing reliable and valid methods and measures of identifying those at risk for opioid misuse. Since that time, the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of chronic opioid therapy (COT has not been established. Rather, the harmful, dose-dependent deleterious effects have become clearer, including addiction, increased risk of injuries, respiratory depression, opioid induced hyperalgesia, and death. Still, many individuals on low doses of opioids for long periods of time appear to have good pain control and retain social and occupational functioning. Therefore, we propose that the question, “Who is at risk of opioid misuse?” should evolve to, “Who may benefit from COT?” in light of the current evidence.

  6. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  7. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Jimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: The use and misuse of C. sativa in Jos metropolis was studied using a structured self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 400 respondents in the metropolis. Result: The result showed that 59.9% of the participants were male while 40.1% were female with 88.2% of the population being youth between the ages of 20-35 years. The result also shows that at least 31.3% of the studied population had used C. sativa, for different reasons including among others: to boost confidence (11.4%, 5.1% take it to increase alertness, 5.1% take it to decrease fatigue, 0.3% take it to decrease stress, 5.4% take it to get high while 4% take it for other reasons. Conclusion: The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. sativa intake among the study population who were mostly youths for different purposes, including to: Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.

  8. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J; Ferri, C P

    1999-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  9. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  10. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Safety and efficacy considerations due to misuse of extended-release formulations of stimulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh; Stark, Jeffrey G

    2016-09-01

    Amphetamine or methylphenidate are first-line options for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Deviations from suggested routes of administration such as crushing, chewing, intravenous administration, or snorting stimulant medication may alter the release rate, absorption, and bioavailability of the active drug. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of extended-release formulations of certain medications (e.g., some opioids) are known to be dangerously altered when consumed with alcohol; specifically, there is an unintended, rapid release of a significant portion of the drug (dose dumping). In vitro data suggest some extended-release stimulants dose dump in the presence of alcohol, which is of concern because the ADHD patient population is at risk for alcohol abuse. This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning modifications to routes of administration that may alter PK properties of stimulant-based medication for treating ADHD. These modifications are of clinical interest because they may pose safety hazards and affect efficacy. Electronic databases were searched for appropriate studies using relevant search terms. The misuse and abuse potential for stimulants and the efforts to prevent misuse are also discussed. Future research should be focused on determining the PK ramifications of stimulant misuse, along with developing new formulations with abuse-deterrent properties.

  12. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R

    2009-09-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate.

  13. Attitudes toward harm reduction and abstinence-only approaches to alcohol misuse among Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Harm reduction is a public health approach that aims to guide hazardous drinkers to change unsafe drinking and minimize alcohol-related consequences without requiring abstinence. In contrast, abstinence-based interventions are designed for people with more severe alcohol problems and they aim to eliminate consequences via complete abstinence from alcohol. Current best practices for treating college student alcohol misuse involve harm reduction strategies, but no research has been conducted examining students’ perceptions of these strategies. Objective. Understanding attitudes is critical prior to the implementation of an intervention in a new setting, particularly when attitudes may serve as barriers to treatment enrolment and retention. For this reason, we sought to examine attitudes toward contrasting alcohol misuse interventions among college students in two large public universities in the circumpolar north. Design. A web-based survey was conducted with 461 students from two public universities in Alaska. Participants completed questionnaires assessing attitudes toward alcohol treatment, current drinking behaviour, and demographic information. Results. Findings indicated that emerging adult (18–25 years old students who would be targets of future interventions (hazardous drinkers evidenced more positive attitudes toward harm reduction than abstinence-only approaches. Conclusion. This research provides support for the implementation of harm reduction intervention strategies for Alaskan college students who misuse alcohol. It is likely that harm reduction will be acceptable in this population.

  14. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  15. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  16. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    result in an inferior model being chosen as "best" with a probability that converges to one as the sample size increases. We document the practical relevance of this problem in an empirical application and by simulation experiments. Our results provide an additional argument for using the realized...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable.......We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  17. [Factors Related With Psychoactive Substance Use in an Educational Institution in Jamundí Valle, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Soto, Katalina; Hernández Carrillo, Mauricio; Cassiani, Carlos Arturo; Cubides Munevar, Ángela M; Martínez Cardona, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of psychoactive substances (SPA) use in young people in an educational institution in Jamundí and possible related factors. Cross-sectional study, analytical approach that simulates cases and controls, was conducted in an educational institution in Jamundí-Valley. The sample was composed of 146 students selected through simple random probability sampling without replacement. Participants individually and anonymously completed a questionnaire to identify SPA consumption and associated factors, including APGAR scale to measure family functioning. The data extracted from the questionnaires were entered into a matrix in Microsoft Excel and processed in EpiInfo version 5.0 and Stata. Descriptive analysis was performed, and a multivariate analysis was performed using unconditional logistic regression. Current consumption of SPA, 35%; age of first use was 10 to 13 years; the prevalence of drug misuse by gender was 34% for girls and 37% in boys. The most consumed legal substance was alcohol 34%, and illegal 3%. The most significant associations with the use of psychoactive substances was; having severe family dysfunction (OR=7.32; 95%CI, 1.74-30.76), being enrolled in the 11th grade (OR=14.6; 95%CI, 2.37-89.74), and having friends who use (OR=3.12; 95%CI, 2.49-10.38). The results obtained in this study show a high percentage of SPA consumption, with a higher prevalence in males. In this population, the most commonly used legal substance is alcohol. Family dysfunction and school grade were significantly associated with drug misuse. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  19. Neurodevelopmental Precursors and Consequences of Substance Use during Adolescence: Promises and Pitfalls of Longitudinal Neuroimaging Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H; Rose, Emma J; Darcey, Valerie L; Belcher, Annabelle M; VanMeter, John W

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive and emotional regulatory deficits in substance users are often attributed to misuse; however most studies do not include a substance-naïve baseline to justify that conclusion. The etiological literature suggests that pre-existing deficits may contribute to the onset and escalation of use that are then exacerbated by subsequent use. To address this, there is burgeoning interest in conducting prospective, longitudinal neuroimaging studies to isolate neurodevelopmental precursors and consequences of adolescent substance misuse, as reflected in recent initiatives such as the NIH-led Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study and the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment (NCANDA). To distinguish neurodevelopmental precursors from the consequences of adolescent substance use specifically, prospective, longitudinal neuroimaging studies with substance-naïve pre-adolescents are needed. The exemplar described in this article-i.e., the ongoing Adolescent Development Study (ADS)-used a targeted recruitment strategy to bolster the numbers of pre-adolescent individuals who were at increased risk of substance use (i.e., "high-risk") in a sample that was relatively small for longitudinal studies of similar phenomena, but historically large for neuroimaging (i.e., N = 135; 11-13 years of age). At baseline participants underwent MRI testing and a large complement of cognitive and behavioral assessments along with genetics, stress physiology and interviews. The study methods include repeating these measures at three time points (i.e., baseline/Wave 1, Wave 2 and Wave 3), 18 months apart. In this article, rather than outlining specific study outcomes, we describe the breadth of the numerous complexities and challenges involved in conducting this type of prospective, longitudinal neuroimaging study and "lessons learned" for subsequent efforts are discussed. While these types of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies present a number of

  20. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  1. Antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in China: results from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antibiotic resistance is one of the world’s biggest public health issues, and the situation in China is particularly grave. The objective of this study is to investigate the antibiotics usage pattern among Chinese children and provide further insight in developing strategies for promoting public health education. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in the study, participants are from 53,665 guardians of children aged 0–6 years, who were recruited with multistage stratified random cluster sampling in 2013/2014 from 46 community health centers in 14 provinces across China Mainland. Children’s guardians completed surveys on their previous experience on using antibiotics in treating diarrhea of their children without a prescription from any pediatrician. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidential intervals (CIs for the association between antibiotic use and its predictors were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with antibiotic rational use group as a reference group. Results The prevalence of antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in the eastern, middle and western areas of China and associations between antibiotic misuse and its predictors were studied. The average rate of antibiotic misuse is 35.12%. Multilevel logistic regression revealed that living in urban areas (OR = 0.79 (0.76, 0.83, female children (OR = 0.92 (0.88, 0.96, guardians having higher education (OR = 0.60 (0.55, 0.66, being raised by parents (OR = 0.90 (0.85, 0.94, guardians having basic health knowledge (OR = 0.82 (0.79, 0.86 are protective factors and children’s age (1–3 years OR = 1.62 (1.54, 1.71; 4–6 years OR = 1.90 (1.77, 2.03 is a risk factor of antibiotic misuse among children aged 0–6 years with diarrhea in China. Conclusions Our findings confirmed that there has been a high rate of antibiotic misuse without a prescription in children with diarrhea in China, which requires considerable attention. Suitable regulations

  2. Antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in China: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Xiao, Feng; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Yang, Huimin; Wang, Lihong; Yin, Delu; Yin, Tao; Xin, Qianqian; Chen, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's biggest public health issues, and the situation in China is particularly grave. The objective of this study is to investigate the antibiotics usage pattern among Chinese children and provide further insight in developing strategies for promoting public health education. This is a cross-sectional study, in the study, participants are from 53,665 guardians of children aged 0-6 years, who were recruited with multistage stratified random cluster sampling in 2013/2014 from 46 community health centers in 14 provinces across China Mainland. Children's guardians completed surveys on their previous experience on using antibiotics in treating diarrhea of their children without a prescription from any pediatrician. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) for the association between antibiotic use and its predictors were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with antibiotic rational use group as a reference group. The prevalence of antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in the eastern, middle and western areas of China and associations between antibiotic misuse and its predictors were studied. The average rate of antibiotic misuse is 35.12%. Multilevel logistic regression revealed that living in urban areas (OR = 0.79 (0.76, 0.83)), female children (OR = 0.92 (0.88, 0.96)), guardians having higher education (OR = 0.60 (0.55, 0.66)), being raised by parents (OR = 0.90 (0.85, 0.94)), guardians having basic health knowledge (OR = 0.82 (0.79, 0.86)) are protective factors and children's age (1-3 years OR = 1.62 (1.54, 1.71)); 4-6 years OR = 1.90 (1.77, 2.03)) is a risk factor of antibiotic misuse among children aged 0-6 years with diarrhea in China. Our findings confirmed that there has been a high rate of antibiotic misuse without a prescription in children with diarrhea in China, which requires considerable attention. Suitable regulations and interventions are needed to solve this problem.

  3. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mastery matters: consumer choice, psychiatric symptoms and problematic substance use among adults with histories of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Ronni Michelle; Manning, Rachel M

    2017-05-01

    Previous research demonstrated the importance of consumer choice and mastery to residential stability and psychiatric functioning for adults with histories of homelessness. In the present study, we investigated whether these relationships hold, even in the context of problem-related substance misuse. Questionnaire data were collected in Ireland from 101 residents of long-term homeless accommodation in 2010. Hayes' PROCESS macro for mediation and moderation analysis in SPSS was employed to test our hypotheses. Findings demonstrated that the indirect effect of choice through mastery on psychiatric functioning was stronger for individuals with more recent problem-related substance use than for those with no or distant histories of problem-related substance use. Our findings confirm that consumer choice in housing and services is important to homeless services users' recovery experiences. Because of its relationship with mastery, consumer choice in housing and services protects homeless services users' psychiatric functioning, especially when substance use-related choices have had negative consequences. Our findings suggest that if homeless services take away consumer choice when substance use causes problems, they may actually undermine, rather than foster, service users' psychiatric functioning.

  5. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  6. Social judgments of behavioral versus substance-related addictions: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Colman, Ian; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Patten, Scott B; Schopflocher, Don; Wolfe, Jody; Wild, T Cameron

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the concept of addiction has expanded to include many types of problematic repetitive behaviors beyond those related to substance misuse. This trend may have implications for the way that lay people think about addictions and about people struggling with addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how the public understands a variety of substance-related and behavioral addictions. A representative sample of 4000 individuals from Alberta, Canada completed an online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about perceived addiction liability, etiology, and prevalence of problems with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (problematic gambling, eating, shopping, sexual behavior, video gaming, and work). Bivariate analyses revealed that respondents considered substances to have greater addiction liability than behaviors and that most risk factors (moral, biological, or psychosocial) were considered as more important in the etiology of behavioral versus substance addictions. A discriminant function analysis demonstrated that perceived addiction liability and character flaws were the two most important features differentiating judgments of substance-related versus behavioral addictions. Perceived addiction liability was judged to be greater for substances. Conversely, character flaws were viewed as more associated with behavioral addictions. The general public appreciates the complex bio-psycho-social etiology underlying addictions, but perceives substance-related and behavioral addictions differently. These attitudes, in turn, may shape a variety of important outcomes, including the extent to which people believed to manifest behavioral addictions feel stigmatized, seek treatment, or initiate behavior changes on their own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  8. Sorption of volatile phenols by yeast cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Jiménez-Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerea Jiménez-Moreno, Carmen Ancín-AzpilicuetaDepartment of Applied Chemistry, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, SpainAbstract: Yeast walls can retain different wine compounds and so its use is interesting in order to eliminate harmful substances from the must which affect alcoholic fermentation (medium chain fatty acids or which affect wine quality in a negative way (ethyl phenols, ochratoxin A. The aim of this study was to examine the capacity of commercial yeast cell walls in eliminating volatile phenols (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from a synthetic wine that contained 1 mg/L of each one of these compounds. The binding of these compounds to the wall was quite fast which would seem to indicate that the yeast wall-volatile compound union is produced in the outer surface layers of this enological additive. The cell walls used reduced the concentration of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, although it would seem that on modifying the matrix of the wine the number of free binding sites on the walls is also modified.Keywords: volatile phenols, yeast cell walls, wine, sorption

  9. The brief self-control scale predicts jail inmates' recidivism, substance dependence, and post-release adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Elizabeth T; Schaefer, Karen E; Witt, Edward A; Moore, Kelly E; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P

    2014-03-01

    Previous research finds that self-control is positively associated with adaptive and negatively associated with maladaptive behavior. However, most previous studies use cross-sectional designs, low-risk samples, and limited assessments of self-control. This study of 553 jail inmates examined the relationship of a valid measure of self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale) completed on incarceration with behavior before, during, and 1 year after incarceration. After controlling for positive impression management (PIM), self-control was negatively related to substance misuse, suicidality, risky sex, and criminal history prior to incarceration and post-release illegal substance misuse, recidivism, and positive adjustment. Lower self-control predicted increases in substance dependence at post-release compared with pre-incarceration. Self-control was not related to misbehavior during incarceration, nor alcohol use or HIV-risk behavior 1 year post-release. Results were consistent as a function of age, race, and gender. This study supports self-control as an important risk and protective factor in a sample of criminal offenders.

  10. The Brief Self-Control Scale Predicts Jail Inmates’ Recidivism, Substance Dependence, and Post-Release Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Previous research finds that self-control is positively associated with adaptive and negatively associated with maladaptive behavior. However, most previous studies employ cross-sectional designs, low-risk samples, and limited assessments of self-control. This study of 553 jail inmates examined the relationship of a valid measure of self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale; BSCS) completed upon incarceration with behavior before, during, and one year after incarceration. After controlling for positive impression management (PIM), self-control was negatively related to substance misuse, suicidality, risky sex, and criminal history prior to incarceration and post-release illegal substance misuse, recidivism, and positive adjustment. Lower self-control predicted increases in substance dependence at post-release compared to pre-incarceration. Self-control was not related to misbehavior during incarceration, nor alcohol use or HIV-risk behavior one year post-release. Results were consistent as a function of age, race, and gender. This study supports self-control as an important risk and protective factor in a sample of criminal offenders. PMID:24345712

  11. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  12. Removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and other priority (hazardous) substances from WWTP effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miska, V; Menkveld, H W H; Kuijer, L; Boersen, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2006-01-01

    More stringent effluent criteria will be required in the near future for the so-called priority substances listed in the Annex of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC. This includes heavy metals, volatile and semi-volatile organic substances, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. The Fraunhofer Institute suggested FHI values for these substances in water. National Dutch legislation, the Vierde Nota WaterHuishouding (NWH) introduced in 1998 'maximum tolerable risk concentrations' (MTR). These include requirements for nutrients: P(tot) biological activated carbon filtration at the WWTP Utrecht in The Netherlands, simultaneous nutrient removal to MTR quality was observed. Furthermore, simultaneous removal of heavy metals, 17beta-estradiol, bisphenol A and nonylphenols to extreme low concentrations by denitrifying activated carbon filtrated is achieved.

  13. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH (EGARC

  14. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  15. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  16. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  17. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV. However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04 as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90 were more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.

  18. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  19. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Initiation into prescription drug misuse: differences between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Iverson, Ellen; Lankenau, Stephen E

    2012-11-01

    Prescription drug misuse is an important public health problem in the U.S., particularly among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have examined factors contributing to initiation into prescription drug misuse, including sexual orientation and childhood abuse and neglect. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between initiation into the misuse of prescription drugs (opioids, tranquilizers, and stimulants), sexual identity, and individual and family determinants. Results are based upon data from a cross-sectional survey of 596 youth (polydrug users, homeless youth, and injection drug users) aged 16 to 25 who reported current prescription drug misuse. Participants were recruited in Los Angeles and New York City between 2009 and 2011. We compared initiation behaviors between sexual minority and heterosexual youth and examined factors modifying the relationship between sexual identity and earlier initiation into prescription drug misuse. Sexual minority youth were more likely to report histories of initiation into misuse of prescription opioids and tranquilizers. Further, they were more likely to report various types of childhood abuse than heterosexual youth. However, multivariate analyses indicated that age of first prescribed drug was the most significant factor associated with initiation into misuse of all three categories of prescription drugs. The correlates of initiation into prescription drug misuse are multidimensional and offer opportunities for further research. Identifying additional factors contributing to initiation into prescription drug misuse is essential towards developing interventions that may reduce future drug use among young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Business Cycles, Financial Crises, and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Schwert

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows that stock volatility increases during recessions and financial crises from 1834-1987. The evidence reinforces the notion that stock prices are an important business cycle indicator. Using two different statistical models for stock volatility, I show that volatility increases after major financial crises. Moreover. stock volatility decreases and stock prices rise before the Fed increases margin requirements. Thus, there is little reason to believe that public policies can con...

  3. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  4. The january effect across volatility regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Agnani, Betty; Aray, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Using a Markov regime switching model, this article presents evidence on the well-known January effect on stock returns. The specification allows a distinction to be drawn between two regimes, one with high volatility and other with low volatility. We obtain a time-varying January effect that is, in general, positive and significant in both volatility regimes. However, this effect is larger in the high volatility regime. In sharp contrast with most previous literature we find two major result...

  5. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extensi...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  6. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  7. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  8. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures o

  9. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  10. Ammonia volatilization from intensively managed dairy pastures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (i) to quantify NH 3 volatilization from grassland, (ii) to gain understanding of the NH3 volatilization processes on grassland and (iii) to study measures how to reduce NH 3 volatilization from gra

  11. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  12. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...

  13. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mantle Volatiles - Distribution and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    Volatiles in the mantle have, for many years, been the subject of intensive study from a number of perspectives. They are of interest because of their potential effects on melting relationships, on transport of major and trace elements, and on the rheological and other physical properties of the mantle. By convention, "volatiles" in this context are constituents that are liquid or gaseous at normal Earth surface conditions. This review will look at the behavior of C-O-H-S-halogen volatiles, beginning with H2O and C-O volatiles.There have been tremendous strides made recently towards understanding how volatiles in general and water in particular is transported and stored in the mantle. This progress is based on research on a number of fronts: studies of mantle-derived samples have provided insight into the nature and occurrence of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, and chlorite, and have provided constraints on the capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxenes, and garnet to contain "water" by a variety of substitution mechanisms. Experimental studies on mantle-derived magmas have provided constraints on volatile contents in their source regions. Other studies have constrained the pressure, temperature, and composition conditions over which hydrous phases are stable in the mantle.Fundamental questions remain about the geochemical cycling of volatiles in the mantle, and between the mantle and the surface. Much attention has focused on the capability of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, serpentine, chlorite, and a family of "dense hydrous magnesian silicates" (DHMSs) to act as carriers of water in subducting slabs back into the mantle. It has been clear since the work of Ito et al. (1983) that there is a discrepancy between the amount of volatiles subducted into the mantle and those returned to the surface by arc magmatism. A recent overview of volatile cycling in subduction systems by Bebout (1996) suggests that 5-15% of the H2

  15. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.;

    2000-01-01

    Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well as to the......Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well...... as to the test container. A simple filled closed bottle test with low algal densities and bicarbonate enrichment is described here as an approach to minimize the loss of test material from solution. The algal medium was enriched with 300 mg NaHCO3/L, the pH was adjusted to 7.0 by addition of HCl...

  16. Volatile organic compounds in pharmacy – the range of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jamrógiewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity and chemical instability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API may result in the formation and emission of volatile substances which affect not only the stability of the medicinal product, but also leads to changes of physicochemical properties, causing negative pharmacologic effects sometimes toxic. For this reason, it is important to conduct routine stability tests, as well as, to determine gaseous degradation products using modern analytical methods, often unconventional. Knowledge of medicinal chemistry, physical chemistry, technology and toxicology is needed to provide a stable form of the drug and its utmost therapeutic effect. Available guidelines on determined volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in samples of drug substances have been verified , types of VOCs have been specified and classified. Current literature reviewed shows the results of determination of VOCs in active drug compounds and medicinal products, including discussion on various possibilities of their detection and identification. Currently used methods are based on gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry IMS.

  17. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...... volatility, which have been interpreted as long memory (or fractional integration) in volatility and fractional cointegration between implied and realized volatility, are accounted for by occasional common level shifts....

  18. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  19. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa: Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D H Parry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence. Method. Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use and the South African Addiction Medicine Society were contacted telephonically and asked 20 questions. Results. While many participants had received training in pharmacological management of individuals with opioid dependence, only two had received specific training on codeine management. Between half and two-thirds of the treatment settings they worked in provided detoxification, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment and aftercare. Very few treatment settings offered long-term treatment for codeine misuse and dependence. Participants indicated that over half of their codeine patients entered treatment for intentional misuse for intoxication, and dependence resulting from excessive or long-term use. The main barriers to patients entering treatment were seen as denial of having a problem, not being ready for change, mental health problems, stigma, and affordability of treatment. Participants identified a need for further training in how to manage withdrawal and detoxification, treatment modalities including motivational interviewing, and relapse prevention. Conclusions. Gaps in training among treatment providers need to centre on how to manage withdrawal from codeine use and detoxification, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention. Interventions are needed to address barriers to entering treatment, including user denial.

  20. Recognizing Potential Buprenorphine Medication Misuse: Product Packaging Does Not Degrade With Laundering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erik W

    2015-01-01

    Expanded office-based buprenorphine opioid dependence treatment is associated with medication misuse and diversion consequences. Recurrent early refill requests may indicate misuse or diversion, although further research is needed on how to effectively recognize and address the issue in clinical practice. In the current study, patient report of damaged medication from laundering prompted evaluation of laundering on degradation of buprenorphine-containing product packages and contents. Four buprenorphine product packaging approaches were assessed: 3 buprenorphine/naloxone placebo demonstration products (Suboxone and Bunavail film in foil wrappers and Zubsolv tablet in a blister pack) and Rexam-manufactured Screw-Loc closure pill container filled with a chewable aspirin as a surrogate for generic buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone products. Two experimental laundering conditions, wash machine alone (W) and washer/dryer (W+D), were compared with unlaundered control (C) condition. Standard laundering settings were based on patient presentation. Products from the 2 experimental conditions and the control condition were labeled A, B, or C with counterbalanced assignment prior to visual examination of packaging and contents by the investigator who was blinded to condition. Packaging and contents remained intact for all products across experimental conditions, with only minor cosmetic effects compared with control. The W+D Suboxone film had 1-2 mm curling of the wrapper corners. Zubsolv blister packs had slight paper label fading (W+D > W). Bunavail W+D foil had an indentation outlining the inner film. The W+D bottle tablet had a ˜1 mm nick on one edge. No other differences were noted. After implementing more structured treatment and reviewing the results with the patient, he endorsed fabricating the laundering story to get additional medication. Laundering is an unlikely cause of damaged buprenorphine-containing medication packaged in foil wrappers (Suboxone

  1. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we...... develop a new class of affine discrete-time option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closed-form option valuation formulas, and we assess the option valuation properties using Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 return and option data. We find...... that realized volatility reduces the pricing errors of the benchmark model significantly across moneyness, maturity, and volatility levels....

  2. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  3. Notes on Calvin’s knowledge, use, and misuse of the Church Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van Oort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin (1509–1564 started his career as a thoroughly trained humanist who possessed, in addition, a thorough knowledge of the Fathers of the Church. This article provides an overview of this particular knowledge. It also focuses on the use Calvin made of the patristic argument in both his instructive and apologetic writings. Some evident cases of Calvin’s misuse of the patres are discussed as well. It is concluded that Calvin’s special patristic knowledge gave his theology its special hallmark and still links authentic Calvinism with the church’s catholic tradition through the ages.

  4. The Precautionary principle: its misunderstandings and misuses in relation to "GMOs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2016-06-25

    References to the Precautionary principle (PP) in relation to "GMOs" are commonplace. Those who oppose the DNA recombinant approach to create new agricultural products either have not read the PP (misunderstanding), or they want to exploit the PP for their propaganda while forcing it (misuse). Proponents of a stricter approach to the regulation of biotechnologies must forge a new expression, since the PP is something else - historically and theoretically. In any case, a legitimate very circumspect attitude, to be coherent, must be applied to each and every biotechnology, not only to "GMOs". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Larsen, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest-host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  6. Arbitrage and Volatility in Chinese Stock's Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    From the point of view of no-arbitrage pricing, what matters is how much volatility the stock has, for volatility measures the amount of profit that can be made from shorting stocks and purchasing options. With the short-sales constraints or in the absence of options, however, high volatility is likely to mean arbitrage from stock market. As emerging stock markets for China, investors are increasingly concerned about volatilities of Chinese two stock markets. We estimate volatility's models for Chinese stock markets' indexes using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and GARCH. We find that estimated values of volatility parameters are very high for all data frequencies. It suggests that stock returns are extremely volatile even at long term intervals in Chinese markets. Furthermore, this result could be considered that there seems to be arbitrage opportunities in Chinese stock markets.

  7. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  8. [DSM-5--what has changed in therapy for and research on substance-related and addictive disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtner, G; Soyka, M

    2013-11-01

    The new edition of the DSM, which was published in May of 2013, has brought the following changes in the now called category "substance-related and addictive disorders". The terms dependency and misuse or abuse will be replaced by the terminus "substance use disorder". There is a moderate substance use disorder, if two or three criterias are fulfilled for a period of 12 months. To speak of a severe substance use disorder, it has to be four or more criteria for the duration of 12 months. Furthermore, pathological gambling will be a part of the DSM-5 as a non-substance use disorder, but rather an addictive disorder. It is possible, that internet addiction will be a part of a revised version in DSM-5 for addictive disorders. The now changed criteria will have consequences on diagnosis, therapy and research concerning substance-related and addictive disorders. The leading diagnosis standards DSM-5 and ICD-10 or the following ICD-11 will continue to drift further apart from each other. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  10. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  11. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  12. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eTyc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  13. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  14. Volatility at Karachi Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam Farid; Javed Ashraf

    1995-01-01

    Frequent “crashes” of the stock market reported during the year 1994 suggest that the Karachi bourse is rapidly converting into a volatile market. This cannot be viewed as a positive sign for this developing market of South Asia. Though heavy fluctuations in stock prices are not an unusual phenomena and it has been observed at almost all big and small exchanges of the world. Focusing on the reasons for such fluctuations is instructive and likely to have important policy implications. Proponen...

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang.

  16. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  17. The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John J

    2012-09-01

    The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law.

  18. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  19. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  1. Polysubstance use and misuse or abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a multi-level analysis of international data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katherine I; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Lynskey, Michael T

    2017-06-01

    Increasing mortality and morbidity associated with opioid analgesics has led to concerns about their misuse and abuse, even when obtained through a prescription. These concerns have been most pronounced in the United States, but limited data make it difficult to determine whether it is a problem in other countries. We investigated opioid analgesic misuse and abuse in participants from the Global Drug Survey 2015 resident in the United States (N = 1334), United Kingdom (N = 1199), France (N = 1258), Germany (N = 866), and Australia (N = 1013) who had used at least 1 prescription opioid analgesic medication in the past year. We also investigated the relationship with polysubstance use, one of the most consistent predictors of problematic opioid analgesic use. Data included misuse and abuse of codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and tramadol; ability to obtain a prescription; different sources for obtaining drugs; and past-year use of benzodiazepines and illicit drugs. In multilevel models, country of residence accounted for less than 3% of the variance in opioid analgesic misuse or abuse. Adjusting for country of residence and sociodemographic factors, use of illicit drugs and benzodiazepines was associated with 4-fold greater odds of misuse (odds ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 3.29-5.93) and 6-fold greater odds of abuse compared with not using either drug (odds ratio 6.49, 95% confidence interval 4.0-10.48), although the strength of the association with abuse varied by country. Misuse and abuse by those prescribed opioid analgesics seem to be a problem that is not limited to the United States and warrant attention on an international scale.

  2. Law enforcement-derived data on gabapentin diversion and misuse, 2002-2015: diversion rates and qualitative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Dart, Richard C; Margolin, Zachary R

    2017-09-01

    Recent limited epidemiologic and case reports suggest that gabapentin is being misused, especially among prescription opioid misusers. However, no apparent studies have reported data from law enforcement on the diversion and misuse of gabapentin. Case report data are drawn from a quarterly survey of prescription drug diversion completed by a national sample of law enforcement and regulatory agencies who engage in drug diversion investigations. Rates of gabapentin diversion per 100 000 population were calculated for each quarter from 2002 through 2015. Qualitative data are drawn from a brief questionnaire completed by a subsample of survey respondents and were organized and presented by theme. In total, 407 new cases of diverted gabapentin were reported during the time period, with diversion rates steadily increasing from zero cases in the first 2 quarters of 2002 to a high of 0.027 cases per 100 000 population in the fourth quarter of 2015. Qualitative data suggest that gabapentin is being misused in conjunction with prescription opioids and that gabapentin and heroin are being combined and consumed together. Law enforcement reporters found these drug use trends to be contributing to gabapentin diversion. The recent increase in gabapentin diversion appears to be related to the opioid epidemic, based on law enforcement descriptions of gabapentin being misused in combination with opioids. Yet epidemiological data related to this finding is limited and research conducted among gabapentin misusers is needed to understand this problem in more depth. Greater monitoring of gabapentin abuse and diversion appear warranted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preventing Prescription Drug Misuse in Work Settings: Efficacy of a Brief Intervention in Health Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Gale; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany; Bennett, Joel

    2017-07-06

    It is becoming more commonplace for employees to use prescription medication outside of intended use. Opioid and other prescription misuse has implications for the health and productivity of workers. Easy-to-access webinars that help employees learn about alternatives to prescription use may decrease risk. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an interactive but brief health consciousness and prescription drug intervention for a diverse sample of employees and show effectiveness via both Internet-delivered webinar and classroom delivery. Employees from a variety of workplaces filled out pre- and post-questionnaires upon completion of a one-hour long intervention. A total of 114 participants completed the pre- and post-questionnaires. Results showed that, compared with before the training, participants reported significantly more knowledge about prescription drug misuse and alternatives to prescription drug use after the training (t113=7.91, P<.001). Moreover, the medium of presentation (ie, face-to-face vs webinar) did not significantly impact effectiveness of the training (F1,98=1.15, P=.29). In both webinar and classroom formats, participants gained knowledge about alternatives to prescription drug use. This intervention appears to be beneficial to employees and assists in the awareness of prescription drug use in general and in the workplace.

  4. Drug Vaping: From the Dangers of Misuse to New Therapeutic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varlet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of e-cigarettes are unwitting volunteers participating in a worldwide epidemiological study. Because of the obvious benefits of e-cigarettes compared with traditional cigarette smoking, these electronic devices have been introduced all around the world to support tobacco smoking cessation. Same potential harm reduction could be considered by cannabis vaping for marijuana smokers. However, the toxicities of liquids and aerosols remain under investigation because although the use of e-cigarettes is likely to be less harmful than traditional cigarette smoking, trace levels of contaminants have been identified. Simultaneously, other electronic devices, such as e-vaporisers, e-hookahs or e-pipes, have been developed and commercialised. Consequently, misuse of electronic devices has increased, and experimentation has been documented on Internet web fora. Although legal and illegal drugs are currently consumed with these e-devices, no scientific papers are available to support the observations reported by numerous media and web fora. Moreover, building on illegal drug vaping and vaporisation with e-devices (vaping misuse, legal drug vaping (an alternative use of vaping could present therapeutic benefits, as occurs with medical cannabis vaporisation with table vaporisers. This review seeks to synthesise the problems of e-cigarette and liquid refill toxicity in order to introduce the dangers of illegal and legal drugs consumed using vaping and vaporisation for recreational purposes, and finally, to present the potential therapeutic benefits of vaping as a new administration route for legal drugs.

  5. The importance of alcohol misuse, malnutrition and genetic susceptibility on brain growth and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Irene; Thomson, Allan D; Gurling, Hugh D

    2007-01-01

    The "dyad: alcoholic mother and foetus" is a very complex entity in which several elements such as genes, metabolism, diet, drugs and social habits play a role at different stages in the development of the fetal brain damage. The literature on the effects of alcohol consumption on the developing brain is extensive but very few evidences have been reported regarding the combined neurotoxic effects of poor nutrition and alcohol consumption. The consequences of ethanol intake alone or combined with poor maternal nutrition appear to be severe and life-long. Alcohol exerts its neurotoxic effects on the developing brain directly by acting on fetal brain tissues, and indirectly either by interfering with placental physiology or by impairing the mother's physiology. Alcohol misuse in pregnancy is also frequently associated with other conditions that can potentially increase the brain damage such as poor nutrition and smoking. This article reviews the effects of poor nutrition and alcohol misuse during pregnancy on the development of the fetal brain and discusses the cumulative effects of these two environmental factors and their interaction with maternal and fetal genetic make-ups.

  6. A longitudinal examination of different etiological pathways to alcohol use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Ortet, Generós

    2014-06-01

    Sher, Grekin, and Williams (2005) pointed out the existence of 4 main etiological, but not mutually exclusive, models that might explain the development of alcohol use and misuse. The aim of the present study was to explore 3 of these 4 pathways in which psychological (personality and drinking motives) and environmental (child maltreatment) variables may play a relevant role: positive affect regulation, negative affect regulation, and deviance proneness. Three hundred and fourteen young adults in the 18 to 29 year age range completed different personality, alcohol use, and child maltreatment questionnaires at Time 1. Five years later, they responded to drinking motives, antisocial behavior, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems questionnaires. The path analyses showed that emotional abuse predicted negative emotionality, which, in turn, prospectively predicted alcohol-related problems through coping-with-depression drinking motives (negative affect regulation). Emotional neglect predicted lesser positive emotionality, and physical abuse predicted unconscientious disinhibition personality characteristics. In turn, these 2 broad personality domains predicted drinking at weekends at Time 2 through enhancement drinking motives (positive affect regulation). Finally, physical neglect predicted disagreeable disinhibition, and both disinhibition domains directly predicted antisocial behavior 5 years later which, in turn, predicted drinking at weekends, drinking on weekdays, and alcohol-related problems (deviance proneness). The findings describe the specific role of distal (maltreatment and personality) and more proximal (antisocial behavior and drinking motives) variables in the different pathways involved in the development of alcohol use and misuse. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants.

  8. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  9. Misused Drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minor and intermediate surgical procedures in regions where there is a dearth of anesthetists. Its unique ... The Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Volume 3 Number 3-4 December 2001 ... dangers of this general anaesthetic agent.

  10. Sexual-orientation disparities in substance use in emerging adults: a function of stress and attachment paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-09-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, nonmarijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6% to 16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9% to 24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use.

  11. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  12. Interactions of astringent substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, H T; Corrigan, C J; Lee, C B

    1994-04-01

    Two-component mixtures of astringent materials were rated for perceived intensity of astringent and taste attributes over time. Components included alum (a complex salt), gallic acid (the monomeric component of hydrolyzable tannins), catechin (the monomeric component of condensed tannins) and citric acid. Mixtures of alum and gallic acid showed mixture suppression, in that the 50/50 mixture was less intense than either component in astringency, drying, roughing and puckery/drawing sensations. Suppression was seen at concentration levels producing moderate to strong astringency but was absent or less pronounced at lower concentration levels. A similar pattern held for citric acid, although the suppressive effects were less pronounced. Catechin and gallic acid mixtures were additive. Sensory interactions between astringent materials appears to depend on the substances involved and their concentrations (or intensity levels).

  13. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  14. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  15. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release.

  16. Milk Price Volatility and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Gould, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    The classified pricing of fluid milk under the Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMO) system combined with the cash settlement feature of Class IIII milk futures contracts generate a unique volatility pattern of these futures markets in the sense that the volatility gradually decreases as the USDA price announcement dates approaching in the month. Focusing on the evolution of volatility in Class III milk futures market, this study quantifies the relative importance of a set of factors driving m...

  17. DOES VOLATILITY RESPOND ASYMMETRIC TO PAST SHOCKS?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Botoc

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to examine if the stock market volatility exhibits asymmetric or an asymmetric response to past shocks, for certain CEE countries (Romania,Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland) over the period May 2004 - September 2014. For the stock marketsfrom East Europe the results are in line with the symmetric volatility, i.e. volatility is similaraffected by both positive and negative returns with the same magnitude. For the stock marketsfrom Central Europe the results are consistent ...

  18. The Determinants of Public Deficit Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the political, institutional and economic sources of public deficit volatility. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models and a sample of 125 countries analyzed from 1980 to 2006, we show that higher public deficit volatility is typically associated with higher levels of political instability and less democracy. In addition, public deficit volatility tends to be magnified for small countries, in the outcome of hyper-inflation episodes ...

  19. Exchange Rate Volatility in BRICS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper measures the impact of bilateral exchange rates, the world agricultural GDP and third-country exchange rate volatilities (Yen/USD and Euro/USD) on the BRICS agricultural exports using a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Two measures of volatility are used: the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of the rates of change of the real exchange rates. We found that most variables are integrated of order two except the third-country exchange rate volatilities which are st...

  20. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.