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Sample records for volatile pyrolysis products

  1. Evolution of volatile species from the combustion of coal pyrolysis volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology]|[Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry; Li, C.Z. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Nelson, P.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Mackie, J.C. [Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The combustion of coal pyrolysis volatiles at 900 and 1000 C has been studied using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a tubular flow reactor in series with a fluidised bed reactor. HNCO was found to be a significant N-containing product at low O{sub 2} concentrations. An increase in C=O functionality was observed in the partially oxidised tars with increasing O{sub 2} concentration. (orig.)

  2. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  3. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  4. Detecting pyrolysis products from bacteria on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Kminek, Gerhard; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-02-01

    A pyrolysis/sublimation technique was developed to isolate volatile amine compounds from a Mars soil analogue inoculated with ˜10 billion Escherichia coli cells. In this technique, the inoculated soil is heated to 500°C for several seconds at Martian ambient pressure and the sublimate, collected by a cold finger, then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Methylamine and ethylamine, produced from glycine and alanine decarboxylation, were the most abundant amine compounds detected after pyrolysis of the cells. A heating cycle similar to that utilized in our experiment was also used to release organic compounds from the Martian soil in the 1976 Viking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) pyrolysis experiment. The Viking GC/MS did not detect any organic compounds of Martian origin above a level of a few parts per billion in the Martian surface soil. Although the Viking GC/MS instruments were not specifically designed to search for the presence of living cells on Mars, our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected.

  5. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  6. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  7. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

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    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  8. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  9. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented.

  10. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  11. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  12. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when work...

  14. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  15. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  16. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water. The amounts of char (organic fraction and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis and high

  17. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  18. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  19. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products.

  20. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  1. Pyrolysis and in its products volatile organic compounds characteristics of curaua fiber%乌拉草纤维热解及其产物挥发性有机物特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 白肃跃; 岳鑫敏

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the pyrolysis behaviors and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the curaua fiber and hemp fiber were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) was employed to analyze the main chemical composition of the curaua fiber and hemp fiber. The chemical composition mass fraction was tested by chemical method. The pyrolysis behaviors and the release of VOCs of the curaua fiber and hemp fiber could be investigated by thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS). The activation energy of each stage during the fiber pyrolysis was calculated by the Coats-Redfern method. The results revealed that the main chemical components of the curaua fiber were the same to the hemp fiber, which were cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, wax and hydrotrope. The cellulose mass fraction of the curaua fiber (56.35%) was lower than that of the hemp fiber (71.37%), but the lignin mass fraction of the curaua fiber (19.70%) was higher than that of the hemp fiber (2.86%). The pyrolysis process of the curaua fiber and hemp fiber could be divided into 3 stages. In the first stage (50-250℃), the residual water and free water in the amorphous region evaporated. The next 2 stages were mainly the hemicelluloses pyrolysis (250-350℃) and the pyrolysis process of cellulose and lignin (350-700℃), respectively. The 3 independent first-order reaction models were constructed to describe the main pyrolysis process of the curaua fiber and hemp fiber. The first first-order reaction of the curaua fiber was mainly the hemicelluloses pyrolysis stage (265-356℃), the second first-order reaction of the curaua fiber was mainly the cellulose pyrolysis stage (356-426℃), and the third first-order reaction was mainly the lignin pyrolysis stage (426-463℃). The activation energies of the second and third first-order reaction stages (205.41, 497.56 kJ/mol) were higher than that of the first first-order reaction stage (125.06 kJ/mol). The activation energy in each

  2. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  3. Influence of gas-phase reactions on the product yields obtained in the pyrolysis of polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo G.B. Bonino

    1997-02-01

    The amount of plastic wastes is growing year after year, and the fraction of plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW) and in refuse-derived fuels (RDF) is progressively increasing. Pyrolysis and gasification processes appear to be promising routes for the upgrading of solid wastes to more usable and energy dense materials such as gas fuel and/or fuel oil or to high-value feedstocks for the chemical industry. The characterization of the product fractions obtained from the pyrolysis of polyethylene (PE) in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor was performed. The experimental system allowed quantitative information to be obtained on the global tar, char, and gas yields. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 500 and 800 C. The influence of the residence times in the reactor of the primary volatiles generated by the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The secondary reactivity of the tar originated from PE pyrolysis was examined. A lumped-parameters approach was used in order to evaluate the global kinetic parameters for the gas-phase tar-cracking process. PE tars resulted to be more refractory to thermal decomposition than those obtained in the pyrolysis of biomass and lignocellulosic materials, but more reactive than tars obtained in the pyrolysis of coal.

  4. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  5. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  6. Molecular products and radicals from pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, J; Khachatryan, L; Dellinger, B

    2012-12-04

    Thermal degradation of lignin under two reaction regimes (pyrolysis in N(2) and oxidative pyrolysis in 4% O(2) in N(2)) has been investigated in a tubular, isothermal, flow-reactor over the temperature range 200-900 °C at a residence time of 0.2 s. Two experimental protocols were adopted: (1) Partial pyrolysis in which the same lignin sample was continuously pyrolyzed at each temperature and (2) conventional pyrolysis, in which new lignin samples were pyrolyzed at each pyrolysis temperature. The results identified common relationships between the two modes of experiments, as well as some differences. The majority of products from partial pyrolysis peaked between 300 and 500 °C, whereas for conventional pyrolysis reaction products peaked between 400 and 500 °C. The principal products were syringol (2,6-dimethoxy phenol), guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), phenol, and catechol. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the phenolic compounds were the most abundant, contributing over 40% of the total compounds detected. Benzene, styrene, and p-xylene were formed in significant amounts throughout the entire temperature range. Interestingly, six ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were formed during partial pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis did not result in large differences from pyrolysis; the main products still were syringol, guaiacol, phenol, the only significant difference being the product distribution peaked between 200 and 400 °C. For the first time, low temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance was successfully interfaced with the pyrolysis reactor to elucidate the structures of the labile reaction intermediates. The EPR results suggested the presence of methoxyl, phenoxy, and substituted phenoxy radicals as precursors for formation of major products; syringol, guaiacol, phenols, and substituted phenols.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process.

  8. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  9. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  10. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  11. Evaluation of co-pyrolysis petrochemical wastewater sludge with lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed reactor: Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetics, and products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Chen, Jianbiao; Yao, Pikai; Zhou, Dapeng; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Hongchao

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis showed that main functional groups in chars gradually disappeared with pyrolysis temperatures increasing, and H2O, CH4, CO, and CO2 appeared in volatiles during pyrolysis. Gas compositions analysis indicated that, the yields of H2 and CO clearly increased as the pyrolysis temperature and sludge blending ratio increasing, while the changes of CH4 and CO2 yields were relatively complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting Pyrolysis Products from Bacteria in a Mars Soil Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Cleaves, H. J.; Schubert, M.; Aubrey, A.; Buch, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bada, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the 1976 Viking missions was to determine whether organic compounds, possibly of biological origin, were present in the Martian surface soils. The Viking gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments found no evidence for any organic compounds of Martian origin above a few parts per billion in the upper 10 cm of surface soil, suggesting the absence of a widely distributed Martian biota. However, it is now known that key organic compounds important to biology, such as amino acids, carboxylic acids and nucleobases, would likely have been missed by the Viking GCMS instruments. In this study, a Mars soil analogue that was inoculated with approx. 10 billion Escherichia coli cells was heated at 500 C under Martian ambient pressure to release volatile organic compounds from the sample. The pyrolysis products were then analyzed for amino acids and nucleobases using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GCMS. Our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments. Upcoming strategies for Mars exploration will require in-situ analyses by instruments that can assess whether any organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples.

  13. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (Vapor) on the Moon using Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Kate, I. L. ten; Brinckerhoff, W.; Cardiff, E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Feng, S.; Getty, S.; Gorevan, S.; Harpold, D.; Jones, A. L.; King, T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Martin, D.; Moore, M.; Roberts, D.; Robman, P.; Simmons, C.; Stephenson, T.; Swindle, T.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of lunar resources such as water is a fundamental component of the the NASA Vision for Space Exploration. The Lunar Prospector mission detected high concentrations of hydrogen at the lunar poles that may indicate the presence of water or other volatiles in the lunar regolith [1]. One explanation for the presence of enhanced hydrogen in permanently shadowed crater regions is long term trapping of water-ice delivered by comets, asteroids, and other meteoritic material that have bombarded the Moon over the last 4 billion years [2]. It is also possible that the hydrogen signal at the lunar poles is due to hydrogen implanted by the solar wind which is delayed from diffusing out of the regolith by the cold temperatures [3]. Previous measurements of the lunar atmosphere by the LACE experiment on Apollo 17, suggested the presence of cold trapped vola'tiles that were expelled by solar heating [4]. In situ composition and isotopic analyses of the lunar regolith will be required to establish the abundance, origin, and distribution of water-ice and other volatiles at the lunar poles. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) on the Moon using mass spectrometry is one technique that should be considered. The VAPoR pyrolysis-mass spectrometer (pyr-MS) instrument concept study was selected for funding in 2007 by the NASA Lunar Sortie Science Opportunities (LSSO) Program. VAPoR is a miniature version of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite currently being developed at NASA Goddard for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission (Fig. 1).

  14. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparision of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part I: product yields, gas and pyrolysis oil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-04-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) and municipal plastic waste (MPW) have been investigated in batch reactor at 500, 550 and 600°C both in absence and presence of catalysts (Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3). The effect of the parameters on the product properties was investigated. Products were characterized using gas-chromatography, GC/MS, (13)C NMR. Yields of volatile fractions increased, while reaction time necessity for the total cracking decreased in the presence of catalysts. Catalysts have productivity and selectivity in converting aliphatic hydrocarbons to aromatic and cyclic compounds in oil products. Gases from MSW consisted of hydrogen CO, CO2, while exclusively hydrogen and hydrocarbons were detected from MPW. Catalyst efficiency was higher using MPW than MSW. Pyrolysis oils contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, cyclic compounds and less ketones, alcohols, acids or esters depending on the raw materials.

  16. Study on vacuum pyrolysis of coffee industrial residue for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2017-03-01

    Coffee industrial residue (CIR) is a biomass with high volatile content (64.94 wt.%) and heating value (21.3 MJ·kg-1). This study was carried out to investigate the pyrolysis condition and products of CIR using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and vacuum tube furnace. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, time, pressure and heating rate on the yield of pyrolysis products were discussed. There was an optimal pyrolysis condition: CIR was heated from normal temperature to 400 °C for 60 min, with 10 °C·min-1 heating rate and a pressure of 30 kPaabs. In this condition, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 42.29, 33.14 and 24.57 wt.%, respectively. The bio-oil contained palmitic acid (47.48 wt.%), oleic acid (17.45 wt.%), linoleic acid (11.34 wt.%), octadecanoic acid (7.62 wt.%) and caffeine (5.18 wt.%).

  17. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  18. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-26

    radially outward from the solar corona . The solar wind is deflected by magnetic fields but absorbed by surface materials on a body like the Moon. Solar...very high temperature crucible for pyrolysis. A zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic crucible was selected to provide thermal stability at high temperatures, shown...in Figure 20. Two zirconia crucibles were used. One of the zirconia crucibles was poorly manufactured and could not withstand the high thermal

  20. Variability in pyrolysis product yield from novel shrub willow genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is becoming a more attractive conversion option for the production of biofuels, due to the potential for directly producing hydrocarbon fuels seamlessly compatible with petroleum products (drop-in fuels). Dedicated bioenergy crops, like perennial grasses and short-rotation woody crop...

  1. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  2. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  3. Biopolymers production from mixed cultures and pyrolysis by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, R; Lemos, P C

    2012-02-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from low value substrates and/or byproducts represents an economical and environmental promising alternative to established industrial manufacture methods. Bio-oil resulting from the fast-pyrolysis of chicken beds was used as substrate to select a mixed microbial culture (MMC) able to produce PHA under feast/famine conditions. In this study a maximum PHA content of 9.2% (g/g cell dry weight) was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated for culture selection. The PHA obtained with bio-oil as a carbon source was a copolymer composed by 70% of hydroxybutyrate (HB) and 30% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) monomers. Similar results have been reported by other studies that use real complex substrates for culture selection indicating that bio-oil can be a promising feedstock to produce PHAs using MMC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrated the use of bio-oil resulting from fast pyrolysis as a possibly feedstock to produce short chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  4. C{sub 16}H{sub 10} ethynyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of coal, coal volatiles, and anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wornat, M.J.; Ledesma, E.B. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (USA). Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The acquisition of several specially synthesized reference standards of ethynyl-substituted three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has enabled the identification, for the first time, of two C{sub 16}H{sub 10} ethynyl-PAH among the pyrolysis products of coal and coal-derived fuels. The fuel product mixtures are analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array ultraviolet (UV) absorbance detection. 2-ethynylanthracene and 2-ethynylphenanthrene were identified among the pyrolysis products of brown coal, pyrolyzed at 1000{degree}C in a fluidized-bed reactor, and of bituminous coal volatiles, pyrolyzed at 1000{degree}C in a tubular flow reactor. 2-ethynylanthracene were observed as a pyrolysis product, at 1300 to 1500K, of anthracene, a three-ring model compound representative of the aromatic moieties in coal. The identification of these ethynyl-PAH provides important experimental evidence that acetylene addition to aryl radicals indeed takes place in these fuel reaction environments, as is customarily assumed in modelling of PAH growth during combustion. One experimental observations were consistent with theoretical calculations showing that the formation of cyclopenta-fused PAH by cyclization, when allowed, is energetically favored over the production of ethynyl-PAH.

  5. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  6. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  7. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  8. Rapid microwave pyrolysis of coal: methodology and examination of the residual and volatile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsef-Mirzai, P.; Ravindran, M.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Burchill, P. (Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Substances such as CuO, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and even metallurgical coke (termed 'receptors') heat rapidly in a microwave oven at 2.45 GHz. The receptor, when mixed with Creswell coal and subjected to microwave radiation, induces rapid pyrolysis of the coal. Condensable tar yields of 20 wt% are obtained with coke, 27 wt% with Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and as high as 49 wt% in some experiments with CuO. Despite the high final temperature (1200-1300[degree]C after 3 min), analyses suggest that the volatiles are released in the lower part of the temperature regime but that some secondary cracking does occur. The tars are similar in composition, although with coke the proportion of aromatic hydrogen is greater than with CuO and Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that both pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen are present in the tars and chars, and that the dominant form of tar sulfur is thiophenic. There is evidence that mineral sulfur is immobilized when CuO in particular is the receptor. The chars formed show a degree of graphitization and are themselves excellent microwave receptors. In the presence of oxide receptors, char-oxide redox reactions occur, with loss of char, reduction of oxide and enhanced yields of CO and CO[sub 2]. Of the lighter hydrocarbons identified in the gas phase, methane predominates. The data obtained are compared with those for other pyrolysis methods. 22 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  9. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  10. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of temperature on pyrolysis products of oil sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo LIU; Wei SONG; Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    Temperature is the determining factor of pyrolysis, which is one of the alternative technologies for oil sludge treatment. The effects of final:operating temperature ranging from 350 to 550℃ on pyrolysis products of oil sludge were studied in an externally-heating fixed bed reactor. With an increase of temperature, the mass fraction of solid residues, liquids, and gases in the final product is 67.00%-56.00%, 25.60%-32.35%, and 7.40%-11.65%, and their coresponding heat values are 34.4-13.8 MJ/kg, 44.41-46.6 MJ/kg, and 23.94-48.23 MJ/Nm3, respectively. The mass and energy tend to shift from solid to liquid and gas phase (especially to liquid phase) during the process, and the optimum temperature for oil sludge pyrolysis is 500℃. The liquid phase is mainly composed of alkane and alkene (C5.-C29), and the gas phase is dominantly HCs and H2.

  12. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  13. Formation of NO{sub x} precursors from the thermal decomposition of char and volatiles during coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.Z.; Ledesma, E.B.; Buckley, A.N.; Nelson, P.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology

    1997-04-01

    NO{sub x} emissions from the combustion of coal are an important environmental problem, since they contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. The major source of NO{sub x} formed during coal combustion is conversion of coal nitrogen, as the formation of NO{sub x} through the thermal fixation of N{sub 2} in the air fed into the modern combustors is effectively lowered by reducing the peak combustion temperatures. The thermal decomposition of both volatiles (tar) and char can result in the further formation of gas-phase NO{sub x} precursors which may then be converted into either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2} during subsequent combustion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the formation of the precursors during pyrolysis. Nitrogen distribution during pyrolysis, and tar nitrogen functionality during thermal cracking are outlined, and a comparison is made between the pyrolysis of coals and model compounds. It is suggested that not only tar thermal cracking but also primary pyrolysis and char thermal decomposition reactions contribute to the formation of gaseous NO{sub x} precursors. (author). 1 tab., 9 figs., 11 refs.

  14. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  15. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G.;Andries, J.;Spliethoff, H.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based o...

  16. Investigating and modeling the pyrolysis kinetic of leaves and stems of pistachio trees for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ostad Hoseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The lignocelluloses materials have high potential for producing various types of biofuels. These materials include various parts of plants, especially leaves and stems that are left without a specific usage after annual pruning. These residues can be used through slow or fast pyrolysis process for production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. The slow pyrolysis is taking place at temperatures below 500°C while fast pyrolysis process takes place at a temperature above 700°C. Various studies on production of biofuels from plant residues have shown that the temperature, heating rate and the resident time of pyrolysis process are the main factors that affect the final product quality. At present time, in Iran, there are more than 360 thousands hectares of pistachio growing fields which annually produce over 215 thousands metric tons residues which are mainly leaves and stems. The main objective of this study was to measure the heating properties of the powders prepared from the leaves and the stem of pistachio trees. These properties include higher heating value (HHV, lower heating value (LHV and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders. Then the powders were separately pyrolysed and the kinetic of the pyrolysis process for producing charcoal from them was investigated. Materials and Methods In this research, leaves and stems of pistachio trees were initially analyzed to determine their chemical constituents including moisture content, volatile compounds, carbon (C, hydrogen (H, nitrogen (N, sulfur (S and oxygen (O content. Using these constituents the height heating value and low heating value for the leaves and the stems were determined. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders was made to select a proper heating temperature for pyrolysis of the powders. In each experiment about 10 g of powder powders were pyrolyzed to produce char. Based on TGA results, the pyrolysis experiments were performed at 350, 400, 450 and

  17. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  18. Studies on Pyrolysis Kinetic of Newspaper Wastes in a Packed Bed Reactor: Experiments, Modeling, and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper waste was pyrolysed in a 50 mm diameter and 640 mm long reactor placed in a packed bed pyrolyser from 573 K to 1173 K in nitrogen atmosphere to obtain char and pyro-oil. The newspaper sample was also pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA under the same experimental conditions. The pyrolysis rate of newspaper was observed to decelerate above 673 K. A deactivation model has been attempted to explain this behaviour. The parameters of kinetic model of the reactions have been determined in the temperature range under study. The kinetic rate constants of volatile and char have been determined in the temperature range under study. The activation energies 25.69 KJ/mol, 27.73 KJ/mol, 20.73 KJ/mol and preexponential factors 7.69 min−1, 8.09 min−1, 0.853 min−1 of all products (solid reactant, volatile, and char have been determined, respectively. A deactivation model for pyrolysis of newspaper has been developed under the present study. The char and pyro-oil obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures have been characterized. The FT-IR analyses of pyro-oil have been done. The higher heating values of both pyro-products have been determined.

  19. STUDY ON THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PYROLYSIS OF ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS BY ON-LINE FTIR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Genxiang; CHEN Bangjie

    1987-01-01

    The gaseous products of high temperature pyrolysis (300℃ to 960℃) of acrylonitrile polymers were measured continuously under nitrogen atnosphere by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic method (FTIR). From the variations of characteristic peaks it was found that the nitrogen of macromolecules evolved were mainly in the form of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. During the pyrolysis amorphous carbonaceous element was formed, and crosslinked to form network structure. Three kinds of samples were used for comparison. The experimental results show that the gaseous products of volatile small molecules were HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H6 and cyanide. CO and CO2 were also formed when copolymers of PAN were thermally pyrolyzed.

  20. Conventional and microwave induced pyrolysis of coffee hulls for the production of a hydrogen rich fuel gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Antonio; Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Pis, Jose; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of coffee hulls at 500, 800 and 1000 8C. The influence of the pyrolysis method and temperature on the product yields and on the characteristics of the pyrolysis products is discussed. It was found that the pyrolysis of this particular residue gives rise to a larger yield of the gas fraction compared to the other fractions, even at relatively low temperatures. A comparison of microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conven...

  1. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  3. Fast pyrolysis of biomass : an experimental study on mechanisms influencing yield and composition of the products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil originating from biomass has the potential to replace ‘crude fossil oil’ and to produce fuels and chemicals in a more sustainable way. The favorable perspective of fast pyrolysis as biomass pre-treatment step is directly related to the production of a liquid as main product and the sig

  4. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio.

  5. Production of fuel by pyrolysis of the bagasse of grapes: yield and high thermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foussard, J.N.; Talayrach, B.; Besombes Vailhe, J.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid fuel of high calorific value was obtained by the pyrolysis of grape bagasse, with the pyrolysis temperature being the factor determining the product composition. Grape bagasse is produced in distilleries and is thus a practical and readily available material.

  6. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  7. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  8. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

  10. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  12. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  13. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  14. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  15. Volatile Compounds Detected in Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke through Pyrolysis at a Fractioning Temperature of 350-420 C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Hadanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the volatile components of liquid smoke from coconut shells obtained through the pyrolysis process at fraction 350-420 °C. The volatile compounds of liquid smoke from a coconut shell were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nineteen peaks were detected by GC-MS in the coconut shell liquid smoke, and 19 compounds also were identified. The volatile compounds were identified as follows based on their function group’s composition percentage: phenol (90.75%, carbonyl (3.71%, alcohol (1.81%, and benzene (3.73%, respectively. The liquid smoke contains a high ratio of phenol derivatives (90.75% in volatile profile. The phenol derivatives were the major volatile compounds found in the coconut shell liquid smoke.

  16. The effect of online catalytic pyrolysis on the yield of light liquid products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gangwei

    2014-06-01

    Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis on Yunnan lignite were studied in a fixed bed to determine their effects on high-value raw materials, such as BTX, PCX and lower naphthalene, in liquid products. Ni and Mo were chosen as active pyrolysis centers through thermogravimetry, after which their catalytic effects were analyzed in a fixed bed. The results showed that different concentrations of impregnated Ni and Mo solution can significantly increase the yield of high-value products and enable catalyst separating and recycling with this method of online catalytic pyrolysis.

  17. Pyrolysis of brown coal mixed with heavy products of coal and petroleum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhorev, A.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Akhmedov, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    Investigates effect of various additives on yield of liquid product from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk (Berezovsk deposit) brown coal mixed with organic additives: waste from caprolactam plant consisting mostly of saturated oxygen containing compounds and mono- and di-carboxylic acid esters, waste from sabatic acid plant consisting predominantly of unsaturated acids, distillation residue of synthetic fatty acids, heavy residue from Arlansk oil refineries containing mainly condensed naphtheno-aromatic systems and heavy tar from rapid pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coal. Finds that joint pyrolysis of brown coal with organic additives increases yield of liquid products and that intensive decomposition begins at lower temperatures. 4 refs.

  18. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  19. Bio-oil production from palm fronds by fast pyrolysis process in fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kiky Corneliasari, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis process of palm fronds has been conducted in the fluidized bed reactor to yield bio-oil product (pyrolysis oil). The process employed sea sand as the heat transfer medium. The objective of this study is to design of the fluidized bed rector, to conduct fast pyrolysis process to product bio-oil from palm fronds, and to characterize the feed and bio-oil product. The fast pyrolysis process was conducted continuously with the feeding rate around 500 g/hr. It was found that the biomass conversion is about 35.5% to yield bio-oil, however this conversion is still minor. It is suggested due to the heating system inside the reactor was not enough to decompose the palm fronds as a feedstock. Moreover, the acids compounds ware mostly observed on the bio-oil product.

  20. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  3. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  4. Study on pyrolysis of typical medical waste materials by using TG-FTIR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H M; Yan, J H; Jiang, X G; Lai, Y E; Cen, K F

    2008-05-01

    Pyrolysis of certain medical waste materials was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Pyrolysis characteristics of three common materials were discussed. The pyrolysis of absorbent cotton turned out to be the most concentrative, followed by medical respirator and bamboo stick. From TG and DTG curves, pyrolysis of these three materials occurred in single, two and three stages respectively. Evolved volatile products from all these three materials included 2-butanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water; whereas no sulphur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide was detected. There are several differences in yield among them. However, the study in this paper is essential for medical waste pyrolysis model, the TG-FTIR approach is potential to provide valuable inputs for predictive modeling of medical waste pyrolysis. More studied are needed to get the kinetic parameters and pyrolysis models that can predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products for CFD applications.

  5. Influence of Crystal Allomorph and Crystallinity on the Products and Behavior of Cellulose during Fast Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Mittal, Ashutosh; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Budhi, Sridhar; Thompson, Logan; Iisa, Kristiina; Nimlos, Mark R.; Donohoe, Bryon S.

    2016-09-06

    Cellulose is the primary biopolymer responsible for maintaining the structural and mechanical integrity of cell walls and, during the fast pyrolysis of biomass, may be restricting cell wall expansion and inhibiting phase transitions that would otherwise facilitate efficient escape of pyrolysis products. Here, we test whether modifications in two physical properties of cellulose, its crystalline allomorph and degree of crystallinity, alter its performance during fast pyrolysis. We show that both crystal allomorph and relative crystallinity of cellulose impact the slate of primary products produced by fast pyrolysis. For both cellulose-I and cellulose-II, changes in crystallinity dramatically impact the fast pyrolysis product portfolio. In both cases, only the most highly crystalline samples produced vapors dominated by levoglucosan. Cellulose-III, on the other hand, produces largely the same slate of products regardless of its relative crystallinity and produced as much or more levoglucosan at all crystallinity levels compared to cellulose-I or II. In addition to changes in products, the different cellulose allomorphs affected the viscoelastic properties of cellulose during rapid heating. Real-time hot-stage pyrolysis was used to visualize the transition of the solid material through a molten phase and particle shrinkage. SEM analysis of the chars revealed additional differences in viscoelastic properties and molten phase behavior impacted by cellulose crystallinity and allomorph. Regardless of relative crystallinity, the cellulose-III samples displayed the most obvious evidence of having transitioned through a molten phase.

  6. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial...

  7. Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyali Das; Anuradda Ganesh [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering; Pramod Wangikar [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the studies made on the vacuum pyrolysis of deashed sugarcane bagasse, on the pyrolysis products. The present work is with an objective to understand the change in the quantity and quality of the oil fraction obtained from pyrolysis, upon pretreatment for deashing of original biomass. Ash, in the entrained char is believed to be catalysing the polymerization reaction in the oils and thereby increases the viscosity. Three different pre- treatment processes used for deashing are water leaching, mild acid treatment with HCl and mild acid treatment with HF. The study indicates the remarkable influence of pretreatment process for deashing, by enhancing the total energy distribution in oil fraction of the pyrolysis products. This is attributed to selective removal of ash elements along with removal of extractives and hemicellulose in different proportions. However, it was found that the pre- treatments do not improve the stability of oil. The water leachate, as expected, showed potential of making ethanol via fermentation. (author)

  8. Pyrolysis oil production, properties, and utilization; Pyrolyysioeljyn valmistus, ominaisuudet ja kaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Kuoppala, E.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Solantausta, Y.; Levander, J. VTT Energia

    1995-12-31

    The main tasks for 1995 were: design and assembling of experimental reactors, and physical and chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oils. A PDU-unit (20 kg/h) has been designed and it will be assembled in April 1996. A 1 kg/h pyrolyzer has been constructed with a hot-filtration system (a ceramic candle filter) and direct quenching with a hydrocarbon oil. The equipment has worked well. Pine saw dust has been used as a feed and a good-quality solids-free product oil has been obtained. In addition to this, a smaller (150 g/h) pyrolyzer has been bought from Canada (University of Waterloo). The small equipment will be used for example for catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours. Chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil has been carried out 1995. Water extraction has been developed for a fractionation method. Pyrolysis oil samples produced from mixed hardwood, eucalyptus and straw have been employed. The objective of the study has been to develop a simple characterisation method for comparison of different pyrolysis oils. For example reactive compounds have been identified. Main analytical method for analysing the water-soluble fraction has been GC-MS. The research will be continued 1996. A literature review of chemical and physical characterization of pyrolysis oils has been published 1995. Testing of fuel oil analyses has been continued within the IEA pyrolysis project. VTT Energy is responsible for fuel oil analytical methods

  9. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i) characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)-biochar morphology, (ii) estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii) determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis s...

  10. Characterization and pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis: potential of bio-oil and chemical production by Py-GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hanna N; Calixto, Guilherme Q; Chagas, Bruna M E; Melo, Dulce M A; Resende, Fabio M; Melo, Marcus A F; Braga, Renata Martins

    2017-06-01

    Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land. On this scenario, this paper aims to demonstrate the energetic potential to produce bio-oil and chemicals from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis. The potential of these biomasses was evaluated in terms of physical-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis interfaced with gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The results show that C. vulgaris and A. platensis are biomasses with a high heating value (24.60 and 22.43 MJ/kg) and low ash content, showing a high percentage of volatile matter (72.49 and 79.42%). These characteristics confirm their energetic potential for conversion process through pyrolysis, whereby some important aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene, and phenol were identified as pyrolysis products, which could turn these microalgae a potential for biofuels and bioproduct production through the pyrolysis.

  11. Study of production and pyrolysis characteristics of sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhu, Yalun

    2014-05-25

    Flavor plays an important role and has been widely used in foods. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the flavor. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. This work focused on the study of production of a sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex, and investigated the combination of flavor and β-CD by thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the flavor-β-CD inclusion complex were determined. The results showed that the flavor-β-CD inclusion complexes can form large aggregates in water. During thermal degradation of blank β-CD and flavor-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. The thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 250°C, while the TG curve of flavor-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Joy Ashworth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.-biochar morphology, (ii estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis system versus batch pyrolysis systems for terminal use as a soil amendment. Auger system chars produced at 600°C had the greatest lignin portion by weight among the biochars produced from the continuous system. On the other hand, a batch pyrolysis system (400 °C – 3h yielded biochar with 73.10% lignin (12 fold increases, indicating higher recalcitrance, whereas lower production temperatures (400 °C yielded greater hemicellulose (i.e. greater mineralization promoting substrate. Under both pyrolysis methods, increasing biochar soil application rates resulted in linear decreases in bulk density (g cm-3. Increases in auger-char (400 °C applications increased soil water-holding capacities; however, application rates of >2 Mt ha-1 are required. Pyrolysis batch chars did not influence water-holding abilities (P>0.05. Biochar macro and micronutrients increased, as the pyrolysis temperature increased in the auger system from 400 to 600 °C, and the residence time increased in the batch pyrolysis system from 1 to 3 h. Conversely, nitrogen levels tended to decrease under the two previously mentioned conditions. Consequently, not all chars are inherently equal, in that varying operation systems, residence times, and production conditions greatly affect uses as a soil amendment and overall rate of efficacy.

  13. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks. (author)

  14. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough.

  15. Examination of zinc adsorption capacity of soils treated with different pyrolysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter input into soils is essential regarding agricultural, environmental and soil science aspects as well. However, the application of the pyrolysed forms of biochars and materials with different organic matter content gained more attention in order to decrease the emission of the green house gases (CO2, N2O from the soil. During pyrolysis, the materials containing high organic matter (biomass-originated organic matter are heated in oxygen-free (or limited amount of oxygen environment. As a result, the solid phase, which remains after eliminating the gases and liquid phase, is more stable compared to the original product, it cannot be mineralized easily in the soil and its utilization is more beneficial in terms of climatic aspects. Furthermore, it can improve soil structure and it can retain soil moisture and cations in the topsoil for long periods of time, which is very important for plants. In our experiment, the effects of biochar and bone char were examined on soils by zinc adsorption experiments. Based on our experiments, we concluded that the pyrolysis products can have significant Zn adsorption capacity compared to the soil. Bone ash can adsorb more Zn than the charcoal product. The Zn adsorption capacity of soils treated by pyrolysis products can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. However, based on the amount of pyrolysis products, one or two term Langmuir isotherm fits well on the experiment data, which depends on the time the pyrolysis product has spent in the soil.

  16. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  17. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  18. Investigating the influence of production conditions on the energy distribution between the solid, liquid and gaseous products of slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Kyle; Masek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    calorific value due to the increased emission of volatiles. The higher heating value for the syngas was also shown to increase with temperature due to greater release of combustible gas species at higher temperatures. The impact of residence time and gas flow rate were not as clear as for temperature but still demonstrated decreasing biochar yields as the respective parameters were increased. However the greatest impact occurred at 350oC and diminished when temperature was increased to 650oC. An understanding of the influence that production conditions have on the long term stability of biochar as well as the energy content of the solid, liquid and gas fractions obtained from pyrolysis is critical towards the development of specifically engineered biochar to deliver a specific function be it for agricultural use, carbon storage, energy generation or combinations of the three.

  19. Sugar cane bagasse pyrolysis: process optimization and products characterization; Pirolise do bagaco de cana: otimizacao do processo e caracterizacao dos produtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Sergio

    1994-07-01

    The ghost of drying of natural resources, mainly the petroleum, desolate the Earth. Although the concern with this fact is recent, it has motivated a run in search of the alternative sources that can replace their self. An alternative source that come earning special attention is biomass, whose research come increasing annually. In Brazil, an important form of biomass, that is rejected like waste and utilized to little noble aim, is the sugar cane bagasse. The objective of this work is to present a conversion process of the bagasse in fuels and raw materials for the chemistry industry. The conversion method adopted was the pyrolysis. To the realization of this conversion, it was constructed a horizontal bed oven, with continuous flow of nitrogen, which carried the pyrolised volatile material, for the trap, during the process. The pyrolysis study was done in the range of 400 deg C to 900 deg C and was optimized utilizing the factorial design. The char, which is a pyrolysis product, was characterized by thermogravimetric and spectroscopic techniques. The tar, which is another pyrolysis product, was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained shows that the tar is abundant in organic acids, such fenols and carboxylic acids, which has great utility as raw materials in the chemistry industry. The char, obtained in the range of 400 deg C to 600 deg C, is rich inorganic material, making possible its posterior processing to obtain oils. (author)

  20. Effects of Acid Characteristics of Nanoporous MCM-48 on the Pyrolysis Product Distribution of Waste Pepper Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Kwon Park; Myung Lang Yoo; Sung Hoon Park

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous catalysts Si-MCM-48 and Al-MCM-48 were applied for the first time to the catalytic pyrolysis of waste pepper stem. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 550°C using Py-GC/MS to examine the product distribution rapidly. Phenolics were shown to be the most abundant product species of noncatalytic pyrolysis, whereas aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were produced marginally. On the other hand, much larger quantities of furans and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were produced f...

  1. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  2. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered.

  3. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  5. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  6. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  7. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  8. Experimental determination of the yield of pyrolysis products of polyethene and polypropene. Influence of reaction conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of temperature, residence time, concentration level of reactants and products, polymer type, and composition of the polymer mixture on the product spectra obtained from pyrolysis of polyethene (PE) and polypopene (PP) was determined. In our study the temperature was varied between 650

  9. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  10. Effect of the fast pyrolysis temperature on the primary and secondary products of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Garcia Perez, Manuel; Pecha, Brennan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; McDonald, Armando G.; Westerhof, Roel J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results on the primary pyrolysis products of organosolv lignin at temperatures between 360 and 700 °C. To study the primary products, a vacuum screen heater (heating rate of 8000 °C/s, deep vacuum of 0.7 mbar, and very fast cooling at the wall temperature of −100 °C) was used. Th

  11. Cannabis—XV . Pyrolysis of cannabidiol. Structure elucidation of four pyrolytic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppers, F.J.E.M.; Bercht, C.A.L.; Salemink, C.A.; Lousberg, R.J.J.Ch.

    1975-01-01

    Pyrolysis of cannabidiol in nitrogen atmosphere affords at least six more products with longer GC-retention times than CBD, next to unconverted CBD. Two of these could be identified as Δ1(2)THC and CBN Two further products were investigated and their mass spectrometrical fragmentations and structure

  12. A technical and economic evaluation of the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Parker, W

    2008-03-01

    Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from sewage sludge is a promising way, to not only improve the economical value, but also to reduce pollutants associated with sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of oil from primary, waste activated and digested sludges. The pyrolysis was performed in a laboratory-scale horizontal batch reactor. The operating temperature ranged from 250 degrees C to 500 degrees C, while a gas phase residence time of 20 min was maintained with 50 ml/min of nitrogen gas as a purge flow. The maximum oil yield was achieved with primary sludge at 500 degrees C. Temperature and volatile solids were the most important factors affecting the yield of oil and char, however, sludge type also affected both results. Pre-treatment of sludge with either acids, a base or a catalyst (zeolite) did not improve the quantity of oil produced. The economic values of the oil produced from primary, TWAS, and digested sludges were estimated as 9.9, 5.6, and 6.9 cent/kg-ds when the value of oil is 32 cent/kg-oil.

  13. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  14. Study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for production of bio-gasoline by on-line FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Bo Lu; Jian Zhong Yao; Wei Gang Lin; Wen Li Song

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a promising way for production of bio-gasoline if the stability and quality problems of the bio-crudeoil can be solved by catalytic cracking and reforming. In this paper, an on-line infrared spectrum was used to study the characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis with the following preliminary results. The removal of C=O of organic acid is more difficult than that of aldehydes and ketones. HUSY/γ-Al2O3 and REY/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibited better deoxygenating activities while HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited preferred selectivities for production of iso-alkanes and aromatics. Finally, possible mechanisms of biomass catalytic pyrolysis are discussed as well.

  15. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  16. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Le, Gia Hy; Thu Giang Pham, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Canh Dao, Duc; Vu, Thi Minh Hong; Thu Thuy Hoang, Thi; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2011-12-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44-48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450 °C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550 °C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw.

  17. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

  18. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  19. Techno-economic and uncertainty analysis of in situ and ex situ fast pyrolysis for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ou, Longwen; Dang, Qi; Meyer, Pimphan; Jones, Susanne; Brown, Robert; Wright, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the techno-economic uncertainty in cost estimates for two emerging technologies for biofuel production: in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. The probability distributions for the minimum fuel-selling price (MFSP) indicate that in situ catalytic pyrolysis has an expected MFSP of $1.11 per liter with a standard deviation of 0.29, while the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has a similar MFSP with a smaller deviation ($1.13 per liter and 0.21 respectively). These results suggest that a biorefinery based on ex situ catalytic pyrolysis could have a lower techno-economic uncertainty than in situ pyrolysis compensating for a slightly higher MFSP cost estimate. Analysis of how each parameter affects the NPV indicates that internal rate of return, feedstock price, total project investment, electricity price, biochar yield and bio-oil yield are parameters which have substantial impact on the MFSP for both in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis.

  20. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  1. Influence of impregnation by inorganic substances on the yield of pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevkoplyas, V.N.; Saranchuk, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Donetsk (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii i Uglekhimii

    1998-09-01

    In papers was shown that fossil coals impregnation by aqueous solution of inorganic substances with a subsequent pyrolysis leads to the rise of the rate and depth of its organic mass destruction into liquid and gaseous products. This is, apperently, conditioned by changes in coals structure already on the stage of treatment. But, there are few papers that study an activating effect of inorganic reactants upon natural coals structure and their behaviour at pyrolysis. One of the methods which allows to judge structural transformation in coals at their impregnation by inorganic substances is an X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  2. Continuous production of inorganic magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: sabino@icmm.csic.es; Leconte, Yann [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Costo, Rocio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bouchet-Fabre, Brigitte [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Morales, M. Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bonville, Pierre [CEA, CE Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Perez-Rial, Sandra [Unidad de RMN (UCM), Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Ignacio [Unidad de RMN (UCM), Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herlin-Boime, Nathalie [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    Magnetic composites of Fe-based nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon/silica (C/SiO{sub 2} at Fe) or carbon (C at Fe) matrices were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of aerosols. The powders were dispersed in aqueous solutions at pH 7 resulting in biocompatible colloidal dispersions with a high resistance to biodegradation. Structural and magnetic properties and the suitability of aqueous dispersions as contrast agent for MRI were analyzed. The results of these characterizations and the NMR relaxivity data are very encouraging for application of laser pyrolysis products in the field of living tissues.

  3. Continuous production of inorganic magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Leconte, Yann; Costo, Rocío; Bomati-Miguel, Oscar; Bouchet-Fabre, Brigitte; Morales, M. Puerto; Bonville, Pierre; Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic composites of Fe-based nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon/silica (C/SiO 2@Fe) or carbon (C@Fe) matrices were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of aerosols. The powders were dispersed in aqueous solutions at pH 7 resulting in biocompatible colloidal dispersions with a high resistance to biodegradation. Structural and magnetic properties and the suitability of aqueous dispersions as contrast agent for MRI were analyzed. The results of these characterizations and the NMR relaxivity data are very encouraging for application of laser pyrolysis products in the field of living tissues.

  4. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  5. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  6. Production and characterization of bio-oil from catalytic biomass pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonakou Eleni V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flash pyrolysis is a very promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-fuels and/or chemicals. However, large-scale applications are still under careful consideration, because of the high bio-liquid upgrading cost. In this paper the production of bio-liquids from biomass flash pyrolysis in a single stage catalytic process is being investigated using a novel once through fluid bed reactor. This biomass pyrolysis unit was constructed in Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute and comprises of a catalyst regenerator, a biomass-vibrating hopper, a fluidization reactor (that consists of an injector and a riser reactor, a product stripper along with a hot cyclone and a filter housing and finally a product condensation/recovery section. The unit can process up to 20 g/min. of biomass (50-800 mm and can circulate up to 300 g/min. of catalyst or inert material. The experiments performed in the pilot plant showed that the unit operates without problems and with satisfactory mass balances in a wide range of experimental conditions both in the absence and presence of catalyst. With the incorporation of an FCC catalyst in the pyrolysis, the physical properties of the bio-oil produced changed, while more stable bio-oil was produced. .

  7. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  8. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walkton, C. W. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targest for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  9. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  10. Geochemical characterization of the hydrous pyrolysis products from a recent cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, N.; Mendoça-Filho, J.G.; Silva, T.F.; Stojanovic, K.; Fontana, L.F.; Carvalhal-Gomes, S.B.V.; Silva, F.S.; Furukawa, G.G.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments were performed on a recent microbial mat sample from Lagoa Vermelha, Brazil, to determine whether crude oil can be generated and expelled during artificial maturation of the Organic Matter (OM). The experiments were conducted at 280ºC, 330ºC and 350ºC during 20h. Two types of liquid pyrolysis products, assigned as free oil and bitumen, were isolated and analyzed. Free oil represents free organic phase released by hydrous pyrolysis, whereas bitumen was obtained by extraction from the solid pyrolysis residue with dichloromethane. Changes in the OM maturity were determined using Rock-Eval parameters and biomarker maturity ratios of original sample and pyrolysis products. Biomarker compositions of original sample extract and liquid pyrolysates were used for determination of dominant bacterial source. The yields of free oil and bitumen showed that a microbial mat OM has a high liquid hydrocarbons generation potential. Rock-Eval maturity parameters, biopolymer and biomarker compositions indicate a significant increase of the OM maturity during hydrous pyrolysis. At 280ºC the release of free, adsorbed and occluded compounds was observed; however, without a cracking of the OM. At 330ºC the generation of bitumen and free oil is mostly related to the OM cracking. The highest yield of free oil was recorded at this temperature. Distribution of biomarkers in the extract of original sample and liquid pyrolysates confirms cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats, whereas the identification of long chain n-alkane series, with maximum at C26, and prominent C30 hop-17(21)-ene additionally suggest the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. (Author)

  11. Thermodynamical study on production of acetylene from coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Guo, W.K.; Yuan, X.Q.; Zhao, T.Z. [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Inst. for Modern Physics

    2006-05-15

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  12. Thermodynamical Study on Production of Acetylene from Coal Pyrolysis in Hydrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Guo, Wenkang; Yuan, Xingqiu; Zhao, Taize

    2006-05-01

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  13. Biomass torrefaction: modeling of volatile and solid product evolution kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard B; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a kinetics model for the evolution of the volatile and solid product composition during torrefaction conditions between 200 and 300°C. Coupled to an existing two step solid mass loss kinetics mechanism, this model describes the volatile release kinetics in terms of a set of identifiable chemical components, permitting the solid product composition to be estimated by mass conservation. Results show that most of the volatiles released during the first stage include highly oxygenated species such as water, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide, while volatiles released during the second step are composed primarily of lactic acid, methanol, and acetic acid. This kinetics model will be used in the development of a model to describe reaction energy balance and heat release dynamics.

  14. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material.

  15. Pyrolysis of casein, characterization and properties of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Purevsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Have been determined the technical characteristics and elemental composition of milk casein. Pyrolysis experiments of casein carried out at different heating temperatures and determined the yields of obtained solid (biochar, liquid (tar and pyrolysis water and gas products. A temperature around 550ºC determined as an optimal heating temperature of pyrolysis and approximately 28.33% biochar, 37.38% tar, 13.23% pyrolysis water and 20.84% gas obtained after pyrolysis. First time a biochar with higher content of nitrogen was obtained by pyrolysis of casein and determined it is elemental composition and technical specifications. The porous structure of casein biochar was characterized by mercury porosimeter and SEM analysis confirmed that casein biochar has mostly meso and macro pores. The casein tar had the elemental composition: C-66.7%, H-8.3%, N-12.1%, O-12.9% and was completely soluble in 1-methyl-2-pyrroldinone. The tar consisted mostly of moderate molecular mass components with SEC elution times between 18-26 min and an estimated mass range up to 3000-5000 mass units as well as some larger size components, possibly 3-dimentional. The property and determined chemical composition of casein tar by GC/MS analysis were an evidence for using it as a curing agent for crosslinking reactions of epoxy resins. The necessary amount of tar for curing reaction of epoxy resin was determined experimentally as a 15-20% for the stoichiometric amount of reactive epoxy groups (15-20% epoxy group content in epoxy resin and obtained cured epoxy resin with 95% degree of crosslinking reaction. Have been suggested several curing reaction schemes of epoxy resin with amines, nitriles and phenols of the casein tar

  16. Oxidative and inert pyrolysis on-line coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection: On the pyrolysis products of tobacco additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa. To simulate the combustion of a cigarette it was necessary to perform pyrolysis at inert conditions as well as under oxygen supply. All individual additives were pyrolyzed under inert or oxidative conditions at 350, 700 and 1000°C, respectively, and the formation of different toxicants was monitored. We observed the generation of vinyl acrylate, fumaronitrile, methacrylic anhydride, isobutyric anhydride and 3-buten-2-ol exclusively during pyrolysis of tobacco additives. According to the literature, these toxicants so far remained undetectable in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Further, the formation of 20 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular weights of up to 278Da was monitored during pyrolysis of cocoa in a semi-quantitative approach. It was shown that the adding of cocoa to tobacco had no influence on the relative amounts of the PAHs formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed.

  18. Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derun Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The doping of PP (polypropylene with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil mainly consisted of C11 alkane.

  19. Diffusion of Biomass Pyrolysis Products in H-ZSM-5 by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Robichaud, David J.; Kim, Seonah

    2017-01-12

    Diffusion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and their upgraded products is an essential catalytic property of zeolites during catalytic fast pyrolysis and likely plays a critical role in the selectivity of these catalysts. Characterizing the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules is critical to understand shape selectivity and interpret product distribution. Yet, experimental measurements on the diffusivities of oxygenated biofuel molecules at pyrolysis temperatures are very limited in the literature. As an alternative approach, we conducted MD simulations to measure the diffusion coefficients of several selected molecules that are representative of biomass pyrolysis vapors, namely water, methanol, glycolaldehyde, and toluene in H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The results show the diffusion coefficients calculated via MD simulations are consistent with available NMR measurements at room temperature. The effect of molecular weight and molecular critical diameter on the diffusivity among the chosen model compounds is also examined. Furthermore, we have characterized the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules, namely xylene isomers, in H-ZSM-5. Our calculations determined that the ratio of the diffusion coefficients for xylene isomers is p-xylene:o-xylene:m-xylene almost equal to 83:3:1 at 700 K. Additionally, our results also demonstrate the different diffusivity between p-xylene and toluene is due to the molecular orientations when the molecules diffuse along the channels in H-ZSM-5 and provide deep insight into the effect of molecular orientation on its diffusivity.

  20. VAPoR - Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith - an Instrument for In Situ Detection of Water, Noble Gases, and Organics on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Cardiff, E. H.; Feng, S. H.; Holmes, V.; Malespin, C.; Stern, J. G.; Swindle, T. D.; Glavin, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) instrument design and demonstrate the validity of an in situ pyrolysis mass spectrometer for evolved gas analyses of lunar and planetary regolith samples. In situ evolved gas analyses of the lunar regolith have not yet been carried out and no atmospheric or evolved gas measurements have been made at the lunar poles. VAPoR is designed to do both kinds of measurements, is currently under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and will be able to heat powdered regolith samples or rock drill fines up to 1400 C in vacuo. To validate the instrument concept, evolved gas species released from different planetary analogs were determined as a function of temperature using a laboratory breadboard. Evolved gas measurements of an Apollo 16 regolith sample and a fragment of the carbonaceous meteorite Murchison were made by VAPoR and our results compared with existing data. The results imply that in situ evolved gas measurements of the lunar regolith at the polar regions by VAPoR will be a very powerful tool for identifying water and other volatile signatures of lunar or exogenous origin as potential resources for future human exploration.

  1. 'Smoking' mephedrone: the identification of the pyrolysis products of 4-methylmethcathinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce; O'Brien, John; Power, John D; Talbot, Brian; McDermott, Seán D

    2013-05-01

    The ring-substituted cathinone - mephedrone - has gained popularity among recreational drug users over the past several years. It is generally consumed orally or by snorting but reports indicate that it is also ingested by vaporization/inhalation. This study examines the pyrolysis products produced by heating mephedrone under using simulated 'meth pipe' conditions. Thirteen pyrolysis products were identified, the major ones being iso-mephedrone, 4-methylpropiophenone, 4-methylphenylacetone, two pyrazine derivatives formed by dimerization of mephedrone, N-methylated mephedrone (N,N,4-trimethylcatinone), two hydroxylated oxidation products and a diketone. Other minor products formed were identified as 4-methylacetophenone, two α-chloro ketones and N-methylated iso-mephedrone.

  2. Volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (pinus densiflora siebold and zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Sung Hong; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. Volatile Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of the Bio-Oil Obtained by Pyrolysis of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora Siebold and Zucc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc. sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  4. Effect of ZSM-5 Acidity on Aromatic Product Selectivity during Upgrading of Pine Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Mukarakate, Calvin; Starace, Anne K.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Rogers, Allyson K.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of catalyst acidity on the selectivity of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products was studied by passing pine pyrolysis vapors over five ZSM-5 catalysts of varying acidity at 500 degrees C. The SiO2-to-Al2O3 ratio (SAR) of the ZSM-5 zeolite was varied from 23 to 280 to control the acidity of the catalyst and the composition of upgraded products. The upgraded product stream was analyzed by GCMS. Additionally, catalysts were characterized using temperature programmed desorption, diffuse-reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the biomass pyrolysis vapors were highly deoxygenated to form a slate of aromatic hydrocarbons over all of the tested ZSM-5 catalysts. As the overall acidity of the ZSM-5 increased the selectivity toward alkylated (substituted) aromatics (e.g., xylene, dimethyl-naphthalene, and methyl-anthracene) decreased while the selectivity toward unsubstituted aromatics (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene) increased. Additionally, the selectivity toward polycyclic aromatic compounds (2-ring and 3-ring) increased as catalyst acidity increased, corresponding to a decrease in acid site spacing. The increased selectivity toward less substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with increasing acidity is related to the relative rates of cyclization and alkylation reactions within the zeolite structure. As the acid site concentration increases and sites become closer to each other, the formation of additional cyclization products occurs at a greater rate than alkylated products. The ability to adjust product selectivity within 1-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatic families, as well as the degree of substitution, by varying ZSM-5 acidity could have significant benefits in terms creating a slate of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products to meet specific target market demands.

  5. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, L.P.; Scimeca, J.A.; Thomas, B.F.; Martin, B.R.

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with /sup 3/H-PCP HCl and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) > PCP (40%) > piperidine (15%) > N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions.

  6. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields and composition of gaseous products were investigated. The temperatures of pyrolysis used were in the range of 300-600°C. The gaseous products from pyrolysis of (EFB were analyzed using a dual-channel micro-GC with Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD. The highest and lowest gas yields obtained were 42.98 and 31.55% at 600 and 300°C, respectively. The gases detected were Carbon Monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4, Ethane (C2H6 and Ethylene (C2H4. At 300 and 400°C, the gas mixture comprised mainly CO2 (20% and CO (20%. Other gases such as CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 only evolved at higher temperature starting from 400°C with the yield of the latter two gases in very low concentration.

  7. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  8. Life cycle analysis of fuel production from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Dunn, Jennifer B; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-04-01

    A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of pyrolysis-based gasoline was conducted and compared with petroleum gasoline. To address the variation and uncertainty in the pyrolysis pathways, probability distributions for key parameters were developed with data from literature. The impacts of two different hydrogen sources for pyrolysis oil upgrading and of two bio-char co-product applications were investigated. Reforming fuel gas/natural gas for H2 reduces WTW GHG emissions by 60% (range of 55-64%) compared to the mean of petroleum fuels. Reforming pyrolysis oil for H2 increases the WTW GHG emissions reduction up to 112% (range of 97-126%), but reduces petroleum savings per unit of biomass used due to the dramatic decline in the liquid fuel yield. Thus, the hydrogen source causes a trade-off between GHG reduction per unit fuel output and petroleum displacement per unit biomass used. Soil application of biochar could provide significant carbon sequestration with large uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal......Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight...

  10. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A J; Ren, S; Ye, X; Kim, P; Labbe, N; Borole, A P

    2015-11-01

    A new approach to hydrogen production using an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L anode-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50±3.2% to 76±0.5% while anode Coulombic efficiency ranged from 54±6.5% to 96±0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Volpe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT and olive pomace (OP. Solid (char and liquid (tar product yields are reported. Mass yields are determined and compared with values obtained in similar works. Results indicate that char yield decreases from 49% (OT-db and 50% (OP-db at 325 °C to 26% (OT db and 30% (OP-db at 650 °C. Tar yield is almost constant (42% at different reaction temperatures for OT, while it decreases slightly from 42% to 35% for OP. Energy density of the products at different peak temperatures is almost constant for OT (1.2, but slightly increases for OP (from a value of 1.3 to a value of 1.4.

  13. Removal of organobromine compounds from the pyrolysis oils of flame retarded plastics using zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William J.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Two flame retarded plastics have been pyrolysed in the presence of two zeolite catalysts to remove the organobromine compounds from the derived pyrolysis oil. The flame retarded plastics were, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) that was flame retarded with tetrabromobisphenol A and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) that was flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether. The two catalysts investigated were zeolite ZSM-5 and zeolite Y-Zeolite. Pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a final pyrolysis temperature of 440 C. The pyrolysis gases were passed immediately to a fixed bed of the catalyst. It was found that the presence of zeolite catalysts increased the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons produced during pyrolysis but decreased the amount of pyrolysis oil produced. In addition, significant quantities of coke were formed on the surface of the catalysts during pyrolysis. The zeolite catalysts were found to reduce the formation of some valuable pyrolysis products such as styrene and cumene, but other products such as naphthalene were formed instead. The zeolite catalysts, especially Y-Zeolite, were found to be very effective at removing volatile organobromine compounds. However, they were less effective at removing antimony bromide from the volatile pyrolysis products, although some antimony bromide was found on the surfaces of the spent catalysts. (author)

  14. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  16. Fractional pyrolysis of Cyanobacteria from water blooms over HZSM-5 for high quality bio-oil production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Li; Linling Li; Rui Zhang; Dongmei Tong∗; Changwei Hu∗

    2014-01-01

    Fractional pyrolysis and one-step pyrolysis of natural algae Cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake were comparatively studied from 200 to 500◦C. One-step pyrolysis produced bio-oil with complex composition and low high heating value (HHV630.9 MJ/kg). Fractional pyrolysis separated the degradation of different components in Cyanobacteria and improved the selectivity to products in bio-oil. That is, acids at 200◦C, amides and acids at 300◦C, phenols and nitriles at 400◦C, and phenols at 500◦C, were got as main products, respectively. HZSM-5 could promote the dehydration, cracking and aromatization of pyrolytic intermediates in fractional pyrolysis. At optimal HZSM-5 catalyst dosage of 1.0 g, the selectivity to products and the quality of bio-oil were improved obviously. The main products in bio-oil changed to nitriles (47.2%) at 300◦C, indoles (51.3%) and phenols (36.3%) at 400◦C. The oxygen content was reduced to 7.2 wt%and 9.4 wt%, and the HHV was raised to 38.1 and 37.3 MJ/kg at 300 and 400◦C, respectively. Fractional catalytic pyrolysis was proposed to be an efficient method not only to provide a potential solution for alleviating environmental pressure from water blooms, but also to improve the selectivity to products and obtain high quality bio-oil.

  17. Solvent desorption dynamic headspace sampling of fermented dairy product volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed based on solvent desorption dynamic headspace analysis for the identification and relative quantification of volatiles significant to the study of fermented dairy product aroma. Descriptions of applications of this method are presented including the measurement of diacetyl and acetoin in fermented milk, the evaluation of volatile-hydrocolloid interactions in dairy-based matrices, and the identification of volatiles in cheeses for canonical discriminative analysis. Advantages of this method include rapid analysis, minimal equipment investment, and the ability to analyze samples with traditional GC split/splitless inlet systems. Limitations of this method are that the sample must be in the liquid state and the inherent analytical limitation to those compounds that do not coelute with the solvent or solvent impurity peaks.

  18. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  19. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar, E-mail: lygiamk@gmail.com, E-mail: larinha_cardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: paulavieira88@gmail.com, E-mail: priciane.mp@bol.com.br, E-mail: humberto@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  20. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  1. Predicting Pyrolysis Products of PE, PP, and PET Using NRTL Activity Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mousa FakhrHoseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using thermodynamic models is a desired method for predicting an equilibrium when occurring in a system. If a thermodynamic model can predict an equilibrium condition in a pyrolysis, for a new way will be open for scientists in predicting equilibrium in a reaction without need to kinetic models. In this work, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate were used instead of feed of pyrolysis process. The process was maintained at 500°C with 5 different temperature raising ratios 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14. Then the process was modeled thermodynamically using NRTL activity coefficient model. Using this model, the binary interaction coefficients were investigated for the system of “char, oil, and gas.” Results showed that polyethylene and polypropylene produced the maximum liquid product. Calculated RMSD objective function was 0.0157; that it is acceptable for this process.

  2. Pyrolysis Products as Soil Fertilizers: Screening of Potentially Hazardous Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCM produced from three waste materials during slow pyrolysis at 400 and 500°C. As feedstocks bone meal (BM, biogas slurry (BC and chicken manure (CM were used. As potentially problematic substances 1- and 2- methylnaphthalene were analysed as indicators for methylated hydrocarbons in pyrolysis products. The phytotoxic effect of soil amendments was evaluated by a standard cress germination test with Lepidium sativum L. The analysis showed higher concentrations of the sum of 16 US-EPA PAHs in samples produced at lower temperature and in samples produced from biogas slurry. Concentrations of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene showed similar trends with concentrations in a range of 35-205% of the sum of 16 PAHs. Germination tests showed inhibition effects of products from biogas slurry when applied in concentrations of ≥ 10 % to standard substrate. Apparently pyrolysis of biogas slurry requires special attention to avoid accumulation of PAHs and methylated naphthalenes.

  3. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of Biofuel and Biochar Production from the Slow Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Gao, B.; Nsf Reu in Water Resources

    2010-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis was performed on biomass samples (i.e., energy cane and air potato) to determine the most energy efficient conditions for producing biofuel and biochar. The potential of air potato as a source of fuel and char was also investigated. Dry biomass samples of 10, 15 and 20 g were heated in a reactor at a final temperatures of 300, 450, or 600 °C, and the minimum amount of time required to complete pyrolysis was recorded. Maximum biochar yield was obtained at 300°C for both energy cane and air potato at all masses, and maximum bio-oil yield was obtained at 450°C for all samples. Pyrolysis required the least amount of time at 450°C. Bio-oil yields for air potato were slightly lower than that of energy cane, while biochar yield was slightly higher. Since air potato showed similar product yields to energy cane, this indicates it has potential to be a good feedstock for biofuel and biochar productions.

  5. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  6. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as

  7. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0005, n = 12). This indicates that application of an internal standard is a reliable method to assess biomarker depth records, which enormously facilitates the use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  8. Microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Alisa; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of peanut shell (PT) and pine sawdust (PS) using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil and nanotubes was investigated in this study. The effects of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and biomass/catalyst ratio on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. Fast heating rates were achieved under microwave irradiation conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that activated carbon significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenolic compounds in bio-oil. The highest phenolics content in the bio-oil (61.19 %(area)) was achieved at 300°C. The selectivity of phenolics in bio-oil was higher for PT sample compared to that of PS. The formation of nanotubes in PT biomass particles was observed for the first time in biomass microwave pyrolysis.

  9. Optimization of the pyrolysis process for the production of a biomass derived reducing agent and hydrogen-rich gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adrados López de Viñaspre, Aitziber

    2014-01-01

    221 p. [EN] This thesis is devoted to the optimization of the biomass pyrolysis process for the simultaneous production of bioreducing agents and high value gases. The thesis is part of the existing collaborative research work between the Befesa Steel R&D S.L. Company and the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao. This company was interested in developing the pyrolysis process at large scale to produce biocoke to be used as reducing agent...

  10. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; van Rossum, Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by-product of corn ethanol. Fast pyrolysis is an alternative thermal conversion technology for processing biomass. It has recently been optimized to produce a stream rich in levoglucosan, a fermentable glucose precursor for biofuel production. Additional product streams might be of value to the petrochemical industry. However, biomass heterogeneity is known to impact the composition of pyrolytic product streams, as a complex mixture of aromatic compounds is recovered with the sugars, interfering with subsequent fermentation. The present study investigates the feasibility of fast pyrolysis to produce fermentable pyrolytic glucose from two abundant lignocellulosic biomass sources in Ontario, switchgrass (potential energy crop) and corn cobs (by-product of corn industry). Demineralization of biomass removes catalytic centers and increases the levoglucosan yield during pyrolysis. The ash content of biomass was significantly decreased by 82-90% in corn cobs when demineralized with acetic or nitric acid, respectively. In switchgrass, a reduction of only 50% for both acids could be achieved. Conversely, levoglucosan production increased 9- and 14-fold in corn cobs when rinsed with acetic and nitric acid, respectively, and increased 11-fold in switchgrass regardless of the acid used. After pyrolysis, different configurations for upgrading the pyrolytic sugars were assessed and the presence of potentially inhibitory compounds was approximated at each step as double integral of the UV spectrum signal of an HPLC assay. The results showed that water extraction followed by acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction was the best upgrading strategy

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Başak B; Kanmaz, Gülin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41 (10 wt % of the biomass sample) was carried out in order to increase the quality of the liquid product at the various pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550(o)C. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was obtained as 42% at 500(o)C in a fixed-bed reactor system. In the catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was decreased to 37.48, 30.04 and 29.23% in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41, respectively. The obtained pyrolysis oils were analyzed by various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. It was determined that the use of a catalyst decreased acids and increased valuable organics found in the bio-oil. The removal of oxygen from bio-oil was confirmed with the results of the elemental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. Combined pretreatment with torrefaction and washing using torrefaction liquid products to yield upgraded biomass and pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Mei, Jiaming; Li, Haiping; Li, Yiming; Lu, Mengting; Ma, Tingting; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-03-01

    This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas. Overall, the combined pretreatment did not only allow to reuse the liquid products issued from torrefaction pretreatment but also improved the quality of biomass and the pyrolysis products, making it a novel promising pretreatment method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake mix for the production of value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velghe, Inge; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; Schreurs, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Slow and fast pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake (FC) mix are performed to investigate the liquid and solid products for their use as value added products. The obtained slow pyrolysis liquid products separate in an oil, a water rich fraction and a valuable crystalline solid 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin. During fast pyrolysis, mainly an oil fraction is formed. Aliphatic acids and amides present in the water rich fractions can be considered as value added products and could be purified. The oil fractions have properties which make them promising as fuel (25-35 MJ/kg, 14-20 wt% water content, 0.2-0.6 O/C value), but upgrading is necessary. Sludge/FC oils have a lower calorific value, due to evaporation of alcohols present in FC. ICP-AES analyses reveal that almost none of the metals present in sludge or sludge/FC are transferred towards the liquid fractions. The metals are enriched in the solid fractions.

  14. Techno-economic and uncertainty analysis of in situ and ex situ fast pyrolysis for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Boyan; Ou, Longwen; Dang, Qi; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Brown, Robert C.; Wright, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the techno-economic uncertainty in cost estimates for two emerging biorefinery technologies for biofuel production: in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. Stochastic simulations based on process and economic parameter distributions are applied to calculate biorefinery performance and production costs. The probability distributions for the minimum fuel-selling price (MFSP) indicate that in situ catalytic pyrolysis has an expected MFSP of $4.20 per gallon with a standard deviation of 1.15, while the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has a similar MFSP with a smaller deviation ($4.27 per gallon and 0.79 respectively). These results suggest that a biorefinery based on ex situ catalytic pyrolysis could have a lower techno-economic risk than in situ pyrolysis despite a slightly higher MFSP cost estimate. Analysis of how each parameter affects the NPV indicates that internal rate of return, feedstock price, total project investment, electricity price, biochar yield and bio-oil yield are significant parameters which have substantial impact on the MFSP for both in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis.

  15. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature.

  16. Application of nanostuctured materials as acid-catalysts in rice straw pyrolysis for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Dinh, Thang C.; Hoang, Thang V.; Bui, Linh H. T.; Hoang, Yen; Tran, Hoa K. T.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2008-12-01

    Rice straw, a waste agro-byproduct, which is abundant lignocellulose products from rice production, is a renewable energy sources in Vietnam. Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis using a fixed-bed reactor with heating rate 15oC/min, nitrogen as sweeping gas with flow rate 120ml/min. Final temperature of the pyrolysis reaction is a significantly influence on product yield. The gas yield increased and the solid yield decreased as the pyrolysis temperature increasing from 400oC to 600oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 48.3 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 550oC. Mesoporous Al-SBA-15 was used as acid catalyst in pyrolysis of rice straw. The obtained results showed that, in the presence of catalyst, yield of gas products increased, whereas liquid yield decreased and solid product remained the same as compared to the non-catalytic experiments. The effect of nanostructured catalysts on the product yields and distribution was investigated.

  17. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Kai; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Kuo, Jing T; Shaw, Dai-Gee; You, Yii-Der; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2009-03-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The corresponding yields of gas products (excluding nitrogen) from rice straw are 30.7, 56.6, 62.5 and 66.5wt.% with respect to the original dried sample and the corresponding specific heating values gained from gas products are about 4548, 4284, 4469 and 4438kcalkg(-1), respectively, for the said cases. The corresponding combustible portions remained in the solid residues are about 64.7, 35, 28.2 and 23.5wt.% with specific heating values of 4106, 4438, 4328 and 4251kcalkg(-1) with respective to solid residues, while that in the original dried sample is 87.2wt.% with specific heating value of 4042kcalkg(-1). The results indicated that the amount of combustibles converted into gas products increases with increasing plateau temperature. The kinetic model employed to describe the pyrolytic conversion of rice straw at constant temperatures agrees well with the experimental data. The best curve fittings render the frequency factor of 5759.5s(-1), activation energy of 74.29kJ mol(-1) and reaction order of 0.5. Data and information obtained are useful for the future design and operation of pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma.

  18. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  19. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  20. Kinetics and product distribution of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis: a novel approach in polyisoprene and SBR thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

    2009-12-30

    Thermo-chemical treatments (mainly pyrolysis) directed towards energy and products recovery provide a very promising alternative to open space disposal or landfilling, reducing in the process hazardous waste and potential contamination to soil and water resources. In this communication, we present results of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis via isothermal and dynamic thermogravimetry of two ELT grades. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing a pre-set temperature (T(c)=500 degrees C) pyrolysis process (conversion time, t(c), of 120 s), to the benefit of intensifying the global product yields recovered. A novel engineering kinetics approach was undertaken to propose a thermal cracking scheme of four primary and two secondary side reactions. Thermal degradation of ELTs was taken from a depolymerization approach of the present polyisoprene polymer in the tyres, resulting in a high regression of 0.959. The products of ELTs pyrolysis were lumped into four categories, namely aromatics, liquids, char and gases. The thermal cracking model evaluation of kinetic rate constants and lumped products showed a regression ranging between 0.90 and 0.94. Dynamic runs were performed to extend the model derived, taking into account heating rate (beta) influence and products prediction and interaction. The results obtained can be used in designing industrial ELTs pyrolysis units.

  1. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Westerhof, Roel; Van Rossum, Guus; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the products was used as the thermochemical process to obtain a pyrolysis-oil rich in anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan) and low in inhibitors. After hydrolysis of these anhydro-sugars, glucose was obtained which was successfully fermented, after detoxification, to obtain bioethanol. Ethanol yields comparable to traditional biochemical processing were achieved (41.3% of theoretical yield based on cellulose fraction). Additional benefits of the proposed biorefinery concept comprise valuable by-products of the thermochemical conversion like bio-char, mono-phenols (production of BTX) and pyrolytic lignin as a source of aromatic rich fuel additive. The inhibitory effect of thermochemically derived fermentation substrates was quantified numerically to compare the effects of different process configurations and upgrading steps within the biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterogeneous and Photochemical Reactions Involving Surface Adsorbed Organics: Common Lignin Pyrolysis Products With Nitrogen Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.; Nichols, B. R.; Rapa, C.; Costa, V.

    2009-05-01

    Solid-air interfaces, such as airborne particulate matter and ground level surfaces, provide unique supports for tropospheric heterogeneous chemistry. These interfaces commonly contain surface adsorbed organics, such as lignin pyrolysis products, that can significantly alter their physical and chemical properties. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) provides an ideal tool for monitoring chemical changes in thin organic films during heterogeneous and photochemical reactions. Phenolic compounds, with and without co- adsorbed photosensitizers, were exposed to NO2 concentrations in the parts-per-billion range at 300 K and 20% relative humidity. Catechol, when mixed with benzophenone or dicyclohexylketone, formed 4- nitrocatechol as the dominant product under dark conditions. Deuterating the catechol alcohol groups caused the initial rate of reaction to decrease by a factor of 3.3±0.5, consistent with formation of the ortho- semiquinone radical as the rate determining step. The rate of 4-nitrocatechol formation did not increase under illuminated conditions, even with the presence of benzophenone a well known photosensitizer. UV-A/visible radiation did, however, initiate a photochemical reaction between benzophenone and 4-nitrocatechol, likely forming high molecular weight polymerization products. In contrast, 2-ethoxyphenol displayed no reactivity with NO2, even under illuminated conditions with a photosensitizer. Implications for the fate of lignin pyrolysis products, which are prevalent in biomass combustion smoke, will be discussed.

  3. 不同热失重阶段烟草的裂解产物%Pyrolysis Products of Tobacco Released at Different Thermogravimetric Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永华; 宁敏; 张晓宇; 朱青林; 田振峰; 徐迎波; 王程辉; 徐志强

    2015-01-01

    为研究烟草样品在热重分析过程中释放出的产物,搭建了一种热重分析产物收集装置,并分别利用GC/MS和HPLC法分析了烤烟样品在不同热失重阶段释放出的焦油态产物以及甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛和丙醛5种挥发性羰基物。结果表明:①烤烟样品的热分解过程大致可分为吸附水散失、挥发性成分析出、烟草生物聚合物热氧化裂解、焦炭燃烧和燃尽5个热失重阶段。②在不同热失重阶段,焦油态产物的生成明显不同,其中,挥发性成分析出阶段会导致大量烟碱和许多香味成分形成;在生物聚合物的热氧化裂解阶段,焦油态产物的数量最丰富;而在焦炭燃烧阶段会产生许多芳烃类化合物。③烟草热解过程产生的挥发性羰基物主要是在烟草生物聚合物的有氧裂解及之后的焦炭燃烧过程中形成的。%In order to study the products released during the process of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of a tobacco sample, a device for collecting TGA products was established. The tar-form product and five volatile carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein and propanal) released at different thermogravimetric stages were collected, then analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC separately. The results showed that: 1) The pyrolysis process of tobacco samples could be divided into five stages, i.e. adsorbed water dissipation, volatile component evolution, bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis, coke combustion, and burnout stages. 2) At different thermogravimetric stages, the formation of tar-form products was obviously different; large amount of nicotine and a great number of aroma compounds formed at volatile component evolution stage; abundant tar-form products formed at bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis stage; and many aromatic compounds produced at coke combustion stage. 3) The volatile carbonyl compounds mainly formed at bio-polymer oxidative

  4. Classification of photobacteria associated with spoilage of fish products by numerical taxanomy and pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Manfio, G.P.; Goodfellow, M.

    1997-01-01

    , from spoiled products and by using a specific detection method. The data were analysed using the similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averages algorithm. In addition twenty-six of the fish isolates and five reference strains were analysed by Curie-point pyrolysis mass...... sub-groups. One sub-group of psychrotolerant P. phosphoreum strains, which was selected in modified atmosphere packed fish stored at low temperature, was also highlighted using each of the methods. The importance of classifying food spoilage bacteria has been shown and a simple key generated...

  5. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  6. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  7. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s. The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals on pyrolysis products is: 1 to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2 to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3 to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4 to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5 to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging. Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  8. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  9. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: catalyst screening in a pyroprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenyi; Ma, Xiaochen; Li, Yun; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites was investigated to evaluate the performance of different zeolites for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons. Three zeolites with different structures (H-Y, H-Beta and H-ZSM5) were used to study the effect of catalyst type on the aromatic yield. All three catalysts significantly increased the aromatic yields from pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites compared with non-catalytic runs, and H-ZSM5 was most effective with a yield of 18.13%. Three H-ZSM5 with silica-to-alumina ratios of 30, 80 and 280 were used to study the effect of Si/Al ratio on the aromatic yield. The maximum yield was achieved at the Si/Al ratio of 80, which provides moderate acidity to achieve high aromatic production and reduce coke formation simultaneously. Aromatic production increased with the incorporation of copper or gallium to HZSM-5. However, other studied metals either had no significant influence or led to a lower aromatic yield.

  11. Effect of DMMP on the pyrolysis products of polyurethane foam materials in the gaseous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.; He, J.; Gao, N.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been used as a flame retardant containing phosphorus to decrease the flammability of the polyurethane foam material (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results show that LOI values of all PUF/DMMP samples are higher than that of the neat PUF sample and the LOI value of the samples increases with both DMMP concentration and the %P value. Thermal analysis indicates that flame retardant PUF shows a dominant condensed flame retardant activity during combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) has been used to study the influence of DMMP on the pyrolysis products in the gaseous phase during the thermal degradation of the PUF sample. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of the PUF sample at the maximum evolution rates and the generated trends of water and the products containing -NCO have been examined to obtain more information about the pyrolysis product evolutions of the samples at high temperature. These results reveal that although DMMP could improve the thermal stability of PUF samples through the formation of the residual char layer between fire and the decomposed materials, the influence of DMMP on the gaseous phase can be also observed during the thermal degradation process of materials.

  12. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  13. Biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed : product cleaning by in-situ filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoquan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the subject of fast pyrolysis in a fluid bed reactor. A large part of the work is related to reactor design aspects of fast pyrolysis, a subject that has not been considered sufficiently. Past research efforts were focussed mainly on the kinetics of wood pyrolysis and the

  14. Volatile compounds present in traditional meat products (charqui and longaniza sausage in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in five different commercial brands of charqui and longaniza sausages. Volatile compounds were extracted from some samples headspace using solid phase microextraction (SPME. The identification and quantification were made through the gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector (GS-MS. Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified in charqui samples and thirty-two volatile compounds in longaniza sausages. The chemical groups of the volatile compounds found in both the products were: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, furans, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Significant differences were found (p<0.05 in the volatile compounds among the brands of longaniza and charqui. A characteristic volatile compounds profile was not found in the analyzed products. However, an important percentage of the volatile compounds in charqui came from the lipid oxidation. In the case of longanizas sausages, volatile compounds come mainly from the carbohydrates fermentation and spices.

  15. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrib, Amina; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization. PMID:28856162

  16. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aïda; Ghrib, Amina; Zaafouri, Kaouther; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization.

  17. Effect of activity state upon the production of lethalities due to the inhalation of the toxic pyrolysis products of polyacrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.J.; Whitney, S.; Purser, C.; Hume, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is known to be produced upon the pyrolysis of the synthetic material polyacrylonitrile. Cyanide inhibits phosphorylation reactions, therefore, decreasing the amount of high energy bonds available for metabolic use. Since the energy requirements, as well as the respiratory minute volume, for an individual decrease with decreasing activity, it was of interest to investigate whether diminished physical activity would decrease the lethal potential of the pyrolysis products of polyacrylonitrile. In order to produce wide variations in physical activity, male ICR mice were pretreated with either 8.6 mg/kg dextroamphetamine sulfate ip 30 min prior to challenge, 75 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital ip 15 min prior to challenge, or 10 ml/kg of 70 proof ethyl alcohol ip 15 min prior to challenge. Control animals received injections of 10 ml/kg normal saline ip 15 min prior to challenge. Animals were subsequently challenged with the cooled/filtered smoke from the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fibers at 660 C. Increased physical activity decreased the exposure time necessary to produce death. Animals pretreated with amphetamine appear to die more rapidly than control animals due to an increase in respiratory minute volume. Animals pretreated with sodium pentobarbital or ethanol appear to survive through long periods of exposure to the toxic gases due to both a decrease in minute volume and a decrease in energy utilization.

  18. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  20. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, van Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Ps

  1. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshun Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products. Results from TG and DTG analyses indicated that UF resin used in wood-based panels accelerated the degradation rate of wood-based panels at lower temperature; however the resin inhibited the degradation of wood-based panels over the later stage at higher temperatures. Compared with solid wood, the higher intensity and earlier releasing time of HNCO and NH3 in wood board revealed that the release of nitric gases is mainly due to the presence of UF resin, especially between 180 °C and 320 °C. Mass loss of hydrogen is significantly inhibited by UF resin, and nitrogen is quite stable in the char. The influence of UF resin on pyrolysis liquids of wood-based panels is mainly on nitrogen compounds and ketones rather than aldehydes and esters, which is probably due to the chemical reactions of UF resin with lignin constituent in wood.

  3. Properties of chars obtained with pyrolysis of Castanea sativa by product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehlivan Eylem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of biomass derived energy is gaining importance due to the decreasing supply of fossil fuels and growing environmental concerns. This study described the possibility of utilizing Castanea sativa’s by-product as biofuels by producing char via pyrolysis. The process was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different heating rates of 10°C, 100°C, and 200°C per minute at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C, and a nitrogen flow rate of 100 cm3 per minute. The produced chars were characterized by proximate and elemental analyses, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analyses. The char yield was found to decrease as both pyrolysis temperature and heating rate increases. The carbon content of char ranged from 68 to 87 wt.%, which correspond to approximately 43% of carbon in the biomass. The char obtained at 700°C had high fixed carbon content (79.90% as well as high heating value, and hence, it could be used as a solid fuel or as a precursor in the activated carbon production with its 268 m2 per gram surface area.

  4. Pyrolysis of Polyolefins Using Rotating Arc Plasma Technology for Production of Acetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin, as one of the most widely used macromolecule materials, has been one of the most serious threats to the environment. Current treatment methods of waste polyolefin including landfill, incineration, and thermal degradation have suffered from severe problems such as secondary pollution and the generation of other toxic substances. In this article, we report for the first time a high-efficiency method to produce high-value C2H2 from polyolefins using a rotating direct current arc plasma reactor, using polyethylene and polypropylene as feedstocks. The essence of this method is that a reductive atmosphere of pyrolysis enables a thermodynamic preference to C2H2 over other carbon-containing gas and the rotating direct current arc plasma reactor allows for a uniform distribution of high temperature to ensure high conversion of polymers. Thermodynamic simulation of product composition was performed, and the effect of plasma input power, polyolefin feed rate, and working gas flow rate on the pyrolysis results was experimentally investigated. It was found that, with proper parameter control, approximately complete conversion of carbon in polyolefin could be obtained, with a C2H2 selectivity higher than 80% and a C2H2 yield higher than 70%. These results not only create new opportunities for the reuse of polymer waste, but are also instructive for the green production of C2H2.

  5. Fast pyrolysis of palm kernel cake in a closed-tubular reactor: product compositions and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thanh-An; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In this study, fast pyrolysis of palm kernel cake (PKC) was carried out in a closed-tubular reactor over a temperature range of 550 to 750°C with various retention times. The pyrolyzing gas products mainly included CO, CO(2), and light hydrocarbons; it is noted that no hydrogen was detected in the product. In order to investigate the reaction pathway, the kinetic lump model of Liden was applied to verify and calculate all rate constants. The results obtained at different temperatures indicated that the rate constant increased with pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the experimental results were in good agreement with the proposed mechanism.

  6. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  7. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  8. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  9. Biomass fast pyrolysis for bio-oil production in a fluidized bed reactor under hot flue atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Xiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Li, Zhihe; Zhang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of corn stalk were performed to investigate the optimal pyrolysis conditions of temperature and bed material for maximum bio-oil production under flue gas atmosphere. Under the optimized pyrolysis conditions, furfural residue, xylose residue and kelp seaweed were pyrolyzed to examine their yield distributions of products, and the physical characteristics of bio-oil were studied. The best flow rate of the flue gas at selected temperature is obtained, and the pyrolysis temperature at 500 degrees C and dolomite as bed material could give a maximum bio-oil yield. The highest bio-oil yield of 43.3% (W/W) was achieved from corn stalk under the optimal conditions. Two main fractions were recovered from the stratified bio-oils: light oils and heavy oils. The physical properties of heavy oils from all feedstocks varied little. The calorific values of heavy oils were much higher than that of light oils. The pyrolysis gas could be used as a gaseous fuel due to a relatively high calorific value of 6.5-8.5 MJ/m3.

  10. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets.

  11. On-line gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christina; Richling, Elke; Elss, Sandra; Appel, Markus; Heckel, Frank; Hartlieb, Ariane; Schreier, Peter

    2003-12-31

    By use of extracts prepared by liquid-liquid separation of the volatiles from self-prepared juices of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus) (n = 14) as well as commercial pineapple recovery aromas/water phases (n = 3), on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and the pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of selected pineapple flavor constituents. In addition to methyl 2-methylbutanoate 1, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate 2, methyl hexanoate 3, ethyl hexanoate 4, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3[2H]-furanone 5, each originating from the fruit, the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) data of commercial synthetic 1-5 and "natural" (biotechnologically derived) 1-4 were determined. With delta(13)C(VPDB) data of pineapple volatiles 1-4 varying from -12.8 to -24.4 per thousand, the range expected for CAM metabolism was observed. Compound 5 showed higher depletion from -20.9 to -28.6 per thousand. A similar situation was given for the delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of 3-5 from pineapple ranging from -118 to -191 per thousand, whereas 1 and 2 showed higher depleted values from -184 to -263 per thousand. In nearly all cases, analytical differentiation of 1-5 from pineapple and natural as well as synthetic origin was possible. In general, natural and synthetic 1-5 exhibited delta(13)C(VPDB) data ranging from -11.8 to -32.2 per thousand and -22.7 to -35.9 per thousand, respectively. Their delta(2)H(VSMOW) data were in the range from -242 to -323 per thousand and -49 to -163 per thousand, respectively.

  12. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  13. Direct detection of products from the pyrolysis of 2-phenethyl phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark W; Daily, John W; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Dean, Anthony M; Sharma, Shantanu; Dayton, David C; Robichaud, David J; Nimlos, Mark R

    2011-02-03

    The pyrolysis of 2-phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE, C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)OC(6)H(5)) in a hyperthermal nozzle (300-1350 °C) was studied to determine the importance of concerted and homolytic unimolecular decomposition pathways. Short residence times (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PIMS). Detection of phenoxy radical, cyclopentadienyl radical, benzyl radical, and benzene suggest the formation of product by the homolytic scission of the C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-OC(6)H(5) and C(6)H(5)CH(2)-CH(2)OC(6)H(5) bonds. The detection of phenol and styrene suggests decomposition by a concerted reaction mechanism. Phenyl ethyl ether (PEE, C(6)H(5)OC(2)H(5)) pyrolysis was also studied using PIMS and using cryogenic matrix-isolated infrared spectroscopy (matrix-IR). The results for PEE also indicate the presence of both homolytic bond breaking and concerted decomposition reactions. Quantum mechanical calculations using CBS-QB3 were conducted, and the results were used with transition state theory (TST) to estimate the rate constants for the different reaction pathways. The results are consistent with the experimental measurements and suggest that the concerted retro-ene and Maccoll reactions are dominant at low temperatures (below 1000 °C), whereas the contribution of the C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-OC(6)H(5) homolytic bond scission reaction increases at higher temperatures (above 1000 °C).

  14. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of sunflower bagasse: product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, A.E.; Kockar, O.M.; Yorgun, S.; Gercel, H.F.; Andresen, J.; Snape, C.E.; Putun, E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments at different temperatures, heating rates and pressures have been conducted on a sample of sunflower pressed bagasse to investigate the effect of particle size, sweep gas velocity, and hydrogen pressure on the product yields and characteristics. In contrast to coal and oil shales, char and oil yields from sunflower pressed bagasse were found to be largely independent of particle size and sweep gas velocity in a Heinze retort with the oil yield of {approx} 40% w/w being the same as that from a well-swept fixed-bed reactor in which a much smaller sample size was used. The use of high hydrogen pressure ({gt} 50 bar) increased the oil yields by up to {approx} 10% w/w but these increases are much greater when expressed on a carbon basis due to the reduced oxygen contents of the oils. Even at low pressure, it has been estimated that {approx} 40% of the carbon aromatized during pyrolysis. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsová, Adéla; Raclavská, Helena; Juchelková, Dagmar; Škrobánková, Hana; Frydrych, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial) grasses (NHG) and hybrid (perennial) grasses (HG). Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i) H2 yield and lignin content, (ii) H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii) CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs) of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg), hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg), and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg). The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3. PMID:25101320

  16. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Hlavsová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial grasses (NHG and hybrid (perennial grasses (HG. Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i H2 yield and lignin content, (ii H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg, hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg, and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg. The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3.

  17. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  18. Microwave-induced cracking of pyrolytic tars coupled to microwave pyrolysis for syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Montes-Morán, M A; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

    2016-10-01

    Herein a new process is proposed to produce a syngas-rich gas fraction (>80vol% H2+CO) from biowaste based on microwave heating within two differentiated steps in order to avoid tars production. The first step consists of the microwave pyrolysis of biowaste induced by a char-based susceptor at 400-800°C; tars, char and syngas-rich gas fractions being produced. The tars are then fed into the second step where a portion of the char from the first step is used as a bed material in a 0.3:1wt% ratio. This bed is heated up by microwaves up to 800°C, allowing thermal cracking of tars and additional syngas (>90vol% H2+CO) being then produced. This new concept arises as an alternative technology to the gasification of biowastes for producing syngas with no need for catalysts or gasifying reagents to minimise tars production.

  19. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  20. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  1. Development of biomass pyrolysis volatiles fractional condenser%生物质热解挥发物两级冷凝器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋恩臣; 熊磊明; 王明峰; 苏旭林; 郭信辉; 赵创

    2014-01-01

    根据生物质连续热解挥发物中焦油、木醋液和可燃气的冷凝特性,设计生物质处理量为3 kg·h-1挥发物的两级冷凝器,其中第一级冷凝器用于分离焦油,第二级冷凝器用于分离木醋液。为解决热解挥发物携带的炭粉颗粒在一级冷凝器中与焦油混合,导致一级冷凝器堵塞的问题,提出一种热解挥发物先进入大管径冷凝管再进入小管径冷凝管的冷凝方案,计算该冷凝器传热系数及换热面积,确定结构尺寸,并进行试验研究。结果表明,该设计方案可有效解决热解挥发物易堵塞问题,同时具有较好的木醋液和焦油分离效率,采用分级冷凝工艺收集的焦油和木醋液在静置2个月后无分层现象,焦油含水率由直接冷凝的26%降低到1.5%。%According to the condensing features of tar, wood vinegar and combustible gas by biomass continuous pyrolysis, the two-stage condenser with biomass processing capacity of 3 kg/h was designed. In this apparatus, the first-stage condenser was used for separating tar and the second-stage condenser was used for separating wood vinegar. In order to solve the problem that carbon powder particles from pyrolysis volatiles mixing with the tar in the first-stage condenser lead to block the first-stage condenser a project-pyrolysis volatiles entering into the big diameter condenser pipe first and then entering into the small diameter condenser pipe was proposed. The condenser heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer area were calculated to determine the structure size. The results showed that this kind of design scheme could effectively solve the problem which condenser was easy blocked, meanwhile, it could separate wood vinegar and tar efficiently, after two months standing the tar and wood vinegar collected by fractional condensation system were still not appear layering. Contrast direct condensation the moisture content of tar was decreased from 26%to 1.5%.

  2. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  4. Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 °C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively.

  6. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walton, C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  7. Can portable pyrolysis units make biomass utilization affordable while using bio-char to enhance soil productivity and sequester carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Coleman; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Jim Archuleta; Phil Badger; Woodum Chung; Tyron Venn; Dan Loeffler; Greg Jones; Kristin McElligott

    2010-01-01

    We describe a portable pyrolysis system for bioenergy production from forest biomass that minimizes long-distance transport costs and provides for nutrient return and long-term soil carbon storage. The cost for transporting biomass to conversion facilities is a major impediment to utilizing forest biomass. If forest biomass could be converted into bio-oil in the field...

  8. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  9. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  10. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walton, C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  11. Pyrolysis characteristic of tobacco stem studied by Py-GC/MS, TG-FTIR, and TG-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis characteristics and mechanism of tobacco stem were studied by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (TG-FTIR and TG-MS techniques. The composition of evolved volatiles from fast pyrolysis of tobacco stem was determined by Py-GC/MS analysis, and the evolution patterns of the major products were investigated by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. Py-GC/MS data indicated that furfural and phenol were the major products in low temperature pyrolysis, and these were generated from depolymerization of cellulose. Indene and naphthalene were the major products in high temperature pyrolysis. TG-FTIR and TG-MS results showed that CO, CO2, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were released between 167ºC and 500ºC; at temperatures >500ºC, CO and CO2 were the main gaseous products.

  12. Distribution of heavy metals during pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Shao-hong; CHEN Lie-qiang; CAI Ming-zhao; WANG Yun-yu

    2006-01-01

    The volatilization behavior of Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd during pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards was investigated in a bench-scale fixed-bed pyrolysis system. It was found that volatility of heavy metals increases with operating temperature elevating, and bromine and vacuum have an obvious promoting effect on volatility of most of heavy metals. Over 99% weight of Cu and Ni are still remained in solid residue after pyrolysis, about 20% weight of Sb, Zn and Cd are transfered into liquid and gas during a pyrolysis process at 600 ℃, volatilization fractions of Pb, Sn, Mn, Co, Cr are less than 10% at the same conditions. The contents of heavy metals in liquid and gas products depend on not only volatility of metals, but also their initial contents in printed circuit boards, pyrolysis liquid and gas are primarily contaminated by Cu, Pb, Sn,Sb and Zn, their contents in liquid vary from 102 to 103 μg/mL, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd were detected only at very low level, less than 10 μg/mL.

  13. Design of pyrolysis reactor for production of bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Andi; Alwi, Ratna Surya; Syarif, Takdir

    2017-05-01

    The residues from the wood industry are the main contributors to biomass waste in Indonesia. The conventional pyrolysis process, which needs a large energy as well as to produce various toxic chemical to the environment. Therefore, a pyrolysis unit on the laboratory scale was designed that can be a good alternative to achieve zero-waste and low energy cost. In this paper attempts to discuss design and system of pyrolysis reactor to produce bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously.

  14. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  15. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  16. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyhydroxybutyrate: Part 1. Influence on bio-oil yield, water content, heating value and the production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; M. Jans; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    Bio-oil obtained via flash pyrolysis shows potential to be applied as a renewable fuel. However, bio-oil often contains high amounts of water, which is a major drawback for its application. The influence of a biopolymer - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated using a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. The flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PHB blends (w/w ratio 7:1, 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1) clearly shows particular merits: a synergetic increase in pyrolysis yield, a synergetic reduction of the water content in bio-oil, an increase in heating value, and a production of easily separable chemicals. The occurrence of synergetic interactions is observed based on a comparison between the actual pyrolysis results of the willow/PHB blends, the theoretical pyrolysis results calculated from the reference pyrolysis experiments (pure willow and pure PHB) and their respective w/w ratio. The co-pyrolysis of 1:1 willow/PHB shows the best overall results. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis oils: Impact of biomass feedstock on process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Westover, Tyler; Howe, Daniel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Emerson, Rachel; Hernandez, Sergio; Santosa, Daniel; Lukins, Craig; Kutnyakov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report here on an experimental study to produce refinery-ready fuel blendstocks via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (upgrading) of pyrolysis oil using several biomass feedstocks and various blends. Blends were tested along with the pure materials to determine the effect of blending on product yields and qualities. Within experimental error, oil yields from fast pyrolysis and upgrading are shown to be linear functions of the blend components. Switchgrass exhibited lower fast pyrolysis and upgrading yields than the woody samples, which included clean pine, oriented strand board (OSB), and a mix of pinon and juniper (PJ). The notable exception was PJ, for which the poor upgrading yield of 18% was likely associated with the very high viscosity of the PJ fast pyrolysis oil (947 cp). The highest fast pyrolysis yield (54% dry basis) was obtained from clean pine, while the highest upgrading yield (50%) was obtained from a blend of 80% clean pine and 20% OSB (CP8OSB2). For switchgrass, reducing the fast pyrolysis temperature to 450 degrees C resulted in a significant increase to the pyrolysis oil yield and reduced hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, but did not directly affect the hydrotreating oil yield. The water content of fast pyrolysis oils was also observed to increase linearly with the summed content of potassium and sodium, ranging from 21% for clean pine to 37% for switchgrass. Multiple linear regression models demonstrate that fast pyrolysis is strongly dependent upon the contents lignin and volatile matter as well as the sum of potassium and sodium.

  19. Bioenergy and products from thermal pyrolysis of rice straw using plasma torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility and operation performance of plasma torch pyrolysis of biomass wastes, taking rice straw as the target material. This novel method has several advantages including high heating rate, short heating time, no viscous tar and low residual char (7.45-13.78 wt.%) or lava. The productions of CO and H(2) are the major components (91.85-94.14 vol.%) in the gas products with relatively high reaction rates. The maximum concentrations of gaseous products occurring times are all below 1 min. Almost 90% of gaseous products were appeared in 4 min reaction time. The yield of H(2) increases with the increase of input power or temperature. With the increase of moisture (5-55 wt.%), the mass yields of H(2) and CO(2) also increase from the H(2)O decomposition. However, due to the CO(2) production, the accumulated volume fraction of syngas decreases with the increase of moisture.

  20. Production Cost Assessment of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Conversion to Bio-Oil via Fast Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Peryoga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production cost assessment was based on palm oil mill of 30 metrics tons FFB/h capacity that produced EFB residue at app. 20 % wt of the initial FFB fed to the plant. The bio-oil plant will be located in the palm oil mill complex to eliminate the transportation cost of the EFB feedstock. The process included in this calculation is chopping, drying, grinding, pyrolysis, solid removal, bio oil recovery, and storage. The production cost is influenced by the amount of bio-oil production, material cost, operational cost including labor and utility cost. The sensitivity analysis shows that feedstock price drives the production cost. The result concludes that for the current condition, the bio-oil production cost from palm empty fruit bunch seems promising to be implemented in Indonesia. The best option is to have the bio-oil plant integrated with the palm oil mill, where in this case the EFB can be kept at no cost, off the market influence.

  1. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  2. Production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger; Wang, Yunpu; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Yu, Zhenting

    2017-02-01

    In this study, production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis combining the advantages of in-situ and ex-situ catalysis was performed. The effects of catalyst and pyrolysis temperature on product fractional yields and bio-oil chemical compositions were investigated. From the perspective of bio-oil yield, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 550°C. The use of catalysts reduced the water content, and the addition of bentonite increased the bio-oil yield. Up to 84.16wt.% selectivity of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil was obtained in the co-catalytic process. In addition, the co-catalytic process can reduce the proportion of oxygenates in the bio-oil to 15.84wt.% and eliminate the N-containing compounds completely. The addition of bentonite enhanced the BET surface area of bio-char. In addition, the bio-char removal efficiency of Cd(2+) from soapstock pyrolysis in presence of bentonite was 27.4wt.% higher than without bentonite.

  3. Comparison of the pyrolysis behavior of lignins from different tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Wang, Kaige; Liu, Qian; Gu, Yueling; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa; Fransson, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of biomass pyrolysis, little is known about the pyrolysis behavior of lignin--one of the main components of biomass--due to its structural complexity and the difficulty in its isolation. In the present study, we extracted lignins from Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) using the Bjorkman procedure, which has little effect on the structure of lignin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to characterize the microstructure of the Bjorkman lignins, i.e., milled wood lignins (MWLs), from the different tree species. The pyrolysis characteristics of MWLs were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the release of the main volatile and gaseous products of pyrolysis were detected by FTIR spectroscopy. During the pyrolysis process, MWLs underwent thermo-degradation over a wide temperature range. Manchurian ash MWL showed a much higher thermal degradation rate than Mongolian Scots pine MWL in the temperature range from 290-430 degrees C. High residue yields were achieved at 37 wt.% for Mongolian Scots pine MWL and 26 wt.% for Manchurian ash MWL. In order to further investigate the mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis, we also analyzed the FTIR profiles for the main pyrolysis products (CO(2), CO, methane, methanol, phenols and formaldehyde) and investigated the variation in pyrolysis products between the different MWLs.

  4. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a demonstration size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  5. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  6. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013).

  7. Pyrolysis as a key process in biomass combustion and thermochemical conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvero Petar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a fuel with a highly volatile content and due to that, pyrolysis as a part of the combustion process, has a dominant role in the overall process development, as well as on final products and the process efficiency. It is of key importance to investigate the influence of the process parameters; as temperature, furnace/reactor environment, fuel properties, type, particle size, geometry, and the structure of the pyrolysis process has an influence regards the design of the combustion/pyrolysis equipment and the final products of the processes. This paper gives some results of the investigation’s related to this problem, mainly focussing on wooden biomass as the most important biomass type, as well as a comparison with relevant documented literature. Besides that, pyrolysis based technologies are one of the key directions in synthetic fuels production based on biomass. Biomass pyrolysis process parameters are crucial in reactor design as well as the quantity and quality of the final products. This paper provides discussion dedicated to this aspect with a focus on slow pyrolysis, targeting charcoal as the key product, and fast pyrolysis, targeting synthetic gas as the key product.

  8. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  9. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  10. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural.

  11. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production.

  12. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  13. Occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Liu Ze-chang; Zhou Li-xia [Chemical and Environmental Department of Taishan College, Taian (China)

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product including tar and water from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic (WP) and coal were studied. The effect of temperature, holding time, heating rate and gas flow on chlorine concentration in the liquid product was examined. The result indicates that the addition of WP to coal in co-pyrolysis does not increase the organic chlorine compound in the liquid product. However, the tar yield increases, and the water yield decreases. The chlorine in water mainly exists as inorganic form (NH{sub 4}Cl) and organic amine hydrochloride. There is no obvious C-Cl band in IR spectra of tar is observed. This indicates that the organic chlorine in tar is very little. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  16. Occurence and dietary exposure of volatile and non-volatile N-Nitrosamines in processed meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    a high level of consumer protection Denmark obtains National low limits of the nitrite use in meat products. An estimation of the dietary exposure to volatile NAs (VNA) and non-volatile NAs (NVNA) is necessary when performing a risk assessment of the use of nitrite and nitrate for meat preservation.......Nitrite and nitrate have for many decades been used for preservation of meat. However, nitrite can react with secondary amines in meat to form N-Nitrosamines (NAs), many of which have been shown to be genotoxic1 . The use of nitrite therefore ought to be limited as much as possible. To maintain...

  17. Effect of rate of pyrolysis on the textural properties of naturally-templated porous carbons from alginic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Andrew S; Hunt, Andrew J; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Clark, James H

    2016-09-01

    The effect of pyrolysis rate on the properties of alginic acid-derived carbonaceous materials, termed Starbon(®), was investigated. Thermal Gravimetry-IR was used to prepare porous carbons up to 800 °C at several rates and highlighted increased CO2 production at higher pyrolysis rates. N2 porosimetry of the resultant carbons shows how pyrolysis rate affects both the mesopore structure and thus surface area and surface energy. Surface capacity of these carbons was analysed by methylene blue dye adsorption. In general, as the rate of pyrolysis increased, the mesopore content and adsorbent capacity decreased. It is considered here that the rapid production of volatiles at these higher rates causes structural collapse of the non-templated pore network. The work here demonstrates that pyrolysis rate is a key variable which needs to be controlled to maximise the textural properties of Starbon(®) required for adsorption applications.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of pine sawdust and lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuyao; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2014-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of lignite and pine sawdust were studied in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and blending ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products (gas, tar, and char) were investigated. TGA experiments showed that pine sawdust decomposition took place at lower temperatures compared to lignite. With increasing the pine sawdust content in the blend, the DTG peaks shifted towards lower temperatures due to synergetic effect. In fixed-bed experiments, the synergetic effect increased the yield of volatile matter compared to the calculated values. The major gases released at low temperatures were CO2 and CO. However, hydrogen was the primary gaseous product at higher temperatures. During co-pyrolysis, concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, and hydrocarbons in the tar decreased, accompanied by an increase in phenols and guaiacol concentrations. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the OH, aliphatic CH, CO, and CO functional groups in char decomposed substantially.

  19. Two-stage catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for syngas production%城市污泥两段式催化热解制合成气研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常风民; 王启宝; SEGUN Giwa; 贾晋炜; 王凯军

    2015-01-01

    Syngas production from sewage sludge via a two-stage catalytic pyrolysis reactor was investigated, for further utilization of volatile products evolved during one-stage pyrolysis. In addition, the catalytic performance of different catalysts was studied. The results showed that the maximum liquid (aqueous and oil phase) yield was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 500℃. Moreover, when the pyrolysis temperature was above 500℃, increasing gas yield and relative stable solid yield were observed. The further pyrolysis of liquid products could be achieved when the temperature was over 900℃, in which small-molecule non-condensable gases, mainly including H2, CO and CH4, were generated. The Ni/ molecular sieve catalyst seemed to be more effective at pyrolysis than other catalysts, and over 85% syngas (H2 + CO) content could be obtained.%为了把城市污泥中温热解产生的挥发性产物转化为可直接利用的洁净可燃性气体或重要的化工原料合成气,采用两段式热解装置对城市污泥进行了催化热解实验研究,讨论了不同催化剂对城市污泥热解挥发性产物的催化裂解能力,结果表明:城市污泥在热解终温500℃,热解液产率最大,超过500℃,热解液产率减少,热解气增多,固相产率基本不变;城市污泥热解液的裂解温度需在900℃以上,产生的气体组分主要为H2、CO、CH4等小分子非冷凝性气体;Ni/分子筛复合催化剂对热解液转化为合成气的作用效果较好,合成气体(H2+CO)体积含量占气体总量的85%以上。

  20. Influence of modified biomass char on releases characteristics of volatiles during pyrolysis of cotton stalk%改性生物质炭对棉秆热解挥发分析出特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 邹俊; 邓勇; 杨海平; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2016-01-01

    The biomass char has an important influence on the release of volatile during the fast pyrolysis processes due to its complex structure features and the presence of inorganic minerals. Furthermore, as inherent catalysts, the large content of salts in biomass promotes the char to react with volatile. Thus this study aims to investigate the influence of char and inorganic salts on the volatile-char interactions. Experiments were conducted on a two-stage system with the same temperature of 500℃. Char pretreatments i.e. acid washing and salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and FeCl3) impregnating were introduced. Volatile derived from cotton stalk pyrolysis got reaction under the presence of fresh char with different mass. The condensed bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis with and without the catalysts (cotton stalk char) was characterized by the GC-MS (gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer) analyses. The non-condensed pyrolysis gas via the filter and drier was characterized by the GC. The results indicated that: with the increasing of the mass of cotton stalk char, its ability of promoting the secondary cracking of pyrolysis volatile became stronger. As a result, the liquid bio-oil yield decreased from 56.70% to 51.32%, while the yield of small molecular gases continued to increase from 17.88% to 22.13%. When the dosage of the cotton stalk char was 2.0 g, the highest gas yield of 22.1% was obtained. When the cotton stalk char was added in the pyrolysis, the acids, aldehydes and lipid content declined sharply. It is deduced that the cotton stalk char plays an inhibiting effect in the formation of them. At the same time, this inhibiting effect is conducive to the formation of more phenols. After deliming, semi-coke group structure will weaken the inhibition of the formation of acids in the volatile. Likewise, the capacity of phenolic enrichment is also reduced. The cotton stalk loaded with metal chloride enhanced the semi-coke’s effects on the volatile catalytic cracking and

  1. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C.

  2. Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  3. Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  4. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost

  5. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serga, V.; Kulikova, L.; Cvetkov, A.; Krumina, A.; Kodols, M.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Sproge, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct3NH+) salt anion (PtCl62-, PdCl42-, AuCl4-) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (dPt = 15 nm) and Au (dAu = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (dPd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones.

  6. A study on pyrolysis of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) with titania based catalysts for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2016-11-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Cirsium arvense was performed with titania supported catalysts under the operating conditions of 500°C, 40°C/min heating rate, 100mL/min N2 flow rate in a fixed bed reactor for biofuel production. The effect of catalysts on product yields was investigated. The amount of pyrolysis products (bio-char, bio-oil, gas) and the composition of the produced bio-oils were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and elemental analysis (EA) techniques. Thistle bio-oils had lower O/C and H/C molar ratios compared to feedstock. The highest bio-char and bio-oil yields of 29.32wt% and 36.71wt% were obtained in the presence of Ce/TiO2 and Ni/TiO2 catalysts respectively. GC-MS identified 97 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained from thistle pyrolysis. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the bio-oils contained ∼55-77% aliphatic and ∼6-19% aromatic structural units.

  7. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia plays an important role in the development of the post-irradiation hemorrhagic syndrome. Although destruction of platelet precursors in bone marrow is a major effect of high-dose radiation exposure, the effects of radiation on preformed platelets are unclear. The latter is also of concern with respect to blood-banking practices since platelets are often irradiated at doses in the range of 20-50 Gy before transfusions to prevent graft-versus-host disease. With increasing emphasis on allogenic and autologous bone-marrow transplantation, transfusions of irradiated platelets are likely to rise. Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets.

  8. Carbon dioxide absorption and release properties of pyrolysis products of dolomite calcined in vacuum atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shinji; Li, Jihua; Li, Te

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of dolomite into CaO and MgO was performed at 1073 K in vacuum and at 1273 K in an Ar atmosphere. The dolomite calcined in vacuum was found to have a higher specific surface area and a higher micropore volume when compared to the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. These pyrolysis products of dolomite were reacted with CO2 at 673 K for 21.6 ks. On the absorption of CO2, the formation of CaCO3 was observed. The degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in vacuum was determined to be above 50%, which was higher than the degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. The CO2 absorption and release procedures were repeated three times for the dolomite calcined in vacuum. The specific surface area and micropore volume of calcined dolomite decreased with successive repetitions of the CO2 absorption and release cycles leading to a decrease in the degree of absorption of CO2.

  9. Fluidized-bed reactor modeling for production of silicon by silane pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Lai, S.

    1986-02-01

    An ideal backmixed reactor model (CSTR) and a fluidized bed bubbling reactor model (FBBR) were developed for silane pyrolysis. Silane decomposition is assumed to occur via two pathways: homogeneous decomposition and heterogeneous chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both models account for homogeneous and heterogeneous silane decomposition, homogeneous nucleation, coagulation and growth by diffusion of fines, scavenging of fines by large particles, elutriation of fines and CVD growth of large seed particles. At present the models do not account for attrition. The preliminary comparison of the model predictions with experimental results shows reasonable agreement. The CSTR model with no adjustable parameter yields a lower bound on fines formed and upper estimate on production rates. The FBBR model overpredicts the formation of fines but could be matched to experimental data by adjusting the unkown jet emulsion exchange efficients. The models clearly indicate that in order to suppress the formation of fines (smoke) good gas-solid contacting in the grid region must be achieved and the formation of the bubbles suppressed.

  10. Jute stick pyrolysis for bio-oil production in fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M; Anisur Rahman, M; Mohsin Ali, M; Abdul Motin, M; Borhanus Sultan, M; Robiul Alam, M; Sahedur Rahman, M

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis of jute stick for bio-oil production has been investigated in a continuous feeding fluidized bed reactor at different temperatures ranging from 300 degrees C to 600 degrees C. At 500 degrees C, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 66.70 wt%, 22.60 wt% and 10.70 wt%, respectively based on jute stick. The carbon based non-condensable gas was the mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of bio-oil were found to be 1.11 g/mL and 2.34 cP, respectively. The lower heating value (LHV) of bio-oil was found to be 18.2 5 MJ/kg. Since bio-oil contains some organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, etc., the pH and acid value of the bio-oil were found to be around 4 and 135 mg KOH/g, respectively. The water, lignin, solid and ash contents of bio-oil were determined and found to be around 15 wt%, 4.90 wt%, 0.02 wt% and 0.10 wt%, respectively.

  11. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  12. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  13. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained.

  14. Volatile compound profiling of Turkish Divle Cave cheese during production and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturkoglu-Budak, S; Gursoy, A; Aykas, D P; Koçak, C; Dönmez, S; de Vries, R P; Bron, P A

    2016-01-01

    The formation of volatile compounds in Turkish Divle Cave cheese produced in 3 different dairy farms was determined during production and ripening, revealing 110 compounds including acids, alcohols, ketones, esters, and terpenes. The presence and concentration of these volatile compounds varied betw

  15. Fast pyrolysis of microalgae remnants in a fluidized bed reactor for bio-oil and biochar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaige; Brown, Robert C; Homsy, Sally; Martinez, Liliana; Sidhu, Sukh S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, pyrolysis of microalgal remnants was investigated for recovery of energy and nutrients. Chlorella vulgaris biomass was first solvent-extracted for lipid recovery then the remnants were used as the feedstock for fast pyrolysis experiments using a fluidized bed reactor at 500 °C. Yields of bio-oil, biochar, and gas were 53, 31, and 10 wt.%, respectively. Bio-oil from C. vulgaris remnants was a complex mixture of aromatics and straight-chain hydrocarbons, amides, amines, carboxylic acids, phenols, and other compounds with molecular weights ranging from 70 to 1200 Da. Structure and surface topography of the biochar were analyzed. The high inorganic content (potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen) of the biochar suggests it may be suitable to provide nutrients for crop production. The bio-oil and biochar represented 57% and 36% of the energy content of the microalgae remnant feedstock, respectively.

  16. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and microalgae: Products characteristics and interaction effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yingquan; Yang, Haiping; Xia, Mingwei; Li, Kaixu; Chen, Xu; Chen, Hanping

    2017-09-06

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass has a potential to change the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil. In this work, co-pyrolysis of bamboo, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS), a microalgae, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a range of mixing ratio of NS and bamboo, to find out whether the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil was improved. A significant improvement on bio-oil after co-pyrolysis of bamboo and NS was observed that bio-oil yield increased up to 66.63wt% (at 1:1) and the content of long-chain fatty acids in bio-oil also dramatically increased (the maximum up to 50.92% (13.57wt%) at 1:1) whereas acetic acid, O-containing species, and N-containing compounds decreased greatly. Nitrogen transformation mechanism during co-pyrolysis also was explored. Results showed that nitrogen in microalgae preferred to transform into solid char and gas phase during co-pyrolysis, while more pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N generated with diminishing protein-N and pyridinic-N in char. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of product distribution from steam pyrolysis of waste tire shreds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.S.; Jung, J.S.; Lee, H.P.; Yoo, K.O. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    The pyrolysis of scrap tires was accomplished under steam condition. Inert pyrolysis leads to oil decomposition and tar coating on the recovered char. This deposition of heavy oil on the char surface was prevented by conducting the pyrolysis in a steam atmosphere. The oil was easily removed from the char presumably via the steam distillation effect, and the surface of the char was activated by the well-known water-gas reaction. Char produced in a steam atmosphere has the higher surface area than that obtained by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Accordingly, steam pyrolysis of scrap tires increased the oil yield slightly and the surface area of the residual char significantly. TG/DSC and DTG curves of tire rubber was examined by qualitative analysis. Also, quantitative data-fitting of nonisothermal rate data was carried out, and decomposition of both extender oil and SBR followed first-order kinetics in a nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical composition analysis of produced oil by FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis showed that (1) major components are alkyl-substituted aromatic groups, and (2) high temperature and steam flow lead to secondary vapor-phase collision reactions. FT-IR results of residual char revealed that complex interaction between water vapor and hydrocarbon matrix was occurred. (author). 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and release rule of gas products%玉米芯的热解特性及气相产物的释放规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锡文; 许开立

    2015-01-01

    Shortage of fossil fuels and environmental pollution become increasingly severe with the rapid economic development. As the only renewable energy which can be directly converted to gas, liquid and solid fuels, biomass has aroused growing attention all over the world. Corn is one of the main crops in China. Corn cob is the main agricultural waste produced in process of maize production, and the corn cob biomass contains a lot of biodegradable organic matter. Thermo-chemical conversion is an efficient means of biomass energy conversion. It can convert the organic matter of corn cob into many forms of energy, such as gas, liquid, solid, and other biomass products at high temperature. Pyrolysis is the most basic process of thermal chemical conversion. The characteristics of pyrolysis are important tool which can express the influence of pyrolysis parameters on raw material conversion rate. In order to fully grasp the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and the release law of gas-phase products with temperature change in the thermal decomposition process in different working conditions, and to deeply understand the pyrolysis behavior of corn cob and its reaction mechanism, simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) was used to investigate the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of corn cob under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis behavior of corn cob was comparatively studied at different heating rates (5, 10, 20℃/min), different particle sizes (74, 154, 280, 450μm) and different carrier gas flow rates (30, 60, 90 mL/min). It was found that the non-isothermal weight loss process of the samples was composed of dehydration, preheating pyrolysis, volatile matter separation and carbonization. The temperature interval of 210-405℃ was the main floating zone. There were two obvious peaks in corn cob’s weight loss rate curves. The release laws of small molecule gas products (CO, CO2, CH4, O2, H2and H2O) were studied by mass spectrometry analysis. The pyrolysis

  20. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  1. FLASH PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS PARTICLES IN FLUIDIZED BED FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shurong Wang; Mengxiang Fang; Chunjiang Yu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2005-01-01

    Biomass utilization could relieve the pressure caused by conventional energy shortage and environmental pollution. Advantage should be taken of the abundant biomass in China as clean energy source to substitute for traditional fossil fuels. At present, flash pyrolysis appears to be an efficient method to produce high yields of liquids that could either be directly used as fuel or converted to other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried out of pyrolyzing biomass particles in a hot dense fluidized bed of sand to obtain high-quality bio-oil. Among four kinds of biomass species adopted in our experiment, Padauk Wood had the best characteristics in producing bio-oil. GC-MS analysis showed bio-oil to be a complex mixture consisting of many compounds. Furthermore, an integrated model was proposed to reveal how temperature influences biomass pyrolysis. Computation indicated that biomass particles underwent rapid heating before pyrolysis.

  2. Bio-Oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Wastes and Eucalyptus Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi-Nik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis is an attractive technology for biomass conversion, from which bio-oil is the preferred product with a great potential for use in industry and transport. Corn wastes (cob and stover and eucalyptus wood are widely being produced throughout the world. In this study, fast pyrolysis of these two materials were examined under the temperature of 500 °C; career gas flow rate of 660 l h-1; particle size of 1-2 mm; 80 and 110 g h-1 of feed rate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis vapor was condensed in 3 cooling traps (15, 0 and -40 °C plus an electrostatic one. Eucalyptus wood was pyrolyised to 12.4, 61.4, and 26.2 percent of bio-char, bio-oil and gas, respectively while these figures were as 20.15, 49.9, and 29.95 for corn wastes. In all experiments, the bio-oil obtained from electrostatic trap was a dark brown and highly viscose liquid.

  3. Experimental Study on GasProduct Release Characteristics of Lignin Pyrolysis%木质素热解气相产物释放特性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车德勇; 孙艳雪; 孙佰仲; 李少华

    2015-01-01

    利用热重红外分析仪(TG-FTIR)对木质素进行热重分析及主要气相产物分析,结合红外光谱对木质素不同热解阶段生成的半焦进行研究.实验结果表明:木质素热解分为3个阶段,200℃以下为自由水挥发过程;200~550℃为主要热解阶段,此过程中木质素苯环周围的官能团发生断裂,析出部分气体产物及焦油产物;550~900℃过程中,苯环发生解链或芳香缩聚成碳.通过FTIR的研究发现,木质素热解过程中,析出的主要气体包括H2O、CO2、CO以及烃类产物CH4等,CO2析出存在2个温度区间低温段(250~450℃)和高温段(650~750℃),而 CO 在高温段大量生成,CH4的析出主要集中在在300~600℃温度区间.%Thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectromerer (TG-FTIR) was applied to analyze the thermogravimetric and main gas products of alkali lignin pyrolysis,combined with infrared spectroscopy study of the chars from lignin pyrolysis generated different stages. The results show that the pyrolysis of lignin is divided into three phases:the moisture is volatilized below 200℃.Primary pyrolysis stage occurs at 200~550℃,the functional groups of lignin around phenyl ring broke and generated part of the gas and tar products. At 550~900℃,benzene or aromatic condensed into carbon. It is found that the primary gas releases from the process of lignin pyrolysis,mainly including H2O,CO2,CO,CH4 and other hydrocarbons.CO2 product releases at lower temperature (250~450℃)and higher temperature section (650~750℃), and an amount of CO releases at much higher temperature. In contrast,a large amount of CH4 mainly releases in the temperature range of 300~600℃.

  4. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, K.H; Lim, K. O.; Z. A. Zainal

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and...

  5. Products from the high temperature pyrolysis of RDF at slow and rapid heating rates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis behaviour of a sample of refuse derived fuel (RDF) as a model of municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor between 700 and 900 °C, at varying heating rates, and at an extended vapour residence time. Experiments were designed to evaluate the influence of process conditions on gas yields as well as gas and oil compositions. Pyrolysis of RDF at 800 °C and at rapid heating rate resulted in the gas yield with the highest CV of 24.8 ...

  6. [Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

    2010-02-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production.

  7. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  8. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  9. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products.

  10. A granular-biomass high temperature pyrolysis model based on the Darcy flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Qi, Guoli; Dong, Peng

    2015-03-01

    We established a model for the chemical reaction kinetics of biomass pyrolysis via the high-temperature thermal cracking of liquid products. We divided the condensable volatiles into two groups, based on the characteristics of the liquid prdoducts., tar and biomass oil. The effects of temperature, residence time, particle size, velocity, pressure, and other parameters on biomass pyrolysis and high-temperature tar cracking were investigated numerically, and the results were compared with experimental data. The simulation results showed a large endothermic pyrolysis reaction effect on temperature and the reaction process. The pyrolysis reaction zone had a constant temperature period in several layers near the center of large biomass particles. A purely physical heating process was observed before and after this period, according to the temperature index curve.

  11. Numerical Simulation on Distribution of Products of Typical Hydrocarbon Molecules Pyrolysis%典型烃类分子裂解产物分布数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 罗殿英; 赵雨波; 南子龙; 邵艳波

    2011-01-01

    利用烃类蒸汽热裂解二维工艺数学模型,选择二维模型原料分子中13种典型烃类分子,通过数学模拟考察烃类分子结构和裂解温度对热裂解产物的影响.结果表明:正构烷烃裂解产物中乙烯收率明显大于异构烷烃,且乙烯收率随着烷烃碳数的增加逐渐增加;异构烷烃裂解产物中丙烯收率大于同碳数的正构烷烃,且丙烯收率随碳数增大而显著减少;异构烷烃裂解生成丁二烯的收率大于其他烷烃;环烷烃中五元环裂解生成乙烯、丙烯和丁二烯(三烯)的收率大于六元环,且随碳数增加而略有增加;各烃类分子裂解生成乙烯和丁二烯的收率随温度的增加而增加,而丙烯的收率随温度的增加而略有降低.%The effects of hydrocarbon structure and pyrolysis temperature on the distribution of products from the pyrolysis of 13 typical hydrocarbon molecules were investigated using the two-dimension mathematical model of hydrocarbon steam pyrolysis. The results showed that the ethylene yield of normal paraffins pyrolysis was significantly higher than that of isoparaffin pyrolysis, and the ethylene yield increased with the increase of carbon number; the propylene yield of isoparaffin pyrolysis was higher than that of normal paraffins pyrolysis, and the propylene yield decreased obviously with the increase of carbon number; the butadiene yield of isoparaffin pyrolysis was higher than that of other paraffins pyrolysis; the total yield of ethylene, propylene and butadiene from the pyrolysis of cycloalkanes with five carbon in the rings was higher than that of cycloalkanes with six carbons in the rings, and increased slightly with the increase of carbon number; With the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the yield of ethylene and butadiene of hydrocarbons pyrolysis increased, while the yield of propylene decreased slightly.

  12. Suppressing effect of calcium-based waste on control of bromine flux during the pyrolysis of printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Guan; Min, Xu; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    The effect of calcium-based addition on the brominate flux during printed circuit board (PCB) pyrolysis was investigated. It was found that bromine (Br) can be effectively fixed in solid phase during PCB pyrolysis by adding calcium-based waste materials. Phenol and 4-ethylphenol are the major products of pyrolysis. When the two kinds of red mud were used as additive, their content was 85.25 and 84.81%, respectively, which was higher than others. The 2-bromophenol and 2-bromo-4-methyl-benzene are the main Br-containing pyrolysis volatiles. After adding calcium-based additive, these two volatiles were apparently reduced and only small amounts of 2-bromo-4-methyl-benzene were detected in the products, namely 0.71 and 0.86%, respectively for the two kinds of red mud. Hence, no matter from the perspective of product use or simple Br-fixing, the bromine in the three-phase products can be effectively regulated and controlled by adding calcium-based waste residue during PCB pyrolysis. Finally, the Br-fixing mechanism was analysed. As a result, when calcium-based waste materials were added to the PCB pyrolysis it made bromine fix easily in the resident yielding a byproduct that can be further used.

  13. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model.

  14. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  15. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the ... short-chain fatty acids and lactate (Ritzhaupt et al.,. 1998a,b; Muller et al., 2002; .... staining for MCT4 was visualized in strata spinosum and basale. In the ...

  16. Characterization of fast pyrolysis products generated from several western USA woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Jarvis; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Yuri Corilo; Ryan P. Rodgers

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass has the potential to be utilized at an alternative fuel source through its pyrolytic conversion. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oils derived from several western USA woody species are characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to determine molecular-level composition. The...

  17. Evaluation of Brazilian biomasses as potential feedstocks for fuel production via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of lignocellulosic materials to generate energy is constantly expanding around the world. In addition to the well-known biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, advanced biofuels obtained by thermochemical conversion routes have been explored, including pyrolysis oil, biochar and syng...

  18. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over fe-modified HZSM-5 zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by partial ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 with Fe (II) at three different loadings (1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 wt%), and their effectiveness for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose, cellobiose, lignin and switchgrass by catalytic pyrolysis were screened using ...

  19. Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen production via indirectly heated gasification and pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-heated gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-based process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-based process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. Based on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly heated biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.

  20. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials.

  1. Comparison of thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers based on their main components: Cellulose, xylan and lignin. TG-FTIR analysis of volatile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica, E-mail: monica_benitez_guerrero@yahoo.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain); López-Beceiro, Jorge [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial II, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade da Coruña, Avda. Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Sánchez-Jiménez, Pedro E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pascual-Cosp, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of sisal fibers has been discussed. • Decompositions of lignocellulosic components and sisal are compared by TXRD and TG-FTIR. • Hot washing reduces the temperature range in which sisal decomposition occurs. • Sisal cellulose decomposition goes by an alternative route to levoglucosan generation. - Abstract: This paper presents in a comprehensive way the thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers, based on the fundamental components of lignocellulosic materials: cellulose, xylan and lignin. The research highlights the influence exerted on the thermal stability of sisal fibers by other constituents such as non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and mineral matter. Thermal changes were investigated by thermal X-ray diffraction (TXRD), analyzing the crystallinity index (%Ic) of cellulosic samples, and by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled with Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (TG/DTA-FTIR), which allowed to examine the evolution of the main volatile compounds evolved during the degradation under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The work demonstrates the potential of this technique to elucidate different steps during the thermal decomposition of sisal, providing extensible results to other lignocellulosic fibers, through the analysis of the evolution of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, formaldehyde and 2-butanone, and comparing it with the volatile products from pyrolysis of the biomass components. The hydroxyacetaldehyde detected during pyrolysis of sisal is indicative of an alternative route to that of levoglucosan, generated during cellulose pyrolysis. Hot-washing at 75 °C mostly extracts non-cellulosic components of low decomposition temperature, and reduces the range of temperature in which sisal decomposition occurs, causing a retard in the pyrolysis stage and increasing Tb{sub NCP} and Tb{sub CEL}, temperatures at the

  2. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv ‘Ceasar’ grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be useful tools in improving commercial production.

  3. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  4. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  5. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Most of the available data on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines (NA) in processed meat products have been generated in the 1980s and 1990s and especially data on the occurrence of non-volatile NA (NVNA) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the levels of volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and NVNA...... in processed meat products on the Danish market (N = 70) and for comparison also products on the Belgian market (N = 20). The effect of heat treatment on the NA levels, in selected samples, was also studied, in order to enable an evaluation of how preparation before consumption affects the levels of NA...... μg kg−1 for one Danish sample and two Belgian samples. Levels of up to 2000 and 4000 μg kg−1 of N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) an NVNA occurred in the Danish and the Belgian samples, respectively. The majority of the Danish processed meat products contain NVNA but also VNA occur...

  6. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and...

  7. Experiments on the Conventional Pyrolysis of Oak Sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, Maria; Tazerout, Mohand; Gerun, Luc; Bellettre, Jerome; Lemoult, Bernard [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France)

    2006-07-15

    The biomass derived from wood processing (ex. sawdust) can be converted to combustible gas by thermochemical processes as pyrolysis and gasification. The oak sawdust used displays that the powder fraction has the biggest weight, which is difficult for operate and it gives the highest char yield and many particles in gas flow. A good mixture of wood powder and the bigger fractions, which give less char and tar yields, as such or in pellet shape, can be a solution to improve the thermal transformation of particles surface in order to increase gas content and avoid the particles presence in pyrolysis gases. For heat value improvement it can be use a co-pyrolysis compound, such as plastic waste that is an organic material completely mutable in combustible gaseous products. From this point of view the plastic wastes pyrolysis in the same operating conditions as wood pyrolysis were studied. The chemical data reveal that this kind of material gives volatile matters such as water, tars and gases and no solid residue. Also, the reference thermal range for degassing was found to be 480-550 [deg C], when the wood particles are already transformed and char is able to be a catalyst for tar cracking.

  8. 催化热解调控热解产物的研究进展%Research Advancement on Catalytic Pyrolysis Control of Pyrolysis Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴栋; 陆江银.

    2012-01-01

    The techniques of improving the tar quality in coal pyrolysis process were reviewed, and the catalytic pyrolysis and parameters of changing reaction atmosphere and process conditions were analyzed and summarized, and summed up the optimal method of improving tar quality, the future research focus on catalytic pyrolysis was also discussed.%综述了煤和生物质催化裂解技术对热解产物的影响作用,分析了不同催化剂对热解气体和煤焦油的催化效果,对热解产物催化裂解技术进行了分析,展望了未来煤催化裂解的研究重点。

  9. The power-supply control system in the device of acetylene production by H-plasma pyrolysis coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.Y.; Zhang, M.; Fu, P.; Weng, P.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2006-09-15

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  10. The Power-Supply Control System in the Device of Acetylene Production by H-Plasma Pyrolysis Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Peng; Weng, Peide

    2006-09-01

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H-) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  11. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Garbeva, Paolina; Hordijk, Cornelis; Hundscheid, P J; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Van Agtmaal, Maaike; Kuramae, Eiko E; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.

  12. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  13. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  14. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  15. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  16. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis over metal chlorides supported on zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Yue'e; Wang, Jianguo

    2013-12-01

    Direct biomass conversion into chemicals remains a great challenge because of the complexity of the compounds; hence, this process has attracted less attention than conversion into fuel. In this study, we propose a simple one-step method for converting bagasse into furfural (FF) and acetic acid (AC). In this method, bagasse pyrolysis over ZnCl2/HZSM-5 achieved a high FF and AC yield (58.10%) and a 1.01 FF/AC ratio, but a very low yield of medium-boiling point components. However, bagasse pyrolysis using HZSM-5 alone or ZnCl2 alone still remained large amounts of medium-boiling point components or high-boiling point components. The synergistic effect of HZSM-5 and ZnCl2, which combines pyrolysis, zeolite cracking, and Lewis acid-selective catalysis results in highly efficient bagasse conversion into FF and AC. Therefore, our study provides a novel, simple method for directly converting biomass into high-yield useful chemical.

  18. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  19. Tar Production from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: A Novel Turbulent Multiphase Flow Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2000-01-01

    A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.

  20. Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermo-Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics from End of Life Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of waste plastics is widely used recycling method. Owing to the end-of-life vehicles regulations, 95% of passenger cars and vehicles must reused/recovered after the dismantling. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene obtained from end-of-life vehicles was investigated in a continuously stirred batch reactor using 500 and 600°C temperatures. To ensure the pyrolysis reactions the tested catalysts (5% of ZSM-5, HZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 were added directly to the mixtures of raw materials. Products of pyrolysis were separated into gases, pyrolysis oil and heavy oil, which was further analyzed by gas-chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and other standardized methods. Based on the results it was concluded, that the catalysts significantly increase the yields of volatile products, and modify their composition. Especially the alkane/alkene ratio, the methane concentration and the concentration of branched hydrocarbon could be affected by the applied catalysts. Ni-ZSM-5 catalyst had the highest activity in methane production, while HZSM-5 catalyst proved effective in isomerization reactions. Using H-ZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5, and Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst notably decreased average molecular weight of pyrolysis oils and significantly higher aromatic content was observed.

  2. Pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin as matrix precursor for new carbon materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometric coupling technique (TG-MS) were used to study the pyrolysis behavior of furfural-acetone resin used for new carbon materials.The curing and carbonization mechanisms of furfural-acetone resin were mainly investigated;structural changes and volatile products evolved during pyrolysis were analyzed.The results indicate that,during pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin adding 7% (mass fraction) phosphorous acid as curing agent,the rupture of C-O bond in the five-membered heterocycle firstly takes place to release oxygen atoms and then does the C--H bond,which enable the molecular chain to cross-link and condense,then lead to the formation of three dimensional networking structure.With the increase of pyrolyzing temperature,the scission of methyl and the opening of furan ring are generated.As a result,the recomposition of molecular chain structure isgenerated and a hexatomic fused ring containing double bonds is built.The main volatile products during pyrolysis of furfuralacetone resin are H2O,and a small mount of CO,CO2 and CH4.At elevated temperatures,dehydrogenation takes place and hydrogen gas is evolved.

  3. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  4. Pyrolysis of Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Tethered in Mesoporous Silica. Effects of Confinement and Surface Spacer Molecules on Product Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Chaffe, Alan [Monash University, Australia; Nguyen, M [Monash University, Australia; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    There has been expanding interest in exploring porous metal oxides as a confining environment for organic molecules resulting in altered chemical and physical properties including chemical transformations. In this paper, we examine the pyrolysis behavior of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) confined in mesoporous silica by covalent tethers to the pore walls as a function of tether density and the presence of co-tethered surface spacer molecules of varying structure (biphenyl, naphthyl, octyl, and hexadecyl). The PPE pyrolysis product selectivity, which is determined by two competitive free-radical pathways cycling through the two aliphatic radical intermediates (PhCH CH2OPh and PhCH2CH OPh), is shown to be dramatically different from that measured in the liquid phase as well as for PPE tethered to the exterior surface of nonporous silica nanoparticles. Tailoring the pore surface with spacer molecules further alters the selectivity such that the PPE reaction channel involving a molecular rearrangement (O-C phenyl shift in PhCH2CH OPh), which accounts for 25 % of the products in the liquid phase, can be virtually eliminated under pore confinement conditions. The origin of this change in selectivity is discussed in the context of steric constraints on the rearrangement path, confinement effects, pore surface curvature, and hydrogen bonding of PPE with residual surface silanols supplemented by nitrogen physisorption data and molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. High-rate production of functional nanostructured films and devices by coupling flame spray pyrolysis with supersonic expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, K; Vinati, S; Piseri, P; Antonini, A; Zelioli, A; Barborini, E; Ducati, C; Milani, P

    2012-05-11

    The fabrication of functional thin films and devices by direct deposition of nanoparticles from the gas phase is a promising approach enabling, for instance, the integration of complex analytical and sensing capabilities on microfabricated platforms. Aerosol-based techniques ensure large-scale nanoparticle production and they are potentially suited for this goal. However, they are not adequate in terms of fine control over the lateral resolution of the coatings, mild processing conditions (avoiding high temperature and aggressive chemicals), low contamination and compatibility with microfabrication processes. Here we report the high-rate and efficient production of functional nanostructured films by nanoparticle assembling obtained by the combination of flame spray pyrolysis and supersonic expansion. Our approach merges the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis for bulk nanopowders such as process stability and wide material library availability with those of supersonic cluster beam deposition in terms of lateral resolution and of direct integration of nanomaterials on devices. We efficiently produced nanostructured films and devices (such as gas sensors) using metal oxide, pure noble metal and oxide-supported noble metal nanoparticles.

  6. Clean and direct production of acetylene - Coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.G.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Coal

    2002-06-01

    In order to develop a clean and direct production of acetylene, an H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet is used to convert coal into acetylene. The efficiency of conversion depends on such factors as the size range of the coal particle, the volatile matter in the coal, and the operating conditions. Experimental results with different coals indicate that volatile content plays an important but not exclusive part in acetylene generation. Higher input power and smaller coal article size are in favor of the formation of acetylene.

  7. Studies on formation of volatiles produced in the process of co-pyrolysis of xylose/proline mixtures%木糖/脯氨酸共裂解过程挥发性化合物形成规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昌荣; 谢焰; 印黔黔; 沈世豪; 黄伟; 李炎强; 刘百战

    2013-01-01

    were also investigated and found that the ratio of xylose to proline had obvious influence on the relative proportion of pyrolysates and the present proline changed the furfural formation path when xylose was thermally degraded. The furfural was produced via Amadori products degradation path and proline only played a catalyst role in the degradation of xylose. It vanished only after the reaction with some degradation fragments. The content of total volatile compounds formed in the co-pyrolysis process of xylose was lower than that of xylose alone. Maybe due to some bigger molecules formed when xylose combined with proline, while those molecules were mainly charred. As well, the content of phenol was also decreased greatly, about 33 percent of that of xylose pyrolysed alone.

  8. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene.

  9. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology.

  10. Production of volatile fatty acids from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and alkaline fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the potential of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from sewage by a combined high-loaded membrane bioreactor and sequencing batch fermenter. VFA production was optimized with respect to SRT and alkaline pH (pH 8–10). Application of pH shock to a value of 9 at the start of a s

  11. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Christensen, T; Olesen, P T; Granby, K

    2015-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern.

  12. Development of an innovative pyrolysis plant for the production of secondary raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This project was born with the aim of developing an environmentally and financially sustainable process to dispose of end-life tires. In this perspective was devised an innovative static bed batch pilot reactor where pyrolysis can be carried out on the whole tires in order to recover energy and materials and simultaneously save the energy costs of their shredding. The innovative plant is also able to guarantee a high safety of the process thanks to the presence of a hydraulic guard. The pi...

  13. The effects of oxygen on the yields of the thermal decomposition products of catechol under pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiju Thomas; Elmer B. Ledesma; Mary J. Wornat [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    In order to investigate the effects of oxygen on the distribution of thermal decomposition products from complex solid fuels, pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation experiments have been performed in an isothermal laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in coal, wood, and biomass. The gas-phase catechol pyrolysis experiments are conducted at a residence time of 0.3 s, over a temperature range of 500-1000{sup o}C, and at oxygen ratios ranging from 0 (pure pyrolysis) to 0.92 (near stoichiometric oxidation). The pyrolysis products are analyzed by nondispersive infrared analysis and by gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection. In addition to an abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, catechol pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation produce a range of C1-C5 light hydrocarbons as well as single-ring aromatics. Quantification of the products reveals that the major products are CO, acetylene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol, benzene, vinylacetylene, ethylene, methane, cyclopentadiene, styrene, and phenylacetylene; minor products are ethane, propyne, propadiene, propylene and toluene. Under oxidative conditions, CO{sub 2} is also produced. At temperatures {lt}850{sup o}C, increases in oxygen concentration bring about increases in catechol conversion and yields of C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products in accordance with increased rates of pyrolytic reactions, due to the enhanced free-radical pool. At temperatures {gt}850{sup o}C, catechol conversion is complete, and increases in oxygen bring about drastic decreases in the yields of virtually all hydrocarbon products, as oxidative destruction reactions dominate. Reactions responsible for the formation of the C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products from catechol, under pyrolytic and oxidative conditions, are discussed. 74 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Research Progress of Technologies for Tar Production during Coal Pyrolysis%煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新福; 杨蕾; 吴红菊; 周安宁

    2014-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis was an important technique for coal conversion.Coal tar , one of the products , was an important raw material for liquid fuels and chemicals.The technologies including pretreatment of coal , change of atmosphere , catalytic pyrolysis and catalytic hydropyrolysis , co -pyrolysis with other material and novel integrated pyrolysis technology were stated that can improve tar yield during coal pyrolysis process , the factors that effected tar yield and the mechanisms were discussed , as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each processes.%煤热解是一种重要的煤炭分质利用技术,中低温热解焦油是制取液体燃料和化学品的重要原料。本文从对煤进行预处理、改变热解气氛、催化热解与催化加氢热解、煤与其它物质共热解、新型耦合热解工艺等方面综述了煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展,探讨了影响煤热解过程焦油产率的因素及机理,并对各工艺进行了评价。

  15. Characterization of liquid and solid product from pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new feedstock, Pongamia glabra deoiled cake (PGDC), is reported for pyrolysis. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed-bed pyrolyzer at temperatures ranging from 350 to 600°C with varying heating rates of 10, 20, 40°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 30.60% was observed at 500°C with heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1). The biochar obtained had a porous structure and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis. The representative bio-oil sample was characterized by CHN analyzer, GC-MS, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The bio-oil has a calorific value of 28.19MJ/kg and contains a higher amount of aliphatic compounds. The present investigation suggests that within the realm of biomass energy conversion technologies the PGDC can be used as a feedstock for pyrolysis conversion, thereby serving the demand of second generation biofuels.

  16. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of wheat bran for hydrocarbons production in the presence of zeolites and noble-metals by using TGA-FTIR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdovica, K; Liepina, L; Kampars, V

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of wheat bran with or without catalysts was investigated using TGA-FTIR method in order to determine the influence of zeolite and noble metal catalysts on the evolution profile and relative yield of the volatile compounds. The addition of all catalysts decreased the volatile matter of wheat bran from 76.3% to 75.9%, 73.9%, 73.5%, 69.7% and increased the solid residue from 18.0% to 18.4%, 20.4%, 20.8%, 24.6% under the catalyst of ZSM-5, 5% Pd/C, MCM-41, and 5% Pt/C. Noble-metal catalysts had higher activity for deoxygenation of compounds containing carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups than zeolites. Degradation of nitrogen containing compounds atom proceeded better in presence of zeolites. Noble-metal catalysts promoted formation of aromatics and changed the profiles of evolved compounds whereas zeolites advanced formation of aliphatics and olefins.

  18. Methods to assess secondary volatile lipid oxidation products in complex food matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, Betül

    A range of different methods are available to determine secondary volatile lipid oxidation products. These methods include e.g. spectrophotometric determination of anisidine values and TBARS as well as GC based methods for determination of specific volatile oxidation products such as pentanal...... and hexanal. Different extraction methods for extracting volatiles before GC analysis can be used, e.g static headspace, dynamic headspace and solid phase microextraction. Traditionally, dynamic headspace extraction has been performed manually. However, recently automated dynamic headspace methods have become...... available. This presentation will briefly discuss advantages and disadvantages of spectrophotometric methods versus GC- based methods. Moreover, the different extraction methods used for GC-based analysis will be discussed and examples on results obtained with SPME, the traditional and the automated dynamic...

  19. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  20. Recognition of n-alkyl and isoprenoid biopolymers in marine sediments by stable carbon isotopic analysis of pyrolysis products of kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hold, I.M.; Schouten, S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the pyrolysis products of several marine kerogens revealed that the stable carbon isotopic composition of the n-alkanes (C10-C25) are quite similar to those of the n-alkenes. This suggests that they have a common origin such as algal biopolymers. The isoprenoid alkanes (C13-C20) also hav

  1. Identification of components in fast pyrolysis oil and upgraded products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J.H.; Wildschut, J.; Mahfud, F.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil and upgraded products are promising energy carriers. Characterisation of the oils is hampered due to the presence of a large number of components (>400) belonging to a broad variety of chemical compound classes (i.e., acids, aldehydes, ketones). In this study, a comparison of the capab

  2. Identification of components in fast pyrolysis oil and upgraded products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J.H.; Wildschut, J.; Mahfud, F.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil and upgraded products are promising energy carriers. Characterisation of the oils is hampered due to the presence of a large number of components (>400) belonging to a broad variety of chemical compound classes (i.e., acids, aldehydes, ketones). In this study, a comparison of the

  3. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  4. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar-Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Bermúdez, J M; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Ruiz, B

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are more predominant in microwave pyrolysis with a major presence of light compounds. The bio-gas fraction from microwave pyrolysis presents a much higher syngas content (H2+CO), and a lower CO2 and CH4 proportion than that obtained by conventional pyrolysis. Yields are similar for both treatments with a slightly higher gas yield in the case of microwave pyrolysis due to the fact that microwave heating favors heterogeneous reactions between the gases and the char.

  5. The physiological and ecological roles of volatile halogen production by marine diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Sun, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Sea-to-air halogen flux is known to have a major impact on catalytic ozone cycling and aerosol formation in the troposphere. The biological production of volatile organic (e.g. bromoform, diiodomethane) and reactive inorganic halogens (e.g. molecular iodine) is believed to play an important role in mediating halogen emissions from the marine environment. Marine diatoms in particular are known to produce the organic and inorganic volatile halogens at high rates in pelagic waters and sea-ice systems. The climate-induced changes in diatom communities that have already been observed and are expected to occur throughout the world's oceans as warming progresses are likely to alter sea-to-air halogen flux. However, we currently have insufficient understanding of the physiological and ecological functions of volatile halogen production to develop modelling tools that can predict the nature and magnitude of the impact. The results of a series of laboratory studies aimed at establishing the physiological and ecological role of volatile halogen production in two marine polar diatoms (Thalassiosira antarctica and Porosira glacialis) will be described in this presentation. We will focus on our work investigating how the activity of the haloperoxidases, a group of enzymes known to be involved in halogenation reactions in marine organisms, is altered by environmental conditions. This will involve exploring the antioxidative defence role proposed for marine haloperoxidases by showing specifically how halogenating activity varies with photosynthetic rate and changes in the ambient light conditions in the two model marine diatoms. We will also present results from our experiments designed to investigate how volatile halogen production is impacted by and influences diatom-bacterial interactions. We will discuss how improved mechanistic understanding like this could pave the way for future volatile halogen-ecosystem model development.

  6. 提质褐煤的快速热裂解气体产物的析出特性%Release Characteristics of Gaseous Products During Rapid Pyrolysis of Upgraded Lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹祥波; 王智化; 胡昕; 周志军; 黄镇宇; 周俊虎; 岑可法

    2013-01-01

    First of all,three kinds of low rank coal were dewatered and upgraded by hydrothermal treatment under high temperature and high pressure conditions.The experimental results show that hydrothermal treatment can effectively decrease the inherent water in coal,volatile and oxygen content,increase the fixed carbon content and heating value,and eventually elevate lignite rank gradually.Then,rapid pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a CDS-5000 Pyroprobe at 5 000 ℃/s,1 000 ℃,which investigated the relationship between final reaction temperature and the production and volume fraction of H2,CO,CH4 and CO2 in the pyrolysis gas,as well as the heating value of pyrolysis gas.As the final reaction temperature climbs,it is found that the production of H2,CO,CO2 is reduced for each kind of coal,while the production of CH4 increases.Besides,CO and CO2 are the main components of the pyrolysis gas,while the contents of H2 and CH4 are much lower.The change of pyrolysis gas composition content with final reaction temperature shows good regularity.CO and CH4 contents rise,while H2 and CO2 contents show an opposite trend.And the upward trend of CO content is not obvious,however,CH4 content is dramatically increased.Also,the heating value of pyrolysis gas goes up constantly with the increase of the final reaction temperature.The heating value of BRXL is similar to that ofYM,and that of ZD is the lowest.%首先对3种低阶煤进行了高温高压水热改性,实验结果表明,水热处理可以有效降低煤的内在水分、挥发分和氧含量,增加固定碳含量,提高热值,使褐煤煤阶逐渐升高.然后利用快速裂解仪对3种改性煤进行了加热速率为5 000℃/s、终温为1 000℃条件下的快速热解实验,考察了热解气中4种主要组分H2、CO、CH4和CO2的产量、体积分数以及热解气的热值随改性终温的变化规律.研究发现,随着反应终温的升高,各煤种热解气的H2、CO以及CO2产量降低,而CH4产量

  7. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  8. Duff reaction on phenols: Characterization of non steam volatile products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Bhattacharya, J.

    New products having structures 1 and 2 have been characterized in the Duff reaction thymol arid carvacrol. These products have been identified as 2.6'-dithymylmethane 1 and 5.5' -dicarvacryl methane 2 respectively on the basis of spectral data...

  9. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Jensen, Bent Borg; Finster, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with sol......Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains...... significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS-group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant...

  10. Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2014-02-15

    Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ε-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ε-pinene) of significant added value.

  11. Study on the pyrolysis behavior of Shendong Shangwan coal and its macerals concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-lin LIN; Ke-jian LI; Xu-wen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of Shendong Shangwan coal and its macerals concentrate were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS).The evolved gases were analyzed online by MS spectroscopy.The results of TG/DTG (derivative thermogravimetry) show ths vitrinite concentrate has greater weight loss rate and higher volatile yield than the other two samples.More light hydrocarbons C1-C5 are released from the vitrinite concentrate than from the Shendong Shangwan coal and inertinite concentrated in the process of pyrolysis.Three samples have similar shape curves of evolved gases of C2-C5 with different intensities.When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 418 ℃,the amount of C6H6 evolved in the process of pyrolysis of inertinite concentrated was higher than that of raw coal and vitrinite concentrate.As the temperature rising,the production rate of C6H6 increased.Below 672 ℃,C6H6 evolution rate of vitrinite concentrate was far greater than the other two samples; the main evolution temperature range of C7H8 was 400 ℃ to 700 ℃ for the three samples.The amount of H2 and H2O released first increased and then decreased with the temperature increase while more H2 released for pyrolysis of inertinite concentrated and more H2O released for the pyrolysis of vitrinite concentrate.

  12. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  13. Comparative investigations into pyrolysis of biomass and brown coal. Material balance and heat requirement in correlation with fuel properties; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Pyrolyse von Biomasse und Braunkohle. Stoffbilanzen und Waermebedarf in Korrelation mit Rohstoffeigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, D.; Klinger, M.; Krzack, S.; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Prediction of product distribution and composition for biomass and coal pyrolysis using thermodynamic simulation software is actually not possible or works not deficiently. Consistent data for pyrolysis product distribution and composition are a basic requirement for the implementation of pyrolysis in models representing thermochemical conversion of biogenous and fossil fuels as well as for the creation of detailed material and energy balances and the evaluation of such processes. Investigations into the pyrolysis behaviour of different biomass materials (wood, straw, silage) and German brown coals (Lusatia, Rhineland) in dependence on process temperature have been done in a lab scale device. Based on the obtained results, material and heat balances have been created taking all pyrolysis products into consideration. To obtain additional information about pyrolysis heat requirement investigations using a TG-DSC thermogravimetric analyser have been carried out. Differences between biomass and brown coal are found especially within the distribution of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon to the pyrolysis products. For the herbaceous biomass a heat release was detected regarding to the energy balance, while spruce wood possesses a relatively constant endothermic heat of reaction in the overall temperature range. This arises from the release of volatile components produced during cellulose decomposition. In the case of brown coal pyrolysis the products show a lower chemically bonded energy than the raw material. The obtained tendencies could be partly confirmed with the DSC investigations. (orig.)

  14. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  15. Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Mailin; Haron, Roslindawati; Kamaroddin, Mohd Fadhzir Ahmad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2009-06-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments using NaOH, H(2)O(2), and Ca(OH)(2) on Empty Palm Fruit Bunches (EPFB) to degrade EPFB lignin before pyrolysis was investigated. Spectrophotometer analysis proved consecutive addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) decomposed almost 100% of EPFB lignin compared to 44% for the Ca(OH)(2), H(2)O(2) system while NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) used exclusively could not alter lignin much. Next, the pretreated EPFB was catalytically pyrolyzed. Experimental results indicated the phenolic yields over Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5 catalysts were 90 wt% and 80 wt%, respectively compared to 67 wt% yield for the untreated sample under the same set of conditions. Meanwhile, the experiments with HY zeolite yielded 70 wt% phenols.

  16. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the ...

  17. Involvement of a broccoli COQ5 methyltransferase in the production of volatile selenium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Kochian, Leon V; Li, Li

    2009-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of model compounds and waste cooking oil for production of light olefins over La/ZSM-5 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F. W.; Ding, S. L.; Li, L.; Gao, C.; Zhong, Z.; Wang, S. X.; Li, Z. X.

    2016-08-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) and its model compounds (oleic acid and methyl laurate) are catalytically pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor over La modified ZSM-5 catalysts (La/ZSM-5) aiming for production of C2-C4 light olefins. The LaO content in catalysts was set at 0, 2, 6, 10 and 14 wt%. The gas and liquid products are analyzed. The La/ZSM-5 catalyst with 6% LaO showed higher selectivity to light olefins when WCO and methyl laurate were pyrolyzed, and olefin content was 26% for WCO and 21% for methyl laurate. The catalyst with 10% LaO showed high selectivity to light olefins (28.5%) when oleic acid was pyrolyzed. The liquid products from WCO and model compounds mainly contain esters and aromatic hydrocarbons. More esters were observed in liquid products from methyl laurate and WCO pyrolysis, indicating that it is more difficult to pyrolyze esters and WCO than oleic acid. The coked catalysts were analyzed by temperature-programmed oxidation. The result shows that graphite is the main component of coke. The conversion of WCO to light olefins potentially provides an alternative and sustainable route for production of the key petrochemicals.

  19. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose Using Nano Zeolite and Zeolite/Matrix Catalysts in a GC/Micro-Pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose, as a model compound of biomass, was catalyzed over zeolite (HY,.HZSM-5) and zeolite/matrix (HY/Clay, HM/Clay) in a GC/micro-pyrolyzer at 500 degrees C, to produce the valuable products. The catalysts used were pure zeolite and zeolite/matrix including 20 wt% matrix content, which were prepared into different particle sizes (average size; 0.1 mm, 1.6 mm) to study the effect of the particle size of the catalyst for the distribution of product yields. Catalytic pyrolysis had much more volatile products as light components and less content of sugars than pyrolysis only. This phenomenon was strongly influenced by the particle size of the catalyst in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Also, in zeolite and zeolite/matrix catalysts the zeolite type gave the dominant impact on the distribution of product yields.

  20. Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group composition of the liquid products were determined. The total analysis of the major groups of compounds present in the liquid products was performed, and the optimal conditions of pyrolysis, from the viewpoint of preparation of particular compounds, were recommended.

  1. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  2. Effect of Boric Acid on Volatile Products of Thermooxidative Degradation of Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Bukhareva, P. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The polymeric materials are characterized by high flammability. The use of flame retardants in order to reduce the flammability of polymers can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous products under fire conditions. In this work we studied the effect of boric acid on the volatile products of thermooxidative degradation of epoxy polymers. The comparative investigations were carried out on the samples of the unfilled epoxy resin and epoxy resin filled with a boric acid at percentage 10 wt. %. The analysis of the volatile decomposition products and thermal stability of the samples under heating in an oxidizing medium was performed using a thermal mass-spectrometric analysis. It is found that the incorporation of boric acid into the polymer matrix increases the thermal stability of epoxy composites and leads to a reduction in the 2-2.7 times of toxic gaseous products

  3. Co-production of furfural and acetic acid from corncob using ZnCl2 through fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2013-09-01

    Corncob was pyrolyzed using ZnCl2 in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor to co-produce furfural and acetic acid. The effects of reaction conditions, the ZnCl2 content and contacting method of ZnCl2 with corncob on the yields of furfural and acetic acid were investigated. The pyrolysis was performed within the temperature range between 310 and 410°C, and the bio-oil yield were 30-60 wt% of the product. The furfural yield increased up to 8.2 wt%. The acetic acid yield was maximized with a value of 13.1 wt%. A lower feed rate in the presence of ZnCl2 was advantageous for the production of acetic acid. The fast pyrolysis of a smaller corncob sample mechanically mixed with 20 wt% of ZnCl2 gave rise to a distinct increase in furfural. A high selectivity for furfural and acetic acid in bio-oil would make the pyrolysis of corncob with ZnCl2 very economically attractive.

  4. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  5. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  6. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  7. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  8. Autothermal catalytic pyrolysis of methane as a new route to hydrogen production with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Hydrogen production plants are among major sources of CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas (or methane) with drastically reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermocatalytic decomposition (or pyrolysis) of methane into hydrogen gas and elemental carbon over carbon-based catalysts. Several heat input options to the endothermic process are discussed in the paper. The authors conduct thermodynamic analysis of methane decomposition in the presence of small amounts of oxygen in an autothermal (or thermo-neutral) regime using AspenPlus(TM) chemical process simulator. Methane conversion, products yield, effluent gas composition, process enthalpy flows as a function of temperature, pressure and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio has been determined. CO{sub 2} emissions (per m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} produced) from the process could potentially be a factor of 3-5 less than from conventional hydrogen production processes. Oxygen-assisted decomposition of methane over activated carbon (AC) and AC-supported iron catalysts over wide range of temperatures and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratios was experimentally verified. Problems associated with the catalyst deactivation and the effect of iron doping on the catalyst stability are discussed. (author)

  9. Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

    2008-07-01

    A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

  10. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  11. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  12. Production of bio-oil from fixed bed pyrolysis of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Asadullah; M.A. Rahman; M.M. Ali; M.S. Rahman; M.A. Motin; M.B. Sultan; M.R. Alam [University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi (Bangladesh). Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work was to produce renewable liquid fuel (bio-oil) from locally produced bagasse by pyrolysis in a batch feeding and fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600{sup o}C. The bio-oil was collected from two condensers of different temperatures and defined as oil-1 and oil-2. The maximum total yield of bio-oil was found to be 66.0 wt% based on bagasse. The carbon based non-condensable gases were CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of oil-1 were found to be 1130 kg/m{sup 3} and 19.32 centipoise and that were 1050 kg/m{sup 3} and 4.25 centipoise for oil-2, respectively. The higher heating values (HHV) of them were 17.25 and 19.91 MJ/kg, respectively. The pH of the bio-oils was found to be around 3.5 and 4.5 for oil-1 and oil-2, respectively. The water, solid and ash contents of oil-1 and oil-2 were determined and found to be around 15, 0.02 and 0.03 wt% and 11, 0.01 and 0.02 wt%, respectively based on bagasse. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of PAH contamination in soil treated with solid by-products from shale pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Jaqueline; Khan, Muhammad Y; Matsui, M; Côcco, Lílian C; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Lopes, Wilson A; de Andrade, Jailson B; Pillon, Clenio N; Arizaga, Gregorio G Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils to which solid shale materials (SSMs) were added as soil conditioners. The SSMs were derived from the Petrosix pyrolysis process developed by Petrobras (Brazil). An improved ultrasonic agitation method was used to extract the PAHs from the solid samples (soils amended with SSMs), and the concentrations of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure provided satisfactory recoveries, detection limits, and quantification limits. The two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs were most prevalent, and the highest concentration was obtained for phenanthrene (978 ± 19 μg kg(-1) in a pyrolyzed shale sample). The use of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene ratios revealed that the PAHs were derived from petrogenic rather than pyrogenic sources. The measured PAH concentrations did not exceed national or international limit values, suggesting that the use of SSMs as soil conditioners should not cause environmental damage.

  14. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Khor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and tarry fractions. Results: 13 wt% of tarry component (referred as EFB oil was obtained as small fraction of co-product. The chemical composition of the EFB oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS and its elemental composition, stability, miscibility, oil fuel properties and corrosion characteristics were determined. The empirical formula of the EFB oil with heating value of 31.44 MJ kg-1 was established as CH1.41N0.03O0.24. Characterizations of bio-oil, diesel and emulsifier blends were performed. Conclusion/Recommendations: The experimental results showed that the emulsions of EFB oil obtained may be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel may be refined to be used by vehicles.

  15. Experimental investigation of hydrous pyrolysis of diesel fuel and the effect of pyrolysis products on performance of the candidate nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.J.; Carroll, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is thought that a significant amount of diesel fuel and other hydrocarbon-rich phases may remain inside the candidate nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain after construction and subsequent emplacement of radioactive waste. Although the proposed repository horizon is above the water table, the remnant hydrocarbon phases may react with hydrothermal solutions generated by high temperature conditions that will prevail for a period of time in the repository. The preliminary experimental results of this study show that diesel fuel hydrous pyrolysis is minimal at 200{degrees}C and 70 bars. The composition of the diesel fuel remained constant throughout the experiment and the concentration of carboxylic acids in the aqueous phases was only slightly above the detection limit (1-2 ppm) of the analytical technique.

  16. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process.

  17. Parameters for the Pyrolysis of Organic Material - Perchlorate Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA-lead Mars rover ExoMars (launch in 2018) will carry a suit of instruments, one of the in-struments is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer MOMA. Organic material in the Martian soil will be either pyrolyzed at temperatures of up to 1000°C and separated by gas chromatography or volatilized with the help of an UV-laser. A mass spectrometer will be the detector for both methods. Chlorinated organics have been detected in pyroly-sis GC-MS experiments on Mars two times. The first time during the Viking mission in 1976 and a second time with the Sample Analysis on Mars (SAM) in-strument onboard the Curiosity rover in 2012. [1] [2] The presence of perchlorates found by the Phoenix mission in 2008 [3] lead to the discovery that organic molecules not only get oxidized during pyrolysis, but also chlorinated organic compounds can be pro-duced. [4] The parameters used for pyrolysis and the sample composition especially the distribution of organics and perchlorates within the sample and the concentrations of organics and perchlorate have a huge influence on the products created. It is possible to change the condi-tions of the pyrolysis by spatially separating the organ-ics from the perchlorates that the chloromethanes get the major product of the pyrolysis. This might help to understand the results of the (SAM) instrument yield-ing mono-, di- and trichloromethane and a chlorinated 4-hydrocarbon molecule. References: [1] Biemann K et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4641-4658. [2] Grotzinger J. P et al. (2011) AGU Fall Meeting U13A-01 [3] Hecht M. H., et al. (2009) Science, 325 64-67. [4] Steininger H., Goesmann F., Goetz W. (2011) Planet. & Space Sci., 71, 9-17. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by DLR (FKZ 50QX1001)

  18. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  19. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  20. A theoretical study of volatile fission products release from oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, M.C.; Paraschiv, A. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania); Grecu, V.V. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-11-01

    Treating the average volume grains as thermodynamically closed subsystems, a method to evaluate the volatile fission products migration at the grain boundary and their release in the void volume of the fuel elements is proposed. The method considers the phenomena of the intergranular bubble growth and interlinkage, grain growth and grain boundary resolution. Analytical solutions of the diffusion problem associated with the volatile fission products behaviour taking into account their direct yield from fission and from precursors simultaneously with the diffusion and decay, irradiation induced resolution and fuel grain growth, during a time-step varying irradiation history have also been derived. The results are very accurate and point out the strong effect of the boundary condition changes on the volatile fission products behaviour when the simultaneous effects of the intergranular bubble coalescence, the precursors, the irradiation induced resolution and grain growth are considered. Comparative analyses versus other similar models of the diffusion of only stable gas species of fission products are also presented. (orig.)

  1. Molecular identification of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from red wines and volatile phenol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, A; Lonvaud-Funel, A; du Toit, M

    2009-06-01

    The spoilage yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera can persist throughout the winemaking process and has the potential to produce off-flavours that affect the sensory quality of wine. The main objective of this study was to select different strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from red wines and to compare their volatile phenol production. From a collection of 63 strains, eight strains of B. bruxellensis were selected for volatile phenol production after the application of molecular techniques such as ISS-PCR, PCR-DGGE and REA-PFGE. All strains showed three large chromosomes of similar size with PFGE. However, unique restriction profiles of the chromosomes were visible after NotI digestion that clearly distinguished the strains. All strains were capable of producing large quantities of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol from p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, respectively in synthetic media. However, the diversity among strains for volatile phenol production differed between synthetic media and wine with regard to the maximum production levels of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. This study illustrated the diversity of B. bruxellensis strains that occur during winemaking.

  2. Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

  3. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  4. Pyrolysis mechanism study of minimally damaged hemicellulose polymers isolated from agricultural waste straw samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Ru, Bin; Dai, Gongxin; Sun, Wuxing; Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The pyrolysis mechanism of hemicellulose has been investigated using two minimally damaged hemicellulose polymers isolated from two agricultural straw samples. The obtained hemicelluloses have been characterized by multiple methods, and the results showed that they were mainly composed of l-arabino-4-O-methyl-d-glucurono-d-xylan. Their O-acetyl groups and high degrees of polymerization and branching were well preserved. Their pyrolyses were subsequently investigated by TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS. The evolutions of four typical volatile components and the distributions of eight product species were scrutinized. A DG-DAEM kinetic model was applied to quantify the contributions of two major pyrolytic routes for devolatilization during hemicellulose pyrolysis. A mean activation energy of 150kJ/mol for the formation of volatiles was derived. The thermal stability of each bond in four typical fragments of hemicellulose was assessed by DFT study, and the deduced decomposition pathways were in agreement with experimental analysis.

  5. Simulation and modeling of vegetable market wastes pyrolysis under progressive deactivation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R.; Bhattacharya, P.; Chowdhury, R. [Jadavpur University, Chemical Engineering Dept., Kolkata (India)

    2004-06-01

    Pyrolytic behaviour of sun-dried vegetable market waste was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis within the temperature range of 523 to 923 K under inert atmosphere. Results were compared with other lignocellulosic materials in order to highlight the difference between the pyrolysis of nearly homogenous and perfectly mixed homogenous biomass. The vegetable waste analysis indicated a structural change of the biomass, which ultimately led to the deactivation phenomenon. When compared to the pyrolysis behaviour of other nearly pure lignocellulosic materials, the conversion rate of the reacting materials was appreciably lower. This was attributed to the low concentration of active material in the vegetable waste. Simulation and modelling have been carried out to explain the kinetic behaviour of pyrolysis reaction. A reaction mechanism involving two parallel first order reactions evolving gaseous products, lumped as volatiles and solid products lumped as char, has been proposed for prediction of rate constants as a function of normalized fractional change. Four kinetic models incorporating the effect of deactivation have been used for this purpose, however, no single set of model equations was found to be adequate to explain the entire pyrolysis process. At the same time, separating the pyrolysis operation into two temperature segments -- one at low to moderate, and one at higher temperatures -- satisfactory correspondence (segment-wise) can be established between experimental results and model equations. 15 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  6. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  7. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake.

  8. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-02-03

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g(-1) plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g(-1) plastic was produced.

  10. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste to upgraded bio-oil products via pre-coked modified HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, HZSM-5 catalyst was modified by pre-coked to cover the strong external acid sites by methanol to olefins reaction, and the modified catalysts were then applied to conduct the catalyst fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste for upgraded bio-fuel production. Experiment results showed that the strong external acid sites and specific surface area decreased with pre-coked percentage increasing from 0% to 5.4%. Carbon yields of hydrocarbons increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 53.47%. While the obtained oxygenates presented an opposite variation tendency, and the minimum values could be reached when pre-coked percentage was 2.7%. Among the achieved hydrocarbons, toluene and p-xylene were found to be the main products, and the selectivity of p-xylene increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 34.22% when the pre-coked percentage was 1.3%, and the selectivity of toluene showed the opposite tendency with a minimum value of 25.47%.

  11. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  12. Pyrolysis as a way to close a CFRC life cycle: Carbon fibers recovery and their use as feedstock for a new composite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Loris; Benelli, Tiziana; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Leonardi, Chiara; Zattini, Giorgio; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico; Tosi, Cristian; Montanari, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Pyrolysis is shown to be an efficient method for recycling carbon fiber composites in the form of both uncured prepregs scraps or as cured end-of-life objects. The pyrolytic process leads to different products in three physical states of matter. The gaseous fraction, called syngas, can be used as energy feedstock in the process itself. The oil fraction can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The solid residue contains substantially unharmed carbon fibers that can be isolated and recovered for the production of new composite materials, thus closing the life cycle of the composite in a "cradle to cradle" approach. All the pyrolysis outputs were thoroughly analyzed and characterized in terms of composition for oil and gas fraction and surface characteristics of the fibers. In particular, it is of paramount importance to correlate the aspect and properties of the fibers obtained with different composite feedstock and operational conditions, that can be significantly different, with the reinforcing performance in the newly produced Recycled Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers. Present results have been obtained on a pyrolysis pilot plant that offers the possibility of treating up to 70kg of materials, thus leading to a significant amount of products to be tested in the further composites production, focused mainly on chopped carbon fiber reinforcement.

  13. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  14. Determination of lead in biomass and products of the pyrolysis process by direct solid or liquid sample analysis using HR-CS GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Álvaro T; Borges, Aline R; Zmozinski, Ariane V; Dessuy, Morgana B; Welz, Bernhard; de Andrade, Jailson B; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lead in biomass, bio-oil, pyrolysis aqueous phase, and biomass ashes by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) and direct solid or liquid sample analysis. All measurements were performed without chemical modifier and calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions. A pyrolysis temperature of 800°C and an atomization temperature of 2200°C were applied. The limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 0.5 µg kg(-1) and 2 µg kg(-1) using the analytical line at 217.001 nm and 6 µg kg(-1) and 19 µg kg(-1) at 283.306 nm. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was between 3% and 10%, which is suitable for direct analysis. The lead concentrations found for the solid samples varied between 0.28 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for biomass and between 0.25 and 2.3 mg kg(-1) for ashes, these values were much higher than those found for bio-oil (2.2-16.8 µg kg(-1)) and pyrolysis aqueous phase (3.2-18.5 µg kg(-1)). After the determination of lead in the samples, it was possible to estimate the relative distribution of this element in the fractions of the pyrolysis products, and it was observed that most of the lead present in the biomass was eliminated to the environment during the pyrolysis process, with a significant portion retained in the ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Revisiting The Financial Volatility – Derivative Products Relationship On Euronext. Liffe Using A Frequency Domain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Daniel GOYEAU; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The present paper analyse the relationship between the volume of transactions with futures equity index products and the return volatility of their underlying assets. The study addresses the case of five stock markets, members of the Euronext.liffe: London, Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels and Lisbon. We employ a frequency domain analysis, using monthly data for the period 2001.09 – 2010.06, which allows us to identify the direction of the causality between the derivatives v...

  16. Improvement of agricultural economics through integration of small scale heat and power production with non-food value-added products. Task 2: Filtration of pyrolysis oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saerkilahti, H.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy New Energy Technology (Finland)

    1997-06-01

    Use of pyrolysis oil as a diesel engine fuel was studied at VTT. Pyrolysis oil is a mixture produced from biomass by flash pyrolysis and contains a number of different chemical compounds. As a consequence of an incomplete pyrolysis reaction the product oil contains solid particles, These particles degrade the quality of oil and hamper the use of oil as fuel. The particles may also clog the filters of the diesel engine and cause deposits in the engine. Alkali metals of pyrolysis oil has been found to concentrate in solids particles. The solids can be removed from pyrolysis oil either in gas phase or in liquid phase. By gas-phase filtration it is possible to produce pyrolysis oil that is free from solids and alkali metals, but any reliable method of gas-phase filtration is not yet available. The aim of the research work at VTT Energy was to test the suitability of an Airpel self-cleaning filter for pyrolysis oil. Filtration equipment was constructed around the filter for the tests, to make an automated filtration process possible. The tests indicated that a very tight filtration film is formed on the filter at the initial stage of filtration, and this film reduced the filtration capacity significantly. After the formation of the film, the resistance of the filter cake was increased only by solid particles deposited on the surface of the filter, and the filtration capacity reduced significantly slower. Tlle solids particles deposited on the filter were of significance to the filtration results. Due to the film, it was not possible to achieve a feasible capacity with the filtration equipment. Filtration of pyrolysis oil as a continuous process was impossible, as the filtration sludge was very thick and could not be removed from the filtration tank during the process. Two pyrolysis oil grades produced by Ensyn Technology, and one produced by Union Fenosa were used in tlle tests. The oils by Ensyn were easier to filtrate, as their viscosity was lower and they contained

  17. 黑液与石油焦共热解及其产物特性研究%C o-pyrolysis behaviors and products characteristics of bl ack liquor and petroleum coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵金; 郭大亮; 袁洪友; 周肇秋; 阴秀丽; 吴创之

    2014-01-01

    The weight loss characteristics, evolution patterns of volatiles and morphology of solid product from co-pyrolysis of black liquor and petroleum coke were studied by a thermo gravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier Tar nsform Infrared Spectrometry ( TGA-FTIR) ands canning electronic microscopy ( SE M) .The CO2 co-gasification characteristics of black liquor char and petroleum coke were also investigated by thermo gravimetric analyzer ( TGA ) .The results suggested that the pyrolysis reactions had proceeded independently during co-pyrolysis prco ess ta temperta uresb elow 600 ℃.However, as ht e temperature exceeded 600 ℃, the relae se peak temperature of CO2 and CO were shifted to low temperature zone, and the thermo gravimetric characteristics were changed in contrast with the separate pyor lysis. Moreover, the surfacem orphology of the solid products from oc -pyrolysis had been changed dramatically at 800 ℃.Specifically, the sintering during pyrolysis of black liquor was inhibited by the presence of petroleum coke. Compared to the ni dividual gasification, teh carob n conversion and gasif cation rate ah d been greatly improved for CO2 co-gasification due to the synergistic effect oft heb lends at 850 ℃.The overall carbon conversion were increased by 51.27%, meanwhile, the maximum gasification rate were improved by twice during CO2 co-gasification process.%运用热重-红外联用(TGA-FTIR)和扫描电镜(SEM)对黑液与石油焦的共热解过程进行了实验研究,考察了两者在共热解过程中的热失重、挥发性组分释放及固体产物表面形貌特性;同时运用热重( TGA)探究了热解固体产物黑液半焦和石油焦的CO2共气化反应特性。结果表明,在黑液与石油焦共热解过程中,温度低于600℃时,两者的热解相互独立;温度达到600℃之后,相对于黑液和石油焦单独热解的加权平均值,挥发性气体产物CO2和CO的释放峰值温度向低温区移动

  18. Growth and volatile compound production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Perello, M C; de Revel, G; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2008-06-01

    Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis is a particularly troublesome wine spoilage yeast. This work was aimed at characterizing its behaviour in terms of growth and volatile compound production in red wine. Sterile red wines were inoculated with 5 x 10(3) viable cells ml(-1) of three B. bruxellensis strains and growth and volatile phenol production were followed for 1 month by means of plate counts and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. Maximum population levels generally attained 10(6)-10(7) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) and volatile phenol concentrations ranged from 500 to 4000 microg l(-1). Brettanomyces bruxellensis multiplication was also accompanied by the production of organic acids (from C(2) to C(10)), short chain acid ethyl-esters and the 'mousy off-flavour' component 2-acetyl-tetrahydropyridine. Different kinds of 'Brett character' characterized by distinct metabolic and sensory profiles can arise in wine depending on the contaminating strain, wine pH and sugar content and the winemaking stage at which contamination occurs. We identified new chemical markers that indicate wine defects caused by B. bruxellensis. Further insight was provided into the role of some environmental conditions in promoting wine spoilage.

  19. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  20. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  1. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  2. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... that the reacting particle continuously shed the formed char layer....

  3. Study of the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass via phytoremediation by fast pyrolysis: Part I. Influence of temperature, biomass species and solid heat carrier on the behaviour of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lievens; J. Yperman; J. Vangronsveld; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    Presently, little or no information of implementing fast pyrolysis for looking into the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass is available. Fast pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass (birch and sunflower), containing high amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, resulting from phytoremediation, is investigated. The effect of the pyrolysis temperature (623, 673, 773 and 873 K) and the type of solid heat carrier (sand and fumed silica) on the distribution of the heavy metals in birch and sunflower pyrolysis fractions are studied. The goal of the set-up is 'concentrating' heavy metals in the ash/char fraction after thermal treatment, preventing them to be released in the condensable and/or volatile fractions. The knowledge of the behaviour of heavy metals affects directly future applications and valorisation of the pyrolysis products and thus contaminated biomass. They are indispensable for making and selecting the proper thermal conditions for their maximum recovery. In view of the future valorisation of these biomasses, the amounts of the pyrolysis fractions and the calorific values of the obtained liquid pyrolysis products, as a function of the pyrolysis temperature, are determined. 46 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  5. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  6. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  7. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    coefficients. Results and Discussion: Main results showed that real exchange rate volatility and export value of selected commodities are Co-integrated. The coefficient estimation of FMOLS and DOLS methods are equal and statically significant; so, these methods aren’t statically different and they showed that real exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on exported value for whole panel. However, the specific coefficient for each commodity showed contradictory behavior in short run and long run; for example real exchange rate fluctuation has a negative and significant impact on all the commodities; but, in short run this variable has a positive and significant impact on exported value. Moreover, based on estimated results it seems that fluctuation in exchange market has a greater impact on more valuable commodities like date. Conclusion: Considering the importance of agricultural product trade and in order to overcome mono-product economy, this study investigated long term and short term relation between export of grape, orange, date and exchange rate volatilities. To this aim, first the index of exchange volatility using generated autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH was calculated. In order to investigate the relation between exchange rate volatilities and export value of agricultural product, unit root test and cointegration test related to panel data were used during years 1971-2013. The results of model estimation showed that exchange rate volatilities in short term and long term have respectively positive and negative effects on the export value of orange, grape and date. In long term, the negative effects of Exchange rate volatilities on high-export-value products are more than its effects on low-export-value products. Based on the estimation results we can conclude that, in short run, exporters are willing to increase their interchange and gain profits of the volatility in exchange market; however, in long run exchange rate fluctuation has

  8. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  9. Verification of“Trend-Volatility Model”in Short-Term Forecast of Grain Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Chang-hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "trend-volatility model" in short-term forecasting of grain production potential was verified and discussed systematically by using the grain production data from 1949 to 2014, in 16 typical counties and 6 typical districts, and 31 provinces, of China. The results showed as follows:(1 Size of forecast error reflected the precision of short-term production potential, the main reason of large prediction error was a great amount of high yield farmlands were occupied in developed areas and a great increase of vegetable and fruit planted that made grain yield decreased in a short time;(2 The micro-trend amendment method was a necessary part of "trend-volatility model", which could involve the short-term factors such as meteorological factors, science and technology input, social factors and other effects, while macro-trend prediction could not. Therefore, The micro-trend amendment method could improve the forecast precision.(3 In terms of actual situation in recent years in China, the more developed the areas was, the bigger the volatility of short-term production potential was; For the short-term production potential, the stage of increasing-decreasing-recovering also existed in developed areas;(4 In the terms of forecast precision of short-terms production potential, the scale of national was higher than the scale of province, the scale of province was higher than the scale of district, the scale of district was higher than the scale of county. And it was large differences in precision between different provinces, different districts and different counties respectively, which was concerned to the complementarity of domestic climate and the ability of the farmland resistance to natural disasters.

  10. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  11. Production of volatile and sulfur compounds by ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains inoculated in Trebbiano must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePatrignani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wines, the presence of sulphur compounds is the resulting of several contributions among which yeast metabolism. The characterization of the starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs to be performed also taking into account this ability even if evaluated together with the overall metabolic profile. In this perspective, principal aim of this experimental research was the evaluation of the volatile profiles, throughout GC/MS technique coupled with solid phase micro extraction, of wines obtained throughout the fermentation of 10 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, the production of sulphur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame Photometric Detector. Specifically, the ten strains were inoculated in Trebbiano musts and the fermentations were monitored for 19 days. In the produced wines, volatile and sulphur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and their electronic nose profiles were evaluated.

  12. Detection of some volatile degradation products released during photoexposition of ranitidine in a solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Wielgomas, Bartosz

    2013-03-25

    Ranitidine (RAN) is on top of the list of prescribed drugs, due to its popularity as a selective H2-receptor antagonist, which efficiently decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. RAN is not stable both in a solid state and in a solution, which creates manufacturing problems, requires appropriate storage conditions, and results in a short drug shelf-life. The aim of this work was to study the emission of volatile degradation products generated during photoexposition of ranitidine hydrochloride in a solid state. Significant changes in volatile profile of irradiated RAN were detected using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Sixteen major peaks were noticed on the chromatograms of irradiated ranitidine and the structures of some compounds were elucidated, while the presence of acetaldoxime, thiazole, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide and 5-methylfurfural was confirmed by means of the analysis of the authentic standards.

  13. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  14. Volatile production during preignition heating. Final technical report, 15 September 1980-30 September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, A.; Chou, H.; Flusberg, A.; Neoh, K.; Orozco, N.; Stickler, D.

    1983-10-01

    Pulverized coal particles, in a flowing inert nitrogen stream, have been heated by high power Carbon Dioxide Laser. The consequence of such an irradiation have proved to be both novel and surprising as a result of the rapid quenching of primary coal products. It ahs been found that the gas phase yield from such heating (typically, temperatures in excess of 1400 K at rates approx. 2 x 10/sup 5/ K/s) is very small (< 0.2 percent of coal carbon and hydrogen). Analysis of the solid residue has shown the presence of fine lacy particulate chains of material of 0.1 ..mu..m diameter, which appears to be soluble in tetrahydrofuran. The yields of solute were significantly much higher than for raw coals. Molecular weight of the solute material was high, being in the range of 600 to 3000. The above and substantiating evidence point to a new mechanism of high heating rate pyrolysis in which only tar-like materials are produced as primary products from the coal. It is hypothesized that gas phase products are primarily the result of secondary reactions of these primary products in the hot gas environments usually employed by other heating techniques.

  15. Hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactor experimentation and modeling for the production of solar absorbing carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Lee Thomas

    Much of combustion research focuses on reducing soot particulates in emissions. However, current research at San Diego State University (SDSU) Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory (CSEL) is underway to develop a high temperature solar receiver which will utilize carbon nanoparticles as a solar absorption medium. To produce carbon nanoparticles for the small particle heat exchange receiver (SPHER), a lab-scale carbon particle generator (CPG) has been built and tested. The CPG is a heated ceramic tube reactor with a set point wall temperature of 1100-1300°C operating at 5-6 bar pressure. Natural gas and nitrogen are fed to the CPG where natural gas undergoes pyrolysis resulting in carbon particles. The gas-particle mixture is met downstream with dilution air and sent to the lab scale solar receiver. To predict soot yield and general trends in CPG performance, a model has been setup in Reaction Design CHEMKIN-PRO software. One of the primary goals of this research is to accurately measure particle properties. Mean particle diameter, size distribution, and index of refraction are calculated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a Diesel Particulate Scatterometer (DPS). Filter samples taken during experimentation are analyzed to obtain a particle size distribution with SEM images processed in ImageJ software. These results are compared with the DPS, which calculates the particle size distribution and the index of refraction from light scattering using Mie theory. For testing with the lab scale receiver, a particle diameter range of 200-500 nm is desired. Test conditions are varied to understand effects of operating parameters on particle size and the ability to obtain the size range. Analysis of particle loading is the other important metric for this research. Particle loading is measured downstream of the CPG outlet and dilution air mixing point. The air-particle mixture flows through an extinction tube where opacity of the mixture is measured with a 532 nm

  16. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer, but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products. Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing

  17. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; Rossum, van Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when comp

  18. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when

  19. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca......We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested...... as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst....

  20. The loss of Na and Cl during the pyrolysis of a NaCl-loaded brown coal sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Li, C.Z.

    1999-07-01

    A Victorian brown coal was physically loaded with NaCl and pyrolyzed in a quartz fluidized-bed reactor. The fluidized-bed reactor was equipped with a quartz frit in the freeboard zone to enable the total devolatilization of the coal particles. The introduction of NaCl into the coal has caused only minor reductions in the weight loss. A significant amount of chlorine was volatilized during pyrolysis at temperatures as low as 200 C. At temperatures around 400--500 C where the loss of sodium was not very significant, about 70% of chlorine was volatilized from the coal particles. With the volatilization of chlorine at this temperature level, sodium must have been bonded to the char matrix. With increasing temperature, the volatilization of chlorine decreased and then increased again, whereas the volatilization of sodium increased monotonically with increasing temperature. Almost all the Na in coal could be volatilized at temperatures higher than about 800 C. These experimental results clearly indicate that chlorine and Na interacted strongly with coal/char at high temperatures. Na and Cl in the coal did not volatilize as NaCl molecules. Significant amounts of species containing a COO-group such as acetate, formate and oxalate were observed in the pyrolysis products although the exact forms of these species (i.e., as acids, salts or esters) in the pyrolysis product remain unknown. The yields of the species containing a COO-group decreased with increasing temperature, possibly due to the intensified thermal cracking reactions at high temperatures.

  1. 润滑油废白土的热解处理%Pyrolysis treatment of waste clay from lubricating oil production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文杰; 王万福; 屈一新; 雍兴跃; 刘鹏; 王际东

    2012-01-01

    The effects of terminal pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and CaO addition on the pyrolysis products of waste clay from lubricating oil were studied by electric heating. It was found that there were obvious effects of terminal pyrolysis temperature on the quantities of gases and oils. Gases and oils increased with increas- ing terminal pyrolysis temperature, but their increasing rates increased slowly when it was above 600℃. When waste clay was pyrolized at 800℃ terminal pyrolysis temperature with 16℃/min heating rate and 0.5% CaO ad- dition, the production of hydrogen-rich gases was 189.2 L/kg, and its main compositions were H2 (27.97%) and CH4 (41.64%). The percentage of oil content and heavy metallic ions dissolving-out of pyrolysis residue were below the standard values. The production rate and recovery rate of pyrolysis oil were 10.98% and 38.94% ,re- spectively. And that pyrolysis oils were composed of gasoline (19.13%) , diesel oil (31.35%) and heavy oil (49.52%).%以润滑油废白土为原料,利用电热解法,研究了热解终温、加热速率和CaO添加量对热解产物的影响。实验结果表明:热解终温对热解产物的影响最为显著。随着热解终温的升高,不凝气产量和产油率均迅速增加。当热解终温达到600℃时,其增加的速率逐渐缓慢增大。当控制热解终温为800℃、加热速率为16℃/min、CaO添加量为0.5%时,富氢气体产量为189.2 L/kg,气体中主要成分为H2和CH4,其含量分别为27.97%和41.64%;热解残渣含油率和重金属溶出物均低于标准规定值,热解油产率为10.98%,回收率为38.94%,其主要成分为汽油、柴油和重油3部分组成,分别含19.13%、31.35%和49.52%。

  2. Photobioreactor cultivation and catalytic pyrolysis of the microalga Desmodesmus communis (Chlorophyceae) for hydrocarbons production by HZSM-5 zeolite cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Roberto; Pezzolesi, Laura; Pistocchi, Rossella; Torri, Cristian; Massoli, Patrizio; Fabbri, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated the growth of Desmodesmus communis on column photobioreactor and its thermochemical treatment by catalytic pyrolysis using HZSM-5 zeolite. D. communis showed good results in terms of growth (0.05gL(-1)d(-1)). Analytical pyrolysis of original algae and derived bio-oil mixed with zeolite was used as a screening method in order to gather information on the cracking process. Preparative pyrolysis on bench scale reactor was performed on algae biomass over a zeolite bed at 1:10 ratio (wt/wt). Py-GC-MS of biomass/catalyst mixture showed that the denitrogenation/deoxygenation increased with increasing zeolite load from 1:5 to 1:20 ratio and became significant at 1:10 ratio. The composition observed by analytical pyrolysis was featured by the predominance of alkylated monoaromatic hydrocarbons. The scaling-up to bench scale confirmed the results obtained with analytical pyrolysis in terms of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. However, low yield of catalytic oil (8% by weight) was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of highly oxygenated low-volatility products from cresol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Schilling, Katherine A.; McVay, Renee C.; Lignell, Hanna; Coggon, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xuan; Wennberg, Paul O.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation of toluene produces ring-retaining products: cresol and benzaldehyde, and ring-opening products: bicyclic intermediate compounds and epoxides. Here, first- and later-generation OH oxidation products from cresol and benzaldehyde are identified in laboratory chamber experiments. For benzaldehyde, first-generation ring-retaining products are identified, but later-generation products are not detected. For cresol, low-volatility (saturation mass concentration, C* ˜ 3.5 × 104 - 7.7 × 10-3 µg m-3), first- and later-generation ring-retaining products are identified. Subsequent OH addition to the aromatic ring of o-cresol leads to compounds such as hydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy methyl benzoquinones and dihydroxy, trihydroxy, tetrahydroxy, and pentahydroxy toluenes. These products are detected in the gas phase by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and in the particle phase using offline direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Our data suggest that the yield of trihydroxy toluene from dihydroxy toluene is substantial. While an exact yield cannot be reported as authentic standards are unavailable, we find that a yield for trihydroxy toluene from dihydroxy toluene of ˜ 0.7 (equal to the reported yield of dihydroxy toluene from o-cresol; Olariu et al., 2002) is consistent with experimental results for o-cresol oxidation under low-NO conditions. These results suggest that even though the cresol pathway accounts for only ˜ 20 % of the oxidation products of toluene, it is the source of a significant fraction (˜ 20-40 %) of toluene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) due to the formation of low-volatility products.

  4. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  5. Microorganisms Associated with Volatile Organic Compound Production in Spoilt Mango Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu D. Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with the production of volatile compound in spoilt mango fruits sold in Sokoto town were isolated and identified. The organisms include seven species of bacteria and a species of yeast. These include Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus firmus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Morganella morganii, Paenibacillus alvei, Staphylococcus saccharolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida krusei respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eleven and sixteen volatile organic compound in the healthy and spoilt ripe mango fruits. Octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 1 – Butanol, 3 – methyl-, carbonate (2:1 and 3,7 – Dimethyl nonane were common to both healthy and spoilt fruits with the first three having higher concentration in healthy fruits than spoilt while the later had higher concentration in the spoilt. One methyl group of 3,3- Dimethyl hexane in healthy fruit was shifted to position two to yield 2,3-Dimethyl hexane in the spoilt fruits. 2,2-Dimethylbutane, Methyl(methyl-4-deoxy-2,3-di-O-methyl.beta.1-threo-hex-4-enopyranosid urinate, 3-(4-amino-phenyl-2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino-propionic acid, 2-Methyl-3-heptanone, 3,5-Nonadien-7-yn-2-ol, (E,E, Butanoic acid, 1,1-dimethylethyl ester, 1-methyl-3-beta.phenylethyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine, Pentanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl, ethyl ester (Vinyl 2,2-dimethylpentanoate, 4-Methyurazole, 1-Tridecyn- 4 – 9 – ol, 1-Hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane were unique to spoilt fruits. This study suggests that these unique volatile metabolites could be exploited as biomarkers to discriminate pathogens even when more than one disease is present thereby curbing post harvest loss during storage after further validation and the volatile organic compound could form the basis for constructing a metabolomics database for Nigeria.

  6. Effect of operating parameters on production of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of maize stalk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feed stock and process operating parameters. Effect of particle size, reaction temperature and carrier gas flow rate on the yield of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk was investigated. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at temperature range of 360-540°C, feed particle size of 1-2 mm and carrier gas fl ow rate of 7.0-13.0 m3/h (0.61.1 m/s superficial velocity. Bio-oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. The maximum yield of bio-oil obtained was 42 wt% at a temperature of 490°C with the particle size of around 1.0 mm and carrier gas flow rate of 11.0 m3/h (0.9 m/s superficial velocity. High temperatures resulted in the higher ratios of char and non-condensable gas.

  7. Highly time-resolved imaging of combustion and pyrolysis product concentrations in solid fuel combustion: NO formation in a burning cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Ehlert, Sven; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Baker, Richard; Streibel, Thorsten

    2015-02-03

    The highly dynamic, heterogeneous combustion process within a burning cigarette was investigated by a miniaturized extractive sampling probe (microprobe) coupled to photoionization mass spectrometry using soft laser single photon ionization (SPI) for online real-time detection of molecular ions of combustion and pyrolysis products. Research cigarettes smoked by a smoking machine are used as a reproducible model system for solid-state biomass combustion, which up to now is not addressable by current combustion-diagnostic tools. By combining repetitively recorded online measurement sequences from different sampling locations in an imaging approach, highly time- and space-resolved quantitative distribution maps of, e.g., nitrogen monoxide, benzene, and oxygen concentrations were obtained at a near microscopic level. The obtained quantitative distribution maps represent a time-resolved, movie-like imaging of the respective compound's formation and destruction zones in the various combustion and pyrolysis regions of a cigarette during puffing. Furthermore, spatially resolved kinetic data were ascertainable. The here demonstrated methodology can also be applied to various heterogenic combustion/pyrolysis or reaction model systems, such as fossil- or biomass-fuel pellet combustion or to a positional resolved analysis of heterogenic catalytic reactions.

  8. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of scrap tyres: preliminary experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, S; Casu, S; Casabianca, T; Calabrese, A; Cornacchia, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation, on a pilot scale, of scrap tyre pyrolysis process performance and the characteristics of the products under different process parameters, such as temperature, residence time, pressure, etc. In this frame, a series of tests were carried out at varying process temperatures between 550 and 680 degrees C, other parameters being equal. Pyrolysis plant process data are collected by an acquisition system; scrap tyre samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products and produced syngas were analysed through both on-line monitoring (for gas) and laboratory analyses. Results show that process temperature, in the explored range, does not seem to seriously influence the volatilisation reaction yield, at least from a quantitative point of view, while it observably influences the distribution of the volatile fraction (liquid and gas) and by-products characteristics.

  9. Volatilization of low vapor pressure--volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) during three cleaning products-associated activities: Potential contributions to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Bennett, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    There have been many studies to reduce ozone formation mostly from volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. However, the role of low vapor pressure (LVP)-VOCs from consumer products remains mostly unexplored and unaddressed. This study explores the impact of high production volume LVP-VOCs on ozone formation from three cleaning products-associated activities (dishwashing, clothes washing, and surface cleaning). We develop a model framework to account for the portion available for ozone formation during the use phase and from the down-the-drain disposal. We apply experimental studies that measured emission rates or models that were developed for estimating emission rates of organic compounds during the use phase. Then, the fraction volatilized (fvolatilized) and the fraction disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain) are multiplied by the portion available for ozone formation for releases to the outdoor air (fO3|volatilized) and down-the-drain (fO3|down-the-drain), respectively. Overall, for chemicals used in three specific cleaning-product uses, fvolatilized is less than 0.6% for all studied LVP-VOCs. Because greater than 99.4% of compounds are disposed of down the drain during the use phase, when combined with fO3|volatilized and fO3|down-the-drain, the portion available for ozone formation from the direct releases to outdoor air and the down-the-drain disposal is less than 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the impact of the studied LVP-VOCs on ozone formation is very sensitive to what occurs during the use phase and suggest the need for future research on experimental work at the point of use.

  10. Product yields and characteristics of rice husk, rice straw and corncob during fast pyrolysis in a drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janewit Wannapeera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis of rice husk, rice straw and corncob were investigated in a newly constructed drop-tube/fixed-bedreactor, which enables pyrolysis experiments under conditions closely simulating those occurring in commercial gasifierssuch as fluidised-bed gasifiers. Biomass samples were pyrolysed with a fast heating rate (i.e. > 1,000oC s-1, up to 850oC andholding times ranging from 1 to 10,800 seconds. Within 1 second after the biomass was injected into the reactor, considerableweight loss occurred instantaneously, leaving only a small amount of char, i.e. ~10-30 %. For all three samples, theweight loss continued throughout the range of holding times used but at an extremely slow rate, i.e. 1.3 % hr-1. The weightloss rates observed for the three biomass samples were affected by the proportion of the biomass chemical componentsas well as the metal species contents. Corncob, which had the lowest lignin content but highest cellulose content, had thehighest pyrolysis weight loss rate. On the other hand, rice husk containing a relatively high lignin content, had the lowestpyrolysis rate. The metal species (Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to increase devolatilisation yield depending on theircontents in biomass. The influence of the metal species was the most pronounced for rice straw, having the highest totalmetal species content. As the pyrolysis progressed, each biomass exhibited different char characteristics. Scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM pictures clearly showed the individual changes in geometry for all biomass-derived chars as well astheir decrease in combustion reactivities. The gas formation profiles for all three biomass samples showed almost the sametrend, with CO contributed by cellulose decomposition as the major gas product.

  11. Production of p-xylene from biomass by catalytic fast pyrolysis using ZSM-5 catalysts with reduced pore openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zhuopeng; Gilbert, Christopher J; Fan, Wei; Huber, George W

    2012-10-29

    Pores for thought: Chemical liquid deposition of silica onto ZSM-5 catalysts led to smaller pore openings that resulted in >90% selectivity for p-xylene over the other xylenes in the catalytic fast pyrolysis of furan and 2-methylfuran (see scheme). The p-xylene selectivity increased from 51% with gallium spray-dried ZSM-5 to 72% with a pore-mouth-modified catalyst in the pyrolysis of pine wood. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Biomass pyrolysis as an alternative process for the production of 2nd generation biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadezda

    2010-01-01

    Bio-fuel production from renewable energy sources is the topic that have been studied by scientists and discussed in a political agenda for a couple of decades. In this period of time, however, it was discovered that approaches and technologies used until

  13. Productivity and cost analysis of a mobile pyrolysis system deployed to convert mill residues into biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Dongyeob Kim; Nathaniel Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Forest and mill residues are a promising source of biomass feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, high costs of transportation and handling of feedstock often make utilization of forest residues, such as logging slash, financially unviable. As a result, these materials are often considered waste and left on site to decompose or...

  14. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N

    2016-01-01

    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  15. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  16. 褐煤及其热解产品利用现状%Utilization status of lignite and pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 邹涛; 初茉; 畅志兵; 林益安

    2014-01-01

    为了提高褐煤利用率,介绍了国内褐煤资源的储量形态、分布。分析了目前褐煤的利用途径,包括共伴生资源的利用、直接燃烧、干燥脱水与成型、气化、液化、制水煤浆与热解。并进一步分析了褐煤热解气、液、固产品的利用方向。提出了褐煤半焦利用的新方法,即利用半焦干法气化,或将半焦和热解废水等制成水煤浆,通过湿法气化制得合成气,再通过甲烷化催化剂将合成气制成甲烷,或将合成气通过费托合成制成汽油柴油。%In order to improve the utilization rate of lignite,the lignite reserves and distribution status was introduced. The utilization ways of lignite,including associated resources utilization,lignite direct combustion,dehydration and briquetting,gasification,liquefaction,py-rolysis and coal water mixture preparation were introduced. Then the using direction of gas,liquid and solid productions of lignite pyrolysis were further investigated. The authors put forward some new utilization methods of lignitic semi-coke, including gasifying the semi-coke by the dry gasification and preparing coal water mixture ( CWM) with semi-coke and pyrolytic waste water. The CWM was gasified to pro-duce syngas by the wet gasification. Then the syngas was used to prepare methane with methanation catalysts, or compound petrol and diesel by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  17. The effects of catalysts on the conversion of organic matter and bio-fuel production in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Huang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Lin; Sun, Shichang; Zhang, Peixin; Zhang, Xianghua; Zhao, Xuxin

    2017-08-01

    Adding catalyst could improve the yields and qualities of bio-gas and bio-oil, and realize the oriented production. Results showed that the catalytic gas-production capacities of CaO were higher than those of Fe2O3, and the bio-gas yield at 800°C reached a maximum of 35.1%. Because the polar cracking active sites of CaO reduced the activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction and resulted in high catalytic cracking efficiencies. In addition, the quality of bio-oil produced by CaO was superior to that by Fe2O3, although the bio-oil yield of CaO was relatively weak. The light bio-fuel oriented catalytic pyrolysis could be realized when adding different catalysts. At 800°C, CaO was 45% higher than Fe2O3 in aspect of H2 production while Fe2O3 was 103% higher than CaO in aspect of CH4 production. Therefore, CaO was more suitable for H2 production and Fe2O3 was more suitable for CH4 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  19. Deposition of volatile fission products during commercial high-level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.S.; Carter, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    High-level waste from spent commercial PWR fuel was vitrified during the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP), conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1978 and 1979. The solidification equipment employed sintered metal filters and a conventional wet off-gas cleanup system to decontaminate the gases generated during waste processing. This report is a summary of a study completed under contract with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the fate of volatile fission products in the filters and off-gas system. The study objectives were to determine (1) the extent of volatile fission product deposition within the sintered metal filters, (2) the distribution of fission products in the off-gas system, and (3) the factors that control the distribution. Such information is needed for the design and operation of future waste immobilization systems. The scope of the study included identification, preparation, and microprobe analyses of suitable filter samples and radiochemical analyses of off-gas system samples. The report describes the methods of sample selection and gathering, the analytical methods and results, and the interpretations of the results. Relationships to vitrification system operations are defined and operating conditions to minimize problems recommended. 37 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...

  1. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.

    2005-01-01

    to the problem-need specified in the beginning of the project, but producing a novel formulation (chemical product design) represents a method that results to a completely xylene-free process which is environmentally and economically more interesting than those generated via the more traditional process......Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption....... The last approach is somewhat different and is based on the so-called product engineering concept, i.e., in this case, a change of the formulation so that xylene is entirely eliminated from the process. It is shown that both the process and the product engineering approaches yield viable solutions...

  2. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  3. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  4. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  5. Influence of silica–alumina support ratio on H2 production and catalyst carbon deposition from the Ni-catalytic pyrolysis/reforming of waste tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Tao, Yongwen; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The influence of catalyst support alumina–silica in terms of different Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios containing 20 wt.% Ni on the production of hydrogen and catalyst coke formation from the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste tyres is reported. A two-stage reactor system was used with pyrolysis of the tyres followed by catalytic reaction. There was only a small difference in the total gas yield and hydrogen yield by changing the Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios in the Ni-Al2O3/SiO2 catalyst. The 1:1 ratio of Al2O3:SiO2 ratio produced the highest gas yield of 27.3 wt.% and a hydrogen production of 14.0 mmol g-1tyre. Catalyst coke formation decreased from 19.0 to 13.0 wt.% as the Al2O3:SiO2 ratio was changed from 1:1 to 2:1, with more than 95% of the coke being filamentous-type carbon, a large proportion of which was multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Further experiments introduced steam to the second-stage reactor to investigate hydrogen production for the pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of the waste tyres using the 1:1 Al2O3/SiO2 nickel catalyst. The introduction of steam produced a marked increase in total gas yield from ~27 wt. % to ~58 wt.%; in addition, hydrogen production was increased to 34.5 mmol g-1 and there was a reduction in catalyst coke formation to 4.6 wt.%. PMID:28789599

  6. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer’s spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different ...

  7. Flash flow pyrolysis: mimicking flash vacuum pyrolysis in a high-temperature/high-pressure liquid-phase microreactor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, David; Sheibani, Hassan; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-03-02

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) is a gas-phase continuous-flow technique where a substrate is sublimed through a hot quartz tube under high vacuum at temperatures of 400-1100 °C. Thermal activation occurs mainly by molecule-wall collisions with contact times in the region of milliseconds. As a preparative method, FVP is used mainly to induce intramolecular high-temperature transformations leading to products that cannot easily be obtained by other methods. It is demonstrated herein that liquid-phase high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) microreactor conditions (160-350 °C, 90-180 bar) employing near- or supercritical fluids as reaction media can mimic the results obtained using preparative gas-phase FVP protocols. The high-T/p liquid-phase "flash flow pyrolysis" (FFP) technique was applied to the thermolysis of Meldrum's acid derivatives, pyrrole-2,3-diones, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic esters, producing the expected target heterocycles in high yields with residence times between 10 s and 10 min. The exact control over flow rate (and thus residence time) using the liquid-phase FFP method allows a tuning of reaction selectivities not easily achievable using FVP. Since the solution-phase FFP method does not require the substrate to be volatile any more--a major limitation in classical FVP--the transformations become readily scalable, allowing higher productivities and space-time yields compared with gas-phase protocols. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and extensive DFT calculations provided essential information on pyrolysis energy barriers and the involved reaction mechanisms. A correlation between computed activation energies and experimental gas-phase FVP (molecule-wall collisions) and liquid-phase FFP (molecule-molecule collisions) pyrolysis temperatures was derived.

  8. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  9. The effect of moisture on the release and enrichment of heavy metals during pyrolysis of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavská, Helena; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Hlavsová, Adéla; Juchelková, Dagmar; Zajonc, Ondřej

    2015-03-01

    The investigation of the effect of moisture on the release and enrichment of heavy metals during pyrolysis of municipal solid waste is essential. This is important owing to: (i) the increasing amount of metals in the solid product of pyrolysis beyond the normalised level; (ii) the effect of moisture on the overall cost of pyrolysis process; and (iii) the utilisation of pyrolysis products. Seven metals were selected for evaluation: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, and vanadium. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a steel retort at 650 °C. The municipal solid waste samples with moisture contents of 0, 30, and 65 wt% were investigated. The relative enrichment index and release of heavy metals were evaluated individually for liquid and solid fractions. A consistent trend was observed for the majority of metals investigated. Reductions of relative enrichment index and release, i.e. an increase of volatility, were observed for arsenic, chromium, cadmium, nickel, and vanadium, with an increase of municipal solid waste moisture. Whereas divergent results were obtained for lead and mercury. The effect of moisture on the relative enrichment index and release was greater at 65 wt% moisture than at 30 wt% for lead, and more remarkable at 30 wt% than at 65 wt% for mercury.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a model fuel representative of entities in tobacco, coal, and lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wornat, M.J.; Ledesma, E.B.; Marsh, N.D. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2001-10-09

    In order to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from complex fuels, we have performed pyrolysis experiments in a laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (Ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in tobacco, coal and wood. Employing high pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible (UV) detection, we have unequivocally identified 59 individual species among the condensed-phase products of catechol pyrolysis at a temperature of 1000{degree}C and a residence time of 0.4 s. Also identified are two oxygen-containing compounds that are produced only at pyrolysis temperatures lower than 900{degree}C. Of the total 61 species, fifty have never before been identified as pyrolysis products of any pure phenol type compound. Two of the catechol pyrolysis products, 5-ethynylacenaphthylene and 3-ethynylphenanthrene, have never before been identified as products of any fuel. Ranging in size from one to eight fused aromatic rings, the catechol pyrolysis products comprise several compound classes: bi-aryls, indene benzologues, benzenoid PAH, alkylated aromatics, fluoranthene benzologues, cyclopenta-fused PAH, ethynyl-substituted aromatics, polyacetylenes, and oxygen-containing aromatics. The catechol pyrolysis products bear remarkable compositional similarity to the products of bituminous coal volatiles pyrolyzed at the same temperature - demonstrating the relevance of these catechol model compound experiments to the study of complex fuels such as coal, wood and tobacco. The UV spectra, establishing compound identity, are presented for several of the identified catechol product components. 70 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  12. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Hanif

    Full Text Available The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata] through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%, 600°C for syngas (22 wt%, and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%. Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  13. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  14. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  15. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively.

  16. Optimization of a free-fall reactor for the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellens, C J; Brown, R C

    2012-01-01

    A central composite design of experiments was performed to optimize a free-fall reactor for the production of bio-oil from red oak biomass. The effects of four experimental variables including heater set-point temperature, biomass particle size, sweep gas flow rate and biomass feed rate were studied. Heater set-point temperature ranged from 450 to 650 °C, average biomass particle size from 200 to 600 μm, sweep gas flow rate from 1 to 5 sL/min and biomass feed rate from 1 to 2 kg/h. Optimal operating conditions yielding over 70 wt.% bio-oil were identified at a heater set-point temperature of 575 °C, while feeding red oak biomass sized less than 300 μm at 2 kg/h into the 0.021 m diameter, 1.8m tall reactor. Sweep gas flow rate did not have significant effect on bio-oil yield over the range tested.

  17. H{sub 2} production from methane pyrolysis over commercial carbon catalysts: Kinetic and deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, D.P.; Botas, J.A. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); IMDEA Energia, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); Guil-Lopez, R. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen production from catalytic methane decomposition (DeCH{sub 4}) is a simple process to produce high purity hydrogen with no formation of carbon oxides (CO or CO{sub 2}). However, to completely avoid those emissions, the catalyst must not be regenerated. Therefore, it is necessary to use inexpensive catalysts, which show low deactivation during the process. Use of carbon materials as catalysts fulfils these requirements. Methane decomposition catalysed by a number of commercial carbons has been studied in this work using both constant and variable temperature experiments. The results obtained showed that the most active catalyst at short reaction times was activated carbon, but it underwent a fast deactivation due to the deposition of the carbon formed from methane cracking. On the contrary, carbon blacks, and especially the CB-bp sample, present high reaction rates for methane decomposition at both short and long reaction times. Carbon nanotubes exhibit a relatively low activity in spite of containing significant amounts of metals. The initial loss of activity observed with the different catalysts is attributed mainly to the blockage of their micropores due to the deposition of the carbon formed during the reaction. (author)

  18. Hydraulic fluids and jet engine oil: pyrolysis and aircraft air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2001-01-01

    Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 degrees C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet engine oil and two hydraulic fluids at 525 degrees C. Engine oil was an important source of carbon monoxide. Volatile agents and organophosphate constituents were released from all the agents tested; however, the neurotoxin trimethyl propane phosphate was not found. The authors hypothesized that localized condensation of pyrolysis products in ventilation ducts, followed by mobilization when cabin heat demand was high, accounted for mid-flight incidents. The authors recommended that carbon monoxide data be logged continuously to capture levels during future incidents.

  19. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  20. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  1. Fungal volatile compounds induce production of the secondary metabolite Sodorifen in Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth; Jager, Victor de; Zühlke, Daniela; Wolff, Christian; Bernhardt, Jörg; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Ijcken, Wilfred van; Sleutels, Frank; Boer, Wietse de; Riedel, Katharina; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-04-13

    The ability of bacteria and fungi to communicate with each other is a remarkable aspect of the microbial world. It is recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as communication signals, however the molecular responses by bacteria to fungal VOCs remain unknown. Here we perform transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C exposed to VOCs emitted by the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum. We find that the bacterium responds to fungal VOCs with changes in gene and protein expression related to motility, signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and secondary metabolite production. Metabolomic analysis of the bacterium exposed to the fungal VOCs, gene cluster comparison, and heterologous co-expression of a terpene synthase and a methyltransferase revealed the production of the unusual terpene sodorifen in response to fungal VOCs. These results strongly suggest that VOCs are not only a metabolic waste but important compounds in the long-distance communication between fungi and bacteria.

  2. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  3. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  4. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment.

  5. Comparison of two headspace sampling techniques for the analysis of off-flavour volatiles from oat based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognat, Claudine; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Stewart, Derek

    2012-10-01

    Two different headspace sampling techniques were compared for analysis of aroma volatiles from freshly produced and aged plain oatcakes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre and entrainment on Tenax TA within an adsorbent tube were used for collection of volatiles. The effects of variation in the sampling method were also considered using SPME. The data obtained using both techniques were processed by multivariate statistical analysis (PCA). Both techniques showed similar capacities to discriminate between the samples at different ages. Discrimination between fresh and rancid samples could be made on the basis of changes in the relative abundances of 14-15 of the constituents in the volatile profiles. A significant effect on the detection level of volatile compounds was observed when samples were crushed and analysed by SPME-GC-MS, in comparison to undisturbed product. The applicability and cost effectiveness of both methods were considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  7. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  8. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of

  9. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  10. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  11. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  12. [Volatile organic compounds in ready-to-eat fruits and vegetable products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetta, S; Capobianco, E; Sansebastiano, E

    2008-01-01

    An increased consumer demand for bagged prepared fruits and vegetables has recently occurred, these being ready-to-eat products. The different phases in the preparation of these products include cleaning, peeling, cutting, washing, drying and packaging. The quality, safety and shelf-life of ready-to-eat products is highly influenced by the washing process which is generally performed by soaking the vegetables in cold water containing disinfectants (usually sodium hypochlorite). We therefore evaluated the presence of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) in 70 samples of ready-to-eat products produced by 15 different establishments. Results showed that 54% of the products were contaminated by at least one halogenated VOC. Trialomethane was the most frequently detected contaminant and 50% of samples were found to contain chloroform. Contamination by other halogenated VOCs was less frequent. Also, there was variation in concentration values of contaminants between different establishments and different packages. No halogenated VOCs were found in products from only three of the 15 establishments included in the study.

  13. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 桉树类生物质热解及产物释放特性研究%Study on pyrolysis of eucalyptus biomass and releasing characteristics of products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 宋景慧; 马晓茜; 湛志钢

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis processing of eucalyptus biomass including branch and bark in different heating rates and their releasing characteristics of products were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) system, the difference of pyrolysis mechanism between two eucalyptus biomass was further analyzed. The results indicate that there are mainly three stages during the processing of eucalypt branch pyrolysis which are drying process, pyrolysis process and carbonating process. During the process of pyrolysis, many kinds of gaseous organic compounds are released, with faster rate of pyrolysis reaction compare to eucalypt brak. The pruducts mainly are many organic gas and little CO2 and CO. The processing of eucalypt brak pyrolysis is more complicated, which main has five stages including drying, deeply drying, pyrolysis, carbonating and deeply carbonating processing in higher temperature, with lower pyrolysis rate. It has similar gaseous products during the processing of pyrolysis compared with eucalypt branch. However, there exited vigorously carbonating reaction during the temperature range of 450~550 ℃ and 650~800 ℃, with CO2 and CO as the main gaseous products.%采用热重红外联用方法研究不同升温速率下桉树枝和桉树皮的热解特性和热解气体产物的释放特性,对比分析两者的差异性及差异机理.结果表明:桉树枝热解过程主要分为干燥、热解和碳化3个阶段,热解速率较快,气体产物释放主要集中在热解阶段进行,主要气体产物有烷烃、醇、酚、醛、羧酸、酮等多种有机气体产物和少量CO,CO2;桉树皮热解过程分为干燥、进一步干燥、热解反应、碳化及高温持续碳化5个阶段,相比桉树枝热解速率明显较低.桉树皮热解反应阶段在450~550℃和650~800℃两个高温区间存在较为剧烈的碳化反应过程,主要气体产物为CO2和CO.

  15. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF TLCP ON PYROLYSIS OF PET AND ITS RETARDANT MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flame retardancy of aromatic thermotropic liquid crystal phosphorus-containing copolyester,TLCP,on PET was investigated.The results show that the presence of TLCP promotes char formation of the substrate and enhances thermal stability of char,hence delay its decomposition.SEM pictures show that the char formed from PET/TLCP is more compact,therefore is more resistant to fire and heat than that from pure PET.Evolved gas analysis by I.R measurements indicates that TLCP would decompose to produce phosphorus containing small molecular compounds in pyrolysis process.Phosphoruscontaining volatile compounds are detected in gas pyrolytical products.It is suggested that TLCP could play an important role of flame retardancy in vapor phase.TLCP could inhibit the generation of combustible volatile in the pyrolytical process of PET,and therefore prevent the fire propagation during the combustion since combustible volatile is necessary for the generation of fire.

  16. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced...... and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw−1 day−1 a MOE...

  17. Synergistic effect of water content and composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud on the enhanced hydrogen production from sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Liang, Sha; Guan, Ruonan; Shi, Yafei; Yu, Wenbo; Zhu, Suiyi; Fan, Wei; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Deng, Huali; Xiao, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0.257 and 0.189 L/g dry solid (DS), respectively. At the same temperature and with the same water content, the hydrogen (H2) yields of the S-Fenton-RM samples were always higher than those of the S-PAM samples. At 900 °C, the maximum H2 yield of the S-Fenton-RM samples was 0.102 L/g DS, which was 85.5% higher than that of the S-PAM samples. The results indicated that water in the wet sludge provided the steam atmosphere for pyrolysis, and the water vapor then involved in secondary cracking reformation of tar and char gasification reactions, which would be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides in the Fenton-RM conditioner, thus increasing the yield of fuel gas, especially hydrogen. The H2 production cost from the S-Fenton-RM system is less than that from the S-PAM system. The results suggest that pyrolysis of the wet deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM is an economical and promising alternative for sewage sludge dewatering and disposal/reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  19. Upgrading the rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis for the production of amorphous silica and high quality activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jon; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The overall valorization of rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) has been studied in a two-step process. Thus, silica has been recovered in a first step and the remaining carbon material has been subjected to steam activation. The char samples used in this study have been obtained by continuous flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500°C. Extraction with Na2CO3 allows recovering 88% of the silica contained in the rice husk char. Activation of the silica-free rice husk char has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 800°C using steam as activating agent. The porous structure of the activated carbons produced includes a combination of micropores and mesopores, with a BET surface area of up to 1365m(2)g(-1) at the end of 15min.

  20. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  1. Portable in-woods pyrolysis: Using forest biomass to reduce forest fuels, increase soil productivity, and sequester carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman; Greg Jones; Tyron Venn; R. Kasten Dumroese; Nathanial Anderson; Woodam Chung; Dan Loeffler; Jim Archuleta; Mark Kimsey; Phil Badger; Terry Shaw; Kristin McElligott

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of an in-woods portable pyrolysis unit that converts forest biomass to bio-oil and the application of the byproduct bio-char in a field trial. We also discuss how in-woods processing may reduce the need for long haul distances of lowvalue woody biomass and eliminate open, currently wasteful burning of forest biomass. If transportation costs can be...

  2. Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehshahri, S; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Moringaceae, a monogeneric family in Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), includes 14 species. One of them is Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori., a small tree, which grows in south east of Iran. Volatile constituents of seed coat and stem of M. peregrina were determined by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, extracts of seed and different cultured cells were analyzed by TLC and GC. Three volatile isothiocyanates including isopropyl isothiocyanate (4.2%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (< 0.1%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (92.9%) were found in the volatile oil of the stem , while only two volatile isothiocyanates namely isopropyl isothiocyanate (7.0%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (51.5%) were determined in the seed coat of the tree. For the first time, the callus and suspension cultures of M. peregrina were initiated and established successfully on Murashige and Skoog medium, containing plant growth hormones. Different precursors and elicitors were fed to the cultures to induce glucosinolates production. This is the first report of in vitro culture production of M. peregrina. There was no production of volatile isothiocyanates in M. peregrina callus and suspension cultures with different treatments.

  3. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  4. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  5. Communication between oocytes and somatic cells regulates volatile pheromone production in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Daniel H W; Choe, Andrea; Wu, Shannon Y; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-12-16

    Males of the androdioecious species Caenorhabditis elegans are more likely to attempt to mate with and successfully inseminate C. elegans hermaphrodites that do not concurrently harbor sperm. Although a small number of genes have been implicated in this effect, the mechanism by which it arises remains unknown. In the context of the battle of the sexes, it is also unknown whether this effect is to the benefit of the male, the hermaphrodite, or both. We report that successful contact between mature sperm and oocyte in the C. elegans gonad at the start of fertilization causes the oocyte to release a signal that is transmitted to somatic cells in its mother, with the ultimate effect of reducing her attractiveness to males. Changes in hermaphrodite attractiveness are tied to the production of a volatile pheromone, the first such pheromone described in C. elegans.

  6. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (pdried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  7. Valorization of algal waste via pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulkas, A; Hammani, H; El Achaby, M; Bilal, E; Barakat, A; El Harfi, K

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the present work is to develop processes for the production of bio-oil and bio-char from algae waste using the pyrolysis at controlled conditions. The pyrolysis was carried out at different temperatures 400-600°C and different heating rates 5-50°C/min. The algal waste, bio-oil and bio-char were successfully characterized using Elemental analysis, Chemical composition, TGA, FTIR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS and SEM. At a temperature of 500°C and a heating rate of 10°C/min, the maximum yield of bio-oil and bio-char was found to be 24.10 and 44.01wt%, respectively, which was found to be strongly influenced by the temperature variation, and weakly affected by the heating rate variation. Results show that the bio-oil cannot be used as bio-fuel, but can be used as a source of value-added chemicals. On the other hand, the bio-char is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications and for the production of carbon materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A; Kraiem, T; Naoui, S; Belayouni, H

    2014-01-01

    Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC-MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds...etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,...etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caracterização dos produtos líquidos e do carvão da pirólise de serragem de eucalipto Characterization of liquid products and char from the pyrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton F. Martins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the low temperature pyrolysis as an alternative conversion process for residual biomass and for obtaining gaseous, liquid and solid chemical feedstocks. Using a bench electrical pyrolysis oven, four product fractions from eucalyptus sawdust were obtained: a gaseous one, two liquid (aqueous and oily, and a solid residue (char. These products were characterized by different analytical methods. The liquid fractions showed themselves as potential sources for input chemicals. The residual char revealed appreciable adsorption capability. The process demonstrated good efficiency, generating at least two fractions of great industrial interest: bio oil and char.

  10. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-09-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, a VFA recovery efficiency of 98.3%, H2 of 18.4 mL and alkali production presented as pH of 12.64 were obtained using synthetic fermentation broth. The applied voltage, initial VFA concentrations and composition were affecting the VFA recovery. The energy balance revealed that net energy (5.20-6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition.

  12. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  14. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon.

  15. IVO, a device for In situ Volatilization and On-line detection of products from heavy ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Duellmann, C E; Eichler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Jost, D T; Piguet, D; Türler, A

    2002-01-01

    A new gaschromatographic separation system to rapidly isolate heavy ion reaction products in the form of highly volatile species is described. Reaction products recoiling from the target are stopped in a gas volume and converted in situ to volatile species, which are swept by the carrier gas to a chromatography column. Species that are volatile under the given conditions pass through the column. In a cluster chamber, which is directly attached to the exit of the column, the isolated volatile species are chemically adsorbed to the surface of aerosol particles and transported to an on-line detection system. The whole set-up was tested using short-lived osmium (Os) and mercury (Hg) nuclides produced in heavy ion reactions to model future chemical studies with hassium (Hs, Z=108) and element 112. By varying the temperature of the isothermal section of the chromatography column between room temperature and -80 deg. C, yield measurements of given species can be conducted, yielding information about the volatility o...

  16. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  18. Effects of Ultrasonic and Acid Pretreatment on Food Waste Disintegration and Volatile Fatty Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglian Wu; Wanqian Guo∗; Shanshan Yang; Haichao Luo; Simai Peng; Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of ultrasonic and acid pretreatment on food waste ( FW) disintegration and volatile fatty acid ( VFA ) production. Single⁃factor experiments are carried out to obtain optimal conditions of individual ultrasonic and acid pretreatment, and response surface method ( RSM ) is applied to optimize the conditions of the combination of ultrasonic and acid ( UA) pretreatment. Results show that the optimal acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments conditions are individual pH 2, individual ultrasonic energy density of 1�0 W/mL and the combination of ultrasonic energy density1�11 W/mL and pH 1�43, respectively. Correspondingly, the maximum disintegration degrees ( DD) of 46�90%, 57�38% and68�83%are obtained by acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments, respectively. After optimizing pretreatment conditions, batch experiments are operated to produce VFA from raw and pretreated FW under anaerobic fermentation process. Both the maximum VFA production ( 976�17 mg COD/gVS) and VFA/SCOD ( 72�89%) are obtained with ultrasonic pretreatment, followed by UA pretreatment, non⁃pretreatment and acid pretreatment, respectively. This observation demonstrates that a higher acidity on acid and UA pretreatments inhibits the generation of VFA. Results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment is preferable to promote the disintegration degree of FW and VFA production.

  19. Effect of volatile fatty acids mixtures on the simultaneous photofermentative production of hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeña, René; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Buitrón, Germán

    2017-02-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria generate hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a mechanism for disposing of reducing equivalents generated during substrate consumption. However, both pathways compete for the reducing equivalents released from bacteria growing under certain substrates, thus the formation of hydrogen or PHB is detrimental to the formation of each other. The effect of mixtures of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on the formation of H2 and PHB was evaluated using Box-Behnken design. A bacterial community mainly constituted by Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as inoculum. It was observed that the three volatile fatty acids had a significant effect on the specific PHB production. However, only the propionic acid had a significant effect on the specific H2 production activity and the highest value was observed when acetate was the main component in the mixture. The maximum values for the specific PHB and hydrogen production rates were 16.4 mg-PHB/g-TSS/day and 391 mL-H2/g-TSS/day, respectively.

  20. Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Baines, K. H.; Ocampo, A. C.; Ivanov, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption of ocean circulation, which contributed to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. The crater size, meteoritic content of the K/T boundary clay, and impact models indicate that the Chicxulub crater was formed by a short period comet or an asteroid impact that released 0.7-3.4 x 10(31) ergs of energy. Impact models and experiments combined with estimates of volatiles in the projectile and target rocks predict that over 200 gigatons (Gt) each of SO2 and water vapor, and over 500 Gt of CO2, were globally distributed in the stratosphere by the impact. Additional volatiles may have been produced on a global or regional scale that formed sulfate aerosols rapidly in cooler parts of the vapor plume, causing an early, intense pulse of sulfuric acid rain. Estimates of the conversion rate of stratospheric SO2 and water vapor to sulfate aerosol, based on volcanic production of sulfate aerosols, coupled with calculations of diffusion, coagulation, and sedimentation, demonstrate that the 200 Gt stratospheric SO2 and water vapor reservoir would produce sulfate aerosols for 12 years. These sulfate aerosols caused a second pulse of acid rain that was global. Radiative transfer modeling of the aerosol clouds demonstrates (1) that if the initial rapid pulse of sulfate aerosols was global, photosynthesis may have been shut down for 6 months and (2) that for the second prolonged aerosol cloud, solar transmission dropped 80% by the end of first year and remained 50% below normal for 9 years. As a result, global average surface temperatures probably dropped between 5 degrees and 31 degrees K, suggesting that global near-freezing conditions may have been reached. Impact-generated CO2 caused less than 1 degree K greenhouse warming and therefore was insignificant compare