WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatile oil secretory

  1. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  2. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  3. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  5. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  6. Secretory cavities and volatiles of Myrrhinium atropurpureum Schott var. atropurpureum (Myrtaceae): an endemic species collected in the restingas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victório, Cristiane Pimentel; Moreira, Claudio B; Souza, Marcelo da Costa; Sato, Alice; Arruda, Rosani do Carmo de Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the leaf anatomy and the composition of volatiles in Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. atropurpureum endemic to Rio de Janeiro restingas. Particularly, leaf secretory structures were described using light microscopy, and histochemical tests were performed from fresh leaves to localize the secondary metabolites. To observe secretory cavities, fixed leaf samples were free-hand sectioned. To evaluate lipophilic compounds and terpenoids the following reagents were employed: Sudans III and IV, Red oil O and Nile blue. Leaf volatiles were characterized by gas chromatography after hydrodistillation (HD) or simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). Leaf analysis showed several cavities in mesophyll that are the main sites of lipophilic and terpenoid production. Monoterpenes, which represented more than 80% of the major volatiles, were characterized mainly by alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole. In order to provide tools for M. atropurpureum identification, the following distinguishing characteristics were revealed by the following data: 1) adaxial face clear and densely punctuated by the presence of round or ellipsoidal secretory cavities randomly distributed in the mesophyll; 2) the presence of cells overlying the upper neck cells of secretory cavities; 3) the presence of numerous paracytic stomata distributed on the abaxial leaf surface, but absent in vein regions and leaf margin; and 4) non-glandular trichomes on both leaf surfaces. Our study of the compounds produced by the secretory cavities of M. atropurpureum led us to conclude that volatile terpenoid class are the main secretory compounds and that they consist of a high concentration of monoterpenes, which may indicate the phytotherapeutic importance of this plant.

  7. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  8. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  9. Managing and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.S.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2013-01-01

    Three funds are necessary to manage an oil windfall: intergenerational, liquidity, and investment funds. The optimal liquidity fund is bigger if the windfall lasts longer and oil price volatility, prudence, and the GDP share of oil rents are high and productivity growth is low. The paper applies the

  10. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisu, Afees A.; Fasanya, Ismail O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  11. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  12. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  13. Permanent and transitory oil volatility and aggregate investment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mansor H.; Ahmed, Huson Joher Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between aggregate investment and oil volatility and its permanent and transitory components for a developing country, Malaysia. In the paper, the components generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CGARCH) model is utilized to decompose conditional oil volatility into permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility. Respectively reflecting fundamental-driven and random shifts in oil volatility, they are expected to exert differential effects on aggregate investment. Adopting a vector autoregression (VAR) framework to allow feedback effects between aggregate investment and its determinants, the paper documents evidence supporting the adverse effects of conditional oil volatility, permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility on aggregate investment and real output. Interestingly, contrary to the findings for the developed markets (US and OECD), the real effects of permanent oil volatility tend to be stronger. These findings are reasonably robust to variable specification and measurements in the VAR system. Hence, there is an indication that heightened oil volatility accounts for the slumps in Malaysia's aggregate investment after the Asian financial crisis. - Highlights: • Examines the role of oil volatility in Malaysia's aggregate investment. • Makes distinction between permanent and temporary volatility using CGARCH. • Both volatility components depress investment. • Permanent volatility has larger adverse effects. • Results are robust to alternative model specifications

  14. The predictive content of CBOE crude oil volatility index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Volatility forecasting is an important issue in the area of econophysics. The information content of implied volatility for financial return volatility has been well documented in the literature but very few studies focus on oil volatility. In this paper, we show that the CBOE crude oil volatility index (OVX) has predictive ability for spot volatility of WTI and Brent oil returns, from both in-sample and out-of-sample perspectives. Including OVX-based implied volatility in GARCH-type volatility models can improve forecasting accuracy most of time. The predictability from OVX to spot volatility is also found for longer forecasting horizons of 5 days and 20 days. The simple GARCH(1,1) and fractionally integrated GARCH with OVX performs significantly better than the other OVX models and all 6 univariate GARCH-type models without OVX. Robustness test results suggest that OVX provides different information from as short-term interest rate.

  15. Managing volatility in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookout, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A concern often expressed nowadays is that the survivability of parts of the oil industry is threatened. Over the past 15 years the oil industry has experienced a succession of rapid and significant changes. The dimensions of change include oil price, of course, but also changes in activity levels, employment, supply and demand, and in economic and political conditions. In this chapter we will examine some of these changes. In this paper, the authors compare the volatility of oil prices with that of other commodities, to determine whether the oil industry environment is unique in any way. Also in this discussion the authors consider the impact of futures market trading. Second, the authors look at the performance of various parts of the industry-the upstream exploration and production sector, the refining and retailing parts of the downstream sector, as well as a brief look at consumers. last, the authors consider whether the industry has adapted to this change environment, and what we might expect in the 1990s

  16. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying.

  17. Oil prices and financial stress: A volatility spillover analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Soytas, Ugur; Gupta, Rangan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is a volatility transmission between oil prices and financial stress by means of the volatility spillover test. We employ WTI crude oil prices and Cleveland financial stress index for the period 1991–2014 and divide the sample into pre-crisis, in-crisis, and post-crisis periods due to the downward trend in oil price in 2008. The volatility model estimations indicate that oil prices and financial stress index are dominated by long-run volatility. The volatility spillover causality test supports evidence on risk transfer from oil prices to financial stress before the crisis and from financial stress to oil prices after the crisis. The impulse response analysis shows that the volatility transmission pattern has similar dynamics before and after the crisis and is characterized by higher and long-lived effects during the crisis. Our results have implications for both policy makers and investors, and for future work. -- Highlights: •Volatility spillover between oil prices and financial stress index is examined. •Analysis is conducted for sub-periods: pre-crisis, in-crisis, and post-crisis •Oil prices spill on financial stress before the crisis, but spillover reversed after the crisis. •Volatility transmission pattern has similar dynamics before and after the crisis. •Implications for investors and policy makers are discussed

  18. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  19. Estimation of volatility of selected oil production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, Gabriel A.; Suslick, Saul B.

    2006-01-01

    In oil project valuation and investment decision-making, volatility is a key parameter, but it is difficult to estimate. From a traditional investment viewpoint, volatility reduces project value because it increases its discount rate via a higher risk premium. Contrarily, according to the real-option pricing theory, volatility may aggregate value to the project, since the downside potential is limited whereas the upside is theoretically unbounded. However, the estimation of project volatility is very complicated since there is not a historical series of project values. In such cases, many analysts assume that oil price volatility is equal to that of project. In order to overcome such problems, in this paper an alternative numerical method based on present value of future cash flows and Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to estimate the volatility of projects. This method is applied to estimate the volatility of 12 deep-water offshore oil projects considering that oil price will evolve according to one of two stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion and Mean-Reverting Motion. Results indicate that the volatility of commodity usually undervalue that of project. For the set of offshore projects analyzed in this paper, project volatility is at least 79% higher than that of oil prices and increases dramatically in those cases of high capital expenditures and low price. (author)

  20. Oil price volatility and the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of volatility in oil prices on the degree of asymmetry in the response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases. Several time series measures of the asymmetry between the responses of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases and several measures of the oil price volatility are constructed. In all models, the degree of asymmetry in gasoline prices declines with an increase in oil price volatility. The results support the oligopolistic coordination theory as a likely explanation of the observed asymmetry and are not consistent with the standard search theory and the search theory with Bayesian updating. (author)

  1. Jumps and stochastic volatility in oil prices: Time series evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Karl; Nossman, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the empirical performance of affine jump diffusion models with stochastic volatility in a time series study of crude oil prices. We compare four different models and estimate them using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The support for a stochastic volatility model including jumps in both prices and volatility is strong and the model clearly outperforms the others in terms of a superior fit to data. Our estimation method allows us to obtain a detailed study of oil prices during two periods of extreme market stress included in our sample; the Gulf war and the recent financial crisis. We also address the economic significance of model choice in two option pricing applications. The implied volatilities generated by the different estimated models are compared and we price a real option to develop an oil field. Our findings indicate that model choice can have a material effect on the option values.

  2. Volatile constituents of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of the volatile compounds of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light) Link and Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) J.A. Shultes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) led to the identification of 20 and 23 compounds, respectively. The presented essential oils were characterized by the abundance ...

  3. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  4. Report of the work-group on oil price volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed analysis of the past and possible evolution of oil markets in terms of price volatility, financial strategies and pricing. It discusses current reflections and actions aiming at improving oil market operation: the Joint Oil Data Initiative or JODI for oil data transparency, the works of the International Energy Forum (IEF), and the conceivable reforms of the oil financial markets. Then, it proposes and discusses four main strategic orientations for a better knowledge of oil markets by France and the improvement of their operation and transparency: to support IEF initiatives, to apply to oil financial markets the global orientations defined by the G20, to set additional specific rules, and to propose a true oil strategy for the European Union. These orientations are then broken up in 22 propositions

  5. The effect of oil price volatility on strategic investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how oil price volatility affects the strategic investment decisions of a large panel of US firms. This paper uses key insights from the real options literature to develop a model of a company's strategic investment and shows how changes in oil price volatility can impact strategic investment decisions. The model is estimated using recently developed generalized method of moment estimation techniques for panel data sets. Empirical results are presented to show that there is a U shaped relationship between oil price volatility and firm investment. This is consistent with the predictions from the strategic growth options literature. The results should be useful to decision makers, investors, managers, policy makers and others who need to make strategic investment decisions in an uncertain world. (author)

  6. Jump dynamics and volatility: Oil and the stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, Jer-Shiou; Lee, Yen-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Our study distinguishes itself from the prior studies within the oil and financial literature by not only examining the asymmetric effects of oil prices on stock returns, but also exploring the importance of structure changes in this dependency relationship. We retrieve daily data on S and P 500 and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil transactions covering the period from 1 January 1992 to 7 November 2006, and then transform the available data into daily returns. In contrast to the extant literature, in this study, consideration of expected, unexpected and negative unexpected oil price fluctuations is incorporated into the model of stock returns; we also focus on the ways in which oil price volatility, as opposed to general macroeconomic variables, can influence the stock market. We go on to implement the ARJI (Autoregressive Conditional Jump Intensity) model with structure changes, from which we conclude that high fluctuations in oil prices have asymmetric unexpected impacts on S and P 500 returns. (author)

  7. antibacterial activities of the volatile oil and aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oil of Murraya keonigii was active against Staphylococcus epidemidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus specie while the aqueous extract was not active. Key Words: Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae, antibacterial activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 44-45 ...

  8. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  9. Volatile oil composition of Taif Ros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaffi, Saleh Omar S.

    2005-01-01

    The city of Taif is located in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This city is characterized by beautiful roses from the species of Rosa Damascena. Extraction of rose oil from fresh battles has been done using huge cupric pots. Identification of the chemical components of rose oil has been done with Shimadzu gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, GC-MS QP 5050. Sixty five compounds have been identified; three of the represent 61.07% of oil components; they are citronellol 31.27%, geraniol 19.52, and 5-methyl octadecane 10.25%. Twelve compounds have percentage between 1% and 10%. Fifty compounds are less than 1%. (author)

  10. Measurement of volatiles, semi-volatiles and heavy metals in an oil burn test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Caron, T.; Landriault, M.; Pare, J.R.J.; Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    Tests involving meso-scale burning of Louisiana crude oil were conducted, and during each burn, extensive samples were taken from the oil, residue, and the smoke plume. The detailed analytical work employed to obtain and analyze the burn samples is outlined and discussed. The analytical parameters included volatiles and semi-volatiles of environmental interests as well as heavy metals typically contained in the starting crude oil. Because the smoke plume did not always impinge on the samplers, the ground samplers did not collect sufficient samples for a definitive analysis. Crude/residue analyses showed the burn resulted in a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the original oil. Most of the reduction was thought to be simply evaporation or destruction from combustion. The residue did not have the degree of enrichment of the higher molecular weight PAHs as was the case in bench-scale burn experiments. Volatile organic compound and dioxin/furan measurements likewise did not show high levels of contamination from the burn itself. Most of the elevated levels of contaminants could probably be due to evaporation of the oil itself. Insufficient sampling was conducted to investigate the background levels from the weathering process. A novel means of sampling using a small remote controlled helicopter was attempted and sufficiently interesting results were obtained to indicate the potential of this passive sampling device for future work. 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Volatile organic compounds - an oil industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    This article is written on behalf of UK Petroleum Industry Association. It outlines action already taken or planned to control and reduce VOC emissions and puts this into context with recent work undertaken by the European Commission, with the Auto and Oil Industries, to define further cost effective measures required to meet Air quality targets by 2010. The paper also gives an Oil Industry perspective on the risks associated with low-level exposure to benzene and measures to reduce the public's exposure to this substance. (author) 1 fig., 6 refs

  12. Modelling and testing volatility spillovers in oil and financial markets for USA, UK and China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Tian, Jiarong

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe primary purpose of the paper is to analyze the conditional correlations, conditional covariances, and co-volatility spillovers between international crude oil and associated financial markets. The paper investigates co-volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one physical or financial asset on the subsequent volatility or co-volatility in another physical or financial asset) between the oil and financial markets. The oil industry has four major r...

  13. Oil price volatility, financial regulation and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)

  14. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-12-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

  15. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  16. Towards sustained high oil prices and increasingly volatile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Teillant, Aude; Rech, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    It is particularly difficult to predict the evolution of global oil production and its ability to meet the demand: the main uncertainties are related to the magnitude of the growth of emerging countries, more or less rapid decline in the production of major oil fields current events as well as natural or accidental, but especially geopolitics, which may affect, at any time, production. In a tight market today, the rapid growth of emerging economies, disruption of the oil supply chain world, even its mere mention, could cause short-term loss of excess production capacity - largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia - an increase substantial progress and, as contemplated by the International Atomic Energy imbalances between global oil supply and demand. If, after 2020, production of conventional oil begins to decline and the demand from emerging markets continues to grow, more massive imbalances may arise, leading to potential geopolitical tensions. Control would then demand the best answer. Otherwise, the resources of unconventional hydrocarbons, considerable expected to meet the demand, provided that their development is fast enough and their operating conditions are environmentally friendly. A consensus is emerging today on keeping oil prices high (above $ 100 / barrel) and volatile in the coming years, allowing some producing countries to pursue their development, but for France amplifying the negative effects on the economic growth oil bill (more than 49 billion euros in 2011) weighs more heavily in our trade deficit. In all cases, climate issues, the weight of the oil bill on our economy, securing our energy supply and technical uncertainties or geopolitical oil production call for reducing our oil consumption, accelerated motion the transition to a low carbon economy and development of our own energy resources. Contents: - Current analysis of oil reserves; - Uncertainties about the evolution of world oil production; - What is the potential long-term oil production

  17. Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianming; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of panel models for identification and analysis of influence of oil price volatility on statistical properties of country risk ratings which stem from uncertainty of macroeconomic fluctuations. Firstly, two statistical properties of country risk ratings, volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision were identified in a theoretical framework based on Cruces (2006). Secondly, considering the oil price volatility, numerical experiments were conducted based on extended models to test and verify specific properties of country risk ratings in selected oil-exporting countries. Empirical results suggest that properties of country risk remain comparatively steady despite oil price volatility. It is also found that the oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate the country risk volatility, as it happened during 2007–2009. Country clustering based on the properties of country risk ratings shows that the selected countries maintain a significant clustering tendency. These features are of great importance for estimating risk exposure of international trade and investments in oil export during extreme situations. - Highlights: •Relationship between oil price volatility and country risk is the focus. •An extended model based on Cruces (2006) is proposed. •Volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision of country risk ratings is explored. •Oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate properties of country risk volatility.

  18. Oil Price Volatility, Economic Growth and the Hedging Role of Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Rentschler, Jun E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the adverse effects of oil price volatility on economic activity and the extent to which countries can hedge against such effects by using renewable energy. By considering the Realized Volatility of oil prices, rather than following the standard approach of considering oil price shocks in levels, the effects of factor price uncertainty on economic activity are analy...

  19. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  20. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  1. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher

  2. The Effects of High and Volatile Oil Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artus, Patrick; Autume, Antoine d'; Chalmin, Philippe; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Coeure, Benoit; Kalantizs, Yannick; Klein, Caroline; Guesnerie, Roger; Callonnec, Gael; Gaudin, Thomas; Moisan, Francois; Lescaroux, Francois; Clerc, Marie; Marcus, Vincent; Lalanne, Guy; Pouliquen, Erwan; Simon, Olivier; Mignon, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Forecasting work carried out by a number of institutions shows how difficult it is to accurately predict trends in oil prices. The authors of this report do not carry out this forecasting exercise, but they share the same conclusions about the main features of oil price trends in the near and medium term: a rise in oil prices is inevitable, and will be accompanied by significant volatility. This expectation is based on detailed analysis of oil price determinants, their past variations and forecasts as to their future trends. On the supply side, like with all goods, the price of oil reflects production costs: extraction, transport and refining costs. Alongside this essentially technological component, more specific determinants are at play: the noncompetitive economic rent, which largely stems from OPEC's hold on the market, the scarcity rent on all non-renewable natural resources (this rent increases at a rate equal to the real interest rate according to Hotelling's rule), various taxes (mainly the TIPP domestic tax on oil products in France) and a new component that is set to gain importance in the years ahead, namely the implicit price of carbon emissions (which may take the form of a carbon tax or the cost of emission permits). It is difficult to isolate these different components and even more difficult to quantify them, but the authors' detailed analysis shows that most predictable supply-side developments will concur to bring about a rise in oil prices. On the demand side, too, forecasts and projections converge towards a rise in oil prices. Demand trends depend on crude oil prices, taxes, economic growth and energy and environmental policies. In most developed countries, the trend is towards a slowdown in demand growth and some countries are even seeing a decline in demand. In addition to the economic crisis, two explanations are put forward. The levels reached by crude oil and fuel prices in July 2008 clearly brought the price-elasticity of

  3. Impact of Oil Price Shocks and Exchange Rate Volatility on Stock Market Behavior in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedoyin I. Lawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exchange rate and oil prices fluctuation on the stock market has been a subject of hot debate among researchers. This study examined the impact of both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility on stock market volatility in Nigeria, so as to guide policy formulation based on the fact that the nation’s economy was foreign induced and mono-cultured with heavy dependence on oil. EGARCH estimation techniques were employed to examine if either the volatility in exchange rate, oil price volatility or both experts on stock market volatility in Nigeria. The result shows that share price volatility is induced by both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers should pursue policies that tend to stabilize the exchange rate regime on the one hand, and guarantee the net oil exporting position for the economy, that market practitioners should formulate portfolio strategies in such a way that volatility in both exchange rates and oil price will be factored in time when investment decisions are being made.

  4. Oil Price Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: a Vector Auto-Regression (VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined oil price volatility and economic growth in Nigeria linking oil price volatility, crude oil prices, oil revenue and Gross Domestic Product. Using quarterly data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin and World Bank Indicators (various issues spanning 1980-2010, a non‐linear model of oil price volatility and economic growth was estimated using the VAR technique. The study revealed that oil price volatility has significantly influenced the level of economic growth in Nigeria although; the result additionally indicated a negative relationship between the oil price volatility and the level of economic growth. Furthermore, the result also showed that the Nigerian economy survived on crude oil, to such extent that the country‘s budget is tied to particular price of crude oil. This is not a good sign for a developing economy, more so that the country relies almost entirely on revenue of the oil sector as a source of foreign exchange earnings. This therefore portends some dangers for the economic survival of Nigeria. It was recommended amongst others that there should be a strong need for policy makers to focus on policy that will strengthen/stabilize the economy with specific focus on alternative sources of government revenue. Finally, there should be reduction in monetization of crude oil receipts (fiscal discipline, aggressive saving of proceeds from oil booms in future in order to withstand vicissitudes of oil price volatility in future.

  5. The impacts of oil price shocks on stock market volatility: Evidence from the G7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianin, Andrea; Conti, Francesca; Manera, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of crude oil price shocks on the stock market volatility of the G7 countries. We identify the causes underlying oil price shocks and gauge the impacts that oil supply and oil demand innovations have on financial volatility. We show that stock market volatility does not respond to oil supply shocks. On the contrary, demand shocks impact significantly on the volatility of the G7 stock markets. Our results suggest that economic policies and financial regulation activities designed to mitigate the adverse effects of unexpected oil price movements should be designed by looking at the source of the oil price shocks. - Highlights: • Effects of oil price shocks on the stock market volatility of the G7 countries. • Econometric identification of the different causes of oil shocks. • Stock market volatility does not respond to oil supply shocks. • Demand shocks impact significantly on stock market volatility. • Policy measures should be designed by considering the source of oil shocks.

  6. Forecasting volatility and spillovers in crude oil spot, forward and future markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas

  7. Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers and Asymmetries in Major Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas

  8. Regime-switching stochastic volatility. Evidence from the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates regime-switching into the stochastic volatility (SV) framework in an attempt to explain the behavior of crude oil prices in order to forecast their volatility. More specifically, it models the volatility of oil return as a stochastic volatility process whose mean is subject to shifts in regime. The shift is governed by a two-state first-order Markov process. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is used to estimate the models. The main findings are: first, there is clear evidence of regime-switching in the oil market. Ignoring it will lead to a false impression that the volatility is highly persistent and therefore highly predictable. Second, incorporating regime-switching into the SV framework significantly enhances the forecasting power of the SV model. Third, the regime-switching stochastic volatility model does a good job in capturing major events affecting the oil market. (author)

  9. "Forecasting Volatility and Spillovers in Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets"

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at- Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia- Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover effects across and within the four mar...

  10. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  11. Chemical Investigations of Volatile Oil of Salvia yosgadensis Freyn et Bornm

    OpenAIRE

    ŞARER, Engin

    1988-01-01

    There are 44 endemic species of the Salvia genera growing in Anatolia. In this research, the physical properties and the chemical composition of the volatile oil of S. yosgadensis Freyn. et Bornm. as an endemic species have been investigated. The flowers and leaves of the plant contain 0.30 per cent volatile oil. In this oil 14 monoterpene hydrocarbons and 15 oxygen-containing compounds and sesquiter

  12. Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Huei-Chu; Lee, Yi-Huey; Suen, Yu-Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses daily Brent crude prices to investigate the employment of electronic trading on the returns conditional volatility in the oil futures market. After a suitable GARCH model is established, the conditional volatility series are found. The Bai and Perron model is then used to find two significant structural breaks for these conditional volatility series around two implementation dates of electronic trading. This result indicates that the change in the trading system has significant impacts on the returns volatility since our estimated second break date is very close to the all-electronic trade implementation date. Moreover, the conditional volatility in the all-electronic trading period is found to be more dominated by the temporal persistence rather than the volatility clustering effect. All these evidence can shed some light for explaining the high relationship between more volatile world oil price and the more popular electronic trade. (author)

  13. Influence of season, harvest time and drying on Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt volatile oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F. Blank

    Full Text Available Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt is member of the Poaceae family. Java citronella volatile oil has been reported to be among the volatile oils, showing repellent, antimycotic, and acaricide activities. It has been known that agronomical factors have a great effect on both the quality and quantity of essential metabolites. For this reason, it is necessary to determine optimum levels of agronomical factors affecting plant growth and production. Harvest time and drying are very important agronomical factors. This study has been conducted in the Research farm of the " Universidade Federal de Sergipe" , Agronomical Engineering Department along 2002-2003 on the base of factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Java citronella was cultivated in a 60 x 60 cm space. Early, midday, and late harvest at 9:00 h, 12:00 h, and 15:00 h were conducted on four different seasons. Fresh and dried leaves were used on the experiments. In order to study the effects of harvest time and drying, yields of dry and fresh herbage (kg/ha, moisture content (%, volatile oil content (% and yield (L/ha, and chemical composition of the volatile oil were measured. Seasonal changes had significant effect on yield of fresh herbage, yield and volatile oil content. Maximum volatile oil yields were observed at 9:00 during summer, winter, and spring. Volatile oil content was influenced by season and drying, but not influenced by harvest time.

  14. Effect of oil price on Nigeria’s food price volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of oil price on the volatility of food price in Nigeria. It specifically considers the long-run, short-run, and causal relationship between these variables. Annual data on oil price and individual prices of maize, rice, sorghum, soya beans, and wheat spanning from 2000 to 2013 were used. The price volatility for each crop was obtained using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedascity (GARCH (1, 1 model. Our measure of oil price is the Refiner acquisition cost of imported crude oil. The Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillip–Perron unit root tests show that all the variables are integrated of order one, I (1. Therefore, we use the Johansen co-integration test to examine the long-run relationship. Our results show that there is no long-run relationship between oil price and any of the individual food price volatility. Thus, we implement a VAR instead of a VECM to investigate the short-run relationship. The VAR model result revealed a positive and significant short-run relationship between oil price and each of the selected food price volatility with exception of that of rice and wheat price volatility. These results were further confirmed by the impulse response functions. The Granger causality test result indicates a unidirectional causality from oil price to maize, soya bean, and sorghum price volatilities but does not show such relationship for rice and wheat price volatilities. We draw some policy implications of these findings.

  15. Determination of volatile compounds of the first rose oil and the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rose water and rose oil are used in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The determination of volatile compounds in rose oil and rose water obtained from oil-bearing rose is highly important in terms of availability in the industry and in human health. Materials and Methods: Twenty four ...

  16. Volatility behavior of oil, industrial commodity and stock markets in a regime-switching environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyongwook; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    This study supplements previous regime-switching studies on WTI crude oil and finds two possible volatility regimes for the strategic commodity prices of Brent oil, WTI oil, copper, gold and silver, and the S and P 500 index, but with varying high-to-low volatility ratios. The dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) indicate increasing correlations among all the commodities since the 2003 Iraq war but decreasing correlations with the S and P 500 index. The commodities also show different volatility persistence responses to financial and geopolitical crises, while the S and P 500 index responds to both financial and geopolitical crises. Implications are discussed.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  18. Study of volatile oil component of petal and herbal and extraction of seed oil in Borage by Cold Press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esfandiar Hassani Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a few reported about the volatile oil component of petal, herbal and component of seed oil of borage. This research worked carried out for analysis and identification the volatile oil in herbals, petals, and seed oil compositions of Borago officinalis L. in Lorestan province. Material and methods: Extraction of essential oil from petals carried out using steam distillation by Clevenger apparatus. The new SPME-GC/MS method is used for extraction and identification of volatile oil compounds in the herbal of borage. The oil of the seeds was extracted using a Cold-press method. The identification of chemical composition of extracted oil was carried out by GC/MS apparatus. Results: In petals of Borage only Carvacerol component, and in the herbal of Borage three components Carvacrol, Bisabolone oxide and 2-Phenylethyl benzoate, extracted and identified respectively. In the seed oil of borage 16 different components were separated and identified. The following components had the highest amount in seed oil: Hexadecane, N, N-dimethylethanolamine, Beta-d-glycoside, 3, 6-glucurono-methyl, Benzaldehde, 4-methyl 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran, Hexadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Gamma butyrolactone and Ethyl octadec-9-enoate are the major components respectively. These components contain 63.4% of all components in borage seed oil and the 7 residual components only 9.5% all of the components in borage seed oil. Also one unknown (27.1% component identified. Conclusion: Using result obtained from this research the volatile oil a few amounts of the borage chemical composition. The results show that the seed oil of this species can be used for medicinal preparation. Cold Press method was found to be rapid and simple for identification of seeds oil components.

  19. Heating on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Antônio Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main ways by which extra-virgin olive oil is consumed include direct application on salads or as an ingredient in sauces, but it is also been used by some for cooking, including frying and baking. However, it has been reported that under heat stress, some nonglyceridic components of olive oil are degraded. So, the effect of heating (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 °C for 2 h on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil were evaluated. Heating altered the volatile composition of extra-virgin olive oil, mainly at higher temperatures (above 150 °C. The main modifications were related to the formation of large amounts of oxidized compounds, particularly large chain aldehydes. Sensory aspects were also altered when the oil was heated to higher temperatures, which might have occurred because of color alterations and mainly changes in the volatile composition of the oil.

  20. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies.

  1. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini; Maryam Kazemi Manesh

    2006-01-01

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  2. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shong, E; Lui, R

    1997-10-01

    The chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave were analyzed by GC-MS-DS. 27 constituents were identified, alpha-pinene (70.65%) and caryophyllene (10.38%) of them are main components.

  3. Oil price volatility: An Econometric Analysis of the WTI Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel; Lantz, Frederic

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the oil price volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) market in the US. By using statistical and econometric tools, we first attempt to identify the long-term relationship between WTI spot prices and the prices of futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). Subsequently we model the short-term dynamic between these two prices and this analysis points up several breaks. On this basis, a short term Markov Switching Vectorial Error Correction model (MS-VECM) with two distinct states (standard state and crisis state) has been estimated. Finally we introduce the volumes of transactions observed on the NYMEX for the WTI contracts and we estimate the influence of the non-commercial players. We conclude that the hypothesis of an influence of noncommercial players on the probability for being in the crisis state cannot be rejected. In addition, we show that the rise in liquidity of the first financial contracts, as measured by the volume of open interest, is a key element to understand the dynamics in market prices. (authors)

  4. Oil price and food price volatility dynamics: The case of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long and short run relationships between oil price and food price volatility as well as the causal link between them. The study used annual food price volatility index from FAO from 2000 to 2013 and crude oil price from U.S. Energy Information and Administration (EIA from 2000 to 2013. The Johansen and Jesulius co-integration test revealed that there is a long run relationship between oil price and domestic food price volatility. The vector error correction model indicated a positive and significant short run relationship between oil price and food price volatility. The Granger causality test revealed a unidirectional causality with causality running from oil price to food price volatility but not vice versa. It is recommended that policies and interventions that will help reduce uncertainty about food prices such as improved market information, trade policies and investment in research and development among others should be encouraged. Also to reduce the effect of oil price shock, it is recommended that government should subsidise pump price of refined oil, seek alternative sources of energy and there should be less dependence on oil for fertilizer production.

  5. Modelling and Testing Volatility Spillovers in Oil and Financial Markets for USA, UK and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J. Tian (Jiarong)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe primary purpose of the paper is to analyze the conditional correlations, conditional covariances, and co-volatility spillovers between international crude oil and associated financial markets. The paper investigates co-volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns

  6. Comparison of antioxidant potential of volatile oils of syzygium aromaticum and Illicium verum relative to conventionally used standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.; Abbasi, M.A.; Umar, M.I.; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Shahzadi, T.; Khan, K.M.; Ahmad, V.U.

    2011-01-01

    The volatile oils of Syzygium aromaticum Linn. (cloves) and Illicium verum Hook. (star anise) were extracted by steam distillation. The antioxidant potential of these oils was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay and ferric thiocyanate assay and total phenolics were also determined. The results revealed that scavenging potential of clove volatile oil was more than star anise volatile oil. The IC/sub 50/ of the clove volatile oil was 4.56 +- 1.07 mu g/mL while that of star anise was found to be 120 +- 1.80 mu mL relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), having IC/sub 50/ of 12.1 +- 0.92 mu g/mL. Total antioxidant activity of clove volatile oil was also higher than star anise volatile oil. The FRAP values of clove and star anise volatile oils were 2830 +- 2.14 and 388 +- 1.32 mu g of trolox equivalents (TE) respectively. The total phenolic contents of clove and star anise volatile oils were 934.34 +- 1.6 and 85.36 +- 0.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of volatile oil respectively. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by clove volatile oil was found to be 66.63% +- 0.41 while that of star anise was 43.24% +- 0.48. (author)

  7. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B.B.; Khaleel, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: → Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. → Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. → Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. → Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. → No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  10. Biological activity and phytochemical composition of the volatile oils from basilicum polystachyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H.X.; Cheng, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon, and measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were separated and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using the 8 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The free radicals scavenging activity of its volatile oil for the IC/sub 50/ were investigated by using Trolox as the comparison and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethal bioassay. The results show that 64 constituents of oils isolated respectively from Basilicum polystachyon were identified. The appraised components take up 99.75% of the total peak area. The main composition of the volatile oil is sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The results exhibit that the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon has very strong bioactivity of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity. These results provided the reference for further understanding the chemical components and its bioactivity of this aromatic plant as well as its further development. (author)

  11. Humps in the volatility structure of the crude oil futures market: New evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarella, Carl; Kang, Boda; Nikitopoulos, Christina Sklibosios; Tô, Thuy-Duong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the volatility structure of commodity derivatives markets. The model encompasses hump-shaped, unspanned stochastic volatility, which entails a finite-dimensional affine model for the commodity futures curve and quasi-analytical prices for options on commodity futures. Using an extensive database of crude oil futures and futures options spanning 21 years, we find the presence of hump-shaped, partially spanned stochastic volatility in the crude oil market. The hump shaped feature is more pronounced when the market is more volatile, and delivers better pricing as well as hedging performance under various dynamic factor hedging schemes. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the volatility structure of commodity derivatives markets. • 21-years of data on crude oil futures and futures options is used. • The crude oil futures market has hump-shaped, unspanned stochastic volatility. • The hump shaped feature is more pronounced when the market is more volatile. • Hump shape delivers better pricing and hedging compared to exponential decay

  12. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Indulekha, P S; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-11-01

    Anti-diabetic capacity of Curcuma longa volatile oil in terms of its ability to inhibit glucosidase activities was evaluated. Turmeric volatile oils inhibited glucosidase enzymes more effectively than the reference standard drug acarbose. Drying of rhizomes was found to enhance α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1.32-0.38 μg/ml) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 64.7-34.3 μg/ml) inhibitory capacities of volatile oils. Ar-Turmerone, the major volatile component in the rhizome also showed potent α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 0.28 μg) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 24.5 μg) inhibition.

  13. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...

  14. Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aknur Amanbekovna Turgumbayeva

    2018-03-01

    Volatile oil from the flowers of the Kazakhstan safflower species ‘Ak-Mai’ were investigated by GC/MS which allowed the detection of 20 compounds. Biologically active complex of the flower of the Kazakhstan safflower species ‘Ak-Mai’ was released for the first time by using this oil

  15. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruiz - Samblas, C.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been

  16. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  17. Aggressive oil extraction and precautionary saving: Coping with volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of stochastic oil demand on optimal oil extraction paths and tax, spending and government debt policies are analyzed when the oil demand schedule is linear and preferences quadratic. Without prudence, optimal oil extraction is governed by the Hotelling rule and optimal budgetary policies

  18. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...

  19. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Intorasoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:\tTo investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn., ginger (Zingiber officinale, plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., lime (Citrus aurantifolia, kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn., tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC., clove (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and thirty clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii. Methods:\tAgar diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were employed for determination of bactericidal activity of water distillated medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia was used as positive control in this study. Results:\tThe results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 218-222

  20. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  1. VOLATILITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL MARKETS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Panagiotou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the existence and magnitude of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Spain and Greece. These three Mediterranean countries are responsible for 95% of olive oil production within the European Union and they account for more than 50% of olive oil exports worldwide. In order to measure the degree of volatility transmission between these countries we estimate a vector error correction model along with the BEKK parameterization of a Multivariate Generalized Conditional Autoregressive Heteroskedasticity (M-GARCH model. The empirical results reveal the presence of ARCH and GARCH effects suggesting this way the existence of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Greece and Spain. ARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Spain and Italy. GARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Greece and Italy.

  2. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1% in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  4. In vitro antibacterial effects of five volatile oil extracts against intramacrophage Brucella abortus 544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-06-01

    Brucellaabortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×10(5) cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  5. Secretory diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R

    1999-10-01

    Diarrhea, defined as loose stools, occurs when the intestine does not complete absorption of electrolytes and water from luminal contents. This can happen when a nonabsorbable, osmotically active substance is ingested ("osmotic diarrhea") or when electrolyte absorption is impaired ("secretory diarrhea"). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can result from bacterial toxins, reduced absorptive surface area caused by disease or resection, luminal secretagogues (such as bile acids or laxatives), circulating secretagogues (such as various hormones, drugs, and poisons), and medical problems that compromise regulation of intestinal function. Evaluation of patients with secretory diarrhea must be tailored to find the likely causes of this problem. Specific and nonspecific treatment can be valuable.

  6. The Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Frida; Skjelvik, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance PROBLEM STATEMENT How do oil price movements impact Statoil ASA? RESEARCH QUESTIONS Do oil price fluctuations have an explainable effect on Statoil’s capital expenditures and operating expenditures? Do oil price fluctuations have an explainable effect on Statoil’s share price? ANALYSIS To analyse the impact of oil price shocks, Ordinary Least Squares regression has been employed for two separate time periods. First, the period from Q4...

  7. Antifungal Activity of Volatile Oil of Mustard (VOM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sikes, A; Yang, T; Richardson, M; Ehioba, R

    2005-01-01

    .... The active volatile antimicrobial factor in VOM is allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). To evaluate the efficacy of VOM as a fungistatic agent, military-type sandwiches and commercial cheddar cheese samples were inoculated with several mold isolates...

  8. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  10. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmad Mohamed; Shalaby, Hatem Abdel Mawgoud; El Khateeb, Rabab Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mona Said; Kutkat, Mohamed Abdel Aziz

    2013-06-01

    To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid(®)), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid(®) oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  11. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro . The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti- Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (Poil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti- Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo .

  12. The transitory and permanent volatility of oil prices: What implications are there for the US industrial production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Ahmed, Huson Joher; Bashar, Omar H.M.N.; Wadud, I.K.M. Mokhtarul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study examines the impact of oil price uncertainty on the US industrial production (IPI). ► The transitory component of the oil price volatility has an adverse impact on the US IPI. ► The transitory oil price volatility induces higher volatility in CPI, commodity prices and IPI. -- Abstract: This study examines the impact of oil price uncertainty on the US industrial production by decomposing oil price volatility into permanent and transitory components. The decompositions provide important evidence on sources and asymmetric effects of oil price volatility. To estimate the component structure of volatility and to analyse the dynamic impacts of the volatility components, the study uses a threshold based CGARCH and VAR modelling over a period from 1980 to 2010 for the US economy. The CGARCH model estimates show significant asymmetric effect of oil price shock on the transitory oil price volatility. Dynamic impulse response functions obtained from the estimated VAR models reveal that there is a significant and prolonged dampening impact of increased transitory oil price volatility on industrial production. The results also suggest that shocks to transitory component induce increased volatility in the general price level and non-fuel commodity prices in the US. Variance decomposition analysis reconfirms that the transitory volatility is the second most important factor to explain the variance of industrial production. These results provide additional insights on the sources of oil price uncertainty and point to the need to direct US energy policies towards stabilising short-term uncertainties in oil prices.

  13. A Markov switching model of the conditional volatility of crude oil futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, Wai Mun; See, Kim Hock

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the temporal behaviour of volatility of daily returns on crude oil futures using a generalised regime switching model that allows for abrupt changes in mean and variance, GARCH dynamics, basis-driven time-varying transition probabilities and conditional leptokurtosis. This flexible model enables us to capture many complex features of conditional volatility within a relatively parsimonious set-up. We show that regime shifts are clearly present in the data and dominate GARCH effects. Within the high volatility state, a negative basis is more likely to increase regime persistence than a positive basis, a finding which is consistent with previous empirical research on the theory of storage. The volatility regimes identified by our model correlate well with major events affecting supply and demand for oil. Out-of-sample tests indicate that the regime switching model performs noticeably better than non-switching models regardless of evaluation criteria. We conclude that regime switching models provide a useful framework for the financial historian interested in studying factors behind the evolution of volatility and to oil futures traders interested short-term volatility forecasts

  14. Volatile oils from the plant and hairy root cultures of Ageratum conyzoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed Salaheldin A; Lockwood, George B

    2011-05-01

    Two lines of hairy root culture of Ageratum conyzoides L. induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 were established under either complete darkness or 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod conditions. The volatile oil yields from aerial parts and roots of the parent plant, the hairy root culture photoperiod line and the hairy root culture dark line were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.03% and 0.02%, (w/w), respectively. The compositions of the volatiles from the hairy roots, plant roots and aerial parts were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the volatiles from the hairy root cultures were β-farnesene, precocene I and β-caryophyllene, in different amounts, depending on light conditions and also on the age of cultures. Precocene I, β-farnesene, precocene II and β-caryophyllene were the main constituents of the volatile oils from the parent plant roots, whereas precocene I, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and precocene II were the main constituents of the aerial parts of the parent plant. Growth and time-course studies of volatile constituents of the two hairy root lines were compared. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the volatile oils from the roots of the parent plant and those from the hairy roots.

  15. The Volatility of Oil Prices on Stock Exchanges in the Context of Recent Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Maria-Floriana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil along with currencies and gold are the main indicators of the most important processes which take place in the world economy, quotations’ volatility being always followed by economic and social events. Quiet periods of oil prices, when quotations have a constant evolution or only suffer minor fluctuations, are very rare. Most of the time, very sharp price increases or decreases are happening over night or week. This is mostly due to the fact that the oil market is extremely speculative, being influenced by political, military, social, or meteorological events. Since the major oil price shocks of the 70s, the impact of oil price changes on the economic reality of a country or region has been widely studied by academic researchers. Moreover, the stock market plays an important role in the economic welfare and development of a country. Therefore, a vast number of studies have investigated the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns, being discovered significant effects of oil price shocks on the macroeconomic activity for both developed and emerging countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the volatility of oil prices on stock exchanges taking into consideration the recent events that have affected the oil markets around the globe. Furthermore, based on the findings of this research, some possible scenarios will be developed, taking into account various events that might take place and their potential outcome for oil prices’ future.

  16. Variations in Volatile Oil Yield and Composition of "Xin-yi" (Magnolia biondii Pamp. Flower Buds) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingli; Bai, Mei; Ye, Wei; Wang, Yaling; Wu, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Dried flower buds of Magnolia biondii Pamp. are the main ingredient in "Xin-yi" in China, and the volatile oils of M. biondii flower buds are the principal medicinal component. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and microscopic techniques were employed to detect the volatile yields of M. biondii flowers at various growth stages. The volatile oil yields of M. biondii flowers differed significantly at different growth stages and were closely related to flower dry weight, oil cell density and degree of oil accumulation. In February 2016, flower buds had the highest dry weight, the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage and the highest density of oil cells, which coincided with the highest oil yield. In March 2016, flower buds had a lower dry weight, a higher percentage of oil cells at the oil-degrading stage and the lowest oil cell density, resulting in decreased oil yields. The total amounts of the major medicinal components in the M. biondii flower also showed regular changes at different growth stages. In January and February of 2016, M. biondii flowers had a higher dry weight, volatile oil yield and total content of medicinal ingredients, which was the best time for harvesting high-quality medicinal components. Our study reveals that volatile oil content and chemical composition are closely related to the growth stage of M. biondii flower buds. The results provide a scientific morphology and composition index for evaluating the medicinal value and harvesting of high-quality M. biondii medicinal herbs.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TIGHT OIL RESOURCES IN USA: PROFITABILITY OF EXPLOITATION AND EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN VOLATILE OIL PRICE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Strpić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale development of tight oil resources in US started after 2010. with following five-year period of favorable steady increase in crude oil price. During this relatively short expansion cycle, operating and capital expenses changed drastically for main tight oil plays due to technological improvements in both well drilling and completion, expansion of service sector as well as loose government monetary policy which allowed favorable financing. This paper analyzed trends in costs during expansion period, as well as correlation of oil price to number of operating rigs and production quotas. After 2008/2009. world financial crisis economy recovery in US was somewhat sluggish and it caused extreme volatile environment in both equity and commodity markets. In such volatile environment intra-day crude oil prices, as well as other commodities and equities, show significant reaction to monthly published macroeconomic indicator reports, which give better overviews of trends in economic recovery. Prior to announcement, these reports always have forecasted value determined by consensus among market analysts. Therefore, any positive or negative surprise in real value tends to influence price of oil. This paper investigated influence of such macroeconomic reports to closing intraday oil price, as well as effect of other important daily market indices. Analysis showed that only Producer Price Index (PPI, among other indicators, has statistical significance of affecting intraday closing oil price.

  18. Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgumbayeva, Aknur Amanbekovna; Ustenova, Gulbaram Omargazieva; Yeskalieva, Balakyz Kymyzgalievna; Ramazanova, Bakyt Amanullovna; Rahimov, Kairolla Duysenbayevich; Aisa, Hajiakbar; Juszkiewicz, Konrad T

    2018-03-14

    Carthamus tinctorius L. is commonly known as Safflower. C. tinctorius extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world. This plant is cultivated mainly for its seed which is used as edible oil. For a long time, C. tinctorius has been used in traditional medicines as a purgative, analgesic, antipyretic and an antidote to poisoning. It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum haemorrhage and osteoporosis. The subject of this study is the seeds of Kazakhstan species of 'Akmai' safflower, collected in the flowering stage in Southern Kazakhstan. Volatile oil was carry out to study the component composition of Kazakhstan 'AkMai' safflower flowers. Pale yellow oily extracts were obtain by varying the process parameters. The volatile oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the petals Carthamus tinctorius L. was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of the oil was 0.175 % (v/w). 20 compounds representing 99.81% of the oil were characterized. The volatile oil was found to be rich in undecanoic acid, octane, 2-nonen -1-ol, hexadecanal, dodecanal, dec-2-en-1-ol, nonanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 2 pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, isobutyl-beta-phenylpropionate, 1.3-cyclohexadiene, myrtenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, heneicosanoic acid, 2(3H)-furanone, 4,4-dipropylheptane, hexcosane,1-eicosanol, as well as heptocosane. Volatile oil from the flowers of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' were investigated by GC/MS which allowed the detection of 20 compounds. Biologically active complex of the flower of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' was released for the first time by using this oil.

  19. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Profitability in a Volatile Crude Oil Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Lucky Anderson

    Volatile crude oil prices significantly affect the profitability of crude oil firms. The purpose of this single case study was to explore strategies some crude oil and gas business leaders used to remain profitable during periods of crude oil price volatility. The target population comprised 8 crude oil and gas business leaders located in Calgary, Canada, whose company remained profitable despite crude oil price volatility. The transformational leadership theory formed the conceptual framework for the study. Data were collected through the use of semistructured face-to-face interviews, company reports, and field notes. Data analysis involved a modified Van Kamm method, which included descriptive coding, a sequential review of the interview transcripts, and member checking. Based on methodological triangulation and thematic analysis, 5 themes emerged from the study, including communication and engagement; motivation and empowerment; measurement, monitoring, and control; self-awareness and humility; and efficiency and optimization. The implications for social change include the potential for crude oil and gas companies in Calgary, Canada to manage production costs, ensure earnings and profitability, and thus improve the socioeconomic well-being of Calgary indigenes through improved employment opportunities.

  20. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

    2013-04-15

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile release from self-assembly structured emulsions: effect of monoglyceride content, oil content, and oil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2013-02-20

    Monoglycerides (MGs) can form self-assembled structures in emulsions, which can be used to control volatile release. In this study, initial headspace concentrations (C(initial)), maximum headspace concentrations (C(max)), release rates, and partition coefficients of propanol, diacetyl, hexanal, and limonene were determined in MG structured oil-in-water emulsions using dynamic and static headspace analyses. For all of the volatile compounds, C(initial) values above structured emulsions were significantly lower than those above unstructured emulsions and decreased with increasing MG contents (p triglyceride emulsions than in soybean oil emulsions (p structured emulsions than in unstructured emulsions (p structured emulsions can be potentially used as delivery systems to modulate volatile release.

  2. Analyzing and forecasting volatility spillovers, asymmetries and hedging in major oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Tansuchat, Roengchai

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. (author)

  3. Analyzing and forecasting volatility spillovers, asymmetries and hedging in major oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Lin [Department of Applied Economics National Chung Hsing University Taichung, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, National Chung Hsing University Taichung 402 (China); McAleer, Michael [Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands); Tansuchat, Roengchai [Faculty of Economics, Maejo University (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. (author)

  4. The impact of crude oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using cointegration tests. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined. (author)

  5. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  6. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  7. Response of Sitophilus granarius L. to fumigant toxicity of some plant volatile oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali F. Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One-week-old adults of Sitophilus granarius (L. reared on wheat were subjected to pure plant volatile oils of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint. Volatile oil of Thuja was extracted from unripe fruits of Thuja orientalis plant by water distillation. The objective of the current study was to determine the fumigant toxicity of these volatile oils against adults of S. granarius. The fumigant toxicity of the volatile oils was tested against 1week old adults of S. granarius at 28±2 °C and 65±5% RH in darkness. The mortality of adults was tested at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 μl of Thuja, 10–30 μl of Eucalyptus and 3–15 μl of Peppermint at different exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h. The results demonstrated that the mortality increased with increases in concentration and exposure periods. The percent mortality of S. granarius reached 91.2, 95.0 and 91.2% when 1-w-old adult exposed to higher concentration of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint oils, respectively, comparing to 0% in the control after 24 h. After 72 h the percent mortality was 100% at the higher concentration of the three volatile oils. LC50 and LC90 were determined for each volatile oil and each exposure period. Data probit analysis demonstrated that concentrations of 70.71 μl Thuja, 16.95 μl Eucalyptus and 10.48 μl Peppermint, recorded 50% mortality after 24 h, however it reached 90% when concentrations increased to 104.04 μl Thuja, 25.48 μl Eucalyptus and 15.92 μl Peppermint after the same period. LC50 and LC90 values were decreased by increasing the exposure periods. These results showed that the three volatile oils could be applicable to the management of populations of S. granarius (L..

  8. Symmetric and asymmetric US sector return volatilities in presence of oil, financial and economic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Yuan, Yuan; Chiang, Thomas; Nandha, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of world, country, and sector-specific variables on the stock return volatility of twenty-seven US sectors in the short- and long-run, accounting for the asymmetric shocks based on GARCH models. In the standard GARCH model the two world variables, oil and Morgan Stanley Capital Index (MSCI), have differing impacts on the US equity sector returns' volatility, with oil price dampening it while MSCI heightening it for most sectors. This result underlines the need for hedging more against world capital market risk relative to oil risk which is probably hedged by many sectors. The world and country factors' impacts are not as pervasive across the board, compared with the sector-specific impacts of the P/B ratio and trading volume which affect almost all sectors. Increases in the P/B ratio would reduce the aggregate volatility, while increases in the trading volume would heighten it for all sectors. Asymmetry of factor impacts on volatility is also found for most sectors. Most of the GARCH factor results are confirmed in the CGARCH model with the exception of the impact of interest rate on the short-lived transitory volatility. Finally, interesting econometric results on the inclusion or exclusion of trading volumes are discussed.

  9. Non-volatile floral oils of Diascia spp. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumri, Kanchana; Seipold, Lars; Schmidt, Jürgen; Gerlach, Günter; Dötterl, Stefan; Ellis, Allan G; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2008-04-01

    The floral oils of Diascia purpurea, Diascia vigilis, Diascia cordata, Diascia megathura, Diascia integerrima and Diascia barberae (Scrophulariaceae) were selectively collected from trichome elaiophores. The derivatized floral oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whilst the underivatized samples were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The most common constituents of the floral oils investigated are partially acetylated acylglycerols of (3R)-acetoxy fatty acids (C(14), C(16), and C(18)), as was proven with non-racemic synthetic reference samples. The importance of these oils for Rediviva bees is discussed in a co-evolutionary context.

  10. Mathematical Modelling of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Volatile Oils from Aromatic Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grosso, C.; Coelho, J.P.; Pessoa, F.L.P.; Fareleira, J.M.N.A.; Barroso, J.G.; Urieta, J.S.; Palavra, A.F.; Sovová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 11 (2010), s. 3579-3590 ISSN 0009-2509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * modelling * volatile oils Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2010

  11. Extraction of Volatile Oil from Aromatic Plants with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experiments and Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coelho, J.P.; Cristino, A.F.; Matos, P.G.; Rauter, A.P.; Nobre, B.P.; Mendes, R.L.; Barroso, J.G.; Mainar, A.; Urieta, J.S.; Fareleira, J.M.N.A.; Sovová, Helena; Palavra, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2012), s. 10550-10573 ISSN 1420-3049 Grant - others:FST(PT) SFRH/BPD/42004/2007; FST(PT) SFRH/BD/48596/2008 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : essential oils * volatile iols * supercritical fluids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.428, year: 2012

  12. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Amornrat Intorasoot; Piyaorn Chornchoem; Siriwoot Sookkhee; Sorasak Intorasoot

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, E...

  13. Volatile constituents of the essential oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ky, P.T.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile rhizome oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be curdione (47.4%), curcumol (7.0%) and germacrone (6.1%). The structure elucidation of curdione was confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectrometry

  14. Attraction behaviour of Anagrus nilaparvatae to remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil and its volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guo-Feng; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Fouad, Hatem; Abbas, Ghulam; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2018-03-01

    Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and β-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results suggested that plant essential oils could be attractants for natural enemies to control pests. The ratios of volatiles in the mixtures affect the attractiveness of the synthetic mixtures.

  15. A model Apparatus for Isolation of Volatile Oils from Various Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi T. AI-Kaisey

    2018-02-01

    The present paper givas a detailed description of apparatus which were sutable for isola.tion the lighter and tile heavier u.('-m water volatile oils fronl differenet plant materials. Meanwhile tbe purity of tile concentrates were ex lrined by g-aS liquid chromato graphy( GLe.

  16. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  18. Composition of the volatile oil of Achillea conferta DC. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Top flowered aerial parts of Achillea conferta DC. (Compositae, which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Taleghan area and the volatile oil was isolateds by hydrodistillation. The oil (0.2 % V/W was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. Forty-eight components, representing 91.4% of the oil were identified. The main components were camphor (22.1% and 1,8-cineole (10.0%. The percentage of oxygenated compounds was 79.0% of the total oil. The oil o was rich in monoterpenes with two typical major components of Achillea species, camphor (22.1% and 1, 8- cineole (10.0%.

  19. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  20. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  1. Effect of plant age on fresh rhizome yield and volatile oil composition of Acorus calamus linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.A.; Bahl, J.R.; Darokar, M. P.; Garg, S.N.; Lal, R.K.; Khanuja, S.P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plant age on growth, yield and oil content and composition of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) was studied in four populations at four different ages, raised at CIMAP experimental research Farm, India. The plant age had significant effect on total fresh yield and leaves and rhizomes fresh weights. These parameters showed increasing trend with advancement of harvesting age up to 6 years, and age increase to more than 15 years resulted in their decrease . Significantly highest number of shoots per square meter was recorded in more than 15 year old crop, and the lowest number was recorded in the 6 year old crop. The highest oil yield of rhizomes was obtained from the six year old plants. Shoot length, rhizome leaf ratio (R/L) and oil yield of leaves did not show significant differences with the age of the plant. However, 6 year old plants recorded the highest average shoot length, and the three year old plants gave the highest oil yield of leaves. The total fresh yield showed a highly significant positive correlation with rhizomes fresh weight (r = 0.999), leaves fresh weight (r=0.994) and with rhizome: leaf ratio (r = 0.998). Highly significant positive correlations (r = 0.999) were also obtained between rhizomes oil content and rhizomes oil yield and between leaves oil content and leaves oil yield. β-asarone was the most dominant constituent in the oils of both leaves and rhizomes , constituting an average of 84.2% in the leaves and 88.9% in the rhizomes oil. The study indicated that the oil content of fresh rhizomes and leaves is the main contributor to their oil yields, and selection for high oil content will be effective. The constituents of the volatile oil remained the same irrespective of the plant age.(Author)

  2. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-08-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  3. [Analysis of Volatile Oils from Different Processed Products of Zingiber officinale Rhizome by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bing; Wang, Zhi-hui; He, Fang; Meng, Han; Peng, Jian-hua; Shi, Ji-lian

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome, and to make clear the effect of different heating degree on them. The volatile components were extracted from four kinds of processed products by applying steam distillation, and then were analyzed by GC-MS. There were totally 43 components of volatile oil identified from four kinds of processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome. Fresh product, dried product, and charcoal product of Zingiber officinale rhizome each had 27 components of volatile oil, while sand fried product contained 24 components. Fresh Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 22. 59% of zingiberene, 20. 87% of a-citral and 11. 01% of β-phellandrene, respectively. After processing in different heating degree, the volatile components changed greatly in both of their quantity and quality, For instance, dried Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 40. 48% of α-citral and 8-phellandrene content was slightly lower at 10. 38%. 32.73% of 3,7,11-trimethyl-l, 6, 10-dodecatriene,16. 38% of murolan-3, 9 (11)-diene-10-peroxy and 3. 36% of cubebene newly emerged in the sand fried Zingiber officinale rhizome, and eudesm-4 (14) and β-bisabolol, etc. However, β-phellandrene content was only 1. 95%. The zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene were the highest in charcoal product, besides, new components such as α-cedrene, decanal and γ-elemene appeared. Volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome were different in both of their kinds and contents. This method is suitable for the analysis of volatile components in Zingiber officinale rhizome, and this study can provide the experimental evidence for quality evaluation and clinical application for ginger processed products.

  4. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and volatile oils of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Tak, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation, viz., 6, 10 and 14 kGy on the microbial contamination and the volatile oil content of coriander whole, coriander ground and cumin was studied. Exposure to 10 kGy was effective in the decontamination of spices. Fungi and coliforms in spices were inactivated on irradiation to a dose of 6 kGy. No significant change in the GC volatile profile of the irradiated spices was observed. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified...... by gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...

  7. Agricultural management, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production from Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Furlan, Marcos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about organic and mineral fertilization, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production by the species Melissa officinalis. Elemental concentration was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. The elemental content and the main compounds vary according to agricultural management and season. The results indicate that the production of volatile oil main compounds from M. officinalis is correlated with the concentrations of Na, Co, Rb, Cd, Cs, La, Sm and Hf. (author)

  8. [Study on two preparation methods for beta-CD inclusion compound of four traditional Chinese medicine volatile oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Tong, Yan; Gong, Muxin

    2012-04-01

    To compare inclusion effects and process conditions of two preparation methods-colloid mill and saturated solution-for beta-CD inclusion compound of four traditional Chinese medicine volatile oils and study the relationship between each process condition and volatile oil physical properties and the regularity of selective inclusion of volatile oil components. Volatile oils from Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma, Amomi Fructus, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Angelicaesinensis Radix were prepared using two methods in the orthogonal test. These inclusion compounds by optimized processes were assessed and compared by such methods as TLC, IR and scanning electron microscope. Inclusion oils were extracted by steam distillation, and the components found before and after inclusion were analyzed by GC-MS. Analysis showed that new inclusion compounds, but inclusion compounds prepared by the two processes had differences to some extent. The colloid mill method showed a better inclusion effect than the saturated solution method, indicating that their process conditions had relations with volatile oil physical properties. There were differences in the inclusion selectivity of components between each other. The colloid mill method for inclusion preparation is more suitable for industrial requirements. To prepare volatile oil inclusion compounds with heavy gravity and high refractive index, the colloid mill method needs longer time and more water, while the saturated solution method requires higher temperature and more beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complex prepared with the colloid mill method contains extended molecular weight chemical composition, but the kinds of components are reduced.

  9. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  10. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrancosa) from different irrigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Falco, V.; Correia, C. M.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil VOO) from the cv. cobrancosa- integrated into a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2)-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET{sub c}), (T1)-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and (T0)- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts. (Author) 34 refs.

  11. An analysis of factors affecting price volatility of the US oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.W.; Hwang, M.J.; Huang, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the price volatility of the crude oil market by examining the market structure of OPEC, the stable and unstable demand structure, and related elasticity of demand. In particular, the impacts of prosperity and recession of the world economy and the resulting demand shift on crude oil price are investigated. The error correction model is used to estimate the demand relations and related elasticity. The income effect on demand functions is evaluated to shed light on future prices. A simulation of potential oil prices under different scenarios on a cut of one million barrels per day by OPEC is evaluated. From our simulation, given the 4% cut in OPEC production, the oil price is expected to increase unless the recession is severe. The magnitude and scope of a price hike would be diminished if non-OPEC or domestic production were greatly expanded

  12. Volatile Components of the Essential Oil of Artemisia montana and Their Sedative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Kento; Myoda, Takao; Tajima, Noriaki; Gotoh, Kotaro; Kaneshima, Tai; Someya, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    The sedative effects of volatile components in the essential oil of Artemisia montana ("Yomogi") were investigated and measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components identified included 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-piperitone, and caryophyllene oxide. Among them, 1,8-cineol exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) value in an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by borneol, o-cymene, β-thujone, and bornyl acetate. The sedative effects of yomogi oil aroma were evaluated by sensory testing, analysis of salivary α-amylase activity, and measurement of relative fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the brain using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). All results indicated the stress-reducing effects of the essential oil following nasal exposure, and according to the NIRS analysis, 1,8-cineol is likely responsible for the sedative effects of yomogi oil.

  13. Effects of mechanical wounding on essential oil composition and emission of volatiles from Minthostachys mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-04-01

    Plant tissues may show chemical changes following damage. This possibility was analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae native to Central Argentina with medicinal and aromatic uses in the region. Effects of mechanical damage on its two dominant monoterpenes, pulegone and menthone, were analyzed by perforating M. mollis leaves and then assessing essential oil composition at 24, 48, and 120 hr; emission of volatiles was also measured 24 and 48 hr after wounding. Mechanical damage resulted in an increase of pulegone and menthone concentration in M. mollis essential oil during the first 24 hr. These changes did not occur in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a lack of systemic response. Postwounding changes in the volatiles released from M. mollis damaged leaves were also detected, most noticeably showing an increase in the emission of pulegone. Inducible chemical changes in aromatic plants might be common and widespread, affecting the specific compounds on which commercial exploitation is based.

  14. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  15. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  16. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of ...

  17. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geman, Helyette; Ohana, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  18. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...

  19. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  20. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  1. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  2. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  3. Study on the valorization of Salvia officinalis volatile oil in dermato-cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dumitrache1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Recent studies have revealed other properties of Salvia Officinalis, such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential. It is also implicated in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and has several other beneficial effects (1. Salvia Officinalis contains estrogenic substances, sitosterol, vitamins B1 and C, organic acids etc., which have a theoretically positive effect in the antiaging process. Additionally, our premise was that the anti-aging effects have a solid specific support: the antiglycation effect of Salvia Officinalis (2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Salvia Officinalis volatile oil has been incorporated into an ointment base in order to obtain a cosmetic cream W/O type. A number of three creams were prepared using three different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil (0,5 and 1,5 respectively. RESULTS In order to characterize the obtained creams, corneometry was used to measure the skin hydration degree. A number of 15 volunteers, aged between 20 and 50 years underwent customer testing. This test has provided information on the left gloss, smoothness, residue, side effects and penetration ability of the three creams, with different concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. We observed a significant increase (twice the initial value in the degree of skin hydration in all subjects who used the cream and especially in those who applied the cream containing 1,5 concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. CONCLUSIONS The three creams with different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil were well tolerated by patients and showed beneficial effects in preventing dehydration and restoration of skin elasticity. Table 1. Subjects who applied the cream containing a 1,5 concentration REFERENCES 1. Garcia CSC, Menti C, Lambert APF et al. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae: antioxidant, and antitumor in

  4. Two-phase flow in volatile oil reservoir using two-phase pseudo-pressure well test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, M.; Ahmadi, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    A study was conducted to better understand the behaviour of volatile oil reservoirs. Retrograde condensation occurs in gas-condensate reservoirs when the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) lowers below the dewpoint pressure, thus creating 4 regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Similarly, when the BHP of volatile oil reservoirs falls below the bubblepoint pressure, two phases are created in the region around the wellbore, and a single phase (oil) appears in regions away from the well. In turn, higher gas saturation causes the oil relative permeability to decrease towards the near-wellbore region. Reservoir compositional simulations were used in this study to predict the fluid behaviour below the bubblepoint. The flowing bottomhole pressure was then exported to a well test package to diagnose the occurrence of different mobility regions. The study also investigated the use of a two-phase pseudo-pressure method on volatile and highly volatile oil reservoirs. It was concluded that this method can successfully predict the true permeability and mechanical skin. It can also distinguish between mechanical skin and condensate bank skin. As such, the two-phase pseudo-pressure method is particularly useful for developing after-drilling well treatment and enhanced oil recovery process designs. However, accurate relative permeability and PVT data must be available for reliable interpretation of the well test in volatile oil reservoirs. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  6. A Green Protocol for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Oil Terpenes from Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana M. Vila Verde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction of volatile oils (MAE potentially offers a more efficient and bio-sustainable method than conventional extraction by Clevenger apparatus (CE. This study aimed to optimise the MAE of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus fruits and characterise the volatile compounds. A 23 full-factorial central composite design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the effects of time (min, moisture (% and microwave power (W on the extraction yield. The process optimisation was based on the desirability function approach. The reaction time and moisture conditions were standardised in these analyses. The volatile oil composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS in order to compare techniques extractions influences. Microwave irradiation showed excellent performance for extraction of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus and there were some advantages in compare to conventional method with respect to the time (14 times, energy (6 times, reagents amounts and waste formation. About chemical composition presents significant differences with the type of extraction. Caryophyllene (25.65% and trans-α-bisabolol (6.24% were identified as major components in MAE sample while caryophyllene (6.75% and γ-elemene (7.02% are the components with higher relative percentage in CE samples. The microwaves assisted process shown an increase of economic interested compounds present in volatile oil.

  7. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  9. Dating breaks for global crude oil prices and their volatility : a possible price band for global crude prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, H.C.; Suen, Y.B.

    2006-01-01

    Global oil prices are among the most visible of all historical commodity records. This paper presented and applied the multiple structural change method developed by Baie and Perron (BP) to investigate daily West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot prices from January 2, 1986 to December 30, 2004 as collected by the United States Department of Energy. In particular, the BP statistical method was used to estimate the number and location of structural breaks in global oil price series and their volatility. The objective was to precisely determine the exact structural break in the global oil market. The breaks for both the price of oil and its volatility were successfully located and dated. It was shown that the break for the structural change in oil prices occurred on November 12, 1999, where the average oil price was U$19.02 per barrel previously, and U$30.90 afterwards. Two breaks for oil price volatility were also found, the first in March 1991 and the other in December 1995. The volatility was measured in 3 regimes by dividing these 2 breaks. It was suggested that since oil prices increased more rapidly during the second half of 2004 and 2005, it is possible that another structural break may be found during this period. However, it wa cautioned that it is difficult to find another significant break until more data becomes available, particularly for periods characterized by a rapid increase in price. 24 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Comparative study of the volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy M. Soliman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oils of the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaf and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava was determined by GC/MS analysis to identify their chemotypes. Moreover, in vitro antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against selected bacteria, yeast, and mycelia fungi was studied. The yield of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from the leaves of P. guajava L. and P. cattleianum Sabine was 1.6 and 2.69 g/kg on fresh weight basis, respectively. Limonene was the major identified hydrocarbon in P. guava leaves’ oil (54.70%, whereas, 1, 8-cineole was the major identified oxygenated monoterpenoid (32.14% in common guava leaves. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum was predominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon; β-caryophyllene representing 28.83% of the total oil make-up. The antibacterial activity of guava leaf oil was more pronounced against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than that of strawberry guava leaves, while P. cattleianum showed a higher activity against ess. The MIC of the volatile oil of the leaves of P. guajava against S. aureus was 6.75 μg/ml, while that of P. cattleianum exhibited MIC value of 13.01 μg/ml against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results demonstrated that the volatile oil of both Psidium species showed different chemotypes. Moreover, the volatile oils of guava and strawberry guava leaves might be good candidates as antimicrobial agents.

  11. Exposure to Anacardiaceae Volatile Oils and Their Constituents Induces Lipid Peroxidation within Food-Borne Bacteria Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA. The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E-caryophyllene (31.0% and α-pinene (22.0%, and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E-caryophyllene (15.4% and germacrene-D (11.5%. Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E-β-ocimene (44.1% and α-terpinolene (15.2%, whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%. However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  12. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  13. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  14. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geman, Helyette [Birkbeck, University of London (United Kingdom); ESCP-EAP (France); Ohana, Steve [ESCP-EAP (France)

    2009-07-15

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  15. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Misztal; E. Nemitz; B. Langford; C. F. Di Marco; G. J. Phillips; C. N. Hewitt; A. R. MacKenzie; S. M. Owen; D. Fowler; M. R. Heal; J. N. Cape

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84 %) of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl k...

  16. Natural Variation of Volatile Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil Analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is unique among plant oils for its high levels of oleic acid, and the presence of a wide range of minor components, which are responsible for both its health-promoting properties and characteristic aroma, and only produced when olives are crushed during the industrial process used for oil production. The genetic variability of the major volatile compounds comprising the oil aroma was studied in a representative sample of olive cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA, Cordoba, Spain, by means of the headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID. The analytical data demonstrated that a high variability is found for the content of volatile compounds in olive species, and that most of the volatile compounds found in the oils were synthesized by the enzymes included in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway. Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of cultivars that are particularly interesting, in terms of volatile composition and presumed organoleptic quality, which can be used both to identify old olive cultivars that give rise to oils with a high organoleptic quality, and in parent selection for olive breeding programs.

  17. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Guclu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs greater than one, with (Z-3-hexenal (green, hexanal (green-sweet and nonanal (fatty-pungent being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  18. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141

  19. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  20. Phytochemical screening and chemical variability in volatile oils of aerial parts of Morinda morindoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiazolu, J Boima; Intisar, Azeem; Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Runsheng; Wu, Zhongping; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    Morinda morindoides is an important Liberian traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, fever, worms etc. The plant was subjected to integrated approaches including phytochemical screening and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Phytochemical investigation of the powdered plant revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroidal compounds and volatile oil. Steam distillation followed by GC-MS resulted in the identification of 47 volatiles in its aerial parts: 28 were in common including various bioactive volatiles. Major constituents of leaves were phytol (43.63%), palmitic acid (8.55%) and geranyl linalool (6.95%) and stem were palmitic acid (14.95%), eicosane (9.67%) and phytol (9.31%), and hence, a significant difference in the percentage composition of aerial parts was observed. To study seasonal changes, similarity analysis was carried out by calculating correlation coefficient (r) and vector angle cosine (z) that were more than 0.91 for stem-to-stem and leaf-to-leaf batches indicating considerable consistency.

  1. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  2. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  3. Extraction of Citrus Hystrix D.C. (Kaffir Lime) Essential Oil Using Automated Steam Distillation Process: Analysis of Volatile Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhani Kasuan; Zuraida Muhammad; Zakiah Yusoff; Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib; Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee

    2013-01-01

    An automated steam distillation was successfully used to extract volatiles from Citrus hystrix D.C (Kaffir lime) peels. The automated steam distillation integrated with robust temperature control can commercially produce large amount of essential oil with efficient heating system. Objective of this study is to quantify the oil production rate using automated steam distillation and analyze the composition of volatiles in Kaffir lime peels oil at different controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions. From the experimentation, oil extraction from Kaffir lime peels only took approximately less than 3 hours with amount of oil yield was 13.4 % more than uncontrolled temperature. The identified major compounds from Kaffir lime peels oil were sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, linalool, terpinolene and citronellal which are considered to have good organoleptic quality. In contrast with uncontrolled temperature, oil analysis revealed that some important volatile compounds were absent such as terpinolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol due to thermal degradation effect from fast heating of extracted material. (author)

  4. Measurements of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the oil sands region of Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Li, S. M.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K. L.; Wang, D. K.; Staebler, R. M.; Liu, P.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R.; Liggio, J.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and represent an important fraction of volatile organic compounds. Additionally some OVOC species may pose health risks. OVOCs can affect the oxidative and radiative budget of the atmosphere since they are precursors to ground level ozone, hydroxyl radicals and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). OVOCs such as methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, crotonaldehyde, methylvinylketone (MVK), methylethylketone (MEK) and acrolein can be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Additionally, they are the secondary products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons (biogenic and anthropogenic). Understanding the magnitude of these sources is a prerequisite for accurate representations of radical cycling, ozone production and SOA formation in air quality models. The sources of OVOCs in the Alberta Oil Sands (OS) region have not previously been well characterized. In the summer of 2013, airborne measurements of various OVOCs were made in the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, crotonaldehyde, MVK, MEK, acrolein as well as other hydrocarbons. Emission ratios (ER) for several OVOCs (relative to carbon monoxide; CO) were used to estimate direct anthropogenic emissions from OS industrial sources, while the calculated OH radical exposures were used to estimate the production and removal of secondary anthropogenic OVOCs. The results indicate that OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and MVK have both primary and secondary anthropogenic and biogenic sources. However, species such as methanol and acrolein are from biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The results of this work will help to characterize sources of OVOCs and the factors influencing their atmospheric fate in the Oil Sands region.

  5. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  6. Volatility Spillovers and Causality of Carbon Emissions, Oil and Coal Spot and Futures for the EU and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that the efforts to limit climate change should focus on reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over other greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Many countries are paying substantial attention to carbon emissions to improve air quality and public health. The largest source of carbon emissions from human activities in some countries in Europe and elsewhere is from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation. The prices of fuel and carbon emissions can influence each other. Owing to the importance of carbon emissions and their connection to fossil fuels, and the possibility of [1] Granger (1980 causality in spot and futures prices, returns, and volatility of carbon emissions, crude oil and coal have recently become very important research topics. For the USA, daily spot and futures prices are available for crude oil and coal, but there are no daily futures prices for carbon emissions. For the European Union (EU, there are no daily spot prices for coal or carbon emissions, but there are daily futures prices for crude oil, coal and carbon emissions. For this reason, daily prices will be used to analyse Granger causality and volatility spillovers in spot and futures prices of carbon emissions, crude oil, and coal. As the estimators are based on quasi-maximum likelihood estimators (QMLE under the incorrect assumption of a normal distribution, we modify the likelihood ratio (LR test to a quasi-likelihood ratio test (QLR to test the multivariate conditional volatility Diagonal BEKK model, which estimates and tests volatility spillovers, and has valid regularity conditions and asymptotic properties, against the alternative Full BEKK model, which also estimates volatility spillovers, but has valid regularity conditions and asymptotic properties only under the null hypothesis of zero off-diagonal elements. Dynamic hedging strategies by using optimal hedge ratios are suggested to analyse market fluctuations in the

  7. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the results with previous observation data. The concentrations were compared with the currently used air quality standards. Results Evaporation was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold higher than the emissions produced from a surrounding industrial complex. The modeled concentrations for benzene failed to meet current labor environmental standards, and the concentration of benzene, toluene, ortho- meta- para-xylene were higher than the values specified by air quality standards and guideline values on the ocean. The concentrations of total VOCs were much higher than indoor environmental criteria for the entire Taean area for a few days. Conclusions The extent of airborne exposure was clearly not the same as that for normal conditions. PMID:22468262

  8. Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto; Avendaño Meza, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa. (Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto y Avendaño Meza, Mairsabel) Abstract The extraction and chemical composition of essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb (Lamiaceae) and its inhibitory effects on germation and shoot/root elongation of lettuce, tomato, cucumber and Bidens pilosa (L...

  9. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  10. Characterization of Volatile Compounds with HS-SPME from Oxidized n-3 PUFA Rich Oils via Rancimat Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Min; Cheng, Ming-Ching; Chen, Chih-Wei; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Lin, Li-Yun; Chiang, Po-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Algae oil and fish oil are n-3 PUFA mainstream commercial products. The various sources for the stability of n-3 PUFA oxidation are influenced by the fatty acid composition, extraction and refined processing. In this study, the oil stability index (OSI) occurs within 2.3 to 7.6 hours with three different n-3 PUFA rich oil. To set the OSI in the Rancimat test as the oil stability limit and observed various degrees of oxidation (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%). The volatile oxidation compounds were analyzed via headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC/MS. We detected 51 volatile compound variations during the oxidation, which were composed of aldehydes, hydrocarbons, cyclic compounds, alcohols, benzene compounds, ketones, furans, ester and pyrrolidine. The off-flavor characteristics can be strongly influenced by the synergy effects of volatile oxidation compounds. Chemometric analysis (PCA and AHC) was applied to identify the sensitive oxidation marker compounds, which included a (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal appropriate marker, via lipid oxidation in the n-3 PUFA rich oil.

  11. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANNE S. FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56% and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%.

  12. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive

  13. Forecasting the volatility of crude oil futures using intra-day data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevi, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    We use the information in intra-day data to forecast the volatility of crude oil at a horizon of 1 to 66 days using a variety of models relying on the decomposition of realized variance in its positive or negative (semi-variances) part and its continuous or discontinuous part (jumps). We show the importance of these decompositions in predictive regressions using a number of specifications. Nevertheless, an important empirical finding comes from an out-of-sample analysis which unambiguously shows the limited interest of considering these components. Overall, our results indicates that a simple autoregressive specification mimicking long memory and using past realized variances as predictors does not perform significantly worse than more sophisticated models which include the various components of realized variance. (author)

  14. Encapsulation of Volatile Citronella Essential Oil by Coacervation: Efficiency and Release Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, M. A.; Subuki, I.; Jai, J.; Raslan, R.; Mustapa, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The volatile citronella essential oil was encapsulated by simple coacervation and complex coacervation using Arabic gum and gelatin as wall material. Glutaraldehyde was used in the methodology as crosslinking agent. The citronella standard calibration graph obtained with R2 of 0.9523 was used for the accurate determination of encapsulation efficiency and release study. The release kinetic was analysed based on Fick"s law of diffusion for polymeric system and linear graph of Log fraction release over Log time was constructed to determine the release rate constant, k and diffusion coefficient, n. Both coacervation methods in the present study produce encapsulation efficiency around 94%. The produced capsules for both coacervation processes were discussed based on the capsules morphology and release kinetic mechanisms.

  15. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  16. Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

  17. Oil-Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Spillovers in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from a Multivariate GARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegerty Scott W.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent commodity price declines have added to worldwide macroeconomic risk, which has had serious effects on both commodity exporters and manufacturers that use oil and raw materials. These effects have been keenly felt in Central and Eastern Europe—particularly in Russia, but also in European Union member states. This study tests for spillovers among commodity-price and macroeconomic volatility by applying a VAR(1-MGARCH model to monthly time series for eight CEE countries. Overall, we find that oil prices do indeed have effects throughout the region, as do spillovers among exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, and output, but that they differ from country to country—particularly when different degrees of transition and integration are considered. While oil prices have a limited impact on the currencies of Russia and Ukraine, they do make a much larger contribution to the two countries’ macroeconomic volatility than do spillovers among the other macroeconomic variables.

  18. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E-nerolidol (52.5%, τ-cadinol (21.6% and S-falcarinol (3.6%. Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E-nerolidol (2 g, τ-cadinol (62 mg and S-falcarinol (21 mg, were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  19. Incubation of Aquilaria subintegra with Microbial Culture Supernatants Enhances Production of Volatile Compounds and Improves Quality of Agarwood Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Kulsing, Chadin; Wong, Yong Foo; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2018-06-01

    Incubation with microbial culture supernatants improved essential oil yield from Aquilaria subintegra woodchips. The harvested woodchips were incubated with de man, rogosa and sharpe (MRS) agar, yeast mold (YM) agar medium and six different microbial culture supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus , L. acidophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis , Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae prior to hydrodistillation. Incubation with lactic acid bacteria supernatants provided higher yield of agarwood oil (0.45% w/w) than that obtained from yeast (0.25% w/w), agar media (0.23% w/w) and water (0.22% w/w). The composition of agarwood oil from all media and microbial supernatant incubations was investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, three major volatile profiles were obtained, which corresponded to water soaking (control), as well as, both YM and MRS media, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast supernatant incubations. Sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives were key components of agarwood oil. Fifty-two volatile components were tentatively identified in all samples. Beta-agarofuran, α-eudesmol, karanone, α-agarofuran and agarospirol were major components present in most of the incubated samples, while S. cerevisiae -incubated A. subintegra provided higher amount of phenyl acetaldehyde. Microbial culture supernatant incubation numerically provided the highest yield of agarwood oil compared to water soaking traditional method, possibly resulting from activity of extracellular enzymes produced by the microbes. Incubation of agarwood with lactic acid bacteria supernatant significantly enhanced oil yields without changing volatile profile/composition of agarwood essential oil, thus this is a promising method for future use.

  20. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  2. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  3. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  4. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84 % of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR exhibited clear deposition of 1 mg m−2 h−1, with a small average canopy resistance of 230 s m−1. Approximately 15 % of the resolved BVOC flux from oil palm trees could be attributed to floral emissions, which are thought to be the largest reported biogenic source of estragole and possibly also toluene. Although on average the midday volume mixing ratio of estragole exceeded that of toluene by almost a factor of two, the corresponding fluxes of these two compounds were nearly the same, amounting to 0.81 and 0.76 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. By fitting the canopy temperature and PAR response of the MEGAN emissions algorithm for isoprene and other emitted BVOCs a basal emission rate of isoprene of 7.8 mg m−2 h−1 was derived. We parameterise fluxes of depositing compounds using a resistance approach using direct canopy measurements of deposition. Consistent with Karl et al. (2010, we also propose that it is important to include deposition in flux models, especially for secondary oxidation products, in order to improve flux predictions.

  5. Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Comparison with Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in new products from aromatic plants as medical and nutritional compounds is increasing. The aim of this work was to apply different extraction methods, including the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and to test the antioxidant activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. In vitro efficacy assessments were performed using enzymatic assays. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and volatile oil obtained from supercritical fluid extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify components. The total phenolic content in the extracts ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 85.3 ± 8.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 93.3 ± 3.9 micromole catechin equivalents per gram of dry weight of extract. All the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and the reducing power test. Extracts obtained from methanol had a higher antioxidant capacity per the DPPH test results (IC50 = 3.05 ± 0.36 mg/mL and the reducing power test assay 306.8 ± 21.8 μmol of trolox equivalents per gram of extract (TE/g compared with ethanolic or supercritical fluid extracts. However, using the ABTS assay, the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction had a higher antioxidant capacity with an IC50 of 1.74 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Finally, the examined extracts showed practically no acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory capacity and a slight inhibitory activity against tyrosinase.

  6. Chemical Composition of Volatiles; Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Goran M; Stamenković, Jelena G; Kostevski, Ivana R; Stojanović, Gordana S; Mitić, Violeta D; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oils obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticum root and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and MeOH extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity (47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); MeOH extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  8. [Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient uptake and synthesis of volatile oil in Schizonepeta tenuifolia briq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, G; Wang, H

    1991-03-01

    Inoculating Schizonepeta tenuifolia with VA mycorrhizal fungi can significantly improve the plant growth and uptake of P and S, and influence the absorption of K, Na, Fe, Mo, Mn, Zn, Co, Ba, Ni and Pb. It is interesting to note that VA mycorrhiza can also increase the synthesis of volatile oil in the shoots of S. tenuifolia. The efficiency of VA mycorrhiza varies with the fungal species.

  9. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A

    2013-02-05

    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  10. Essential Oil Composition and Volatile Profile of Seven Helichrysum Species Grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Silvia; De Leo, Marinella; Cervelli, Claudio; Ruffoni, Barbara; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Pistelli, Luisa

    2018-03-06

    Helichrysum genus consists of about 600 species widespread throughout the world, especially in South Africa and in the Mediterranean area. In this study the aroma profile (HS-SPME) and the EO compositions of seven Helichrysum species (H. cymosum, H. odoratissimum, H. petiolare, H. fontanesii, H. saxatile, H. sanguineum, and H. tenax) were evaluated. All the plants were grown in Italy under the same growth conditions. The volatile constituents, particularly monoterpenes, depended by the plant's genotype and ecological adaptation. This study represents the first headspace evaluation on the selected plants and the results evidenced that monoterpenes represented the main class of constituents in five of the seven species analysed (from 59.2% to 95.0%). The higher content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was observed in the Mediterranean species of H. sanguineum (68.0%). Only H. saxatile showed relative similar abundance of monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil composition of the majority of examined species are characterised by high percentage of sesquiterpenes (especially β-caryophyllene and δ-cadinene) ranging from 51.3% to 92.0%, except for H. cymosum, H. tenax, and H. sanguineum leaves where monoterpenes predominated (from 51.7% to 74.7%). © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Prediction of ambient concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the Sea Empress oil spill using vapour and oil property models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, D.J.; Ellis, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Modelling has been used to estimate concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), 1,3 butadiene and total hydrocarbons due to evaporation of volatiles from the Sea Empress oil spill. This involved estimating the release rates of oil during each tidal cycle, calculating the spread and evaporation rate of the oil and then using the dispersion model ADMS to determine concentrations in air of the species. The calculations generally show that the highest concentrations occur directly above recently released oil (released within the last 12 hours). Concentrations on land were generally small as the predominant wind directions were seaward throughout the period when the oil spill would have been evaporating. However, total hydrocarbon concentrations measured at various land sites were significant during the spill period even when the wind was blowing away from the monitoring sites. The measured concentrations were also high for a further period after the spill when evaporation of the spilled oil would have decreased to small levels. This suggests that much of the measured hydrocarbons were emitted from other sources (e.g. the oil refineries). (author)

  12. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in real-time on oil and natural gas production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, R.; Franklin, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Oil and Natural Gas (O&NG) development, production, infrastructure, and associated processing activities can be a substantial source of air pollution, yet relevant data and real-time quantification methods are lacking. In the current study, O&NG fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were quantified in real-time and used to determine the spatial and temporal windows of exposure for proximate flora and fauna. Eleven O&NG sites on the Pawnee National Grassland in Northeastern Colorado were randomly selected and grouped according to production along with 13 control sites from three geographical locations. At each site, samples were collected 25 m from the wellhead in NE, SE, and W directions. In each direction, two samples were collected with a Gasmet DX4040 gas analyzer every hour from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm (6 hours total), July to October, 2016 (N=864). VOC concentrations generally increased during the 6 hr. day with the exception of N2O and were predominately the result of O&NG production and not vehicle exhaust. Thirteen of 24 VOCs had significantly different levels between production groups, frequently above reference standards and at biologically relevant levels for flora and fauna. The most biologically relevant VOCs, found at concentrations exceeding time weighted average permissible exposure limits (TWA PELs), were benzene and acrolein. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) measured the relative quality of statistical models predicting benzene concentrations on sites. The data not only confirms that O&NG emissions are impacting the region, but also that this influence is present at all sites, including controls. Increased real-time VOC monitoring on O&NG sites is required to identify and contain fugitive emissions and to protect human and environmental health.

  14. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  15. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Setó, L; Purroy, P; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the volatile fractions of 16 essential oils for activity against the more common fungi causing spoilage of bakery products, Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium corylophilum. The study applied 50 microl of pure essential oils in a sterilized filter paper, were carried out at pH 6 and at different water activity levels (0.80-0.90). First, a wheat flour based agar medium was used, where cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils where found to totally inhibit all microorganisms tested. These five essential oils were then tested in sponge cake analogues, but the antifungal activity detected was much more limited. Five essential oils showed potential antifungal capacity against all species tested, over a wide range of water availability. Their activity, however, seems to be substrate-dependent. More research is needed to make them work in real bakery products, as in the preliminary study limited effectiveness was found. The potential of the cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils against species belonging to Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genus has been demonstrated.

  16. Evaluation of the Volatile Oil Composition and Antiproliferative Activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae on Breast Cancer Cell Line Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abu-Dahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae fruits and leaves grown in Jordan were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the fruits resulted in the identification of 45 components representing 99.7 % of the total oil content, while the leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds representing 93.7% of the total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the main component in the fruit and leaf oils. Using sulphorhodamine B assay; the crude ethanol fraction, among other solvent extracts, showed strong antiproliferative activity for both leaves and fruits, nevertheless, the fruits were more potent against both breast cancer cell models (MCF7 and T47D. At IC 50 values ; the mechanism of apoptosis was nevertheless different: where L. nobilis fruit proapoptotic efficacy was not regulated by either p53 or p21, L. nobilis leaf extract components enhanced the p53 levels substantially. In both extracts, apoptosis was not caspase-8 or Fas Ligand and sFas (Fas/APO-1 dependent. Our studies highlight L. nobilis as a potential natural agent for breast cancer therapy. Compared with non induced basal cells, both L. nobilis fruits and leaves induced a significant enrichment in the cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes after assumed induction of programmed MCF7 cell death.

  17. Essential Oils and Pure Volatile Compounds as Potential Drugs in Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: An Updated Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The use of aromatic plants to relief different illness is not a new therapy. Actually aromatic plants have been used for many centuries by different cultures around the world. Pharmacological studies provide scientific support to the traditional use of aromatic medicinal plants and aromatherapy; nevertheless, more clinical trials are required regarding to their effectiveness in order to establish a guidance for their use in routine healthcare. Moreover, modern medicine in studies about olfactory function has attained great achievements and got Nobel Prize in 2004. These new searches have obviously fueled interest in the essential oils and volatile compounds of natural origin. Several reviews on the newly discovered AChEi obtained from plants, fungus and marine organisms have also been published over the last years. The majority of these AChEi belong to the alkaloid group, including indole, isoquinoline, quinolizidine, piperidine and steroidal alkaloids. Probably the interest in the essential oils and volatile compounds will be fueled from the new available scientific data about receptor on olfactory mucosa of nasal cavity. It can receive and distinguish different odor molecules, which produce nerve impulse and transmit into olfactory bulb via olfactory nerves. The nerve cells in the olfactory bulb transmit the signals into hippocampus. Because hippocampus is closely related with learning and memory functions, the volatile compounds can be potential drugs in AD therapies.

  18. Volatile constituents of the peel and leaf oils of Citrus limon L. Burm. f. from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Mardarowicz, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The peel and leaf oils ofCitrus limon L. from Benin were analyzed by capillary GC on two columns of different polarity, and by GCIMS. In these oils 42 and 27 components were identified, representing over 99.7% ofthe oils. The main constituents of the lemon peel oil were limonene (70.4%), y-terpinene

  19. Forecasting the density of oil futures returns using model-free implied volatility and high-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielpo, Florian; Sevi, Benoit

    2013-09-01

    Forecasting the density of returns is useful for many purposes in finance, such as risk management activities, portfolio choice or derivative security pricing. Existing methods to forecast the density of returns either use prices of the asset of interest or option prices on this same asset. The latter method needs to convert the risk-neutral estimate of the density into a physical measure, which is computationally cumbersome. In this paper, we take the view of a practitioner who observes the implied volatility under the form of an index, namely the recent OVX, to forecast the density of oil futures returns for horizons going from 1 to 60 days. Using the recent methodology in Maheu and McCurdy (2011) to compute density predictions, we compare the performance of time series models using implied volatility and either daily or intra-daily futures prices. Our results indicate that models based on implied volatility deliver significantly better density forecasts at all horizons, which is in line with numerous studies delivering the same evidence for volatility point forecast. (authors)

  20. Determination of the vertical distribution and areal of the composition in volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Santos, Nicolas; Ortiz Cancino, Olga Patricia; Barrios Ortiz, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The compositional variation in vertical and areal direction due to gravitational and thermal effects plays an important role in the determination of the original reserves in-situ and in the selection of the operation scheme for volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs. In this work we presented the mathematical formulation of the thermodynamic behavior experienced by compositional fluids, such as volatile oil and/or gas condensate, under the influence of the mentioned effects (gravitational and thermal), which was implemented in a software tool, this tool determine the compositional variation in vertical direction and, in addition, it allows to know the saturation pressure variation in the hydrocarbon column and the location of the gas-oil contact. With the obtained results, product of the use of this tool, was developed a methodology to obtain one first approach of the compositional variation in areal direction to obtain compositional spatial distribution (iso composition maps) in the reservoir, for components like the methane, which experiences the greater variations. These iso composition maps allow to determine the location of the hydrocarbon deposits, in such a way that the production strategies can be selected and be applied to maximize the recovery, such as in fill wells, perforation of new zones, EOR processes, etc

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Fennel and Geranium Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Seoud, M. A.; Helal, I. M. M.; Sarhan, M. M.; Galal, A. M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils of fennel and geranium were gamma irradiated with doses of 0,10,20,30 and 40 kGy. The studied oils were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas citri). Both oils were used in four concentrations of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm. The investigated oils showed different inhibition effects against the tested microorganisms. Gamma irradiated oils increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. Generally, increasing oil concentration increased antimicrobial activity of the used oils and that of 4000 ppm was the most effective one. The essential oils were analyzed by G.C. to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the oil components. (authors)

  2. Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils of Three Species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae Grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lelis Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae grown in Brazil. The chemical composition of the volatile oils of L. flavescens and L. petersonii did not show any significant seasonal variation in the major components, while for Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum the levels of major constituents of the volatile oils varied with the harvest season. Major fluctuations in the composition of L. madidum subsp. sativum oil included α-pinene (0–15.2%, β-pinene (0.3–18.5%, α-humulene (0.8–30%, 1,8-cineole (0.4–7.1% and E-caryophyllene (0.4–11.9%. Levels of β-pinene (0.3–5.6%, terpinen-4-ol (4.7–7.2% and nerolidol (55.1–67.6% fluctuated seasonally in the L. flavescens oil. In L. petersonii, changes were noted for geranial (29.8–32.8%, citronellal (26.5–33.9% and neral (22.7–23.5%. The activity of the volatile oils against the tested bacteria differed, depending on season the oils were obtained. In general, the volatile oils were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Determination of volatile organic compounds in eucalyptus fast pyrolysis bio-oil by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski Lima, Nathalya; Romualdo Lopes, André; Gimenes Guerrero, Palimecio; Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos; Augusto Hansel, Fabricio

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bio-oil (i.e. methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid and furfural). The method uses a 4μL sample of bio-oil in a headspace vial (ca. 20mL). Complete evaporation of the compounds was achieved after seven minutes at 90°C. The method showed good precision and accuracy for methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid. The recovery of furfural was low (74.3%). The results showed that the protocol can be applied for the determination of methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid in bio-oil. Detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 0.16μg. Acetic acid was the dominant analyte in the heavy bio-oil and light bio-oil analysis (113. 3 and 85.1µgmg -1 , respectively), followed by methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The polymerisation of furfural was suspected as the cause of its poor quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies concerning the production of volatile oil, rhizomes and roots, to different genotypes of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. is considered to pertain to European species, with great ecologic plasticity, which allows its adaptation to climate conditions characteristics to plain areas and also to mountain areas up to an altitude of 2400 meters. The species is a well-known curative plant, with a long history and multiple uses. Essential oils deriving from this species revealed the interest of researchers in food industry, cosmetics and officinal industry, furthermore being used as additives too.The raw material from which essential oils are being extracted is represented mainly by rhizomes and roots. This study has the purpose to emphasize the differences of essential oils production registered based upon the genotypes diversity. Thus, 11 experimental variants have been used, with biologic material of different origin, from Romania, Poland, Germany and Russia; they have been measured in relation to their production of rhizomes, roots and volatile oil, in the ecological conditions of Brasov, Romania.The results proved the superiority of the variants was used Romanian variety M-100, but have also revealed a negative correlation between capacity and essential oil biosynthesis.

  5. On the effects of world stock market and oil price shocks on food prices: An empirical investigation based on TVP-VAR models with stochastic volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebabli, Ikram; Arouri, Mohamed; Teulon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of price shocks from one market to another one has long been investigated in the economic literature. However, studies have namely dealt with the relationship between financial and energy markets. With the recent changes in market conditions, investors, policy-makers and interest groups are giving special attention to food market. This paper aims at analyzing shock transmission between international food, energy and financial markets and to provide some insights into the volatility behavior during the past years and discuss its implications for portfolio management. To do this, we present a new time varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility approach which provides extreme flexibility with a parsimonious specification. We resort also to a generalized vector autoregressive framework in which forecast-error variance decompositions are invariant to the variable ordering for the assessment of total and directional volatility spillovers. Our main findings suggest that volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis and, namely after mid-2008, when stock markets become net transmitter of volatility shocks while crude oil becomes a net receiver. Shocks to crude oil or MSCI markets have immediate and short-term impacts on food markets which are emphasized during the financial crisis period. Moreover, we show that augmenting a diversified portfolio of food commodities with crude oil or stocks significantly increases its risk-adjusted performance. - Highlights: • We study shock transmission between food, energy and financial markets. • We use a new time-varying parameter VAR model with stochastic volatility. • There is volatility spillover from oil and stock markets to food. • Volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis, namely after mid-2008. • Augmenting a portfolio of foods with oil or stocks increases its performance

  6. Determination of Vaporization Properties and Volatile Hazardous Components Relevant to Kukersite Oil Shale Derived Fuel Oil Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada TRAUMANN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate vaporization properties of shale fuel oil in relation to inhalation exposure. The shale fuel oil was obtained from kukersite oil shale. The shale oil and its light fraction (5 % of the total fuel oil were characterized by vapor pressure curve, molecular weight distribution, elemental composition and functional groups based on FTIR spectra. The rate of vaporization from the total fuel oil at different temperatures was monitored as a function of time using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. It is shown that despite its relatively low vapor pressure at room temperature a remarkable amount of oil vaporizes influencing air quality significantly. From the TGA data the changes in the vapor pressure during vaporization process were estimated. Although the shale fuel oil has a strong, unpleasant smell, the main hazards to workplace air quality depend on the vaporization rate of different toxic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, xylene or phenolic compounds. The presence of these hazardous substances in the vapor phase of shale fuel oil was monitored using headspace analysis coupled with selective ion monitoring (SIM and confirmed by the NIST Mass Spectral library and retention times of standards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4549

  7. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  8. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  9. A Comparison of the Volatile Components of Cold Pressed Hamlin and Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Orange Oils Affected by Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from huanglongbing (HLB symptomatic and asymptomatic cold pressed orange oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia fruit were assessed. Qualitative gas-liquid chromatography studies showed the presence of several compounds (β-longifolene, perillene, and 4-decenal which are not commonly identified in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck oils. Oils derived from huanglongbing symptomatic fruit had lower concentrations of linalool, decanal, citronellol, neral, geranial, carvone, dodecanal, and 2-decenal and higher concentrations of citronellal compared to asymptomatic fruit. A comparison to historic literature of orange oil investigations before HLB was of issue in Florida orange crops showed lower levels of linalool, decanal, neral, and geranial in Hamlin peel oil samples, as well as higher levels of dodecanal. Valencia peel oil samples showed lower concentrations of linalool and increased concentration of citronellol and dodecanal. As a result of huanglongbing (HLB phenomena, the concentrations of several important volatiles found in Hamlin and Valencia peel oil profiles have changed compared to historic values. Differences in volatile concentrations of symptomatic and asymptomatic HLB affected peel oil compounds in orange fruit are identified.

  10. DOES VOLATILITY IN CRUDE OIL PRICE PRECIPITATE MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayoola Omojolaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of crude oil price changes on economic activity in an oil dependent economy-Nigeria. A small open economy structural vector autoregressive (SVAR technique is employed to study the macroeconomic dynamics of domestic price level, economic output, money supply and oil price in Nigeria. The sample covers the data from 1985:q1 to 2010:q4. The Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and the Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs results suggest that domestic policies, instead of oil-boom should be blamed for inflation. Also, oil price variations are driven mostly by oil shocks, however, domestic shocks are responsible for a reasonable portion of oil price variations.

  11. Modeling of volatile and phenolic compounds and optimization of the process conditions for obtaining balanced extra virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Vidal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to obtain extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs which are balanced in volatile and phenolic compounds. An experimental design was performed and response surface methodology was applied. The factors for malaxation were: temperature 20-40 °C, time 30-90 min, and hole diameter of hammer-crusher 4.5-6.5 mm. The results show that high temperatures and small hole diameter must be used in order to obtain a higher content in phenolic compounds, while for volatile compounds a low temperature and large hole diameter must be used. The models predict that the best and more balanced EVOO are obtained with the hole diameter of greater size and a medium-low temperature. Thus, for a hammer-crusher hole diameter of 6.5 mm 337 and 356 mg/kg total HPLC phenols were obtained for malaxation temperature of 20 and 25 °C, respectively and, likewise, 12.7 and 11.5 mg/kg total LOX volatiles.

  12. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines.

  13. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  14. Comparison and characterization of volatile compounds as markers of oils stability during frying by HS-SPME-GC/MS and Chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Freitas, Flavia; Ammar, Sonda; Da Silva, M D R Gomes; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    The formation and emission of volatile compounds, including the aldehydes and some toxic compounds of oil samples, ROPO pure (100%) and the blended ROPO/RCO (80-20%), were carried out during deep frying at 180°C. The volatile profile of both oil samples was evaluated by an optimized HS-SPME-GC/MS method, before and after 20, 40 and 60 successive sessions of deep-frying. Actually, from 100 detected compounds, aldehydes were found to be the main group formed. In addition, the oil degradation under thermal treatment regarding the volatile compounds were evaluated and compared. Consequently, the blended ROPO/RCO revealed fewer formations of unsaturated aldehydes, including toxic ones, such as acrolein, and showed a greater stability against oxidative thermal degradation compared to ROPO pure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus gramineus for treatment of the Alzheimer's disease rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Niu, Wen-Min; Yang, Xiao-Hang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Gang

    2010-12-01

    To probe into the therapeutic effect of perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus on the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat. Totally 50 adult SD rats, male,weighing 300 +/- 10 g, were randomly divided into 5 groups, normal group (group A), olfactory nerve severing model group (group B), AD model group (group C), AD model plus perfume stimulation group (group D), AD model olfactory nerve severing plus perfume stimulation group (group E), 10 rats in each group. After perfume stimulation, Morris maze test was conducted for valuating the learning and memory ability; Malondaldehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain, and the brain weight were detected. Compared with the AD model group, the average escape latency and swimming distance in 6 days were significantly shorter than those in the group A, B, D (P 0.05); Compared with the group A, B and D, MDA content in the group C significantly increased (P 0.05). Perfume stimultating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus can significantly increase the learning-memory ability, decrease MDA content and increase SOD and GSH-Px activities and weight of brain in AD rats.

  16. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26-42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  17. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Talita Signoreti; Calil, Caroline Morini; Sartoratto, Adilson; Franco, Gilson César Nobre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cogo-Müller, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (pendodontalis (pendodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  18. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  19. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  1. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  2. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  3. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  4. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  5. Volatility spillover between crude oil and exchange rate: A copula-CARR approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Y. J.; Guo, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Oil provides a powerful impetus for modern society's production and life. The influences of oil price fluctuations on socio-economic development are obvious, and it draws more attention from scholars. However, the distribution of oil is highly centralized, which leads to the vast majority of oil trading through foreign trade. As a result, exchange rate plays an important role in the oil business. Study on the relationship between exchange rate and crude oil gradually becomes a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, we use copula and CARR model to study correlation structure and relationship between crude oil price and exchange rate. We establish CARR models as marginal models and use five copulas which are Gaussian Copula, Student-t Copula, Gumbel Copula, Clayton Copula and Frank Copula to study the correlation structure between NYMEX crude oil price range and U. S. Dollar Index range. Furthermore, we use Copula-CARR model with structural breaks to detect the change points in the correlation structure between NYMEX crude oil price range and U. S. Dollar Index range. Empirical results show that the change points are closely related to the actual economic events.

  6. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Profiles of Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oil from Buža, Črna and Rosinjola Cultivars in Istria (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sladonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds found in virgin olive oil, mainly C6 and C5 volatile compounds biogenerated from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for their particular aroma. The composition of volatile compounds in olive oil depends on the cultivar, the ripening degree of the fruits and processing conditions. Among many different autochthonous cultivars in Istria (Croatia, some of the most prevalent are Buža, Črna and Rosinjola. The volatiles and sensory characteristics of their monovarietal virgin olive oil are little known. Therefore, fruits from these three cultivars were handpicked at the same ripening degree and processed under the same conditions. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of monovarietal virgin olive oil was carried out by the panel. Volatile composition was evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, previously optimized and validated. The main parameters affecting effectiveness, time and temperature of extraction were optimized. The extraction procedure showed detection and quantification limits, as well as linear ranges adequate for the analysis of selected volatile compounds. Good precision was obtained both in terms of intra-day repeatability (relative standard deviations generally lower than 7 % and inter-day precision. The tested types of monovarietal olive oil showed different volatile profiles, although E-2-hexenal was the main compound in all samples. Buža oil was the richest in total C6 and C5 volatile compounds. The results show that the most important contributors to the olive oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one, E-2-hexenal, hexanal, hexanol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol and Z-2-penten-1-ol. These chemical findings were compared with those provided by the panel test. Buža had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'other ripe fruits' and Rosinjola had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'bitter'. All results show

  7. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyler, Aidan [European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  8. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyler, Aidan

    2009-01-01

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  9. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  10. The impact of oil price volatility on the future of the U.S. economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Roy; Doroodian, K.; Thornton, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a foreign oil price shock on domestic energy markets as well as the U.S. economy as a whole. The analytical approach employed in the analysis consisted of a dynamic CGE model composed of eight production sectors, eight consumption sectors, three household categories classified by income, foreign sector, and the government. The results show that oil price shocks will have, as expected, a significantly positive effect on crude oil production. We also find that such price shocks negatively affect the refinery sector as input costs rise there. A decline in per-well productivity has the effect of dampening the rise in crude oil extraction and causing a further decline in refinery output. Economy-wide, the impact of a new series of oil price shocks is quite limited with overall welfare falling, but nowhere near the levels experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s. (Author)

  11. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  12. External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver — A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Pang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera, also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%, were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.

  13. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an oil and gas station in northwest China for 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huang; Kong, Shaofei; Xing, Xinli; Mao, Yao; Hu, Tianpeng; Ding, Yang; Li, Gang; Liu, Dantong; Li, Shuanglin; Qi, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    Oil and natural gas are important for energy supply around the world. The exploring, drilling, transportation and processing in oil and gas regions can release a lot of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To understand the VOC levels, compositions and sources in such regions, an oil and gas station in northwest China was chosen as the research site and 57 VOCs designated as the photochemical precursors were continuously measured for an entire year (September 2014-August 2015) using an online monitoring system. The average concentration of total VOCs was 297 ± 372 ppbv and the main contributor was alkanes, accounting for 87.5 % of the total VOCs. According to the propylene-equivalent concentration and maximum incremental reactivity methods, alkanes were identified as the most important VOC groups for the ozone formation potential. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that the annual average contributions from natural gas, fuel evaporation, combustion sources, oil refining processes and asphalt (anthropogenic and natural sources) to the total VOCs were 62.6 ± 3.04, 21.5 ± .99, 10.9 ± 1.57, 3.8 ± 0.50 and 1.3 ± 0.69 %, respectively. The five identified VOC sources exhibited various diurnal patterns due to their different emission patterns and the impact of meteorological parameters. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models based on backward trajectory analysis indicated that the five identified sources had similar geographic origins. Raster analysis based on CWT analysis indicated that the local emissions contributed 48.4-74.6 % to the total VOCs. Based on the high-resolution observation data, this study clearly described and analyzed the temporal variation in VOC emission characteristics at a typical oil and gas field, which exhibited different VOC levels, compositions and origins compared with those in urban and industrial areas.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nonanoic acid (7.58%, (E-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%, and benzothiazole (5.08% were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%, eugenol (17.18%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl ester (13.19%, and (E,E-farnesylacetone (7.15% were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%, (E-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%, linalool oxide (7.47%, 1-hexanol (7.07%, and benzothiazole (6.72% were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 100.0 μg/mL to 800.0 μg/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were from 68.32 μg/mL to 452.32 μg/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 μg/mL, 210.63 μg/mL, and 264.92 μg/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 μg/mL, 184.13 μg/mL, and 206.11 μg/mL respectively for the β-carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  15. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  16. Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    OpenAIRE

    C. Warneke; F. Geiger; P. M. Edwards; W. Dube; G. Pétron; J. Kofler; A. Zahn; S. S. Brown; M. Graus; J. Gilman; B. Lerner; J. Peischl; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. de Gouw; J. M. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aroma...

  18. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Securidaca longepedunculata Fers. GROWING IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of roots bark of Securidacaca longepedunculata Fers. (Polygalaceae growing in Savalou, Biguinan and Gbegrou (Benin were analyzed using capillary GC and GC/MS. Seven compounds representing (99.5%; 99.1%; 99.3% respectively of the oils were identified. The major compound was found to be methyl salicylate respectively (98.0%; 98.6%; 98.7%. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was found to be high, and medium antiradical activity was observed.

  19. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  20. Seasonal variation in the composition of volatile oils from Schinus terebinthifolius raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Almeida Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves, ripe and unripe fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius growing in Brazil were investigated. Oil content from either ripe or unripe fruits was similar (4.65% and 3.98%, respectively. Sesquiterpenes (from 78.0% to 90.4% dominated the oil content of both leaves and unripe fruit. The essential oils were tested in vitro for their allelopathic activity on germination and radicle growth of Lactuca sativa and Cucumis sativus at 1,000 and 10,000 µg mL-1concentrations. The three samples tested were more active in inhibiting the radicle growth for L. sativa (88.6-92.4% than for C. sativus (50.5-84.5% at 10,000 µg mL-1 concentration.

  1. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars.

  2. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  3. Studies on the possibilities of using a by-product resulting during the extraction of the volatile oils from conifer twigs and needles in the leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirita, A.; Toma, A.R.; Cocis, V.

    1979-01-01

    Organic by-products containing 19-40% tannin from the water extraction of volatile oils from spruce bark, twigs, and needles were useful when mixed in a 1:1 ratio with BCF synthetic tannin auxiliary to tan hide, and similar by-products containing 16-31% reducing substances could be used to replace glucose as reducing agent in chrome tanning.

  4. Transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Liao, Qinhong; Zou, Yong; Liu, Yiqing; Lan, Jianbin

    2017-10-23

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a popular flavoring that widely used in Asian, and the volatile oil in ginger rhizomes adds a special fragrance and taste to foods. The bioactive compounds in ginger, such as gingerols, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids, are of significant value to human health because of their anticancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as a non-model plant, knowledge about the genome sequences of ginger is extremely limited, and this limits molecular studies on this plant. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds in matured ginger rhizome (MG), young ginger rhizome (YG), and fibrous roots of ginger (FR). A total of 361,876 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly. The expression of genes involved in the pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds differed between tissues (MG, YG, and FR). Two pathways that give rise to volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids, the "terpenoid backbone biosynthesis" and "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis" pathways, were significantly enriched (adjusted P value < 0.05) for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.005) both between the FR and YG libraries, and the FR and MG libraries. Most of the unigenes mapped in these two pathways, including curcumin synthase, phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase, trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, were expressed to a significantly higher level (log 2 (fold-change) ≥ 1) in FR than in YG or MG. This study provides the first insight into the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in ginger at a molecular level and provides valuable genome resources for future molecular studies on ginger. Moreover, our results establish that bioactive compounds in ginger may predominantly synthesized in the root and then transported to

  5. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  6. Volatile oil profile of some lamiaceous plants growing in Saudi Arabia and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Farag, Mohamed A; Alshali, Khalid Z; Alsherif, Emad A; Ross, Samir A

    2017-01-01

    A comparative investigation of hydro-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML), Mentha microphylla K.Koch (MM), Mentha australis R.Br. (MA), and Teucrium polium L. (TP) growing in Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia, was carried out. The total numbers of identified constituents were 22, 23, 14, and 20 in ML, MM, MA, and TP oils, representing 93.0, 99.3, 78.1, and 81.1% of the total oil composition, respectively. Pulegone (40.7%) and cineole (33.4%) were the major components in ML, whereas carvone (64.6%) was the major one in MM. Furthermore, β-linalool (22.9%) and α-terpineol (12%) were the major components in MA, whereas, (E)-3-caren-2-ol accounted for 12.1% in TP. The essential oils of TP and MA exhibited promising activities against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC50 values of 2.3 and 3.7 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, MA essential oils exhibited antifungal activities towards Candida krusei and C. glabrata with IC50 values of 1 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively.

  7. The Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Macroeconomic Activity in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Ito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s a large number of studies using a vector autoregressive (VAR model have been made on the macroeconomic effects of oil price changes. However, surprisingly few studies have so far focused on Russia, the world’s second largest oil exporter. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables in Russia using the VAR model. The time span covered by the series is from 1994:Q1 to 2009:Q3, giving 63 observations. The analysis leads to the finding that a 1% increase (decrease in oil prices contributes to the depreciation (appreciation of the exchange rate by 0.17% in the long run, whereas it leads to a 0.46% GDP growth (decline. Likewise, we find that in the short run (8 quarters rising oil prices cause not only the GDP growth and the exchange rate depreciation, but also a marginal increase in inflation rate.

  8. Volatile oils from the aerial parts of Eremophila maculata and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fadia S; Hamoud, Razan; Ashour, Mohamed L; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the fresh flowers, fresh leaves, and both fresh and air-dried stems of Eremophila maculata (Scrophulariaceae) were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Sabinene was the major component in most of the oils, followed by limonene, α-pinene, benzaldehyde, (Z)-β-ocimene, and spathulenol. The leaf and flower essential oils showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacterial strains, multi-resistant clinical isolates from patients, i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as two yeasts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs) were between 0.25 and 4 mg/ml. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. The Effects of Oil Price Changes And Exchange Rate Volatility On Unemployment: Evidence From Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahidan Shaari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the effects of oil price and exchange rate on unemployment in Malaysia. The empirical analysis commence by analyzing the time series property of data. The Johansen VAR-based co-integration technique was applied to examine the long run relationship between exchange rate, oil price and unemployment and found the long run relationship does exist. The vector error correction model was performed to check the short run dynamics and found that the short run dynamics are influenced by the estimated long run equilibrium. Granger causality was done and found that oil price does not affect unemployment but exchange rate has an influence on unemployment. Therefore, putting the exchange rate under control should be implemented to control unemployment.

  10. Volatility spillover from world oil spot markets to aggregate and electricity stock index returns in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soytas, Ugur; Oran, Adil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the inter-temporal links between world oil prices, ISE 100 and ISE electricity index returns unadjusted and adjusted for market effects. The traditional approaches could not detect a causal relationship running from oil returns to any of the stock returns. However, when we examine the causality using Cheung-Ng approach we discover that world oil prices Granger cause electricity index and adjusted electricity index returns in variance, but not the aggregate market index returns. Hence, our results show that the Cheung-Ng procedure with the use of disaggregated stock index returns can uncover new information that went unnoticed with the traditional causality tests using aggregated market indices. (author)

  11. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maxia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

  12. Determination of tetrachloroethylene and other volatile halogenated organic compounds in oil wastes by headspace SPME GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Bezzi, R.; Torri, C.; Galletti, P.; Tagliavini, E. [Bologna Univ., Ravenna (Italy). Lab. of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A

    2007-09-15

    Oil wastes and slops are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, which may contain a variety of contaminants including tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) and other volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs). The analytical determination of PCE at trace levels in petroleum-derived matrices is difficult to carry out in the presence of large amounts of hydrocarbon matrix components. In the following study, we demonstrate that headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-MS analysis can be applied for the rapid measurement of PCE concentration in oil samples. The HS-SPME method was developed using liquid paraffin as matrix matching reference material for external and internal calibration and optimisation of experimental parameters. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg kg{sup -1}, and linearity was established up to 25 mg kg{sup -1}. The HS-SPME method was extended to several VHOCs, including trichloroethylene (TCE) in different matrices and was applied to the quantitative analysis of PCE and TCE in real samples.

  13. Uganda Country Economic Memorandum : Economic Diversification and Growth in the Era of Oil and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Government of Uganda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Ugandan government is to make Uganda an upper - middle income country within thirty years. Economic diversification is a key component of that strategy. The country economic memorandum (CEM) report discusses how the emergence of oil and mineral production can contribute to Uganda’s effort to promote economic diversification as a means to achieve sustainable and shared ...

  14. Volatile constituents of the essential oils of two Polygonum species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Van, le H.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Polygonum species grown in many places in Vietnam, esp. on the rice-field. It is used in the traditional medicine. After Pham Hoang Ho until now in Vietnam, 40 Polygonum species have been found. From the polygonum genus (Family Polygonaceae) the essential oils of 2 species are reported: Polygonum

  15. “Gold” Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kapsaski-Kanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs, derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.

  16. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  17. Volatile Profile, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Olive Oils from Croatian Autochthonous Varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica in Comparison with Italian Variety Leccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Šarolić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils (VOOs obtained from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica were extensively characterized for the first time. Investigated oils were compared with the oil obtained from Italian variety Leccino, grown and processed under the same conditions. Headspace volatile profile, tocopherols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenolic content, peroxide value, % acidity, K232, K270 as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH of the oils’ hydrophilic fractions (HFs including their phenolic composition were assessed by means of HS-SPME/GC-MS, HPLC-FL, HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Most of the studied quality parameters varied between the cultivars. The main volatile compounds detected in all tested olive oils were the C6 compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Krvavica oil was characterized by hexanal (8.8%–9.4%. Leccino oil contained the highest percentage of (E-hex-2-enal (73.4%–74.0%, whereas (Z-hex-3-enal (21.9%–25.0% and (E-hex-2-enal (27.6%–28.9% dominated in Mašnjača oil. Leccino oil contained the highest amount of tocopherols (312.4 mg/kg, chlorophylls (7.3 mg/kg, carotenoids (4.2 mg/kg and total phenols (246.6 mg/kg. The HF of Leccino oil showed the highest antioxidant capacity (1.3 mmol TEAC/kg, while the HFs of Mašnjača and Krvavica oils exhibited the activity of 0.5 mmol TEAC/kg.

  18. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, Ildikó [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Soran, Maria-Loredana, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Niinemets, Ülo [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Copolovici, Lucian [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of “Aurel Vlaicu” University, 2 Elena Drăgoi Street, Arad 310330 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  19. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  20. Dynamika gromadzenia się kwasu L-askorbinoiuego i olejku eterycznego w różnych fazach wegetacji pietruszki [Dynamics of the accumulation of ascorbic acid and volatile oil in different stages of parsley vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zderkiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evident differences were found in the ascorbic acid and the volatile oil content in various stages of parsley growth. In leaves the maximum content of vitamin C is observed in September–October, while the oil content from the 20-th of July till September–November. The oil content increases during plant growth.

  1. Volatile compounds and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil: optimization of temperature and time of exposure of olive pastes to air contact during the mechanical extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2003-12-31

    The operative conditions of malaxation such as temperature and time of exposure of olive pastes to air contact (TEOPAC) affect volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil (VOO) and, as a consequence, its sensory and healthy qualities. In this paper, optimal temperature and TEOPAC during malaxation were studied, in lab scale, in two Italian cultivars using phenolic compounds, volatile composition, and sensory analysis of VOO as markers. The optimal temperature and TEOPAC, selected by response surface modeling,were cultivar-dependent being 30 min of TEOPAC at the lowest temperature investigated (22 degrees C) and 0 min of TEOPAC at 26 degrees C for Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars, respectively.

  2. Long Run Dynamic Volatilities between OPEC and non-OPEC Crude Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan, Hassan B.; Alhajhoj, Hassan R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the long-run dynamics of OPEC and non-OPEC crude oil prices is important in an era of increased financialization of petroleum markets. Utilizing an ECM within a threshold cointegration and CGARCH errors framework, we provide evidence on the cointegrating relationship and estimate how and to what extent the respective prices adjust to eliminate disequilibrium. Our findings suggest that the adjustment process of OPEC prices to the positive discrepancies is slow which implies that ...

  3. Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Farga, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed oil were evaluated. The crude oil content was 11.49%, ash 6.88%, moisture 6.12%, protein content 14.60%, total carbohydrate 24.77% and fiber 36.13%. The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (74.63 mg·100 g−1 with oleic (C18:1 (57.77%, palmitic (C16:0 (18.65% and linoleic (C18:2 (12.88% acids as the most abundant. The relative density was 0.88 and the iodine value 105.59. The color analysis showed a value of 28.33 Y+1.43 R. The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. The tocol composition showed that α-tocotrienol, γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol were in a higher concentration than the rest. Seven phenolic acids (caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one (5.44 mg·100 g−1. In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol (56.73%; Hexadecenoic acid, Z-11- (18.52%; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z- (3.93% and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (3.04% as the most abundant. These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil.En este estudio se ha determinado la composición química, las propiedades físico-químicas, ácidos fenólicos y compuestos volátiles de aceites de semillas de alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy. Las semillas contenían un 11.49% de aceite, 6.88% de cenizas, 6,12% de humedad, 14.60% de proteínas, 24.77% de carbohidratos totales y 36.13% de fibra. El aceite contiene 74,63 mg·100 g−1 de ácidos grasos insaturados, con oleico (C18: 1 (57,77%, palmítico (C16: 0 (18,65% y linoleico (C18: 2 (12,88% como los más abundantes. La densidad relativa fue de 0,88 y el índice de yodo de 105,59. El análisis del color mostró un valor de

  4. Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rotondo, Archimede; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Rodrigues-das-Dores, Rosana Goncalves; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  6. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  7. Assessment of Volatile Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill by HS-SPME-GC-MS Using Different Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil and volatile obtained from the roots of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill was performed in this work. The Clevenger extractor was utilized in hydrodistillation of oil and chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS. The identification of compounds was confirmed by retention index (Kovats index obtained from a series of straight chain alkanes (C7–C30 and by comparison with NIST and ADAMS library. A total of 61 compounds were identified in essential oil by GC-MS. The extraction of volatile was performed also by the use of the solid phase microextraction (SPME with four different fibers. The essential oil extraction was extremely rapid (15 s to avoid saturation of the fiber and the MS detector. The majority of the composition of essential oil is the terpenes: β-pinene (major compound 9.16%, β-vatirene (8.34%, α-gurjunene (6.98%, α-pinene (6.35%, camphene (4.34%, tricyclene (3.79% and dehydro aromadendrene (3.52% it and aldehydes and alcohols. Through the SPME it was possible to determine the nine volatile compounds not identified in oil 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, pinocamphone, D-verbenon, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-(2-methyl-cyclopropyl-cyclohexene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, and (6-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dimethylehenyl methanol.

  8. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Artemisia absinthium volatile oil by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Artemisia absinthium L. (A. absinthium essential oil by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium strains. Methods: Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, NorthWestern Iran, was investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. In present study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of A. absinthium oil were investigated by the bacterial revere mutation assay in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without S9 (microsomal mutagenesis assay. Results: The comparative mutagenicity effect was seen in 1.5 mg/plate by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in S. typhimurium TA98 strains, without S9 and the excellent antimutagenicity effect was seen in 1.5 mg/plate against S. typhimurium TA100, without S9. Conclusions: The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity effects of the volatile oil of A. absinthium were seen without the presence of metabolic activation.

  9. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  10. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrançosa from different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil (VOO from the cv. “cobrançosa” integrated into a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc, (T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc and (T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts.

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición relativa de los compuestos volátiles y en la calidad sensorial. El experimento se realizó en el Noreste de Portugal, dentro de la denominación de origen protegida “Azeites de Tr

  11. Effect of curing methods, packages and gamma irradiation on the quality of volatile garlic oil during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Abbassi, F.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    1988-01-01

    The values of V.R.S. as a measurement of pungency, were decreased gradually during storage especially in un-irradiated cloves treatments. Chinese garlic had higher values than Egyptian cultivar after 3,6 months. But after 9 months the pungency of Egyptian was higher than that of Chinese garlic. Irradiation decreased the V.R.S. after 3 and 6 months, but after 9 months the irradiated samples contained more V.R.S. than the unirradiated ones. No effect was observed for type of packages or curing methods. Gas chromatographic profiles, at harvest, proved that 35, 32 peaks were found in the volatile oil of Egyptian and Chinese cultivars, respectively. The identified compounds were dimethyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, methyl allyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide. These compounds were found in either Egyptian or Chinese garlic. Besides, the dimethyl sulphide was detected in Chinese garlic. All tested treatments, i.e. cultivar, irradiation, curing methods and storage period, affected the percent and number of the identified constituents or unidentified compounds. Dimethyl sulphide and allyl sulphide were absent in the Egyptian Cultivar at harvest, but they were found during storage. Allyl sulphide was found in Chinese garlic only at end of storage period

  12. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  13. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  14. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly

  15. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  16. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C., E-mail: tcj@transport.dtu.d [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  17. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C. [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moeller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  18. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Thomas C.; Moeller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  19. Variability of Phenolic and Volatile Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil from Leccino and Istarska Bjelica Cultivars in Relation to Their Fruit Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and volatile compounds are closely related to valuable gastronomic and nutritional properties, as well as oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Since biochemical synthesis and transformation of these compounds during olive processing depend on the activity of endogenous enzymes, which are partially influenced by genetic factors, mixtures of different cultivars could have either a synergistic or antagonistic effect on phenolic and volatile compounds in the resulting oil. In this context, two specific cultivars from the Istrian peninsula, Leccino (L and Istarska bjelica (B, were selected. Two monovarietal fruit samples (L100 and B100 and four mixtures in the following mass ratios: L/B=80:20, L/B=60:40, L/B=40:60 and L/B=20:80 were prepared. The mass fraction of total phenols was determined colourimetrically, while C6 and C5 volatiles from lipoxygenase pathway were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Mass fraction of total phenols in the oil samples from fruit mixtures changed linearly from (199.5±7.2 in Leccino to (642.0±61.7 mg/kg in Istarska bjelica, in a strict correlation with fruit mass ratio of the two cultivars. Leccino monovarietal samples had statistically higher values (p≤0.05 of C6 aldehydes ((15.32±1.69 vs. (10.91±0.62 mg/kg and C6 alcohols ((2.96±0.98 vs. (0.17±0.05 mg/kg, but lower values of C5 compounds ((0.77±0.12 vs. (0.96±0.05 mg/kg compared to Istarska bjelica samples. Volatiles having a direct contribution to the oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one (84–201, E-2-hexenal (26–42, hexanal (1.8–2.4 and Z-2-penten-1-ol (1.3–2.6. A significant synergistic effect was observed for C6 aldehydes in the case of L/B=40:60 fruit mixture. The addition of Istarska bjelica to Leccino fruits caused a significant antagonistic effect on C6 alcohols, but no significant deviations from the expected values were found in the case of C6 esters and C5 compounds

  20. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  1. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages.

  2. Avaliação das estruturas secretoras de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae após extração dos constituintes voláteis Evaluation of secretory structures of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae after extraction of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O impacto provocado nas estruturas secretoras de folhas adultas de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum após extração dos componentes voláteis utilizando-se diferentes métodos de extração foi investigado através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Secções transversais do ápice, da nervura central, e da margem mostraram superfície com cutícula estriada, estômatos diacíticos, tricomas tectores simples, filiformes, e glandulares peltados. Os peltados, com estrutura envolta por uma cutícula contendo o exsudado celular, variaram de 60 a 80µm de diâmetro sendo formados por uma porção apical multicelular com disposição radial formada por dois círculos concêntricos com 9 a 16 células. Na região central do ápice do tricoma peltado se identificou a presença de 4 células em forma de vértice dispostas sobre o pedúnculo, sendo esta a região mais externa formada por número variável de células. Os componentes voláteis das folhas adultas foram extraídos por hidrodestilação (HD, destilação-extração simultânea (DES, e solvente (SO. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o maior impacto nas estruturas secretoras ocorreu após extração por hidrodestilação quando comparado aos outros métodos utilizados. A porcentagem dos principais constituintes químicos, timol e γ-terpineno variaram de acordo com o método de extração: timol (HD = 25,4%, SO = 18,2%, DES = 54,8% e γ-terpineno (HD = 38,2%, SO = ausente, DES = 13,7%.The impact on the secretory structures of mature leaves of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum, after extraction of the volatile compounds using different extraction methods, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cross-sections of the apex, the midrib and the margin showed surface with striated cuticle, diacitic stomata, single tector, filiform and glandular peltate trichomes. The peltate trichomes with a structure surrounded by cuticle containing the celllular exudate ranged from

  3. Hedging effectiveness and volatility models for crude oil market: a dynamic approach; Modelos de volatilidade e a efetividade do hedge no mercado de petroleo: um abordagem dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Andre Assis de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The hedge strategies allow negotiators that have short and long positions in the market protection against price fluctuations. This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the Western Texas Intermediate - WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modeling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions. The data used is logarithm returns of daily prices quoted in dollars per barrel from November 2008 to May 2010 for spot and future contracts, in particular the June contract. (author)

  4. A new methodology capable of characterizing most volatile and less volatile minor edible oils components in a single chromatographic run without solvents or reagents. Detection of new components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L; Cristillo, Giovanna; Sopelana, Patricia; Guillén, María D

    2017-04-15

    The possibilities offered by a new methodology to determine minor components in edible oils are described. This is based on immersion of a solid-phase microextraction fiber of PDMS/DVB into the oil matrix, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It enables characterization and differentiation of edible oils in a simple way, without either solvents or sample modification. This methodology allows simultaneous identification and quantification of sterols, tocols, hydrocarbons of different natures, fatty acids, esters, monoglycerides, fatty amides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, epoxides, furans, pyrans and terpenic oxygenated derivatives. The broad information provided by this methodology is useful for different areas of interest such as nutritional value, oxidative stability, technological performance, quality, processing, safety and even the prevention of fraudulent practices. Furthermore, for the first time, certain fatty amides, gamma- and delta-lactones of high molecular weight, and other aromatic compounds such as some esters derived from cinnamic acid have been detected in edible oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A predictive method for crude oil volatile organic compounds emission from soil: evaporation and diffusion behavior investigation of binary gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-05-01

    Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.

  6. The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a fiscal increase on oilfield projects comprising 73% of UK reserves. Stochastic cash flow at risk models combine market volatility and tax-take at the oilfield level to extend earlier North Sea studies. We demonstrate that a 10% Secondary tax increase in a composite UKCS fiscal...

  7. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nalda; Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Aparicio, Ramón

    2016-01-30

    This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Varieties from the Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (P Chilean regions have much more influence than cultivars on the concentration of sensory quality compounds. Difference in latitude between orchards increases the importance of the geographical origin on the virgin olive oil chemical composition while full irrigation decreases the impact of the cultivar. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The role of global economic policy uncertainty in long-run volatilities and correlations of U.S. industry-level stock returns and crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghai; Fang, Libing; Sun, Boyang

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) drives the long-run components of volatilities and correlations in crude oil and U.S. industry-level stock markets. Using the modified generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity mixed data sampling (GARCH-MIDAS) and dynamic conditional correlation mixed data sampling (DCC-MIDAS) specifications, we find that GEPU is positively related to the long-run volatility of Financials and Consumer Discretionary industries; however, it is negatively related to Information Technology, Materials, Telecommunication Services and Energy. Unlike the mixed role of GEPU in the long-run volatilities, the long-run correlations are all positively related to GEPU across the industries. Additionally, the rankings of the correlations of Energy and Materials are time-invariant and classified as high, with the little exception of the latter. The Consumer Staples industry is time-invariant in the low-ranking group. Our results are helpful to policy makers and investors with long-term concerns.

  9. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  11. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Simin, Natasa; Anackov, Goran

    2006-03-08

    The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.

  12. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  13. The Effect on the Indicators of Unemployment of International Crude Oil Price Volatility: Empirical Findings on the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Erkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil prices may have an impact on economic activity through various transmission channels. A number of recent studies have emphasized the role of oil prices and macro-economic variables. The aim of this paper is to study the short-term/longterm relationship between oil prices and unemployment in Turkey. The most common cause of increasing oil prices over the last thirty years has been a decrease in supply. Prices increased during the early 1970s as OPEC reduced supply. Again prices increased in the late 1970s and early 1980s as the collapse of the government of the Shah of Iran and subsequent war between Iran and Iraq threatened supply. We applied Granger causal modals to determine if oil prices “Granger Caused” unemployment for data between 2005:01 and 2009:12 in Turkey. However, we performed Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR to determine the relationship between to variables in question, to estimate these relationships and to determine the delay values. As a result, long-term relationship between oil prices and unemployment rate are available in Turkey, and changes in the unemployment rate do not affect oil prices, oil prices changes affect the unemployment rate (this effect is the opposite direction

  14. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  15. Volatile components of essential oil from cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mayuko; Myoda, Takao; Wakita, Yoichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Ikuko; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic components in the essential oil prepared from the leaves of cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa were compared with those from oil derived wild plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). We found that essential oils from both the wild and cultivated plants contained similar aromatic components such as β-elemenone, selina 3,7(11)-diene, myrcene, limonene, cymene, 1,8-cineole, and β-pinene, but the content ratio of the oil was significantly different, which might yield differences in the aromatic properties. The aroma impact components of the essential oils were also determined using GC/MS-Olfactometry (GC/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis. Eight aromatic compounds, including linalool, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, were shown to contribute to the aromatic properties of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa. The strongest aromatic note was defined as linalool, followed by limonene, 1,8-cineole, and β-elemenone. The essential oil, ethanol (EtOH), 1,3-butylene glycol (BG), and 1,3-propanediol (PD) extracts prepared from the leaves of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa also showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, that is, they demonstrated scavenger activity against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in the aqueous phase, and showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. The essential oil extracts also exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value against Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the essential oil and solvent extracts from cultivated M. gala var. tomentosa have a potential for utilization as food and cosmetic ingredients.

  16. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Oil and Gas Operations in Northeastern Oklahoma - Wintertime Ambient Air Studies from Three Consecutive Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from a variety of sources including oil and gas (O&G) operations, vehicle exhausts, industrial processes, and biogenic sources. Understanding of emission sources and their air quality impact is crucial for effective environmental policymaking and its implementation. Three consecutive wintertime campaigns to study ambient air were conducted in Northeastern Oklahoma during February-March of 2015, 2016, and 2017. The goals of these campaigns were to study ambient VOCs in the region, estimate their air quality impact, and understand how the impact changes over a span of three years. This presentation highlights results from the 2017 campaign. In-situ measurements of methane, ethane, and CO were conducted by an Aerodyne Dual QCL Analyzer while ozone and NOx were measured using Teledyne monitors. In addition, 392 whole air samples were collected and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in the samples were analyzed using GC-MS (Agilent). High levels of methane (> 8 ppm) were observed during the study. Correlation with ethane indicated that methane primarily originated from O&G operations with little biogenic contributions. Among NMHCs, C2-C5 alkanes were the most dominant with mean mixing ratios ranging from 0.9 to 6.8 ppb. Chemical tracers (propane, ethyne, CO) and isomeric ratios (iC5/nC5, Figure 1) identified oil and gas activity as the primary source of NMHCs. Photochemical age was calculated to estimate emission source composition. Ozone showed strong diurnal variation characteristic of photochemical production with a maximum mixing ratio of 58 ppb. The results from the 2017 study will be compared with results from studies in 20151 and 20162 and their significance on local air quality will be discussed. References Ghosh, B.; Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sources: A Pilot Study in Northeastern Oklahoma; Poster presentation at AGU Fall Meeting; 2015; A11M-0249; (Link) Ghosh

  17. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complex interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Žanetić, Mirella; Jukić Špika, Maja; Lukić, Marina; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Brkić Bubola, Karolina

    2017-10-01

    The interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. (Olea europaea L.) virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles, and sensory quality were investigated. Olives were picked at three ripening degrees with International Olive Council indices of 0.68, 2.48 and 4.10, and processed by malaxation at 22 and 30°C, and at both temperatures for 30 and 60min. Ripening exhibited the strongest effect, and malaxation duration the weakest. Phenols were generally found to decrease during ripening; however 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA increased. Similar behaviour was observed for (E)-2-hexenal. Higher malaxation temperature induced an increase in particular important phenols and C6 alcohols, while C6 aldehydes mostly decreased. Interactions between the factors were established, mostly between ripening degree and malaxation temperature: the effect of the latter was most pronounced for ripe olives, especially for 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and C6 volatiles. Sensory attributes were generally in agreement with the chemical composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study of human secretory immunoglobulin A. I. Obtaining monospecific antiserum to human secretory immunoglobulin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, G P; Chernokhvostova, E V; Gol'derman, S Ia

    1975-10-01

    A method of obtaining monospecific antiserum to the human secretory IgA is described. Immunochemically pure secretory IgA (isolated from human colostrum by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-200) was used for immunization of rabbits or sheep. Heterologous antibodies were removed by adsorption with commercial gamma globulin, normal serum, the serum of a patient suffering from A-myeloma with the IgA polymere and purified lactoferrin. Monospecific antiserum to the secretory IgA gave a reaction of complete immunological identity with the secretory IgA and a free secretory component.

  1. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  2. Quantitation of secretory protein levels by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.L.; Dawson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was designed for the detection of secretory protein, a component of secretory immunoglobulin A, in human serum. The assay uses free secretory protein isolated from human colostrum, and antisera raised in rabbits to be purified antigen. The mean level of secretory protein in the control group was 2.34+-0.41 μg/ml (mean+-S.E.M.). The level in cord blood was slightly lower (0.74+-0.26 μg/ml), while the level in patients with ovarian carcinoma was significantly increased (12.67+-1.43 μg/ml). Pregnant women have increasingly secretory protein levels with increasing length of gestation (5.86+-2.02, 11.55+-1.30 and 17.00+-1.16 μg/ml for the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. (Auth.)

  3. Elucidation of mechanisms of actions of thymoquinone-enriched methanolic and volatile oil extracts from Nigella sativa against cardiovascular risk parameters in experimental hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafeeque; Beg, Zafarul H

    2013-06-13

    Nigella sativa belonging to the Ranunculaceae family has been reported to use for thousands of years as protective and curative traditional medicine against a number of diseases. GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract (ME) and volatile oil (VO) extracted from Nigella sativa seed oil was performed by two different mass spectrometry libraries, WIlEY8 and NIST05s. The cholesterol lowering and antioxidant actions of VO and ME fractions were investigated in atherogenic suspension fed rats. In this study, four groups of male Wistar rats were used: normolipidemic control (NLP-C), hyperlipidemic control (HLP-C), methanolic extract (HLP-ME) and volatile oil treated (HLP-VO) groups for 30 days of duration. P value < 0.05 was assumed as significant data in groups. Administration of atherogenic suspension to male Wistar rats for 30 days resulted in a marked increase of plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol, and significant change in plasma lipoprotein levels along with a decrease in antioxidant arylesterase activity in hyperlipidemic control (HLP-C) group. The oral feeding of 100 mg ME or 20 mg VO per rat/day effectively reduced the plasma triglycerides to near normal level, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol and its subfraction along with arylesterase activity levels were significantly increased. The test fractions elicited a significant decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. The fractions significantly blocked the ex vivo basal and in vitro maximal formation of conjugated diene and malondialdehyde, and lengthened the lag times of low density lipoprotein, small dense low density lipoprotein and large buoyant low density lipoprotein. ME possessing ω-6 linoleic acid along with palmitic acid active compounds was more effective than VO extract containing thymol and isothymol phenolic antioxidant compounds, thymoquinone phenolic compound common to the both extracts, via reduction in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity as well as antioxidant mechanisms. The both

  4. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  5. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceaecultivated in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Cicció

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Tagetes lucida Cav.(syn.T.florida Sweet,T.schiedeana Less.is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras,at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m.It is used as a spice,for medicine,as insecticide and as ornamental plant.It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb;it contains an oil having an anise-like odor,and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L..The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought,at May and October,in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica.Fresh flowering aerial parts,flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus.The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 °C.The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07%(v/w.GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database.Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices,which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified,of which methyl chavicol (95-97%was the major constituent.From flower oil,two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4:853-857.Epub 2005 Jun 24.Los aceites esenciales extraídos de las partes aéreas de la planta Tagetes lucida Cav.cultivada en Costa Rica y utilizada como condimento,fue estudiado mediante la técnica de GC/MS en combinación con los índices de retención.Se identificaron treinta compuestos.El componente mayoritario resultó ser metil chavicol (estragolen un 95-97%.En el aceite de las flores se detectaron e identificaron dos compuestos minoritarios que resultaron ser bitienilos no informados

  6. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  7. The impact of land-use change from forest to oil palm on soil greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound fluxes in Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewer, Julia; Leduning, Melissa; Kerdraon-Byrne, Deirdre; Sayer, Emma; Sentien, Justin; Skiba, Ute

    2017-04-01

    Monocultures of oil palm have expanded in SE Asia, and more recently also in Africa and South America, frequently replacing tropical forests. The limited data available clearly show that this conversion is associated with a potentially large greenhouse gas (GHG) burden. The physical process of land-use change, such is felling, drainage and ploughing can significantly increase emissions of N2O and soil CO2 respiration and decrease CH4 oxidation rates in the short term; and in the long-term regular nitrogen applications will impact in particular soil N2O fluxes. Little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from soil and litter in tropical forests and their speciation or about the links between GHG and VOC fluxes. VOC emissions are important as they directly and indirectly influence the concentrations and lifetimes of air pollutants and GHGs. For example, oxidation of VOCs generate tropospheric ozone which is also a potent GHG. Within ecosystems, monoterpenes can mediate plant-microbe and plant- interactions and protect photosynthesis during abiotic stress. However, little is known about monoterpene composition in the tropics - a widely recognized major global source of terpenoids to the atmosphere. These knowledge gaps make it difficult for developing countries in the tropics, especially SE Asia, to develop effective mitigation strategies. Current understanding of soil GHG fluxes associated with land-use change from forest to oil palm is not sufficient to provide reliable estimates of their carbon footprints and sustainability or advice on GHG mitigation strategies. To provide the necessary data we have installed a total of 56 flux chambers in logged forests, forest fragments and mature and young oil palm plantations as well as riparian zones within the SAFE landscape in SE Sabah (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems; http://www.safeproject.net). Soil respiration rates, N2O, CH4 and VOC fluxes together with soil moisture, pH, mineral and total C and

  8. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  10. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  11. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm

  12. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  13. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  14. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orlaith B; Mroz, Magdalena S; Ward, Joseph B J; Colliva, Carolina; Scharl, Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gilmer, John F; Fallon, Padraic G; Hofmann, Alan F; Roda, Aldo; Murray, Frank E; Keely, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl− secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl− secretory responses to the Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n= 18, P acid (LCA). Accordingly, LCA (50–200 μm) enhanced agonist-induced secretory responses in vitro and a metabolically stable UDCA analogue, 6α-methyl-UDCA, exerted anti-secretory actions in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, UDCA exerts direct anti-secretory actions on colonic epithelial cells and metabolically stable derivatives of the bile acid may offer a new approach for treating intestinal diseases associated with diarrhoea. PMID:23507881

  16. Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...

  17. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  18. [Analysis of chemical constituents of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.

  19. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  20. [Effects of Total Ginsenosides and Volatile Oil of Acorus tatarinowii Co-Administration on Ability of Learning and Memory and Apoptosis in Alzheimer's Disease Mice Model Induced By D-Galactose and Aluminium Chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Min-zhen; Huang, Li-ping; Fang, Yong-qi

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effects of the co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii on the ability of learning and memory and apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model induced by D-galactose and aluminium chloride. 50 Kunming (KM) mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Aricept group (1 mg/kg), Ding Zhi Wan group (10 g/kg) and co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii group (co-administered group, the doses of volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii and total ginsenosides were 30 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively). In addition to normal group, mice in other groups were given D-galactose 150 mg/ (kg x d), ip, and aluminium chloride 5 mg/kg, ig, once daily for 40 days. At the same time, mice in the treated groups were administrated with the corresponding drug from the 20th day after the modeling, once daily for 40 days. Water maze and avoiding darkness experiments were used to test learning and memory abilities; Aβ1-42 and BCL-2 content in cortex and hippocampus were detected by ELISA; the vitalities of acetyl cholinesterase ( AChE) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) vitalities were detected by a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) method; the content of malondialdehyde ( MDA) in cortex and hippocampus were detected by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method; senile plaque on Aβ1-42 precipitation were observed by immunohistochemistry; brain tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). As compared with model group, in the co-administered group, the time of AD mice swimming, the numbers of blind area and electric shock reduced significantly (P < 0.05), and the latent period was prolonged (P < 0.05); AChE activity and levels of Aβ1-42 and MDA in cortex and hippocampus were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); ChAT and SOD activities as well as BCL-2 content were increased significantly

  1. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this ... precautions in handling and storage. Zeolites can be ..... Humic and Fulvic Acids isolated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent Sludge.

  2. Forecasting volatility for options valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaifa, M.; Morimune, K.

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector plays a neuralgic role in the basement of world economies, and market actors (producers, intermediates, as well as consumers) are continuously subjected to the dynamics of unstable oil market. Huge amounts are being invested along the production chain to make one barrel of crude oil available to the end user. Adding to that are the effect of geopolitical dynamics as well as geological risks as expressed in terms of low chances of successful discoveries. In addition, fiscal regimes and regulations, technology and environmental concerns are also among some of the major factors that contribute to the substantial risk in the oil industry and render the market structure vulnerable to crises. The management of these vulnerabilities require modern tools to reduce risk to a certain level, which unfortunately is a non-zero value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to provide a modern technique to capture the oil price stochastic volatility that can be implemented to value the exposure of an investor, a company, a corporate or a Government. The paper first analyses the regional dependence on oil prices, through a historical perspective and then looks at the evolution of pricing environment since the large price jumps of the 1970s. The main causes of oil prices volatility are treated in the third part of the paper. The rest of the article deals with volatility models and forecasts used in risk management, with an implication for pricing derivatives. (author)

  3. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  4. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Gorham, K.; Huey, L. G.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is mixed with sand and contains chemical impurities such as sulphur. Despite these challenges, the importance of oil sands is increasing in the energy market. To our best knowledge this is the first peer-reviewed study to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Alberta's oil sands mining sites. We present high-precision gas chromatography measurements of 76 speciated C2-C10 VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, monoterpenes, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halocarbons and sulphur compounds) in 17 boundary layer air samples collected over surface mining operations in northeast Alberta on 10 July 2008, using the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as a research platform. In addition to the VOCs, we present simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2, which were measured in situ aboard the DC-8. Carbon dioxide, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2 and 53 VOCs (e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons, sulphur species) showed clear statistical enhancements (1.1-397×) over the oil sands compared to local background values and, with the exception of CO, were greater over the oil sands than at any other time during the flight. Twenty halocarbons (e.g., CFCs, HFCs, halons, brominated species) either were not enhanced or were minimally enhanced (industry fell into two groups: (1) evaporative emissions from the oil sands and its products and/or from the diluent used to lower the viscosity of the extracted bitumen (i.e., C4-C9 alkanes, C5-C6 cycloalkanes, C6-C8 aromatics), together with CO; and (2) emissions associated with the mining effort, such as upgraders (i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NOy

  5. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J

    2015-04-03

    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  7. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: pyxu@ibp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: shuangyanhuan@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: mingshu1984@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  8. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  9. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport...

  10. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  11. Studies on production techniques of some herb plants: I Effect of Agryl P17 mulching on herb yield and volatile oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hälvä

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Agryl P17 fiber-mulching of cold-sensitive herbal plants, basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L., were studied at three locations in Finland (1984—1985. The growing sites were Helsinki (60° 14' N, Sahalahti (61° 28' N, and Inari (69° 04' N for both species in 1984, and Helsinki for marjoram in 1985. Agryl P17 mulching increased basil yield at all locations. The uncovered basil yielded approximately 54 kg/100 m2 and when grown under the mulch, more than three fold, 191 kg/ 100m2. In the north (Inari, however, basil and marjoram did not give practically any yield. Marjoram did not benefit from mulching either in the south: the yield was 96 kg without and 80 kg/100m2 with mulching. The vegetation under the mulch was severely affected by fungus diseases. The volatile oil content in the dried basil herb ranged from 0.46 to 0.93 %. There were no significant differences in the total oil content whether basil was grown with or without Agryl P17. The oil content in marjoram ranged from 1.94 to 2.55 % the total content being significantly higher when grown under the cover.

  12. Secretory expression of the non-secretory-type Lentinula edodes laccase by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Akira; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sato, Toshitsugu

    2009-01-01

    The shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, has an extracelluar secretory-type laccase, Lcc1, and a fruiting-body-accumulation-type laccase, Lcc4. We previously reported the production of Lcc1 by plant cells, but had difficulty producing Lcc4. Here, we report the production of Lcc1 and Lcc4 by Aspergillus oryzae and the extracellular secretory production of Lcc4 using a modified secretion signal peptide (SP) from Lcc1. Sp-Lcc4 produced by A. oryzae had biochemical activities similar to Lcc4 produced by L. edodes. Lcc1 did not react with beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenol) alanine (DOPA), but Lcc4 from L. edodes and A. oryzae could oxidize DOPA. K(M) values for the substrates 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazolinsulfonate), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol, pyrogallol, and catechol were similar for Lcc4 and Sp-Lcc4. In conclusion, a non-secretory-type fungal laccase is secreted into the culture media with its original enzymatic properties by exploiting modified secretory signal peptide. 2008 Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... essential oils from organs of Annona senegalensis ..... rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils, J. Essent. Oil Res. 10 : 618-27. Bouquet A ... antibacterial activity of plant volatile oil, J. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 308-. 316.

  14. kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Rancidity of extracted cashew oil was observed with cashew kernel stored at 70, 80 and 90% .... method of American Oil Chemist Society AOCS (1978) using glacial ..... changes occur and volatile products are formed that are.

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia from the Pakistani Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahseen Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g. The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.

  16. Volatile profile of heated soybean oil treated with quercetin and chlorogenic acid Perfil de compostos voláteis do óleo de soja aquecido e tratado com quercetina e ácido clorogênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Leão de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the profile of volatile compounds after the heating of refined soybean oil without adding antioxidants, and treated with quercetin and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA were investigated by GC/FID, GC/MS, and GC/SNIFFING. The heating temperature of the oil sample was 20 °C for the first minute, and then it was increased up to 160 °C at the rate of 10 °C min-1. The final temperature was kept for 10 minutes. 19 volatiles were identified in the heated samples without antioxidants. Medium-chain carbonyls predominated in the volatile fraction, mainly 2-heptenal, 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal. Around 11 to 15 volatile compounds were detected in the heated samples treated with 5-CQA and quercetin, respectively. 5-CQA was not very efficient in delaying the formation of oxidative volatile compounds. The samples quercetin presented lower proportion of carbonyls with C6-C9.. The GC peak area data were used as an approach to estimate the relative content of each volatile compound and indicate that the samples treated with quercetin (p As alterações no perfil de compostos voláteis, após o aquecimento de óleo de soja refinado sem a adição de antioxidantes e tratado previamente com quercetina e ácido clorogênico (5-ACQ, foram investigadas através da CG/DIC, CG/EM e CG/SNIFFING. A temperatura de aquecimento do óleo foi de 20 °C no primeiro minuto e aumentada até 160 °C à taxa de 10 °C min-1. A temperatura final foi mantida por 10 minutos. Um total de 19 compostos voláteis foi identificado nas amostras aquecidas sem a adição de antioxidantes. As carbonilas de cadeia média predominaram na fração volátil. Cerca de 15 e 11 compostos voláteis foram detectados no óleo aquecido com adição prévia de quercetina e 5-ACQ, respectivamente. As amostras tratadas com quercetina mostraram uma menor proporção de carbonilas com esqueletos de carbono C6-C9. A composição estimada de compostos voláteis mostrou que amostras tratadas com

  17. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium

  18. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of ∼ 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h

  19. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  20. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneckova, Martina; Agaimy, Abbas; Andreasen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands...

  1. Lipomatous secretory meningioma: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, T.; Hoffmann, T.; Hosten, N.; Sander, B.; Lanksch, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Secretory meningioma is a rare entity which may be characterised by imaging features unusual for other subtypes of meningoma, such as low attenuation on CT, high (fat-tissue equivalent) signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, marked surrounding oedema, and irregular contrast enhancement. We report a case of secretory meningioma and review the literature. (orig.) (orig.)

  2. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  3. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  4. 棕榈油供给冲击与国内植物油价格波动的动态关系分析%Dynamic relationship analysis between palm oil supply shocks and domestic vegetable oil prices volatility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐金; 王成丽

    2017-01-01

    [Objective]In this paper, the interaction between palm oil supply and prices of major domestic vegetable oils was analyzed, and supply reaction of palm oil under positive and negative shocks of prices was studied, as as to provide theoretical references for palm oil import management. [Method]The interaction between supply and price was assessed un-der the framework of co-integration-GARCH and error correction-GARCH models using monthly palm oil imports , spot prices of palm oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil, and spot price of Malaysian palm oil. Linear and nonlinear Granger test was conducted for robustness check. [Result]Chinese palm oil processing manufacturers and traders preferred to rely on variance information accumulated in the past long period (ARCH effect), rather than a prediction variance (GARCH ef-fect). Compared to rapeseed oil, soybean oil had much stronger adjusting force on palm oil. The shock of palm oil supply weakly affected the prices. The signal of price changes with two lags had asymmetric impact on supply of palm oil. There existed no Granger causal relation between supply and price of palm oil. [Suggestion]Palm oil import management, marketing building and inventory monitor should be enhance, and researches on international pricing mechanism of palm oil need to be deepened.%[目的]分析棕榈油供给量与国内主要植物油价格的互动关系,以及对于来自价格正、负向冲击下棕榈油的供给反应,为棕榈油进口管理提供理论依据.[方法]利用我国棕榈油月度进口量、棕榈油、豆油、菜籽油现货价格及马来西亚毛棕榈油现货价格数据,在协整-GARCH、误差修正-GARCH框架下进行估计分析,研究供给量与价格间的互动关系,并用线性和非线性Granger因果检验进行稳健性检验.[结果]我国棕榈油的加工厂商和贸易商重视过去较长一段时间积累的方差信息(ARCH效应),而不是上一期的预测方差(GARCH效应);相比于菜籽油,

  5. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil.

  6. The Profile of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Syzigium Aromaticum Volatile Oil in Lotion with Variation Composition of Oleic Acid and Propylene Glycol as Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriah Ardiawijianti Iriani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum containing eugenol has an anti-inflammatory activity. The study was aimed to develop the formulation of lotion by adding of oleic acid and propylene glycol as penetration enhancer. The effect of enhancer composition was also studied. Lotion was prepared with the composition of oleic acid (AO and propylene glycol (PG as follow: 1:0 (FI, 0,5:0,5 (FII, 0:1 (FIII. Capacity an anti-inflammatory of formulation based on parameters of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression, the number of inflammatory cells and the epidermis thickness was evaluated using male mouse strain BALb/C induced by crotton oil as inflammatory agents. The results showed that the increasing composition propylene glycol caused the decreasing of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression (p <0.05, the inflammatory cells (P <0.05 and the epidermis thickness (p <0.05

  7. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  8. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  9. Secretory products of helminth parasites as immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, William

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory-secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past 30-40 years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century. Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert. Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.

  11. Secretory Phospholipase A(2) Activity toward Diverse Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Linderoth, Lars; Subramanian, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    We have studied secretory phospholipase A(2)-IIA (sPLA(2)) activity toward different phospholipid analogues by performing biophysical 1 characterizations and molecular dynamics simulations. The phospholipids were natural substrates, triple alkyl phospholipids, a prodrug anticancer etherlipid, and...

  12. Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rent phases of the secretory process were demonstrated. (Srivastava 1999). ..... in the pineal supportive cells of deep sea fish, Nezumia liolepis (McNulty 1976) and .... factors as light and temperature. Melatonin and ... Brain Res. 52 271–296.

  13. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  14. P-selectin targeting to secretory lysosomes of Rbl-2H3 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, J.; Cutler, D. F.

    2002-01-01

    The biogenesis of secretory lysosomes, which combine characteristics of both lysosomes and secretory granules, is currently of high interest. In particular, it is not clear whether delivery of membrane proteins to the secretory lysosome requires lysosomal, secretory granule, or some novel targeting determinants. Heterologous expression of P-selectin has established that this membrane protein contains targeting signals for both secretory granules and lysosomes. P-selectin is therefore an ideal...

  15. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  16. Progressive quality control of secretory proteins in the early secretory compartment by ERp44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Degano, Massimo; Fagioli, Claudio; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    ERp44 is a pH-regulated chaperone of the secretory pathway. In the acidic milieu of the Golgi, its C-terminal tail changes conformation, simultaneously exposing the substrate-binding site for cargo capture and the RDEL motif for ER retrieval through interactions with cognate receptors. Protonation of cysteine 29 in the active site allows tail movements in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that conserved histidine residues in the C-terminal tail also regulate ERp44 in vivo. Mutants lacking these histidine residues retain substrates more efficiently. Surprisingly, they are also O-glycosylated and partially secreted. Co-expression of client proteins prevents secretion of the histidine mutants, forcing tail opening and RDEL accessibility. Client-induced RDEL exposure allows retrieval of proteins from distinct stations along the secretory pathway, as indicated by the changes in O-glycosylation patterns upon overexpression of different partners. The ensuing gradients might help to optimize folding and assembly of different cargoes. Endogenous ERp44 is O-glycosylated and secreted by human primary endometrial cells, suggesting possible pathophysiological roles of these processes. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Myrtus communis L., collected ... volatile oils, tannins, sugars, flavonoids and organic acids such as .... in the chemical composition of myrtle oil.

  18. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  19. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  20. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  1. Mechanism of monoterpene volatilization in Salvia mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dement, W A; Tyson, B J; Mooney, H A

    1975-01-01

    Monoterpene volatilization in Salvia mellifera is primarily dependent on the vapor pressures of the terpenes as they are influenced by temperature, the humidity of the air surrounding the leaf and the surface area of oil present on the leaf. 12 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  3. Prospect for the oil market as a consequence of the financial crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppelaar, R.

    2008-11-01

    The Peak Oil Netherlands Foundation shines its light on the consequences of the financial crisis for the global oil market and the relation between oil prices and the credit crisis; short term supply and demand on the oil market; supply and demand of petroleum up to 2015; the volatility of the oil price and the meaning of volatility for the energy transition [mk] [nl

  4. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola M. Labib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR. Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13% and palmitic acid (9.34% constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1, whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2, delta, kappa, and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  5. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rola M; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Ross, Samir A

    2017-08-29

    The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO) was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR). Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13%) and palmitic acid (9.34%) constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), delta , kappa , and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  6. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  7. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  8. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  9. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  10. Remodeling of bovine oviductal epithelium by mitosis of secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Two types of oviductal epithelial cells, secretory and ciliated, play crucial roles in the first days after fertilization in mammals. Secretory cells produce various molecules promoting embryo development, while ciliated cells facilitate transport of oocytes and zygotes by ciliary beating. The proportions of the two cell types change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of ciliated cells on the oviductal luminal surface is abundant at the follicular phase, whereas the proportion of secretory cells gradually increases with the formation of the corpus luteum. In the present study, we hypothesize that the proportions of ciliated and secretory epithelial cells are regulated by mitosis. The proportion of the cells being positive for FOXJ1 (a ciliated cell marker) or Ki67 (a mitosis marker) in epithelial cells during the estrous cycle were immunohistochemically examined. Ki67 and FOXJ1 or PAX8 (a secretory cell marker), were double-stained to clarify which types of epithelial cells undergo mitosis. In the ampulla, the percentage of FOXJ1-positive cells was highest at the day of ovulation (Day 0) and decreased by about 50 % by Days 8-12, while in the isthmus it did not change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of Ki67-positive cells was highest at around the time of ovulation in both the ampulla and isthmus. All the Ki67-positive cells were PAX8-positive and FOXJ1-negative in both the ampulla and isthmus. These findings suggest that epithelial remodeling, which is regulated by differentiation and/or proliferation of secretory cells of the oviduct, provides the optimal environment for gamete transport, fertilization and embryonic development.

  11. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  12. Reference data on world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes a status of the 2004 activity of worldwide oil markets: oil demand, oil supplies (OPEC and non-OPEC countries, unused production capacities), formation of oil prices (role of stockpiles, role of terminal markets, impact of dollar rate), economic data: OPEC objectives, market vision, volatility of prices, supply and demand. (J.S.)

  13. Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and Myristica fragrans volatile oil increase the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and impact the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus: Mechanistic insights into their neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluga Plaingam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M. fragrans on protein changes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The target proteins were then confirmed by Western blot. The levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine (the control drug for this study increased serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the rat hippocampus compared to that of the vehicle-treated group. Our proteomic data showed that 37 proteins in the K. parviflora group were up-regulated, while 14 were down-regulated, and 27 proteins in the M. fragrans group were up-regulated, while 16 were down-regulated. In the fluoxetine treatment group, we found 29 proteins up-regulated, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. In line with the proteomic data, the levels of GFAP, PDIA3, DPYSL2 and p-DPYSL2 were modified in the SD rat groups treated with K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine as confirmed by Western blot. K. parviflora and M. fragrans mediated not only the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters but also the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus, thus shedding light on the mechanisms targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  15. The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D; Washington, Mary K; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P; Reddy, Vishruth K; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F; Engel, Michael E; Hiebert, Scott W; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-01

    Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1(-/-) mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1(-/-) intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1(-/-) whole intestines and Mtgr1(-/-) enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1(-/-) intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. © FASEB.

  16. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not

  17. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  18. Amendment of oil related systems. Abolishment of the temporary measure law for importing specific petroleum products and amendment of the oil storage law and the volatile oil selling business law; Sekiyu kanren no seido kaisei ni tsuite. Tokutei sekiyu seihin yunyu oyobi kihatsuyu hanbaigyoho no kaisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, I. [Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-20

    This paper describes the following matters related to amendment of oil related systems which will be enforced according to the result of discussions at the Petroleum Council on the ways the oil product supply should be in the future. The temporary measure law for importing specific oil products shall be abolished when it will be expired in March 1996. This is because the law has limited the oil product importing organizations only to oil companies who have oil refining capabilities, and the continuation of the law would lose its justifiability under the present circumstances in the petroleum industry. The oil reservation law is then amended so that the emergency handling ability on oil supply will not be hampered even after possible expansion in the number of oil product importing organizations as a result of the abolishment of the temporary measure law. The quality management systems for oil products will also be revised so that the present level on quality items of the minimum necessity will not be declined with respect to the environments and safety. Furthermore, the area designating system that has been limiting erection of oil service stations will be repealed by October 1996. 2 tabs.

  19. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  20. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.

  1. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  2. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...... in beige mice are grossly enlarged with 1-2 granules per juxtaglomerular cell. Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole. Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable...

  3. Secretory processes involved in the formation of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion. A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. (author)

  4. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  5. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  6. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  7. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  8. BPIFB6 Regulates Secretory Pathway Trafficking and Enterovirus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosky, Stefanie; Lennemann, Nicholas J; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-05-15

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized host factor that negatively regulates coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication through its control of the autophagic pathway. Here, we show that another member of the BPIFB family, BPIFB6, functions as a positive regulator of CVB, and other enterovirus, replication by controlling secretory pathway trafficking and Golgi complex morphology. We show that similar to BPIFB3, BPIFB6 localizes exclusively to the ER, where it associates with other members of the BPIFB family. However, in contrast to our findings that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of BPIFB3 greatly enhances CVB replication, we show that silencing of BPIFB6 expression dramatically suppresses enterovirus replication in a pan-viral manner. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex. Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B (CVB), poliovirus (PV), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication. Here we report on the identification of a novel regulator of the secretory pathway, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 6 (BPIFB6), whose expression is required for enterovirus replication. We show that loss of BPIFB6 expression

  9. BPIFB6 Regulates Secretory Pathway Trafficking and Enterovirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosky, Stefanie; Lennemann, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized host factor that negatively regulates coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication through its control of the autophagic pathway. Here, we show that another member of the BPIFB family, BPIFB6, functions as a positive regulator of CVB, and other enterovirus, replication by controlling secretory pathway trafficking and Golgi complex morphology. We show that similar to BPIFB3, BPIFB6 localizes exclusively to the ER, where it associates with other members of the BPIFB family. However, in contrast to our findings that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of BPIFB3 greatly enhances CVB replication, we show that silencing of BPIFB6 expression dramatically suppresses enterovirus replication in a pan-viral manner. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex. Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B (CVB), poliovirus (PV), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication. Here we report on the identification of a novel regulator of the secretory pathway, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 6 (BPIFB6), whose expression is required for enterovirus replication. We show that loss of

  10. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  11. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  12. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  13. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  14. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  15. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  16. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Brandtzaeg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR, also named membrane secretory component (SC. Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials.

  17. Amelogenins as potential buffers during secretory-stage amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Lyaruu, D M; Takano, Y; Gibson, C W; DenBesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J

    2015-03-01

    Amelogenins are the most abundant protein species in forming dental enamel, taken to regulate crystal shape and crystal growth. Unprotonated amelogenins can bind protons, suggesting that amelogenins could regulate the pH in enamel in situ. We hypothesized that without amelogenins the enamel would acidify unless ameloblasts were buffered by alternative ways. To investigate this, we measured the mineral and chloride content in incisor enamel of amelogenin-knockout (AmelX(-/-)) mice and determined the pH of enamel by staining with methyl-red. Ameloblasts were immunostained for anion exchanger-2 (Ae2), a transmembrane pH regulator sensitive for acid that secretes bicarbonate in exchange for chloride. The enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice was 10-fold thinner, mineralized in the secretory stage 1.8-fold more than wild-type enamel and containing less chloride (suggesting more bicarbonate secretion). Enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice stained with methyl-red contained no acidic bands in the maturation stage as seen in wild-type enamel. Secretory ameloblasts of AmelX(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice, were immunopositive for Ae2, and stained more intensely in the maturation stage compared with wild-type mice. Exposure of AmelX(-/-) mice to fluoride enhanced the mineral content in the secretory stage, lowered chloride, and intensified Ae2 immunostaining in the enamel organ in comparison with non-fluorotic mutant teeth. The results suggest that unprotonated amelogenins may regulate the pH of forming enamel in situ. Without amelogenins, Ae2 could compensate for the pH drop associated with crystal formation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  18. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  19. Primary secretory otitis media in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lynette K

    2012-11-01

    Primary secretory otitis media (PSOM) is a disease that has been described in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS). A large, bulging pars flaccida identified on otoscopic examination confirms the diagnosis. However, in many CKCS with PSOM the pars flaccida is flat, and radiographic imaging is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Current treatment for PSOM includes performing a myringotomy into the caudal-ventral quadrant of the pars tensa with subsequent flushing of the mucus out of the bulla using a video otoscope. Repeat myringotomies and flushing of the middle ear are necessary to keep the middle ear free of mucus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...

  1. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  2. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  3. Optimization of Pathogenetic Treatment of Secretory Diarrhea in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to access clinical efficacy of oral rehydration therapy using III generation solutions in the treatment of secretory diarrhea in infants. To achieve this aim, on the basis of infectious box unit (enteric infections of regional clinical hospital (Chernivtsi we examined 116 infants, randomly selected, with acute gastroenteritis, who admitted to the hospital with signs of exycosis due to secretory diarrhea. Among examined patients, 73 (67.5 % children with the purpose of oral rehydration therapy received rehydration solutions, and 35 (32.4 % patients received other rehydration solutions. Monitoring of the dynamics of patients’ state enabled to state that, when we used III generation mixture as a main component of oral rehydration therapy, rate of positive dynamics in terms of clinical status of patients was significantly faster, in particular, body temperature, frequency and nature of bowel movements normalized significantly earlier, vomiting disappeared. In children treated with rehydration solutions, compared with patients receiving other rehydration solutions, odds ratio to confine only oral rehydration was 3.7 (95% CI 0.4–38.9 with an absolute risk to avoid the need for infusion therapy — 11 %.

  4. Post-secretory fate of host defence components in mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathe, Matthias; Forteza, Rosanna; Conner, Gregory E

    2002-01-01

    Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provide a multifaceted defence against infection. Among many antimicrobial substances, mucus contains a peroxidase identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) that is produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands. Airway secretions contain the substrates for LPO, namely thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide, at concentrations sufficient for production of the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite, a fact confirmed by us in vitro. In vivo, inhibition of airway LPO in sheep significantly inhibits bacterial clearance, suggesting that the LPO system is a major contributor to host defences. Since secretory products including LPO are believed to be steadily removed by mucociliary clearance, their amount and availability on the surface is thought to be controlled solely by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, new data suggest that LPO and other substances are retained at the ciliary border of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, thereby providing an apical, fully active enzyme pool. Thus, hyaluronan, secreted from submucosal gland cells, plays a previously unrecognized pivotal role in mucosal host defence by retaining LPO and possibly other substances important for first line host defence at the apical surface 'ready for use' and protected from ciliary clearance.

  5. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  6. Identification of Secretory Odontoblasts Using DMP1-GFP Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. PMID:21172466

  7. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  9. Oil price stability and free markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamani, A.Z.

    1992-01-01

    The oil industry, like any capital-intensive industry with long supply lead times, is prone to price instability. Free markets in oil reflect this inherent instability, for prices are efficient signallers of imbalances between supply and demand. Free markets are desirable in principle, but entirely free oil markets are unstable. Volatile oil prices are undesirable. This article advocates trading some market freedom for more price stability, since such a trade off will be beneficial to the world as a whole. (author)

  10. Preliminary studies on the volatile constitution of Mikania species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anair A. Reis

    Full Text Available Volatile oils obtained from the aerial parts of three Mikania species plants were analyzed by GC-MS and NMR. Forty-six terpenes among monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were identified by this methodology. The analysis classified Mikania hookriana as diterpene producer as the majority Mikania species occurring in Brazil.

  11. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat,

  12. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates a long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat,

  13. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  14. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  15. Increased biogenesis of glucagon-containing secretory granules and glucagon secretion in BIG3-knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Together with our previous studies, the current data reveal a conserved role for BIG3 in regulating alpha- and beta-cell functions. We propose that BIG3 negatively regulates hormone production at the secretory granule biogenesis stage and that such regulatory mechanism may be used in secretory pathways of other endocrine cells.

  16. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...

  17. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Novakovic, Valerie A.; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2013-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2’s do not bind to plasma membranes of quies...

  18. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  19. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  20. File list: ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. Secretory expression of a heterologous nattokinase in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lixin; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-05-01

    Nattokinase has been reported as an oral health product for the prevention of atherosclerosis. We developed a novel strategy to express a nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis in a live delivery vehicle, Lactococcus lactis. Promoter P( nisZ) and signal peptide SP(Usp) were used for inducible and secretory expression of nattokinase in L. lactis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that nattokinase was successfully expressed, and about 94% of the enzyme was secreted to the culture. The recombinant nattokinase showed potent fibrinolytic activity, equivalent to 41.7 urokinase units per milliliter culture. Expression and delivery of such a fibrinolytic enzyme in the food-grade vehicle L. lactis would facilitate the widespread application of nattokinase in the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.

  4. Investigations on Avocado Leaf Oil

    OpenAIRE

    ŞARER, Engin; KÖKDİL, Gamze

    1990-01-01

    Persea americana Mill.(P.gratissima Gârtn.) (Lauraceae) "Avoca - d o " is a small tree native to tropical America and cultivated in southern Turkey. In this study, the volatile oil from the leaves of P.americana has been analyzed by LSC, GLC and GC-MS methods. A light yellow volatile oil with a spicy odour has been obtained with a proportion of 3.0% (v /w) from leaves of P.americana by hydrodistillation. 11 monoterpene hydrocarbon compounds and 9 oxygen containing monoterpenes and s...

  5. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  6. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  7. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  8. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  9. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  11. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. File list: Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  11. New evidence on the asymmetry in gasoline price: volatility versus margin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abosedra, S.; Radchenko, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent evidence on the role that gasoline margins and volatility play in the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to changes in oil prices at different stages of distribution process. In a regression model with margins, we find that margins are statistically significant in explaining asymmetry between crude oil and spot gasoline prices, spot gasoline prices and wholesale gasoline prices, and wholesale gasoline prices and retail prices. In a regression model with input volatility, we find evidence that volatility is responsible for asymmetry between wholesale gasoline prices and retail gasoline prices. When both, gasoline margins and gasoline volatility are included in the regression, we find evidence supporting margins, the search theory, volatility, the oligopolistic coordination theory and an explanation of asymmetry. (author)

  12. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  13. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  14. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  15. Sensory evaluation of black instant coffee beverage with some volatile compounds present in aromatic oil from roasted coffee Análise sensorial de bebida preparada com café instantâneo com alguns compostos voláteis presentes no óleo aromático de café torrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oil obtained from Brazilian roasted coffee by supercritical CO2 extraction shows considerable aromatic properties, mainly composed by five aromatic compounds, 2-methylpyrazine; 2-furfurylalcohol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine; γ-butyrolactone and 2-furfurylacetate. Sensory analyses were used to verify the influence of a mixture of these important classes of aromatic coffee compounds (pyrazines, furans and lactones and of the roasted coffee aromatic oil on the coffee aroma and flavour of black instant freeze and spray-dried coffee beverages. In the acceptance evaluation of the aroma, the samples prepared with freeze-dried instant coffee without the mixture of volatile compounds (sample 4 were not significantly different from the freeze-dried instant coffee in which the aromatic coffee oil was added (sample 5 and from the sample prepared with freeze-dried coffee in which the mixture of the five volatile was added (sample 3, coincidentally from the same drying process. Therefore, sample (3 did not differ from samples prepared with spray dried instant coffee without (sample 1 and to which (sample 2 the mixture of volatile was added. Therefore, with respect to this attribute, the addition of this mixture did not interfere in this drink acceptance. Taking into consideration the flavor, samples prepared with freeze-dried instant coffee in which the aromatic coffee oil was added (5 and the samples with (3 and without (4 the mixture of the five volatile was added did not differ significantly, however sample (4 did not differ from samples (1 and (2. Regarding this attribute, the addition of the aromatic oil of roasted coffee or a mixture of volatile in samples of freeze-dried instant coffee had a better acceptance than those dried by spray dryer (1 and (2. Thus, the enrichment of drinks with the aromatic oil of roasted coffee, or even with the mixture of the five components did not influence the consumer acceptance with respect to the aroma, but exerts

  16. Determination of Calorific Ability of Fuel Briquettes on the Basis of Oil and Oil Slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Rakhmatulina, E. M.; Zakharov, V. A.; Fisenko, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization and neutralization of oil slimes is one of important environmental problems of the oil-extracting, oil-processing and petrochemical industry. The easiest and economic way of utilization of oil slimes is their use as a part of the bricketed boiler fuel. In this work the highest calorific ability of crude oil, the oil slimes and fuel briquettes made on their basis is defined. A research problem was carrying out the technical analysis of oil fuels on the content in them analytical moisture, the cindery rest and volatiles. It is established that in comparison with oil slimes crude oil possesses bigger highest calorific ability, has smaller humidity and an ash-content. The highest calorific abilities of the boiler briquettes made of samples of crude oil, oil slimes and peat made 14 - 26 MJ/kg.

  17. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  18. Essential oil and their microconstituents of cumin and coriander seeds during storage under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Abdullah, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Both cumin and coriander seeds were treated with gamma irradiation (10 KGy). The volatile oil and micro constituents were identified over seven months of storage. No marked changes were noticed regarding the volatile oil content and oil components between irradiated and non-irradiated of the two spices during the storage period at egyptian ambient temperature

  19. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  20. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  1. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection...... and identified or characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 120 VOCs were characterized by retention index and mass spectra. Fifty-three compounds were characterized as terpenoid compounds, among which 18 could be identified. Among the VOCs were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  2. Periodic activity of secretory glands of stomach in ulcer erosion of gastro-duodenal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rudenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.

  3. Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    herbal forms of medicine and relaxation (such as aromatherapy), and .... (Flower bud, aerial part, cell suspension) α-farnesene 0-91, 3-OH .... (Leaf, stem); camphor 32, pulegone 15, 1,8-cineole 13. n.s. ..... Volatile oil-containing drugs and essential oils have ...... Achillea asplenifolia Vent. through multiple shoot regeneration.

  4. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  5. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  6. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  7. The effect of the volatility of the oil price in the actual world economy (1998 until 02/2008); A influencia da volatilidade dos precos do petroleo na atual economia mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Vinicius Almeida [Universidade Vila-Velha, ES (Brazil). Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    In the elapse of the X X century the world experienced different cycles of prices in the world's oil production. From the principle of the century until the years 70's there were times of relative stability, in the 70's nevertheless a little variation in the price took the world's economy into a huge recession. Since then the consume of oil, that were increasing, has suffered a shock and started to decrease. The stability just will return in the 90's , but it will not last for a long time, and not with the same level of prices of the time before crisis, but as sad before it do not last long, as we can see nowadays the quotation break new records every day , but one factor distinguish this new shock of prices, of the shock of the 70's. Distinct of that time, the global economy in the beginning of the X XI century live a period of economical stability that was not seen for a long time in history, with controlled inflation and decrease of the interests rates, therefore this article concludes that happened a maturation of global economy, and that due the previous shocks happened a diversification in relation of the previous excessive dependence of oil. (author)

  8. Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil Linn ( Euphor Biaceae ): Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was obvious that J. curcas seed oil is a volatile oil. It was also observed that tragacanth formed more stable primary emulsions than acacia gum. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seed oil has significant contraceptive activity and it could be formulated into stable oral emulsion at doses not exceeding 0.5g/kg. Nig.

  9. The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sikora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.

  10. HS-SPME-GC-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM DRIED LEAVES OF Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeraldo A. Cappelaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds and a comparison of the chromatographic profiles obtained by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS of dried leaves of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae, also known as 'guaco.' Three different types of commercial SPME fibers were tested: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB and polyacrylate (PA. Fifty-nine compounds were fully identified by HS-SPME-HRGC-MS, including coumarin, a marker for the quality control of guaco-based phytomedicines; most of the other identified compounds were mono- and sesquiterpenes. PA fibers performed better in the analysis of coumarin, while PDMS-DVB proved to be the best choice for a general and non-selective analysis of volatile and semi-volatile guaco-based compounds. The SPME method is faster and requires a smaller sample than conventional hydrodistillation of essential oils, providing a general overview of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds of M. glomerata.

  11. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  12. Protein thiophosphorylation associated with secretory inhibition in permeabilized chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.C.; Brooks, M.

    1985-01-01

    Permeabilized cells treated with the adenosine triphosphate analog, ( 35 S)adenosine-5'-0-3(3-thiotriphosphate) ((γ- 35 S)ATP), showed thiophosphorylation of a small number of cellular proteins. A 54 kilodalton (kDa) protein was heavily thiophosphorylated in unstimulated control cells and a 43 kilodalton protein was more heavily thiophosphorylated in calcium stimulated cells. Intact cells incorporated 35 S into a series of higher molecular weight proteins. Stimulation of prelabelled, permeabilized cells resulted in a loss of 35 S from the cells over a 20 min period. Treatment of permeabilized cells with ATPγS inhibited secretion and 35 S incorporation into the cells. Pretreatment with ATPγS resulted in subsequent inhibition of both secretion and the ability of the cells to incorporate 35 S from (γ- 35 S)ATP. These results indicate that the sites normally available for phosphorylation were inactivated by thiophosphorylation and were unavailable to participate in the secretory process. The inhibition of secretion associated with thiophosphorylation of these proteins suggests that they may play a role in the control of secretion by chromaffin cells. 15 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  13. Correlation between CT and tympanogram in secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sakurai, Tokio; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kawamoto, Kazutomo.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of the tympanometry in detecting the middle ear effusion (MEE) in secretory otitis media (SOM) in childhood, the findings of the computed tomography (CT) were evaluated whether they were compatible with that of tympanometry in 27 cases (51 ears) of SOM. Tympanometry (tympanogram, static compliance measurement and stapedial reflex test), pure tone audiometry and high resolution CT were performed sequentially, and the CT findings were compared with the results of the other tests. The conclusions obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Among the tests performed, tympanogram appeared to be the most reliable measure in detection of MEE. 2. Fifteen ears out of 16 with type B tympanograms and 6 ears out of 15 with type C 2 tympanograms, were diagnosed by CT as having MEE. MEE occupied the entire middile ear space in most ears with type B tympanograms. By contrast, in the ears with type C 2 tympanograms, air containing space of varying size were always observed even in the ears with MEE. (author)

  14. ERAD-dependent control of the Wnt secretory factor Evi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael

    2018-02-15

    Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Pulmonary deposition and disappearance of aerosolised secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, J.; Camps, J.; Feitsma, H. I.; Hermans, J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Pauwels, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is a potential therapeutic tool in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The distribution and disappearance in the lung of aerosolised recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) was investigated in healthy humans and in patients with cystic fibrosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin-associated emphysema. METHODS--To distinguish aerosolised rSLPI from endogenous SLPI the recombinant inhibitor was radiolabelled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) pertechnetate. Distribution and disappearance of aerosolised 99mTc-rSLPI in the lungs were studied by gamma radiation imaging. RESULTS--The deposition of 99mTc-rSLPI in normal volunteers was homogeneous in all lung lobes, while in patients with cystic fibrosis or emphysema only well ventilated areas showed deposition of the aerosol. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-rSLPI was biexponential. The half life of the rapid phase was 0.2-2.8 hours, while that of the slow phase was more than 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS--Future aerosol therapy with rSLPI will be most beneficial for well ventilated lung tissue that needs protection against neutrophil derived elastase. It may be more difficult to neutralise the burden of elastase in poorly ventilated, highly inflamed areas as are seen in cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7638807

  16. Quantitative parameters of seminiferous epithelium in secretory and excretory oligoazoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Martini, M; Properzi, G; Cordeschi, G

    1990-01-01

    Testicular biopsy specimens from infertile men (sperm count, less than 10(6)/ml) were evaluated on 1-micron thick sections, and counts of stem cells and differentiated spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, early and late spermatids, and Sertoli cells were compared to counts in six fertile men. Biopsy specimens were also compared for the appearance of seminiferous tubule wall, blood vessels, and interstitium. Infertile men were grouped according to the following diagnoses: hypospermatogenesis (n = 5), spermatocyte arrest of spermatogenesis (n = 5), and obstruction of the genital tract (n = 7). A low productivity of spermatogenesis in cases of hypospermatogenesis appeared to be due to an exaggerated degeneration of primary spermatocytes and to a yield of abnormal spermatids. A block of meiosis in spermatocyte arrest was associated with a degeneration of primary spermatocytes and with a reduced number of staminal spermatogonia. Abnormal spermiogenesis was observed in cases of obstruction of the genital tract and was associated with an increase in stem cell spermatogonia. A thickening of seminiferous tubule and blood vessel walls could be responsible for the limited functional capacity of Sertoli cells, causing altered spermiogenesis in cases of excretory azoospermia. A severe primitive failure of Sertoli cells in secretory oligoazoospermia could account for a deranged maturation and degeneration of premeiotic and postmeiotic germ cells.

  17. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  18. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-07-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens.

  19. Chronic regulation of colonic epithelial secretory function by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toumi, F

    2011-02-01

    Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.

  20. Differential testosterone secretory capacity of the testes of aggressive and nonaggressive house mice during ontogeny

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruiter, Anne J H; Koolhaas, Jaap M; van Oortmerssen, Geert A; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In this study, testosterone secretory capacity of testicular Leydig cells during ontogeny was determined in males of an aggressive and a nonaggressive genetic selection line of wild house mice. Neonates, 23-day-old prepubertals, and adult male mice were studied. A morphometric method was used to quantify 3-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD)-stained Leydig cells in testicular sections to determine testosterone secretory capacity. We consider this parameter to reflect circulating t...

  1. Evaluation of beta-cell secretory capacity using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Nielsen, Mette Toft; Krarup, T

    2000-01-01

    Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients.......Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients....

  2. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki

    2017-10-19

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.

  3. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  4. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  5. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Colecio-Juárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso, is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identification of the components in the essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 46 components were found in the essence of lime, among which the highest concentration of compounds present were aldehydes such as limonene. Linalool, sabinene, and bergamol were more abundant than in other varieties. The best extraction method was steam distillation, and the concentrations in stage III from the main terpenic portion were d-limonene with 74.4%, bergamol with 8.23%, and β-pinene with 7.62%.El aceite esencial de frutos cítricos contiene componentes de características sensoriales agradables que son apreciadas en las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y de cosméticos. En el caso de la lima dulce (Citrus limetta Risso, es necesaria la caracterización de los componentes de su aceite esencial para identificar usos potenciales de este fruto. El aceite esencial de lima dulce se obtuvo a partir del flavedo de lima en cuatro etapas de maduración diferentes. Se utilizó destilación por arrastre de vapor y se comparó con la extracción con hexano. La identificación de los componentes en el aceite esencial se realizó por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Se encontró un total de 46 componentes en el aceite esencial de lima, entre los cuales la mayor concentración de compuestos presentes son aldehídos como el limoneno. Linalol, sabineno y bergamol fueron más abundantes que en otras variedades. El mejor m

  6. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  7. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  8. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  10. The Volatile Composition of Portuguese Propolis Towards its Origin Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia I. Falcão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles from thirty six propolis samples collected from six different geographical locations in Portugal (mainland, Azores archipelago and Madeira Island were evaluated. Populus x canadensis Moenchen leaf-buds and Cistus ladanifer L. branches essential oils were comparatively analysed. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on propolis samples volatiles chemical composition defined three main clusters, not related to sample site collection. Cluster I grouped 28 samples with high relative amounts of oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes (20-77%, while cluster II grouped 7 samples rich in oxygen-containing monoterpenes (9-65% and the only sample from cluster III was monoterpene hydrocarbons rich (26%. Although Populus x canadensis and Cistus ladanifer were associated as resin sources of Portuguese propolis, other Populus species as well as plants like Juniperus genus may contribute to the resin in specific geographical locations.

  11. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  12. Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were β-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), β-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), γ-muurolene (28.4%), α-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and β-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature. (author)

  13. Tattooing to "Toughen up": Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher D; Dominguez, Johnna T; DeCaro, Jason A

    2016-09-10

    A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience. Participants were 24 women and 5 men (aged 18-47). We measured immune function using secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol (sCORT) in saliva collected before and after tattoo sessions. We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We predicted an inverse relationship between SIgA and sCORT and less SIgA immunosuppression among those with more tattoo experience. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. The regression model was significant (P = 0.006) with a large effect size (r(2)  = 0.711) and significant and positive main (P = 0.03) and interaction effects (P = 0.014). Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:603-609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Urinary secretory IgA after nutritional rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Teodósio

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the secretory IgA (sIgA response of the mucosal urinary tract of malnourished children before and after nutritional rehabilitation. sIgA concentration (mg/l was determined by ELISA in 187 children aged 3 months to 5 years. The children, who frequented a day care center, were divided into four groups, according to nutritional status: 57 were eutrophic, 49 were undergrown, 57 were moderately malnourished and 24 were severely malnourished. In addition, dip slide (Urotube, Roche and dip-stick (Combur 9-Boehringer tests showed that children had no bacteriuria or any other urinary abnormalities. Plasma albumin concentration (g/dl was significantly lower (P<0.005 in the severely malnourished group (mean 3.0 ± 0.3 SD than in the eutrophic group (mean 4.0 ± 0.5 SD. When each nutritional state was analyzed, no significant differences in the sIgA were found between the 0 |-| 1 and 1 -| 5 year age range. In the moderately and severely malnourished groups, sIgA (0.36 and 0.45, respectively was significantly lower than in the eutrophic (0.69 and undergrown (0.75 groups. Ninety-five children were included in the 8-month follow-up study; 30 children were excluded from the follow-up because 4 had bacteriuria, 11 had leukocyturia, 8 had proteinuria and 7 had hematuria. Among the malnourished children, 40% showed nutritional improvement (P<0.05 and significantly increased sIgA as compared to reference values for the eutrophic and undergrown groups. These data suggest that malnourished children have a significantly lower urinary sIgA than eutrophic children. After nutritional rehabilitation, they develop local immunity with a significant increase in sIgA.

  15. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption ( 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to 3 H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life

  16. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in

  17. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model f...

  18. Modeling energy price dynamics: GARCH versus stochastic volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Joshua C.C.; Grant, Angelia L.

    2016-01-01

    We compare a number of GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) models using nine series of oil, petroleum product and natural gas prices in a formal Bayesian model comparison exercise. The competing models include the standard models of GARCH(1,1) and SV with an AR(1) log-volatility process, as well as more flexible models with jumps, volatility in mean, leverage effects, and t distributed and moving average innovations. We find that: (1) SV models generally compare favorably to their GARCH counterparts; (2) the jump component and t distributed innovations substantially improve the performance of the standard GARCH, but are unimportant for the SV model; (3) the volatility feedback channel seems to be superfluous; (4) the moving average component markedly improves the fit of both GARCH and SV models; and (5) the leverage effect is important for modeling crude oil prices—West Texas Intermediate and Brent—but not for other energy prices. Overall, the SV model with moving average innovations is the best model for all nine series. - Highlights: • We compare a variety of GARCH and SV models for fitting nine series of energy prices. • We find that SV models generally compare favorably to their GARCH counterparts. • The SV model with moving average innovations is the best model for all nine series.

  19. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  20. Multivariate FIGARCH and long memory process: evidence of oil price markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil price markets can benefit from a better considerate of how shocks can affect volatility through time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of two crude oil markets WTI and Brent oil price between January 1, 1996 and March 17, 2014. First, we identify the FIGARCH process proposed by Baillie et al. (1996 [Baillie, R.T., Bollerslev, T., & Mikkelsen, H.O., (1996, Fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity. Journal of Econometrics, 74, 3-30.] and investigate some of its statistical proprieties and then incorporate this information into the volatility modelling. We also show that outliers can bias the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Taking into account outliers on the volatility modelling process improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets.