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Sample records for volatile oil content

  1. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  2. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, >17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant.

  3. Volatilization behaviors of diesel oil from the soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing; MA Yu-xin; CAO Jing-hua

    2004-01-01

    The volatilization of diesel oil, Shengli crude oil and 90# gasoline on glass surface of petri dishes were conducted at the ambient temperature of 25℃. Diesel oil evaporates in a power manner, where the loss of mass is approximately power with time. 90# gasoline evaporates in a logarithmic with time. Where as the volatilization of Shengli crude oil fit either the logarithmic or power equation after different time, and has similar R2. And the effects of soil type and diesel oil and water content on volatilization behavior in unsaturated soil were studied in this paper. Diesel oil and water content in the soils play a large role in volatilization from soils. Appropriate water helps the wicking action but too much water stops it. The wicking action behaves differently in four different types of soils in the same volatilization experiment of 18% diesel oil content and air-dry condition.

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  5. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  6. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  7. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  8. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  9. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  10. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  11. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  12. Nanostructured systems containing an essential oil: protection against volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cramer Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preparing nanocapsules and nanoemulsions using tea tree oil as oily phase aiming to protect its volatilization. The nanostructures presented nanometric mean size (160-220 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.25 and negative zeta potential. The pH values were 6.43 ± 0.37 and 5.98 ± 0.00 for nanoemulsions and nanocapsules, respectively. The oil content after preparation was 96%. The inclusion of tea tree oil in nanocapsules showed higher protection against volatilization. The analysis of mean size and polydispersity index of formulations presented no significant alteration during the storage time.

  13. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamed Massoud

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  16. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  17. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7% and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8% were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%. The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E-caryophyllene (44.6% caryophyllene oxide (14.8%, germacrene D (3.8%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.8% and limonene (3.7%. From chemical point of view, oxides (15.7% were the predominant group of components with caryophyllene oxide as their main representative. α-terthienyl (3.8% comprised partially large amount in the volatile oil content despite of its polar and less-volatile nature. Taking into account the volatile oil profile, the chemical composition of the volatile seed oil of commonly growing ornamental T. patula L. was characterized as sesquiterpene and α-terthienyl rich one probably with appreciable biocidal (Insecticidal and nematicidal and pharmacological potential.

  18. Comparative Performance of Volatility Models for Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afees A. Salisu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the performance of volatility models for oil price using daily returns of WTI. The innovations of this paper are in two folds: (i we analyse the oil price across three sub samples namely period before, during and after the global financial crisis, (ii we also analyse the comparative performance of both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models for the oil price. We find that oil price was most volatile during the global financial crises compared to other sub samples. Based on the appropriate model selection criteria, the asymmetric GARCH models appear superior to the symmetric ones in dealing with oil price volatility. This finding indicates evidence of leverage effects in the oil market and ignoring these effects in oil price modelling will lead to serious biases and misleading results.

  19. 气相色谱法测定不同方法提取的莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯的含量%GC measure Content of β-elemene in Curcuma Volatile oil Extracted with Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项秀娣; 陈素红; 楼招欢

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To observe the content of β-elemene in this oil by different methods.[Methods]Steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction were separately adopted to extract the volatile oil from Curcuma.β-elemene of each volatile oil was assessed by GC,and their contents were compared with each other.[Results]The content of β-elemene in the steam-distilled volatile oil is significantly higher than that in the petroleum ether-extracted one.[Conclusion]The method of steam distillation for extracting the volatile oil from Curcuma is better than the method of petroleum ether extraction.%[目的]明确不同提取方法对莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯含量的影响.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法和石油醚提取法提取莪术挥发油,气相色谱法(gas chromatography,GC)法测定莪术油中β-榄香烯的含量,比较不同方法提取莪术挥发油中β-榄香烯含量的差异.[结果]水蒸气蒸馏法提取的莪术油中β-榄香烯的含量高于石油醚提取.[结论]水蒸气蒸馏法提取莪术挥发油效率较高.

  20. [Oxidative damage of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides on Vicia faba root tip cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wan-Jun; Ma, Dan-Wei; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an invasive species, which has strong allelopathic effect on surrounding plants. In this study, the methods of soil culture and filter paper culture were adopted to simulate the eluviation and volatilization of the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides, respectively, and to investigate the allelopathy of the volatile oil on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Vicia faba root tip cells, with the mechanisms of the induced tip cell apoptosis analyzed. At the early stage (24 h) of soil culture and filter paper culture, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities of the tip cells decreased after an initial increase with the increasing dose of the volatile oil, and the malondialdehyde content of the tip cells increased with the increasing volatile oil dose and treated time. At the midterm (48 h) and later (72 h) stages of soil culture and filter paper culture, a typical DNA ladder strip appeared, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could induce the apoptosis of the tip cells, and the apoptosis was dose- and time dependent. This study showed that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could act on its surrounding plants via eluviation and volatilization, making the lipid peroxidation of acceptor plants aggravated and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the plants inhibited, resulting in the oxidative damage and apoptosis of the plant root tip cells, and accordingly, the inhibition of the plant growth. Under soil culture, the root tip cells of V. faba had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser DNA damage, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides via volatilization had stronger allelopathy on the growth of surrounding plants than via eluviation.

  1. Essays on oil price volatility and irreversible investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Daniel J.

    In chapter 1, we provide an extensive and systematic evaluation of the relative forecasting performance of several models for the volatility of daily spot crude oil prices. Empirical research over the past decades has uncovered significant gains in forecasting performance of Markov Switching GARCH models over GARCH models for the volatility of financial assets and crude oil futures. We find that, for spot oil price returns, non-switching models perform better in the short run, whereas switching models tend to do better at longer horizons. In chapter 2, I investigate the impact of volatility on firms' irreversible investment decisions using real options theory. Cost incurred in oil drilling is considered sunk cost, thus irreversible. I collect detailed data on onshore, development oil well drilling on the North Slope of Alaska from 2003 to 2014. Volatility is modeled by constructing GARCH, EGARCH, and GJR-GARCH forecasts based on monthly real oil prices, and realized volatility from 5-minute intraday returns of oil futures prices. Using a duration model, I show that oil price volatility generally has a negative relationship with the hazard rate of drilling an oil well both when aggregating all the fields, and in individual fields.

  2. [Effects of processing methods on the amounts of volatile oil of nutmeg and on isolation and characterization of the volatile oil constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Xu, Z; Pan, J; Mao, S

    1990-07-01

    In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of various processing methods, i.e., scalding in hot purified talc, simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran, on nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) in terms of the quantities of the volatile oil. The experimental results revealed that the amounts of volatile oil contained in nutmeg vary remarkably with the lengths of cooking time and the fluctuation of temperature. Detected by GC-MS-computer, 32 compounds of nutmeg were characterized, and their contents were determined by GC respectively.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF OILS AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    which is sweetened with honey or syrup, and in flavoring of foods, especially bakery ... extracted fixed oil and volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds grown in Iran by GC ..... The fatty acid patterns (Table 3) of N. sativus seed oil were qualitatively ...

  4. Glutathione protects Candida albicans against horseradish volatile oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertóti, Regina; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Szőke, Éva; Jakab, Ágnes; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish essential oil (HREO; a natural mixture of different isothiocyanates) had strong fungicide effect against Candida albicans both in volatile and liquid phase. In liquid phase this antifungal effect was more significant than those of its main components allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. HREO, at sublethal concentration, induced oxidative stress which was characterized with elevated superoxide content and up-regulated specific glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Induction of specific glutathione S-transferase activities as marker of glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification was also observed. At higher concentration, HREO depleted the GSH pool, increased heavily the superoxide production and killed the cells rapidly. HREO and the GSH pool depleting agent, 1-chlore-2,4-dinitrobenzene showed strong synergism when they were applied together to kill C. albicans cells. Based on all these, we assume that GSH metabolism protects fungi against isothiocyanates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Study on composition, antibiotic activity and antioxidant activity of volatile oils from uyghur medicine Althaea rosea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Abudukeremu; Muheta'er, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Xia, Na

    2015-04-01

    Althaea rosea is a type of mallow plant. Its dry flowers are one of common herb in Uyghur medicines and recorded to have several efficacies such as external application for detumescence, moistening lung and arresting cough, sweating and relieving asthma, diminishing swelling and promoting eruption, soothing the nerves and strengthening heart. However, there are only fewer studies on effective components of A. rosea and no literature about its volatile oil and pharmacological activity. In this paper, the volatile oil of A. rosea was obtained by using the chemical distillation and extraction method. The individual chemical components were separated from the volatile oil and identified by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer technique (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity against free radicals was detected by the'ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer method. The antibiotic activity was detected by the filter paper diffusion method. The experimental results showed nearly 70 compounds in the volatile oil, with complex chemical components. With a low content, most of the compounds were aromatic and aliphatic compounds and their derivatives. A. rosea had a better antibiotic activity for common microorganisms, with a wide antibacterial spectrum. According to the results, the volatile oil of A. rosea will have a good application value in medicine, food and cosmetic industries, which provided a scientific basis for the development of natural A. rosea resources.

  6. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Mohamed Massoud; Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby; Rabab Mohamed El Khateeb; Mona Said Mahmoud; Mohamed Abdel Aziz Kutkat

    2013-01-01

    To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. Methods: The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid ® ), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. Results: The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid ® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  7. Volatile Composition of Essential Oils from Different Aromatic Herbs Grown in Mediterranean Regions of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein El-Zaeddi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD, using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID analysis (quantification showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015. For parsley shoots, the main compounds were 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, β-phellandrene, and P1 (first harvest, third week of November 2014 was the sample with the highest essential oil. For coriander, the main compounds were E-2-dodecenal, dodecanal, and octane and the highest contents were found at C2 (second harvest, 5 February 2015; while, the main two components of mint essential oil were carvone and limonene, and the highest contents were found at M1 (first harvest, second week of December 2014. The present study was the first one reporting data on descriptive sensory analysis of aromatic herbs at this optimal harvest date according to the content of volatile compounds of their essential oils.

  8. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Fruits and Anti depressant Potential of volatile oils of fruits of Local Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohib Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study an attempt is made to evaluate physicochemical properties comparatively for the fruits of different Piper species available in the Mumbai region. The fruits of five species, viz. Piper betle Linn, Piper cubeba Linn. f., Piper retrofractum Vahl, Piper longum Linn and Piper nigrum Linn were evaluated comparatively for physicochemical properties, viz. Ash Value, Extractive Value, Loss on Drying, Mucilage Content, Crude Fibre Content, Volatile Oil Content and Piperine Content by Spectroscopic method. At the same time an attempt is made to evaluate antidepressant potential comparatively for the volatile oils of mentioned species, using forced swimming method, on albino mice with fluoxetine as standard antidepressant drug.

  9. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超

    2003-01-01

    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  10. Metal volatility in presence of oil and interest rate shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Yuan, Yuan [LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, 3141 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    This study uses three ''two factor'' volatility models of the GARCH family to examine the volatility behavior of three strategic commodities: gold, silver and copper, in the presence of crude oil and interest rate shocks. The results of the standard GARCH models suggest that gold and silver have almost the same volatility persistence which is greater than that of copper. The CGARCH estimates indicate that the (short-run) transitory component of volatility converges to zero much faster for copper than for gold and silver in this sequence. However, the permanent volatility component demonstrates equally strong persistence in the long-run for all three metals. The EGARCH results suggest that the leverage effect is present and significant for copper only, implying that gold and silver can be good investment in anticipation of bad times. Past oil shock does not impact all three metals similarly. Monetary policy and to leaser extent the oil shocks have calming effects on precious metals but not on copper if the T bill rate is used. Crises such as the 2003 Iraq war heighten metal volatility. These results have implications for derivatives valuations, using gold as a reserve asset, risk analysis, and for the commodity-exporting countries and commodity-producing firms. (author)

  11. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  12. Variation of volatile oil concentration of Mediterranean aromatic shrubs Thymus capitatus hoffmag et link, Satureja thymbra L., Teucrium polium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokou, D.; Margaris, N. S.

    1986-06-01

    The volatile oil content of four Labiatae aromatic plants, viz. Thymus capitatus, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium polium and Rosmarinus officinalis has been estimated throughout the year; leaves, braches, flowers and leaf litter were analysed. The pattern of changes in the volatile oil concentration is not the same in all four plants; it corresponds to the major adaptive strategy towards summer drought, which each has evolved.

  13. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2005-10-19

    The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters.

  14. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Hosni; Amel Kerkenni; Wafa Medfei; Nadia Ben Brahim; Houcine Sebei

    2010-01-01

    The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and traditional dry distillation (DD) and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%). The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4%) in DD extract when compared t...

  15. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  16. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample.

  17. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Volatile Oils from Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is widely used in folk medicine in various countries. Th e essential oils from H. suaveolens have been extensively investigated and are mainly composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, although significant diterpene content has been reported in recent studies. The survey of the literature concerning H. suaveolens essential oils revealed a high level of chemical variability in terms of quantity and composition that is commonly observed for volatile oils from other plant species. However, few researchers have dealt with the reasons for such chemical variability. Our research group has been investigating the relationships between growing conditions of the plants and the H. suaveolens (L. Poit. essential oil composition. The results of these investigations have led to some advances in the characterization and knowledge of H. suaveolens chemotypes from Brazil. Nevertheless, since this species presents high level of genetic polymorphism and allows it to adapt to the alterations in environmental features resulting in interpopulational and intrapopulational variability in the volatile oil chemical compositions. Consequently, biochemical assays on the biosynthetic pathway are required in order to detect the molecular mechanisms involved in inducing differential terpenoid biosynthesis within H. suaveolens. These are some of the challenges which require resolution leading to an understanding of the complex secondary metabolism of this species, thereby making possible the volatile oil chemical standardization seeking productivity and phytotherapy.

  18. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  19. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  20. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  1. Detection of volatile impurities in turbine oils by the heat-pulse testing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripov, P. V.; Demin, V. A.; Shangin, V. V.; Starostin, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The research is aimed at development and implementation of methods and devices to control critical sections of the oil system of the power equipment that operates in the real time mode. The task was to develop a method for rapid detection of volatile impurities in turbine oils. The approach to the study is based on quantitative assessment of the short-term thermal stability of the substance that is formally associated with the content of the volatile impurity. The approach was selected on the basis of the results of search experiments taking into consideration the formulation of requirements for the method and the device, viz., (1) the method should reliably determine the moisture content in the range of 10-150 g of the impurity per ton of oil and (2) the device is to be applicable "in situ." For this purpose, a variant of the method of the controlled pulse heating of a wire probe, a resistance thermometer, has been developed. The advantages of the method are its speed, sensitivity to small contents of volatile impurities regardless of the nature of the impurity, and smallness of methodologically contributed perturbation. The heating conditions of the probe most sensitive to the appearance of moisture— including its trace amounts—in the system, has been defined. The duration of the measurement is on the order of milliseconds; the heat flux density through the surface of the probe reaches 1 MW/m2. The essence of the method consists in measuring, in the characteristic time interval, the temperature of the thermal instability onset associated with the content of the volatile impurity. The approach proposed by the authors is aimed at increasing the lifetime of the oil and preventing unpredictable failures of the operating equipment.

  2. GC-MS Analysis on the Components of Volatile Oil from Wu MedicineMentha haplocalyx and Measurement of Menthol Contents%吴药薄荷挥发油成分的GC-MS分析与薄荷醇含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝祎玮; 怀悦; 何翠翠

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对苏州市地区5个吴药薄荷药材挥发油成分、含量等相关的研究,为吴门药用植物资源的保护问题提供理论和实验依据.方法 采用水蒸汽蒸馏法进行挥发油的提取,运用GC-MS进行化学成分鉴定及含量测定,计算其相似度.结果 挥发油含量从0.2%至1.7% (mL/g)不等.除一个样品外,其余相似度都较高.结论 苏州地区吴药薄荷其化学成分丰富,薄荷醇含量较高,值得保护与开发.%OBJECTIVE To provide theoretical and experimental basis for protection of the Wu medicinal plant resources on the basis of study into the components and contents of volatile oil from mentha species in Suzhou region. Method Volatile oils were extracted with steam distillation, their chemical components were identified and contents were conducted by GC-MS to analyze their similarity. Result The contents of violate oil from five Mentha Haplocalyx samples varied from 0.2% to 1.7 % (mL/g). 9,8, 16,12 and 9 compounds in the oils were identified respectively. Besides, the menthol contents were determined with naphthol as the internal standard. The method is rapid, accurate and reproducible. With the help of computer aided similarity evaluation system, four samples were found high similarity. Conclusion: Since there are abundant chemical components and high levels of menthol in Mentha haplocalyx in Suzhou region, it is worthy of protection and development.

  3. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  4. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2011-11-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C 6 and C 10-12n-alkanes > C 7-C 9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C 6-C 9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  5. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  6. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  7. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Hassanpouraghdam; F Shekari; J. EMARAT-PARDAZ; SAFI SHALAMZARI, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8%) were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%). The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E)-caryophyllene (44.6%) caryophyllene oxide (14.8%), germacrene D...

  8. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  9. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...

  10. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  11. Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC, measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell-1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell-1 = -2.35 x cellular volume (CV, µm3 cell-1 0.90 (± 0.3, with a slope (0.90 not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 % to 5.17 %, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potential flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.

  12. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  13. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  14. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hosni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD and traditional dry distillation (DD and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%. The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4% in DD extract when compared to that of HD one (13.6%. As temperature increased (100°C during DD, the oil quality decreased. The most significant changes were observed in 2-phenethyl alcohol percentage (4.5%. Moreover, an increase of alkanes/alkenes and the production of furan derivatives were observed. So, DD at moderate temperature (50°C seemed more suitable to improve the volatile oil quality and hence, to make more value of R. canina.

  15. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher interact

  16. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher inter

  17. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher interact

  18. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher

  19. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  20. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  1. Comparison of Content of Naringin, Neohesperidin, Total Flavonoid and Volatile Oil in Different Batches of Citrus aurantium and Quality Evaluation%不同批次枳壳中柚皮苷、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量比较及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元清; 严建业; 师白梅; 李顺祥; 罗堃; 王璐; 黄海卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较不同批次枳壳中柚皮苷、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量,并评价其质量.方法:高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Diamonsil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相乙腈-水(20∶ 80)(磷酸调pH至3.0);检测波长283 nm,流速1 mL?min -1,柱温30℃,测定柚皮苷和新橙皮苷;以柚皮苷为对照,采用紫外-可见分光光度法在283 nm处测定总黄酮;采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取测定挥发油含量;以柚皮苷含量、新橙皮苷含量、总黄酮含量、挥发油含量为综合评价指标,采用Topsis法评价其质量.结果:柚皮苷含量范围在0%~6.12%,新橙皮苷含量在0%~4.55%,总黄酮含量在6.96% ~18.99%,挥发油量在0.2% ~2.0% (mL?g-1);17个批次样品质量差异较大.结论:17批次枳壳中柚皮昔、新橙皮苷、总黄酮、挥发油的含量有较大差异;柚皮苷、新橙皮苷含量达到2010年版《中国药典》标准的仅6批,质量评价方法可行.%Objective; To compare the content of naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil in different batches of Citrus aurantium and evaluate the quality. Method; The naringin and neohesperidin were detected by HPLC. The analytical column was a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 |xm). A mixture of acetonitrile-water (pH was adjusted to 3. 0 by phosphoric acid) (20: 80) was used as the mobile phase with the flow rate at 1 mL-min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 283 nm. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The UV spectrophotometry for the determination of total flavonoids is as follows; detection wavelength was at 283nm, and the reference substance was naringin. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. Topsis was employed for evaluating quality with the content of naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil. Result; The naringin, neohesperidin, total flavonoids and volatile oil were in the ranges of 0%-6. 12% , 0%-4.55%, 6.96%-18.99% and 0. 2%-2. 0

  2. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  3. Impact of Oil Price Shocks and Exchange Rate Volatility on Stock Market Behavior in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedoyin I. Lawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exchange rate and oil prices fluctuation on the stock market has been a subject of hot debate among researchers. This study examined the impact of both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility on stock market volatility in Nigeria, so as to guide policy formulation based on the fact that the nation’s economy was foreign induced and mono-cultured with heavy dependence on oil. EGARCH estimation techniques were employed to examine if either the volatility in exchange rate, oil price volatility or both experts on stock market volatility in Nigeria. The result shows that share price volatility is induced by both the exchange rate volatility and oil price volatility. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers should pursue policies that tend to stabilize the exchange rate regime on the one hand, and guarantee the net oil exporting position for the economy, that market practitioners should formulate portfolio strategies in such a way that volatility in both exchange rates and oil price will be factored in time when investment decisions are being made.

  4. Oil Price Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: a Vector Auto-Regression (VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined oil price volatility and economic growth in Nigeria linking oil price volatility, crude oil prices, oil revenue and Gross Domestic Product. Using quarterly data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin and World Bank Indicators (various issues spanning 1980-2010, a non‐linear model of oil price volatility and economic growth was estimated using the VAR technique. The study revealed that oil price volatility has significantly influenced the level of economic growth in Nigeria although; the result additionally indicated a negative relationship between the oil price volatility and the level of economic growth. Furthermore, the result also showed that the Nigerian economy survived on crude oil, to such extent that the country‘s budget is tied to particular price of crude oil. This is not a good sign for a developing economy, more so that the country relies almost entirely on revenue of the oil sector as a source of foreign exchange earnings. This therefore portends some dangers for the economic survival of Nigeria. It was recommended amongst others that there should be a strong need for policy makers to focus on policy that will strengthen/stabilize the economy with specific focus on alternative sources of government revenue. Finally, there should be reduction in monetization of crude oil receipts (fiscal discipline, aggressive saving of proceeds from oil booms in future in order to withstand vicissitudes of oil price volatility in future.

  5. A futures market response to oil price volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.H. (Shearson Lehman Brothers Inc., Bethseda, MD (US))

    1991-01-01

    The volatility of oil prices has expanded dramatically over the past twenty years. New mechanisms, including futures and forward contracts, options on futures and ''over the counter'' options have been developed to deal with the uncertainty of buying or selling of petroleum in the highly competitive markets that now characterize the oil situation. Futures contracts - agreements to buy or sell at a particular time in the future - are the core of the new mechanisms. Since futures market prices move in concert with cash (''wet'') market prices, futures can be an effective substitute for wet barrel transactions. Buyers of options gain the advantage of futures trading - the right to buy without the obligation to do so -for a fee. (author).

  6. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae and antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Through literature retrieval, there has been no report on the research of the chemical components in Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam. DC. This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and at the same time, measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae. Materials and Methods: We extract the volatile oil in Z. avicennae by steam distillation method, determined the chemical composition of the volatile oil by GC-MS coupling technique, and adopt the peak area normalization method to measured the relative percentage of each chemical composition in the volatile oil. Meanwhile, we use the Lethal-to-prawn larva bioactivity experiment to screen the cytotoxicity activities of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and using the slanting test-tube experiment to determine and evaluate its antibacterial activities in vitro for the eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi in the volatile oil of the Z. avicennae. Results: The results show that 68 kinds of compounds are determined from the volatile oil of Z. avicennae. The determined part takes up 97.89% of the total peak area. The main ingredients in the volatile oil of Z. avicennae are sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The test results show that the volatile oil in Z. avicennae has strong antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity, with the strongest antibacterial activity against the Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A. Conclusion: This research results will provide reference data for understanding the chemical composition of the volatile oil in the aromatic plant of Z. avicennae and its bioactivity, and for its further development and application.

  7. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  8. Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers and Asymmetries in Major Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermedi

  9. Forecasting volatility and spillovers in crude oil spot, forward and future markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermedi

  10. Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers and Asymmetries in Major Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas

  11. [Screening and identification of an endophytic fungus from Atractylodes lancea which utilizes volatile oil selectively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Fu-yan; Ren, Cheng-gang; Dai, Chuan-chao

    2012-10-01

    In order to transform main active ingredient of volatile oil, endophytic fungi were screened from the root of Atractylodes lancea. Transformation method was used in vitro. The changes of volatile oil were traced by gas chromatography. One endophytic fungus (strain ALG-13) which could uitilize volatile oil selectively was screened. Single factor experiment were conducted for exploring the effects of various factors that including kinds of carbon source, speed, liquid volume, pH and concentration of plant tissue on degradation by this strain. Subsequently, the main affecting factors carbon source, speed, pH and liquid volume were optimized using orthogonal array design. Results showed that endophytic fungus ALG-13 selectively used the volatile oil, change the relative percentage of the main components of volatile oil, Atractylon and Atractydin were increased, While, beta-eudesmol and Atractylol decreased. After selectively degradation by fungus, volatile oil components percentage were closer to the geo-herbs. Strain ALG-13 was identified as Bionectria ochroleuca according to its morphological characteristics and systematic analysis of ITS sequence. The optimal conditions were as follows: sucrose used as carbon source, rotating speed was 200 r x min(-1), initial pH for medium was 4.5, 50 mL liquid was added in 250 mL flask. The endophytic fungus ALG-13 could degrade the volatile oil selectively, which was benefit for forming geoherbs A. lancea volatile oil composition.

  12. Forecasting volatility and spillovers in crude oil spot, forward and future markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas

  13. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  14. Changes of headspace volatile constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Muhammad Nor Bin; Nor, Nor Nazuha M; Idris, Nor Aini

    2007-04-01

    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol 1 (73.6% followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%, phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0% and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%. The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans. Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of G. pfeifferi volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species.

  16. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to

  17. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to volatilit

  18. Volatility in crude oil futures. A comparison of the predictive ability of GARCH and implied volatility models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolucci, Paolo [University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research (4CMR), 19 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EP (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The WTI future contract quoted at the NYMEX is the most actively traded instrument in the energy sector. This paper compares the predictive ability of two approaches which can be used to forecast volatility: GARCH-type models where forecasts are obtained after estimating time series models, and an implied volatility model where forecasts are obtained by inverting one of the models used to price options. Although the main scope of the research discussed here is to evaluate which model produces the best forecast of volatility for the WTI future contract, evaluated according to statistical and regression-based criteria, we also investigate whether volatility of the oil futures are affected by asymmetric effects, whether parameters of the GARCH models are influenced by the distribution of the errors and whether allowing for a time-varying long-run mean in the volatility produces any improvement on the forecast obtained from GARCH models. (author)

  19. Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Huei-Chu [Department of Economics, Tamkang University (China); Lee, Yi-Huey [Department of Industrial Economics, Tamkang University (China); Suen, Yu-Bo [Department of Finance and Banking, Aletheia University (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper uses daily Brent crude prices to investigate the employment of electronic trading on the returns conditional volatility in the oil futures market. After a suitable GARCH model is established, the conditional volatility series are found. The Bai and Perron model is then used to find two significant structural breaks for these conditional volatility series around two implementation dates of electronic trading. This result indicates that the change in the trading system has significant impacts on the returns volatility since our estimated second break date is very close to the all-electronic trade implementation date. Moreover, the conditional volatility in the all-electronic trading period is found to be more dominated by the temporal persistence rather than the volatility clustering effect. All these evidence can shed some light for explaining the high relationship between more volatile world oil price and the more popular electronic trade. (author)

  20. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  1. Effect of oil price on Nigeria’s food price volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of oil price on the volatility of food price in Nigeria. It specifically considers the long-run, short-run, and causal relationship between these variables. Annual data on oil price and individual prices of maize, rice, sorghum, soya beans, and wheat spanning from 2000 to 2013 were used. The price volatility for each crop was obtained using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedascity (GARCH (1, 1 model. Our measure of oil price is the Refiner acquisition cost of imported crude oil. The Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillip–Perron unit root tests show that all the variables are integrated of order one, I (1. Therefore, we use the Johansen co-integration test to examine the long-run relationship. Our results show that there is no long-run relationship between oil price and any of the individual food price volatility. Thus, we implement a VAR instead of a VECM to investigate the short-run relationship. The VAR model result revealed a positive and significant short-run relationship between oil price and each of the selected food price volatility with exception of that of rice and wheat price volatility. These results were further confirmed by the impulse response functions. The Granger causality test result indicates a unidirectional causality from oil price to maize, soya bean, and sorghum price volatilities but does not show such relationship for rice and wheat price volatilities. We draw some policy implications of these findings.

  2. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds.

  3. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  4. Rapid development of a castor cultivar with increased oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor seed oil contains 90% ricinoleic acid which has a wide range of industrial applications. Improvement in oil content would be of great benefit to castor growers and oil processers. Two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection were conducted through screening for high oil content castor seeds u...

  5. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  6. The information contents of vix index and range-based volatility on volatility forecasting performance of s&p 500

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Cheng Hung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the information contents of S&P 500 VIX index and range-based volatilities by comparing their benefits on the GJR-based volatility forecasting performance. To reveal the statistical significance and ensure obtaining robust results, we employ Hansen's SPA test (2005) to examine the forecasting performances of GJR and GJR-X models for the S&P500 stock index. The results indicate that combining VIX and range-based volatilities into GARCH-type model can both enhance ...

  7. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  8. Triacylglycerols Composition and Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oil from Chemlali Cultivar: Comparison among Different Planting Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Ben Mansour, Mohamed; Ouni, Youssef; Guido, Flamini; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the comparison the chemical composition of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha−1). Despite the variability in the triacylglycerols and volatile compounds composition, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270) all of the virgin olive oils samples studied met the commercial standards. Decanal was the major constituent, accounting for about 30% of the whole volatiles. Moreover, the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the oil from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 156, 100, and 51 trees ha−1 was also characterised by the preeminence of 1-hexanol, while oils from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 69 trees ha−1 had higher content of (E)-2-hexenal (20.3%). Our results confirm that planting density is a crucial parameter that may influence the quality of olive oils. PMID:22629139

  9. Triacylglycerols Composition and Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oil from Chemlali Cultivar: Comparison among Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Guerfel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the comparison the chemical composition of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha−1. Despite the variability in the triacylglycerols and volatile compounds composition, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270 all of the virgin olive oils samples studied met the commercial standards. Decanal was the major constituent, accounting for about 30% of the whole volatiles. Moreover, the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the oil from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 156, 100, and 51 trees ha−1 was also characterised by the preeminence of 1-hexanol, while oils from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 69 trees ha−1 had higher content of (E-2-hexenal (20.3%. Our results confirm that planting density is a crucial parameter that may influence the quality of olive oils.

  10. Effects of Agronomic Practices on Volatile Composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis (Lamiaceae essential oil grown in southeastern Spain was analyzed by GC-MS. Due to the high relevance of this species in the world market, the study is focused on chemical heterogeneity of different oil batches and their extraction yield, cultivated under irrigation and non-irrigation conditions and with different harvesting dates. All essential oil samples have two main terpene compounds which are pinocamphone and iso-pinocamphone, accounting for approximately 35–40% of the total oil content. Other relevant compounds were identified, with β-pinene, which accounted for 10–17% contribution to the total composition, standing out. Significant differences between their volatile composition have been observed between treatments, being limonene, (E-β-ocimene, pinocarveol, α-pinene and β-phellandrene the compounds that contributed most to the discrimination. It was also observed that the irrigation period is the most favourable for the cultivation of hyssop in this region, specially for batch 7 which gives the highest extraction yield and the best EO quality.

  11. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini [Institute for Education and Research in Management and Planning, Tehran (Iran); Maryam Kazemi Manesh [University of Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  12. ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V.A HAJ HASHEMI; A GHANADI; D MOSAVI

    2000-01-01

    .... At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed using light tail flick and acetic acid writhing test. Male wistar rats (180-220g) and mice (25±2g...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  14. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oil price and food price volatility dynamics: The case of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long and short run relationships between oil price and food price volatility as well as the causal link between them. The study used annual food price volatility index from FAO from 2000 to 2013 and crude oil price from U.S. Energy Information and Administration (EIA from 2000 to 2013. The Johansen and Jesulius co-integration test revealed that there is a long run relationship between oil price and domestic food price volatility. The vector error correction model indicated a positive and significant short run relationship between oil price and food price volatility. The Granger causality test revealed a unidirectional causality with causality running from oil price to food price volatility but not vice versa. It is recommended that policies and interventions that will help reduce uncertainty about food prices such as improved market information, trade policies and investment in research and development among others should be encouraged. Also to reduce the effect of oil price shock, it is recommended that government should subsidise pump price of refined oil, seek alternative sources of energy and there should be less dependence on oil for fertilizer production.

  16. Modelling the Effects of Oil Prices on Global Fertilizer Prices and Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.Y. Chen, P.Y. (Chen, P.Y.); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, ARDL model, and alternative volatility models, including GARCH, EGARCH, and GJR models, are used t

  17. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  18. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil.

  19. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile constituents in Thai vetiver root oils obtained by using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Marriott, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Vetiver root oil is known as one of the finest fixatives used in perfumery. This highly complex oil contains more than 200 components, which are mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives. Since conventional GC-MS has limitation in terms of separation efficiency, the comprehensive two-dimensional GC-MS (GC x GC-MS) was proposed in this study as an alternative technique for the analysis of vetiver oil constituents. To evaluate efficiency of the hyphenated GC x GC-MS technique in terms of separation power and sensitivity prior to identification and quantitation of the volatile constituents in a variety of vetiver root oil samples. METHODOLOGY. Dried roots of Vetiveria zizanioides were subjected to extraction using various conditions of four different methods; simultaneous steam distillation, supercritical fluid, microwave-assisted, and Soxhlet extraction. Volatile components in all vetiver root oil samples were separated and identified by GC-MS and GC x GC-MS. The relative contents of volatile constituents in each vetiver oil sample were calculated using the peak volume normalization method. Different techniques of extraction had diverse effects on yield, physical and chemical properties of the vetiver root oils obtained. Overall, 64 volatile constituents were identified by GC-MS. Among the 245 well-resolved individual components obtained by GC x GC-MS, the additional identification of 43 more volatiles was achieved. In comparison with GC-MS, GC x GC-MS showed greater ability to differentiate the quality of essential oils obtained from diverse extraction conditions in terms of their volatile compositions and contents.

  20. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation.

  1. Effect of post harvest radiation processing and storage on the volatile oil composition and glucosinolate profile of cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Variyar, Prasad S; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Arun

    2014-05-15

    Effect of radiation processing (0.5-2 kGy) and storage on the volatile oil constituents and glucosinolate profile of cabbage was investigated. Among the volatile oil constituents, an enhancement in trans-hex-2-enal was noted on irradiation that was attributed to the increased liberation of precursor linolenic acid mainly from monogalactosyl diacyl glycerol (MGDG). Irradiation also enhanced sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of cabbage that accounted for the enhanced allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in the volatile oils of the irradiated vegetable. During storage the content of trans-hex-2-enal increased immediately after irradiation and then returned to the basal value within 24h while the content of sinigrin and AITC increased post irradiation and thereafter remained constant during storage. Our findings on the enhancement in potentially important health promoting compounds such as sinigrin and AITC demonstrates that besides extending shelf life and safety, radiation processing can have an additional advantage in improving the nutritional quality of cabbage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SOME NEEDLE CONTENTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS EMITTED BY PINUS BRUTIA IN RELATION TO HERBIVORE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SEMİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can cause many types of damage to plants. Caterpillars ingest small sections of the leaves, while others feed on specific parts of the leaf material. In this point, essential oils from coniferous trees contain secondary metabolites that act as feeding deterrent for a great number of herbivore insect species. Attacks by herbivores elicit changes in the bouquet of volatiles released by plants. Terpenoid chemicals exist both as constitutive and massively induced defenses in conifers. Hereby we studied the factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in economically important pine species of Turkey, Pinus brutia Ten., against most famous pest, pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. We quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs emissions of needle and some other needle contents. Needle feeding by the caterpillar increased emissions of VOCs. We discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for reducing the tree's signalling capacity triggered by Th. wilkinsoni oviposition and how enhancement/suppression of VOCs can influence the interaction between the tree, the pest and other biotic/abiotic factors in environment.

  3. Variability of essential oil content of Mentha L. taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Neugebauerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of genus Mentha L. can be described like herbs with many possibilities to use in industry and pharmacology. The most important product is essential oil. For commercially cultivating of species Mentha L. is variability of essential oil content very important characteristic. Variability of essential oil yield of twelve different taxa were monitored for four years. Essential oils were obtained via hydro-distillation and expressed as ml/kg. The highest variability of essential oil content during monitored period showed sample Pulegium vulgare and the lowest variability of essential oil content showed Mentha spicata.

  4. [Determination of chemical components of volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian-hui; Tang, Ke-wen; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Ning-hua

    2002-11-01

    Volatile oil was extracted from Cuminum cyminum L. by using steam distillation. More than sixty peaks were separated and 49 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative amounts of the components were determined by area normalization method. Among the 49 compounds identified, there were 16 hydrocarbons and 32 oxygenated compounds. The main compnents were cuminal and safranal (accounting for 32.26% and 24.46% respectively in the components identified). The other nine compounds with contents all over 1%, were monterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic aldehydes and aromatic oxides etc. The other components with relatively small amounts were chiefly terpenes, terpenols, terpenals, terpenones, terpene esters and aromatic compounds. It is good to separate polar and apolar components in the volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. on the GC capillary column of moderate polarity.

  5. Entropy-based implied volatility and its information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Xiao (Xiao); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper investigates the maximum entropy approach on estimating implied volatility. The entropy approach also allows to measure option implied skewness and kurtosis nonparametrically, and to construct confidence intervals. Simulations show that the en- tropy approach outperforms t

  6. [Preliminary study concerning emissions of the volatile organic compounds from cooking oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Tian, Gang; Nie, Lei; Qu, Song; Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan

    2012-09-01

    Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the VOCs emission characteristics. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. The results showed that the emission of VOCs increased with the increase of the heating temperature for all the investigated cooking oils, and at a given temperature, the blend oil emitted the lowest amount of VOCs. The VOCs emission intensity at different heating temperatures fitted well with binomial equations and ranged from 1.6-11.1 mg x (kg x min)(-1).

  7. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Indulekha, P S; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-11-01

    Anti-diabetic capacity of Curcuma longa volatile oil in terms of its ability to inhibit glucosidase activities was evaluated. Turmeric volatile oils inhibited glucosidase enzymes more effectively than the reference standard drug acarbose. Drying of rhizomes was found to enhance α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1.32-0.38 μg/ml) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 64.7-34.3 μg/ml) inhibitory capacities of volatile oils. Ar-Turmerone, the major volatile component in the rhizome also showed potent α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 0.28 μg) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 24.5 μg) inhibition.

  8. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  9. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  10. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  11. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price

  12. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  13. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  14. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruiz - Samblas, C.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been appl

  15. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  16. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  17. Chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romoff, Paulete; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P., E-mail: romoff@mackenzie.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Padilla, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

    2010-07-01

    The volatile oils from Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. leaves, collected in February and August of 2007 and at 7:00 and 12:00 h (samples A - D), were extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of nineteen compounds were identified with predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among them, a-bisabolol, was the main constituent (62.3-69.4 %). After chromatographic separation procedures, this compound was purified from crude oil and its structure was confirmed by analysis of NMR data. This paper describes for the first time the composition of the leaves volatile oil from N. megapotamica. (author)

  18. Aggressive oil extraction and precautionary saving: Coping with volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of stochastic oil demand on optimal oil extraction paths and tax, spending and government debt policies are analyzed when the oil demand schedule is linear and preferences quadratic. Without prudence, optimal oil extraction is governed by the Hotelling rule and optimal budgetary policies

  19. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  20. VOLATILITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL MARKETS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Panagiotou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the existence and magnitude of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Spain and Greece. These three Mediterranean countries are responsible for 95% of olive oil production within the European Union and they account for more than 50% of olive oil exports worldwide. In order to measure the degree of volatility transmission between these countries we estimate a vector error correction model along with the BEKK parameterization of a Multivariate Generalized Conditional Autoregressive Heteroskedasticity (M-GARCH model. The empirical results reveal the presence of ARCH and GARCH effects suggesting this way the existence of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Greece and Spain. ARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Spain and Italy. GARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Greece and Italy.

  1. Inhalation of coriander volatile oil increased anxiolytic-antidepressant-like behaviors and decreased oxidative status in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioanca, Oana; Hritcu, Lucian; Mihasan, Marius; Trifan, Adriana; Hancianu, Monica

    2014-05-28

    The present study analyzed the possible anxiolytic, antidepressant and antioxidant proprieties of inhaled coriander volatile oil extracted from Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of inhaled coriander volatile oil were studied by means of in vivo (elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using catalase specific activity and the total content of the reduced glutathione. The beta-amyloid (1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of the locomotor activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming and immobility times within forced swimming test. Exposure to coriander volatile oil significantly improved these parameters, suggesting anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. Moreover, coriander volatile oil decreased catalase activity and increased glutathione level in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that multiple exposures to coriander volatile oil can be useful as a mean to counteract anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease conditions.

  2. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  3. In vitro antibacterial effects of five volatile oil extracts against intramacrophage Brucella abortus 544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-06-01

    Brucellaabortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×10(5) cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  4. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1% in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  5. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PDemodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  6. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the Folium Rhododendri Daurici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-qing; Liu, Feng-hua

    2009-02-01

    To compare the chemical constituents of volatile oils from Folium Rhododendri Daurici between supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE-CO2) and steam distillation (SD). The chemical constituents of volatile oils obtained by two methods were analyzed by GC-MS. 52 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SCE-CO2 and 48 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SD were separated and identified separately. There were 45 same components. The chemical constituents obtained by SCE-CO2 and SD are approached.

  7. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  8. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  9. Evaluation of the Volatile Oil Composition and Antiproliferative Activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae on Breast Cancer Cell Line Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abu-Dahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae fruits and leaves grown in Jordan were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the fruits resulted in the identification of 45 components representing 99.7 % of the total oil content, while the leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds representing 93.7% of the total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the main component in the fruit and leaf oils. Using sulphorhodamine B assay; the crude ethanol fraction, among other solvent extracts, showed strong antiproliferative activity for both leaves and fruits, nevertheless, the fruits were more potent against both breast cancer cell models (MCF7 and T47D. At IC 50 values ; the mechanism of apoptosis was nevertheless different: where L. nobilis fruit proapoptotic efficacy was not regulated by either p53 or p21, L. nobilis leaf extract components enhanced the p53 levels substantially. In both extracts, apoptosis was not caspase-8 or Fas Ligand and sFas (Fas/APO-1 dependent. Our studies highlight L. nobilis as a potential natural agent for breast cancer therapy. Compared with non induced basal cells, both L. nobilis fruits and leaves induced a significant enrichment in the cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes after assumed induction of programmed MCF7 cell death.

  10. The Volatile Compounds of the Elderflowers Extract and the Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gamze Ağalar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae known as ‘black elder’ is widely used as both food and medicinal plant in Europe. Elderflowers are consumed as herbal tea and its gargle has benefits in respiratory tract illnesses such as cough, influenza, inflammation in throat. In this study, we aimed to show the compositions of the volatile compounds-rich in extract and the essential oil of the elderflowers cultivated in Kütahya, Turkey. HS-SPME (Headspace-Solid Phase MicroExtraction technique was employed to trap volatile compounds in the hexane extract of dried elderflowers. The volatile compounds in the essential oil from elderflowers isolated by hydrodistillation were analyzed GC and GC-MS systems, simultaneously. Results for the n-hexane extract: thirty volatile compounds were identified representing 84.4% of the sample. cis-Linalool oxide (27.3% and 2-hexanone (10.5% were found to be main compounds of the n-hexane extract. Results for the essential oil: fifteen volatile compounds were identified representing 90.4% of the oil. Heneicosane (18.8%, tricosane (17.3%, nonadecane (13% and pentacosane (10.3% were the major compounds of the oil.

  11. Extraction of the volatile oil from Carum carvi of Tunisia and Lithuania by supercritical carbon dioxide: chemical composition and antiulcerogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the essential oil prepared from Carum carvi seeds exhibits antiulcerogenic activity. Its volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analysed by GC-MS to monitor their composition. The chemical analysis revealed that the essential oils extracted under SFE conditions had high carvone and limonene contents. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated by the HCl/ethanol method, which causes injury to the gastric mucosa. Three treated groups received the essential oil (100-300 mg/kg). The reference group received omeprazole (30 mg/kg) and the control group received NaCl. After 30 min, all groups were treated with HCl/EtOH for gastric ulcer induction. The results show C. carvi essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of 47%, 81% and 88%, respectively, for three doses of essential oil used, which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (95%) (p < 0.005).

  12. Chemical composition of volatiles in Sardinian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Barra, Andrea; Angioni, Alberto; Sarritzu, Erika; Pirisi, Filippo M

    2006-02-22

    The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils from leaves and berries collected in different places in Sardinia (Italy) was studied. A simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used to isolate volatile compounds from myrtle alcoholic extracts followed by GC and GC-MS analysis allowing the detection of 24 compounds. The volatile fraction was characterized by the terpenes fraction corresponding to that of the essential oils and by a fatty acid ethyl esters fraction. The variation during extraction of the volatile fraction in alcoholic extracts of berries and leaves was evaluated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were on average 0.52 +/- 0.03% (v/w dried weight) and 0.02 +/- 0.00% for leaves and berries, respectively. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and a total of 27 components were detected, accounting for 90.6-98.7% of the total essential oil composition. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene (30.0 and 28.5%), 1,8-cineole (28.8 and 15.3%), and limonene (17.5 and 24.1%) in leaves and berries, respectively, and were characterized by the lack of myrtenyl acetate.

  13. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of Bifurcaria bifurcata aqueous extract on canola oil. Effect of extract concentration on the oxidation stability and volatile compound generation during oil storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Dominguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    In this research the antioxidant activity of water extracts of Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) at different dose against butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was evaluated in canola oil. Water extracts were firstly characterized in terms of total solid and polyphenolic compound contents, and their antioxidant activity together with that of BHT was evaluated using several in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP). Next, the progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in canola oil added with five BBE concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm) and two BHT concentrations (50 and 200ppm) using an accelerated oxidation test. The progress in lipid oxidation was monitored by assessing some chemical indices (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and conjugated dienes) during oil storage and some volatile compounds at the end of the storage period. BBE showed a significant antioxidant effect, being this ability concentration-dependent. The extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to BBE dose, specially with regard to primary oxidation products. At the highest level of BBE, significant decreases of primary and secondary oxidation products, with respect to the control, were obtained with reduction percentages of 71.53%, 72.78%, 68.17% and 71.3% for peroxides, conjugated dienes, p-anisidine and TOTOX values, respectively. A level of 600ppm or higher concentration of the extract inhibits the lipid oxidation in a similar way than BHT at 200ppm. Regarding the inhibition of the formation of volatile compounds, both BBE and BHT strongly inhibited the formation of volatiles during oil storage, being this inhibition similar for all the concentrations of BBE and BHT essayed. Overall, results indicated that BBE can be used as a potential natural additive for improving oxidative stability of canola oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Volatility of Oil Prices on Stock Exchanges in the Context of Recent Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Maria-Floriana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil along with currencies and gold are the main indicators of the most important processes which take place in the world economy, quotations’ volatility being always followed by economic and social events. Quiet periods of oil prices, when quotations have a constant evolution or only suffer minor fluctuations, are very rare. Most of the time, very sharp price increases or decreases are happening over night or week. This is mostly due to the fact that the oil market is extremely speculative, being influenced by political, military, social, or meteorological events. Since the major oil price shocks of the 70s, the impact of oil price changes on the economic reality of a country or region has been widely studied by academic researchers. Moreover, the stock market plays an important role in the economic welfare and development of a country. Therefore, a vast number of studies have investigated the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns, being discovered significant effects of oil price shocks on the macroeconomic activity for both developed and emerging countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the volatility of oil prices on stock exchanges taking into consideration the recent events that have affected the oil markets around the globe. Furthermore, based on the findings of this research, some possible scenarios will be developed, taking into account various events that might take place and their potential outcome for oil prices’ future.

  15. A Markov switching model of the conditional volatility of crude oil futures prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, Wai Mun; See, Kim Hock [Department of Finance and Accounting, National University of Singapore, 119260 Kent Ridge Cresent (Singapore)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the temporal behaviour of volatility of daily returns on crude oil futures using a generalised regime switching model that allows for abrupt changes in mean and variance, GARCH dynamics, basis-driven time-varying transition probabilities and conditional leptokurtosis. This flexible model enables us to capture many complex features of conditional volatility within a relatively parsimonious set-up. We show that regime shifts are clearly present in the data and dominate GARCH effects. Within the high volatility state, a negative basis is more likely to increase regime persistence than a positive basis, a finding which is consistent with previous empirical research on the theory of storage. The volatility regimes identified by our model correlate well with major events affecting supply and demand for oil. Out-of-sample tests indicate that the regime switching model performs noticeably better than non-switching models regardless of evaluation criteria. We conclude that regime switching models provide a useful framework for the financial historian interested in studying factors behind the evolution of volatility and to oil futures traders interested short-term volatility forecasts.

  16. Endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta: the chemical profile of essential oils, headspace volatiles and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Jovanović, Olga P; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-04-01

    The present study for the first time reports the chemical composition of the endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta Pančić essential oil and headspace (HS) volatiles, obtained from fresh roots, stems, flowers and fruits, as well as fresh fruits n-hexane and diethyl ether extracts. According to GC-MS and GC-FID analyses, β-Pinene was one of the major components of the root and stem HS volatiles (50.6-24.1%). (E)-β-Ocimene was found in a significant percentage in the stem and flowers HS volatiles (31.6-57.3%). The most abundant constituent of the fruit HS, flower and fruit essential oils and both extracts was hexyl butanoate (70.5%, 31.1%, 80.4%, 47.4% and 52.7%, respectively). Apiole, accompanied by myristicin and (Z)-falcarinol, make up over 70% of the root essential oils. γ-Palmitolactone was the major component of the stem essential oils (51.9% at the flowering stage and 45.7% at the fruiting stage). Beside esters as dominant compounds, furanocoumarins were also identified in extracts. (Dis)similarity relations of examined plant samples were also investigated by the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. The obtained results show there is difference in the composition of volatile components from different plant organs, while the stage of growth mainly affects the quantitative volatiles composition.

  17. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TIGHT OIL RESOURCES IN USA: PROFITABILITY OF EXPLOITATION AND EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN VOLATILE OIL PRICE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Strpić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale development of tight oil resources in US started after 2010. with following five-year period of favorable steady increase in crude oil price. During this relatively short expansion cycle, operating and capital expenses changed drastically for main tight oil plays due to technological improvements in both well drilling and completion, expansion of service sector as well as loose government monetary policy which allowed favorable financing. This paper analyzed trends in costs during expansion period, as well as correlation of oil price to number of operating rigs and production quotas. After 2008/2009. world financial crisis economy recovery in US was somewhat sluggish and it caused extreme volatile environment in both equity and commodity markets. In such volatile environment intra-day crude oil prices, as well as other commodities and equities, show significant reaction to monthly published macroeconomic indicator reports, which give better overviews of trends in economic recovery. Prior to announcement, these reports always have forecasted value determined by consensus among market analysts. Therefore, any positive or negative surprise in real value tends to influence price of oil. This paper investigated influence of such macroeconomic reports to closing intraday oil price, as well as effect of other important daily market indices. Analysis showed that only Producer Price Index (PPI, among other indicators, has statistical significance of affecting intraday closing oil price.

  19. GC-MS Analysis on Volatile Oil from Branches of Picrasma quassioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lin-fang; WANG Zeng-hui; CHEN Shi-lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the volatile oil from the branches of Picrasma quassioides.Methods Volatile oil was extracted from the branches of P quassioides by steam distillation.GC-MS method was used to analyze the components.Results A total of 49 compounds were isolated,and 46 compounds were successfully identified,which represented over 98% of the total oil composition.The major components of the volatile oil in the branches of P.quassioides included caryophyllene (12.83%),12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dodeca-3,7-diene,1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-[1R-(1R*,3E,7E,11-R*)] (12.29%),1-hexanol (9.96%),naphthalene,1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyletheyl)-[1S-(1a,7a,8aa)] (7.32%),aromadendrene oxide-(2) (6.69%),and α-caryophyllene (3.88%).Conclusion The major components in volatile oil are terpenoids,hydroxy compounds,and other acyclic alkane compounds.

  20. GC-MS Analysis on Volatile Oil from Branches of Picrasma quassioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Lin-fang; WANG; Zeng-hui; CHEN; Shi-lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the volatile oil from the branches of Picrasma quassioides. Methods Volatile oil was extracted from the branches of P. quassioides by steam distillation. GC-MS method was used to analyze the components. Results A total of 49 compounds were isolated, and 46 compounds were successfully identified, which represented over 98% of the total oil composition. The major components of the volatile oil in the branches of P. quassioides included caryophyllene (12.83%), 12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dodeca-3,7-diene,1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-[1R-(1R*,3E,7E,11-R*)] (12.29%), 1-hexanol (9.96%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyletheyl)-[1S-(1a,7a,8aa)] (7.32%), aromadendrene oxide-(2) (6.69%), and α-caryophyllene (3.88%). Conclusion The major components in volatile oil are terpenoids, hydroxy compounds, and other acyclic alkane compounds.

  1. Analyzing and forecasting volatility spillovers, asymmetries and hedging in major oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Lin [Department of Applied Economics National Chung Hsing University Taichung, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, National Chung Hsing University Taichung 402 (China); McAleer, Michael [Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands); Tansuchat, Roengchai [Faculty of Economics, Maejo University (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. (author)

  2. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  3. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed...

  4. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    done with a view to assessing the level of attenuation of this particular group of crude hydrocarbons and the changes. /effects of some trace metals in the impacted soils. The aromatic hydrocarbon ... Nigeria has had its fair share of crude oil pollution. This problem is ... disintegration of natural organometalic plant metabolites.

  5. Study on perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus gramineus for treatment of the Alzheimer's disease rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Niu, Wen-Min; Yang, Xiao-Hang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Gang

    2010-12-01

    To probe into the therapeutic effect of perfume stimulating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus on the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat. Totally 50 adult SD rats, male,weighing 300 +/- 10 g, were randomly divided into 5 groups, normal group (group A), olfactory nerve severing model group (group B), AD model group (group C), AD model plus perfume stimulation group (group D), AD model olfactory nerve severing plus perfume stimulation group (group E), 10 rats in each group. After perfume stimulation, Morris maze test was conducted for valuating the learning and memory ability; Malondaldehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain, and the brain weight were detected. Compared with the AD model group, the average escape latency and swimming distance in 6 days were significantly shorter than those in the group A, B, D (P 0.05); Compared with the group A, B and D, MDA content in the group C significantly increased (P 0.05). Perfume stimultating olfaction with volatile oil of Acorus Gramineus can significantly increase the learning-memory ability, decrease MDA content and increase SOD and GSH-Px activities and weight of brain in AD rats.

  6. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  7. Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 μL/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities.

  8. COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OIL OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE RHIZOMES AND EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON THE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Shahnaz S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae rhizomes of Delhi region, has been studied under different physical factors. The volatile oil of the fresh rhizomes is composed mainly of β-germacrene-D (25.4 %, linalool (11.8 %, camphene (9.4%, (Z-β-farnesene (8.4 %, guaia-6,9-diene (8.3 %, limonene oxide (5.9 %, citronellal (3.6 % and α-guaiene (3.5 %. When the volatile oil was heated at 110° C for 24 hours, β-germacrene-D (19.7 %, linalool (13.4 %, camphene (10.1 %, limonene (8.2 %, guaia-6,9-diene (6.5 %, limonene-1,2-epoxide (4.9 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % were the major constituents. Exposure of the volatile oil to sunlight for 48 hours as 15° C showed the presence of β-germacrene-D (21.4 %, linalool (14.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, cis-carveol (6.5 %, neral (5.8 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % as the main components. UV light exposure of the volatile oil for 24 hours at 12° C exhibited the occurrence of β-caryophyllene (23 %, linalool (12.9 %, camphene (9 %, valencene (8.2 %, (Z-β-farnesene (8.1 % and nerol (6.6 % as the prominent constituents. The predominant compounds of the silica gel treated oil for 24 hours at 12° C included β-germacrene-D (22 %, linalool (18.4 %, β-selinene (7.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, δ-cadinene (6.8 %, gamma-cadinene (6.8 %, limonene oxide (6.6 %, citronellal (5.4 % and α-guaiene (3.6 %. Treatment of the volatile oil with alumina neutral for 24 hours at 12° C produced abundantly β-germacrene-D (26.2 %, linalool (14 %, (Z-β-farnesene (11 %, β-selinene (8.3 %, camphene (6.4 %, tagetonol (5.8 %, borneol (3.9 % and α-selinene (3.3 %. Camphene (10.1 – 6.4 % and linalool (14.5 – 11.8 % were the major components present in all the oil samples.

  9. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  10. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  11. Model-free kinetics applied to volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil, and its

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Artigo publicado no Periódico Thermochimica Acta e também disponível em: www.elsevier.com/locate/tca Model-free kinetic studies for volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil and its respective biodiesel were carried out. The biodiesel was obtained by the methylic route using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Both sunflower oil and biodiesel were characterized by physicochemical analyses, gas chromatography, simulated distillation and thermogravimetry. The physicochemical properties...

  12. OIL CONTENT OF GREEN BEANS FROM SOME COFFEE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZZAFERA PAULO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content was determined in seeds of several continental African species of the coffee germplasm bank of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Oil was extracted from seeds with hexane in Soxhlet apparatus. Due to the economic importance, C. arabica and C. canephora have been the best studied species concerning oil content and composition, and the results obtained are in agreement with the reported in the literature. On the other hand, only one report in the literature describes the results of oil analyses in other few species of the African continent, although it does not allow comparison with our results. The oil content of most of the species varied from 9 to 15%, therefore, similar to the range observed for C. arabica and C. canephora. The exception was C. salvatrix, with 29% of oil in the seeds.

  13. Symmetric and asymmetric US sector return volatilities in presence of oil, financial and economic risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Yuan, Yuan; Chiang, Thomas [LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nandha, Mohan [Accounting and Finance, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the impacts of world, country, and sector-specific variables on the stock return volatility of twenty-seven US sectors in the short- and long-run, accounting for the asymmetric shocks based on GARCH models. In the standard GARCH model the two world variables, oil and Morgan Stanley Capital Index (MSCI), have differing impacts on the US equity sector returns' volatility, with oil price dampening it while MSCI heightening it for most sectors. This result underlines the need for hedging more against world capital market risk relative to oil risk which is probably hedged by many sectors. The world and country factors' impacts are not as pervasive across the board, compared with the sector-specific impacts of the P/B ratio and trading volume which affect almost all sectors. Increases in the P/B ratio would reduce the aggregate volatility, while increases in the trading volume would heighten it for all sectors. Asymmetry of factor impacts on volatility is also found for most sectors. Most of the GARCH factor results are confirmed in the CGARCH model with the exception of the impact of interest rate on the short-lived transitory volatility. Finally, interesting econometric results on the inclusion or exclusion of trading volumes are discussed. (author)

  14. Effect of Drying Operating Conditions on Canola Oil Tocopherol Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laoretani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate two operating parameters of seed drying (temperature and initial moisture content on the tocopherol content of canola oil. The raw material was characterized by moisture, oil, protein, crude fiber and ash content. Seeds at 13.6% and 22.7% moisture content (dry basis, db were dried at temperatures in the range of 35–100 °C to a safe storage moisture of 7% db. Oil was extracted from each treated sample. The oil extracted from the samples dried at the extreme temperatures was analyzed by means of the acidity value, peroxide index and fatty acid composition, finding no significant differences among treatments or among untreated and treated samples. Tocopherol contents in the oils obtained for all the assayed temperatures were determined. Differences were found for the samples with 22.7% (db initial moisture content. Except at 35 °C, temperature affected negatively the oil tocopherol content. However, when 13.6% (db moisture seeds were processed, no significant differences were observed in the amount of this minor oil component among assays.

  15. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PERFECT XP SP3

    2014-01-20

    Jan 20, 2014 ... brown and chestnut soil. The plants were ... or tree. In this family, essential oil, inuline, and latex are the most common compounds. Owing to these com- ... hexane, HCl, H2SO4 chemicals from Merck (Germany) Company,.

  16. Quantitation of volatile oils in ground cumin by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikes, D L; Scott, B; Gorzovalitis, N A

    2001-01-01

    Ground cumin is used as a flavoring agent in a number of ethnic cuisines. The chemical entities, which primarily establish its characteristically pungent flavor, are found in the volatile oil of cumin. Fixed oils and carbohydrates tend to round out the harshness of the volatile oil components. However, the quantity of volatile oil is commonly the measure of the quality of this spice. For several decades, the spice industry has used a classical distillation procedure for the determination of volatile oil in cumin and other spices. However, the method is cumbersome and requires nearly 8 h to complete. Supercritical fluid extraction with capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection is utilized in the formulation of a rapid, accurate, and specific method for the determination of volatile oil in ground cumin. Samples are extracted in a static-dynamic mode with CO2 at 550 bar and 100 degrees C. Toluene is used as a static modifier addition. The extracted volatile oil, collected in toluene, is analyzed directly using tetradecane as the internal standard. Integration is performed as grouped peaks to include all chemical entities found in cumin volatile oil recovered from the official distillation procedure. Results from this procedure compare favorably with those obtained by the official procedure (coefficient of correlation = 0.995, 24 samples).

  17. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gamze Guclu; Onur Sevindik; Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were iden...

  18. Forecasting crude oil market volatility. Further evidence using GARCH-class models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi [School of Economics and Management, Southwest Jiaotong University (China); Wang, Yudong [Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiaotong University (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper extends the work of Kang et al. (2009). We use a greater number of linear and nonlinear generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) class models to capture the volatility features of two crude oil markets - Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI). The one-, five- and twenty-day out-of-sample volatility forecasts of the GARCH-class models are evaluated using the superior predictive ability test and with more loss functions. Unlike Kang et al. (2009), we find that no model can outperform all of the other models for either the Brent or the WTI market across different loss functions. However, in general, the nonlinear GARCH-class models, which are capable of capturing long-memory and/or asymmetric volatility, exhibit greater forecasting accuracy than the linear ones, especially in volatility forecasting over longer time horizons, such as five or twenty days. (author)

  19. Volatile oil analysis of spruce galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis Ratz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Miszta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of volatile oil obtained from galls caused by Sacchiphantes viridis are presented in this paper. It was found that galls contain more oil than normal shoots. The composition of the oil obtained from galls differs significantly from that of normal shoots. The differences observed in the amount of camphene. β-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene, unidentinfied compounds 14 and 17, camphor, fenchyl alcohol, borneol and citronellol seem to be connected with the deterioration of central resin canals in the stem cortex during the development of galls and with the formation of new and very numerous canals in the bases of the differentiated gall leaves.

  20. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (......) and HS-CC. AV indicated sample degradations at 90 degrees C but only small alterations between 60 and 75 degrees C. HS-GC showed increasing response with temperature and rime. Purging at 75 degrees C for 45 min was selected as the preferred sampling condition for oxidized fish oil....

  1. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivities from Colombian Kyllinga pumila Michx (Cyperaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Eugenia Jaramillo-Colorado; Eduardo Luis Martínez-Cáceres; Edisson Duarte-Restrepo

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Kyllinga pumila (Michx) was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-eight volatile compounds were identified, major constituents of the oil were Methyl E,E-10,11-epoxyfarnesoate (43.8%), β-elemene (12.5%), Z-caryophyllene (11.3%), germacrene D (7.1%) and E-caryophyllene (5.6%). Repellent and fumigant activities of the oil against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), we...

  2. Extraction of volatile oil from aromatic plants with supercritical carbon dioxide: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jose P; Cristino, Ana F; Matos, Patrícia G; Rauter, Amélia P; Nobre, Beatriz P; Mendes, Rui L; Barroso, João G; Mainar, Ana; Urieta, Jose S; Fareleira, João M N A; Sovová, Helena; Palavra, António F

    2012-09-05

    An overview of the studies carried out in our laboratories on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of volatile oils from seven aromatic plants: pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), savory (Satureja fruticosa Béguinot), winter savory (Satureja montana L.), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparisus) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), is presented. A flow apparatus with a 1 L extractor and two 0.27 L separators was built to perform studies at temperatures ranging from 298 to 353 K and pressures up to 30.0 MPa. The best compromise between yield and composition compared with hydrodistillation (HD) was achieved selecting the optimum experimental conditions of extraction and fractionation. The major differences between HD and SFE oils is the presence of a small percentage of cuticular waxes and the relative amount of thymoquinone, an oxygenated monoterpene with important biological properties, which is present in the oils from thyme and winter savory. On the other hand, the modeling of our data on supercritical extraction of volatile oil from pennyroyal is discussed using Sovová's models. These models have been applied successfully to the other volatile oil extractions. Furthermore, other experimental studies involving supercritical CO(2) carried out in our laboratories are also mentioned.

  3. Extraction of Volatile Oil from Aromatic Plants with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sovová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the studies carried out in our laboratories on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of volatile oils from seven aromatic plants: pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., savory (Satureja fruticosa Béguinot, winter savory (Satureja montana L., cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparisus and thyme (Thymus vulgaris, is presented. A flow apparatus with a 1 L extractor and two 0.27 L separators was built to perform studies at temperatures ranging from 298 to 353 K and pressures up to 30.0 MPa. The best compromise between yield and composition compared with hydrodistillation (HD was achieved selecting the optimum experimental conditions of extraction and fractionation. The major differences between HD and SFE oils is the presence of a small percentage of cuticular waxes and the relative amount of thymoquinone, an oxygenated monoterpene with important biological properties, which is present in the oils from thyme and winter savory. On the other hand, the modeling of our data on supercritical extraction of volatile oil from pennyroyal is discussed using Sovová’s models. These models have been applied successfully to the other volatile oil extractions. Furthermore, other experimental studies involving supercritical CO2 carried out in our laboratories are also mentioned.

  4. Textural perception of liquid emulsions: Role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van G.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes a study on the in-mouth textural perception of thickened liquid oil-in-water emulsions. The variables studied are oil content, oil viscosity, and the concentration of polysaccharide thickener. Gum arabic was chosen as the thickener because of the nearly Newtonian behavior of its

  5. Determination of additive contents in aviation and turbine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, V.N.; Krotova, I.B.; Echin, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple and sufficiently accurate method for determining additive contents in oils using thin-layer chromatography is proposed. Details of the analysis are briefly described with particular reference to the determination of antioxidation additives in synthetic aviation oils and determination of Ionol in turbine oils. The relative accuracy of the method is estimated at 5.5-18.2 percent for 10 parallel tests. 8 refs.

  6. 白术挥发油提取方法研究%Extraction of volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎克里; 朱秀卿; 赵丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立白术挥发油高效液相色谱法(HPLC)定量分析方法.研究白术挥发油提取方法.方法 对3种有机溶剂和4种提取方法提取的4个产地挥发油提取率及挥发油中5个定量指标含量进行分析比较.结果 乙酸乙酯、正己烷、石油醚浸提挥发油提取率依次为2.76%,2.24%,1.96%,超声法的依次为2.54%,1.98%,1.86%.SPE法挥发油提取率为3.13%,水蒸气蒸馏法的为1.42%.挥发油含量浙江>安徽>湖南>河北.水蒸气蒸馏法与其他3种提取方法相比,苍术酮含量低1倍以上,桉叶醇含量低35倍,榄香烯含量为零,白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ含量高3倍以上.结论 研究建立的挥发油HPLC法定量分析方法简单、稳定可靠.SPE法为白术挥发油较好的提取方法.在没有SPE设备时,乙酸乙酯浸提法是白术挥发油较合适的提取方法.水蒸气蒸馏法提取白术挥发油并不科学.%Objective To establish a quantitative analysis for extraction of volatile oils from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae by HPLC method. Methods Quantitative analysis and comparison were conducted for contents and extraction rates of 5 active ingredients in volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, purchased from 5 geographical regions, and extracted with three organic solvents and 4 extraction methods. Results The extraction rates were respectively, 2.76%, 2.24% and 1.96% using ethyl acetate, N-hexane and benzine, 2.54%, 1.98% and 1.86% using ultrasonic method, 3.13% by SPE method, and 1.42% by steam distillation. The highest rate of extraction was achieved with products from Zhejiang, followed in order by Anhui, Hunan and Hebei. Compared with the other three extraction methods, volatile oil obtained with steam distillation was one-fold lower in atractylon, 35-fold lower in eudesmol. zero contents in elemene, and 3-fold higher in atractylenolids Ⅰ and Ⅲ. Conclusions The quantitative analysis using HLPC for rhizoma

  7. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  8. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  9. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  10. LOX Gene transcript accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different stages of maturation: relationship between volatile compounds, environmental factors, and technological treatments for oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  11. Effect of volatile oil from Blumea Balsamifera (L.) DC. leaves on wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuxin; Wang, Dan; Hu, Xuan; Wang, Hui; Fu, Wanjin; Fan, Zuowang; Chen, Xiaolu; Yu, Fulai

    2014-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of violate oil from Blumea Balsamifera (L.) DC. leaves (BB oil) on wound healing in mice. Undiluted BB oil and its diluted solutions with olive oil to 1/5 and 1/10 to yield BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 were applied to the wounded skin before wound healing conditions were assessed by healing rate, histopathology, and contents of collagen, hydroxyproline, and Neuropeptide Substance P (SP). All above results were compared with the efficacies of the control, pure olive oil, basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF), and cream of Jing Wan Hong (JWH). BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 improved wound contraction and closure. Histopathology study further confirmed a desirable histological organization of wound tissues. BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 reduced the number of inflammatory cells, increased wound-healing rates, and significantly increased the hydroxyproline content. Both BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 improved formation of collagen, and reduced the frequency of fibroblasts. Moreover, BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 markedly promoted SP expression. However, undiluted BB oil may induce skin thickening and hardening, inhibite collagen synthesis and delay complete skin wound healing. The BB oil1/5 and BB oil1/10 promoted capillary regeneration, blood circulation, collagen deposition, granular tissue formation, epithelial deposition, and wound contraction. The mechanism underlying the action might be related to induction of SP secretion, and the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells.

  12. Asthenospheric kimberlites: Volatile contents and bulk compositions at 7 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Natalia; Schmidt, Max W.

    2017-09-01

    During ascent, kimberlites react with the lithospheric mantle, entrain and assimilate xenolithic material, loose volatiles and suffer from syn- and post-magmatic alteration. Consequently, kimberlite rocks deviate heavily from their primary melt. Experiments at 7 GPa, 1300-1480 °C, 10-30 wt% CO2 and 0.46 wt% H2O on a proposed primitive composition from the Jericho kimberlite show that saturation with a lherzolitic mineral assemblage occurs only at 1300-1350 °C for a carbonatitic melt with 35 wt% CO2. At asthenospheric temperatures of >1400 °C, where the Jericho melt stays kimberlitic, this composition saturates only in low-Ca pyroxene, garnet and partly olivine. We hence forced the primitive Jericho kimberlite into multiple saturation with a lherzolitic assemblage by adding a compound peridotite. Saturation in olivine, low- and high-Ca pyroxene and garnet was obtained at 1400-1650 °C (7 GPa), melts are kimberlitic with 18-29 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3, 22.1-24.6 wt% MgO, 15-27 wt% CO2 and 0.4-7.1 wt% H2O; with a trade-off of H2O vs. CO2 and temperature. Melts in equilibrium with high-Ca pyroxene with typical mantle compositions have ≥2.5 wt% Na2O, much higher than the commonly proposed 0.1-0.2 wt%. The experiments allow for a model of kimberlite origin in the convective upper mantle, which only requires mantle upwelling that causes melting at the depth where elemental carbon (in metal, diamond or carbide) converts to CO2 (at ∼250 km). If primary melts leading to kimberlites contain a few wt% H2O, then adiabatic temperatures of 1400-1500 °C would yield asthenospheric mantle melts that are kimberlitic (>18 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) but not carbonatitic (<10 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) in composition, carbonatites only forming 100-200 °C below the adiabat. These kimberlites represent small melt fractions concentrating CO2 and H2O and then acquire part of their chemical signature by assimilation/fractionation during ascent in the subcratonic lithosphere.

  13. Composition of Volatile Oil and Methanolic Extract of Jordanian Melissa Officinals L. and Actions Againsthuman Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem A. Barakat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Jordanian MelissaofficinalisL. were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. Components representing 96.40% of the total oil were identified. The methanolic extract and the volatile oil of Melissa officinalisL, were tested and showed anti-proliferation activities against 3 cancer cell lines.

  14. The effect of the volatile oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Thymus vulgaris against the larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Shoukry, A; Mazyad, S A; Makled, K M

    1998-08-01

    Nowadays, there are many problems with the use of chemical insecticides as resistance, environmental pollution, toxicity to man and animal... etc. All these required the investigation of a new line for controlling arthropod pests of medical and agricultural importance. The volatile oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed) and Thymus vulgaris (Tyme) proved to be effective against the third stage larvae of Lucilia sericata. The LC50 confidence limits were 70 ppm and 130 ppm for both volatile oils respectively. No doubt, the use of these plant volatile oils, which are widely distributed in the Egyptian flora, more cheap, more safe and without any pollution or hazard, is recommended.

  15. Seasonal variations of Laurus nobilis L. leaves volatile oil components in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shokoohinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. (sweet laurel is one of the volatile oil bearing plants of Lauraceae family. It is cultivated in different parts of Iran and its leaves and fruits have been used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. There are a few reports about the effects of some environmental conditions on the quality and quantity of laurel volatiles. The goal of our work was to search the seasonal variations on the L. nobilis leaves volatile composition. The volatiles of four samples of the dried leaves of L. nobilis collected in March, June, September and December 2009 in Isfahan, Iran were prepared by using a Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-nine, thirty-one, thirty-three and thirty-four components consisting 96.91%, 97.66%, 97.46% and 95.44% of the total compounds were identified of the volatiles obtained with yields of 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 0.8% (w/w, subsequently. The main compound was found to be 1,8-cineole (30.80-40.25%. Although twenty-seven out of thirty-six volatile components were similar in different seasons, there were some differences between other compounds of our four samples. While the essential oil composition of the March and June plant samples were characterized by presence of 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and camphor, the volatiles of September and December plant samples contained 1,8-cineole, camphene and sabinene. Some compounds like eugenol, methyl eugenol and α-terpenyl acetate were not affected apparently by seasonal changes.

  16. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wilson

    Full Text Available Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism. For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  17. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M; Likens, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  18. Controlled release properties of Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules by thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Pong; Gao, Ying-Lin

    2006-12-01

    This research uses modified orifice method to prepare the O/W type Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules. In this article, we investigated the forming condition of microcapsules and the influence to sustained release effect of volatile Citronella Oil by applying thermal pretreatment to microcapsules. The results suggest that the forming of microcapsules should be processed under the fundamental conditions of: (1) the concentration of Chitosan is at least 0.2wt%, (2) NaOH is greater than 0.1wt%, and (3) with the additive of coconut oil as natural surfactant, so that we could obtain final product of microcapsules with better formation and dispersion. The changes in concentration of Chitosan will affect the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile Citronella Oil. When the concentrations of Chitosan are 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the encapsulation efficiencies are 98.2%, 95.8% and 94.7%, respectively. The particle size of Chitosan microcapsules would decrease as the emulsification stirring speed increases. When the stirring speeds are 400 rpm, 800 rpm, and 1500 rpm, the average particle sizes of microcapsules produced are 225+/-24 microm, 131+/-20 microm, and 11+/-3 microm, respectively. If the microcapsules were thermal pretreated at 80 degrees C, the structure of Chitosan wall membrane would shrink and thus achieve the effect of sustained release. The sustaining effect would increase along with treatment time increases.

  19. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  20. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bonaccorsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L. Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm. Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in

  1. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  2. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  3. Enantioselective GC-MS analysis of volatile components from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils and hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomi, Kenichi; Kitao, Makiko; Konishi, Norihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    Essential oils and hydrosols were extracted from rosemary harvested in different seasons, and the chemical compositions of volatile components in the two fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of some volatile components were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS. Classification of aroma components based on chemical groups revealed that essential oils contained high levels of monoterpene hydrocarbons but hydrosols did not. Furthermore, the enantiomeric ratios within some volatile components were different from each other; for example, only the (S)-form was observed for limonene and the (R)-form was dominant for verbenone. These indicate the importance of determining the enantiomer composition of volatile components for investigating the physiological and psychological effects on humans. Overall, enantiomeric ratios were determined by volatile components, with no difference between essential oils and hydrosols or between seasons.

  4. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrancosa) from different irrigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Falco, V.; Correia, C. M.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil VOO) from the cv. cobrancosa- integrated into a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2)-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET{sub c}), (T1)-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and (T0)- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts. (Author) 34 refs.

  5. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  6. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  7. Disulphides in the volatile oil of Ferula behboudiana Rech. f. & Esfand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Habibi, Zohreh

    2011-10-01

    A study on the volatile oil of Ferula behboudiana by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of 27 compounds. Two disulphide derivatives, 1-sec-butyl-2-[(E)-3-(methylthio) prop-1-enyl] disulphane (1) and 1-sec-butyl-2-[(Z)-3-(methylthio)prop-1-enyl] disulphane (2) (59.4%), were isolated from the oil by thin layer chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Glubolol (12.5%), α-pinene (8.8%), α-bisabolol (6.1%) and β-pinene (3.9%) were the other major compounds.

  8. Auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatilities: A multiscale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudong; Wei, Yu; Wu, Chongfeng

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-range auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatility series employing multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our findings show that the for small time scales, the auto-correlations of volatilities were multifractal while for large time scales, the auto-correlations were nearly monofractal. Based on multiscale analysis, we also investigate the dynamics of auto-correlations for different intervals of time scales and find that several shocks could make significant effects on the auto-correlated behaviors for small time scales. Analyzing the dynamics of multifractality degrees of auto-correlations for small time scales, we find that the stronger auto-correlations were always related to the lower degrees of multifractality. At last, we have discussions on the determination factors of price behavior, the predictive implications of scaling behavior in volatilities for oil markets and the reasons why long-range auto-correlations of volatility were always strong for both small time scales and large time scales. Our results are very important theoretically and practically.

  9. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  10. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  11. Cytotoxic activity and constituents of the volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxiang; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjian

    2005-10-01

    The volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge was isolated by steam distillation, and separated into four major fractions (Fr. A-D) by means of column chromatography. A total of 39 compounds (1-39) were identified by GC/MS analysis, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human ovarian carcinoma cells (HO-8910) and human hepatoma cells (Bel-7402) (Table 1). Fr. A showed the strongest inhibitory effect on HO-8910 (IC50 = 21 microg/ml) and Bel-7402 cells (16 mcirog/ml), whereas Fr. B was the least active (>100 microg/ml). By comparison of the constituents of the four fractions, we assume that the cytotoxicity of the volatile oil of P. scabra is mainly due to the lignans and azulenes, rather than to caryophyllene oxide I (18). Our results suggest that the volatile oil of P. scabra possesses potent and tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and could serve as a possible candidate for future cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  13. Volatile Profile, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Olive Oils from Croatian Autochthonous Varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica in Comparison with Italian Variety Leccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Šarolić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils (VOOs obtained from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica were extensively characterized for the first time. Investigated oils were compared with the oil obtained from Italian variety Leccino, grown and processed under the same conditions. Headspace volatile profile, tocopherols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenolic content, peroxide value, % acidity, K232, K270 as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH of the oils’ hydrophilic fractions (HFs including their phenolic composition were assessed by means of HS-SPME/GC-MS, HPLC-FL, HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Most of the studied quality parameters varied between the cultivars. The main volatile compounds detected in all tested olive oils were the C6 compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Krvavica oil was characterized by hexanal (8.8%–9.4%. Leccino oil contained the highest percentage of (E-hex-2-enal (73.4%–74.0%, whereas (Z-hex-3-enal (21.9%–25.0% and (E-hex-2-enal (27.6%–28.9% dominated in Mašnjača oil. Leccino oil contained the highest amount of tocopherols (312.4 mg/kg, chlorophylls (7.3 mg/kg, carotenoids (4.2 mg/kg and total phenols (246.6 mg/kg. The HF of Leccino oil showed the highest antioxidant capacity (1.3 mmol TEAC/kg, while the HFs of Mašnjača and Krvavica oils exhibited the activity of 0.5 mmol TEAC/kg.

  14. Analysis of volatiles in porcine liver pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2004-08-11

    The effect of the addition of two natural antioxidant extracts (sage and rosemary essential oils) and one synthetic (BHT) on the generation of volatile compounds in liver pâtés from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using SPME-GC-MS. Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes [hexanal, octanal, nonanal, hept-(Z)-4-enal, oct-(E)-2-enal, non-(Z)-2-enal, dec-(E)-2-enal, deca-(E,Z)-2,4-dienal] and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace of porcine liver pâtés. Pâtés from different pig breeds presented different volatiles profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a probable result of their fatty acid profiles and vitamin E content. Regardless of the origin of the pâtés, the addition of BHT successfully reduced the amount of volatiles derived from PUFA oxidation. Added essential oils showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles whether they were added in pâtés from Iberian or white pigs because they inhibited lipid oxidation in the former and enhanced oxidative instability in the latter. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of 41 volatile terpenes from pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, 1-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of liver pâtés.

  15. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  16. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  17. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  18. Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Volatilization and subsequent biodegradation near the water Table make up a coupled natural attenuation pathway that results in significant mass loss of hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 years apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation rates were determined by calibrating a gas transport model to O2, CO2, and CH4 gas-concentration data in the unsaturated zone. Reaction stoichiometry was assumed in converting O2 and CO2 gas-flux estimates to rates of aerobic biodegradation and CH4 gas-flux estimates to rates of methanogenesis. Model results indicate that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that approximately 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenenic conditions represented approximately one-half of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/m2-day. It appears that volatilization is the primary mechanism for attenuation in early stages of plume evolution, while biodegradation dominates in later stages.

  19. Analysis on Chemical Components of Volatile Oil in Wisteria Pods with GC/MS%气相色谱/质谱法分析紫藤荚挥发油化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金振国; 刘萍; 王香婷

    2012-01-01

    With the purpose of developing and using wisteria pods,its chemical componen!s of volatile oil is analysed. The volatile oil in wisteria pods was extracted by steam distillation. The components of volatile oil was separated and structurally identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the relative contents of the components with the peak-area normalization method in gas chromatography. 14 compounds have been identified from the volatile oil of wisteria pods, accounting 87.49% of total volatile oil. The principal constituents of the volatile oil is 3-methyl-oxiran-2-yl-methanol,Others are the acetic ether, acetic acid,benzoic aldehyde,etc.There exist great differences in constutients of volatile oil in pods and flwours of wisteria%研究了紫藤荚挥发油的化学成分,为其开发利用奠定基础。用水蒸汽蒸馏法从紫藤荚中提取挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱联用分析法进行成分分析,用色谱峰面积归一化法测定各组分相对含量。结果表明,共鉴定出14种化学成分,占挥发油总量的87.49%,其主要成分为2,3-环氧基-1-丁醇,其它依次是乙酸乙酯、乙酸、苯甲醛等,与文献报道紫藤花挥发油成分差别较大。

  20. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of several essential oils and their components. Analysis showed that three oils (Carum carvi L., Verbena officinalis L. and Majorana hortensis L.) contained predominantly oxygenated monoterpenes, while others studied (Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mainly contained anethole. C. carvi, V. officinalis and M. hortensis oils exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, due their contents of carvacrol, anethole and estragol. Antibacterial action was assessed against a range of pathogenic and useful bacteria and fungi of agro-food interest. V. officinalis and C. carvi oils proved the most effective, in particular against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carvacrol proved most active against Escherichia coli, and completely inhibited the growth of Penicillium citrinum. The oils proved inactive towards some Lactobacilli strains, whereas single components showed an appreciable activity. These results may be important for use of the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products.

  1. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

  2. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  3. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  4. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivities from Colombian Kyllinga pumila Michx (Cyperaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Jaramillo-Colorado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Kyllinga pumila (Michx was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-eight volatile compounds were identified, major constituents of the oil were Methyl E,E-10,11-epoxyfarnesoate (43.8%, β-elemene (12.5%, Z-caryophyllene (11.3%, germacrene D (7.1% and E-caryophyllene (5.6%. Repellent and fumigant activities of the oil against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, were done using the area preference method. Additionally, we studied their antioxidant and phytotoxic effects. Essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent repellent activity, with values 90% at the applied concentration (0.01%, for both two and four hour’s exposure. Essential oil from K. pumila showed 92% mortality at 500 µL L-1 air against T. castaneum on 24 hours of exposure. The value LC50 was 153.4 µL L-1.  With moderate selective phytotoxic effects on L. perenne root growth (±70% inhibition. Kyllinga pumila shows high antioxidant potential (91.5%, an effect that is comparable with ascorbic acid (92.9% used as a standard. The results indicated that K. pumila essential oil could be a promising alternative to new natural antioxidants, repellents, and biocides.

  5. Oxidative stability of pullulan nanofibers loaded with fish oil: effect of oil content and antioxidants addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.

    tension) as well as on the morphology of NFM and oxidative stability of NMF during storage (20 days at 20 °C and relative humidity of 33%) was studied. Secondly, the effect on the oxidative stability of the NMS of incorporating hydrophilic antioxidants (e.g. EDTA) to pullulan solutions and/or liphophilic...... antioxidants (e.g. tocopherols) to fish oil was evaluated. Preliminary results show that neat fish oil can be incorporated into pullulan NMS by adding 30% Tween20 (by weight to respect to fish oil content), leading to NMS not containing antioxidants with a peroxide value lower that 20 meq O2/kg oil at day 0....

  6. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration.

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Microcapsule Containing Volatile Oil of Herba Schizonepetae by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国; 欧阳霄雯; 倪力军; 史万忠

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules of volatile oil containing Herba Schizonepetae (VOHS) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method to improve the drug loading and reduce the amount of pharmaceutical excipients. Orthogonal assay was applied to optimize the preparation condition of microcapsulation, and the results illustrated that the ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC) to VOHS influenced the property of VOHS microcapsule significantly. GC-MS analysis indicated that some volatile components with low concentration in VOHS were lost after microencapsulation. The microcapsules prepared with optimum condition had good fluidity, and the holes on the surface of the microcapsules contributed to the release of VOHS. The particles of the microcapsule conformed to a normal distribution with the diameter of 45-220 µm. In the simulated intestinal fluid containing 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, pulegone in VOHS microcapsule showed a certain degree of slow release. Compared withβ-cyclodextrin method, the microencapsulation used in the present work could reduce the amount of excipients and increase the drug loading. It was beneficial to reduce the dose of Chinese medicines containing volatile oils.

  8. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  9. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  10. Evaluation of Lipid Content in Microalgae Biomass Using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Hesam; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Khademi, Tayebeh; Kumar, Ashok; Rezania, Shahabaldin

    2017-08-01

    The scope of this study is to assess the main component of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to be used as organic carbon for microalgae. The applicable parameters such as optical density, chlorophyll content, mixed liquor suspended solid, mixed liquor volatile suspended solid, cell dry weight (CDW), carbon:total nitrogen ratio and growth rate were also investigated in this study. The characteristics and morphological features of the isolates showed similarity with Chlorella. Chlorella pyrenoidosa ( CP) was found to be a dominant species in POME and Chlorella vulgaris ( CV) could grow well in POME. Furthermore, the optimal lipid production was obtained at the ratio 95:05 CDW with highest lipid production by CP compared to CV. At day 20, CDW for CV species was obtained at 193 mg/L and with lipid content at 56 mg/L. Finally, the concentration ratio at 50:50 showed a higher absorbance of chlorophyll a for both strains.

  11. Inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (Myrtaceae) on the acetylcholine induced contraction of isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayinde Buniyamin; Josephine, Owolabi Omonkhelin

    2012-04-01

    Using steam distillation method, the volatile oils of Eucalyptus citriodora and Callistemon citrinus were obtained and their chromatographic profiles examined in hexane: ethylacetate (4:1; 7:3) and hexane-chloroform (7:3). The effects of the volatile oils on acetylcholine (Ach) induced contraction of the rat isolated ileum were investigated based on the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oil of E. citriodora in treating diarrhoea. Relative to the weight of the fresh leaves (200g in each case), E. citriodora produced 0.75% of the volatile oil while the C. citrinus yielded 0.5%. Combination of hexane-ethylacetate (4:1) gave the best resolution of the constituents as E. citriodora produced six major spots while Callistemon citrinus produced three. The concentration-dependent contractions of the ileum produced by the increasing concentration of the Ach were observed to be remarkably attenuated in the presence of the volatile oils at 5 and 10 mg/ml. At 5mg/ ml, the volatile oils of E. citriodora and C. citrinus independently reduced the Ach maximum contraction to 74.11 ± 12.4 and 19.05 ± 5.17% respectively. At 10mg/ml, the volatile oils further significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the contraction induced by the Ach. The results obtained validated the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oils particularly that of E. citriodora in reducing ilea contractions occasioned by diarrhoea. However, C. citrinus volatile oil seems to be more effective.

  12. Heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich melt inclusions record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Esposito, Rosario; Moore, Lowell R.; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2017-04-01

    Silicate melt inclusions (MI) commonly provide the best record of pre-eruptive H2O and CO2 contents of subvolcanic melts, but the concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the melt (glass) phase within MI can be modified by partitioning into a vapor bubble after trapping. Melt inclusions may also enclose vapor bubbles together with the melt (i.e., heterogeneous entrapment), affecting the bulk volatile composition of the MI, and its post-entrapment evolution. In this study, we use numerical modeling to examine the systematics of post-entrapment volatile evolution within MI containing various proportions of trapped vapor from zero to 95 volume percent. Modeling indicates that inclusions that trap only a vapor-saturated melt exhibit significant decrease in CO2 and moderate increase in H2O concentrations in the melt upon nucleation and growth of a vapor bubble. In contrast, inclusions that trap melt plus vapor exhibit subdued CO2 depletion at equivalent conditions. In the extreme case of inclusions that trap mostly the vapor phase (i.e., CO2-H2O fluid inclusions containing trapped melt), degassing of CO2 from the melt is negligible. In the latter scenario, the large fraction of vapor enclosed in the MI during trapping essentially serves as a buffer, preventing post-entrapment modification of volatile concentrations in the melt. Hence, the glass phase within such heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich MI records the volatile concentrations of the melt at the time of trapping. These numerical modeling results suggest that heterogeneously entrapped MI containing large vapor bubbles represent amenable samples for constraining pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of subvolcanic melts.

  13. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-08

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone).

  14. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  15. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Volatile Oils from Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Polo; Ricardo Marques Montanari; Róbson Ricardo Teixeira; Felipe Terra Martins; Luiz Claudio de Almeida Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is widely used in folk medicine in various countries. Th e essential oils from H. suaveolens have been extensively investigated and are mainly composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, although significant diterpene content has been reported in recent studies. The survey of the literature concerning H. suaveolens essential oils revealed a high level of chemical variability in terms of quantity and composition that is c...

  16. Growth inhibiting activity of volatile oil from Cistus creticus L. against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutschenreuther, A; Birkemeyer, C; Grötzinger, K; Straubinger, R K; Rauwald, H W

    2010-04-01

    Borreliosis patients from self-help groups reported considerable pain relief after ingestion of Cistus creticus leaf preparations. C. creticus leaf extracts of different polarities such as aqueous, ethyl acetate, hexane extracts as well as the volatile oil fraction obtained by steam distillation were tested for their antibacterial activity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) in vitro using the antibiotic amoxicilline as standard and polysorbate 80 as solubilizer for lipophilic extracts. Comparison of the four plant preparations shows that the volatile oil exerts the strongest growth inhibitory effect. Even concentrations of 0.02% (w/v) volatile oil in cultivation media reduced the total number of bacteria to 2% in comparison to a growth control after an eight-day cultivation period. While the aqueous extract did not reduce bacterial growth, incubation with hexane and ethyl acetate extracts clearly inhibited microbial growth. The main volatile components of the three active extracts tested were analyzed by GC-MS. The number of different labdane-type diterpenes as well as the total relative amount of diterpenes in the samples tested was highest in the essential oil of C. creticus. Identification of ten different volatile labdane-type diterpenes was assigned to the essential oil of C. creticus. Among these, manoyl oxide, 13-epi-manoyl oxide, 3-acetoxy-manoyl oxide and the monoterpene carvacrol were determined to be major constituents, accompanied by minor amounts of 3-hydroxy-manoyl oxide, all of which are known to exert antimicrobial activity.

  17. Genetic dissection of seed oil and protein content and identification of networks associated with oil content in Brassica napus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongbo Chao; Hao Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Liangxing Guo; Jianwei Gu; Weiguo Zhao; Baojun Li; Dengyan Chen; Nadia Raboanatahiry; Maoteng Li

    2017-01-01

    ... 3072.7 cM of the Brassica napus genome was constructed in the KenC-8 × N53-2 (KNDH) population. A total of 67 and 38 QTLs for seed oil and protein content were identified with an average confidence interval...

  18. The effects of biodiesel and its blends with diesel oil on the emission of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Prokopowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, the emphasis is placed on the use of renewable fuels as well as biodiesel as an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Due to the fact that the impact of biodiesel on various chemical compounds exhaust emissions is not completely characterized, we have evaluated the emissions of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in relation to biodiesel content in conventional diesel fuel. Material and methods: In the study we have assessed the emission of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylens during New European Driving Cycle NEDC for a passenger car with a diesel engine using the following fuels: 100% diesel fuel (B0, 100% rapeseed methyl esters (B100, 7, 15 and 30% rapeseed methyl esters in diesel fuel (B7, B15, B30, and 30% hydrotreated vegetable oil in diesel fuel (HVO30. Results: Among all determined compounds, benzene and toluene were emitted in the largest quantities. Higher emissions were determined during urban driving cycle then during extraurban driving cycle. A clear trend was observed when along with increasing amount of added rapeseed methyl esters the emission increased. However, additive of HVO decreased the emission of the most volatile aromatic compounds even when compared to conventional diesel fuel. During extra-urban driving cycle the emission was significantly lower and comparable for most fuels tested. Nevertheless in the context of conventional diesel fuel, lower emission for fuels with biodiesel was observed. Conclusion: The results have indicated the increase in benzene and toluene exhaust emissions mostly during urban driving cycle and its decrease during extra-urban driving cycle in NEDC test with increasing content of fatty acids methyl esters in diesel fuel. The emission in urban cycle was probably influenced by cold-start condition during this cycle. Generation of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons may be related to higher density of fuel with biodiesel in comparison to density of diesel oil

  19. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  1. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from leaves of Michelia champaca L., Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oils from leaves of Michelia champaca L. collected bimonthly during one year (four times on the fifteenth day of January, March, May, July, September, and November - 2004 were subjected to GC/FID and GC-MS analysis, from which thirteen components were identified. Additionally, part of the oil obtained from January collection was subjected to fractionation over silica gel soaked with AgNO3 to afford five of the main sesquiterpenes (β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, β-selinene, and α-cadinol. The obtained data showed a significative variation in the proportions of the components, which could be associated to climatic parameters in each collection periods.

  2. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-06-24

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  3. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141

  4. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Guclu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs greater than one, with (Z-3-hexenal (green, hexanal (green-sweet and nonanal (fatty-pungent being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  5. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2006-09-20

    This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard.

  6. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  7. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  8. Comparison of chemical constituents of volatile oil from different parts of mentha haplocalyx briq%薄荷不同部位挥发油成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平晟; 朱才会; 晏婷; 朱敏; 陈功; 王丽梅

    2015-01-01

    研究武汉地区野生薄荷根茎叶挥发油的成分及含量。用水蒸气蒸馏法( SD )分别提取薄荷不同部位的挥发油,然后用气相色谱-质谱法分析薄荷不同部位挥发油的化学成分。结果表明:叶片挥发油出油率是0.45%,茎挥发油出油率是0.2%,根挥发油出油率是0.02%。用气相色谱-质谱法分析三种不同部位挥发油,共鉴定出43种化合物,叶和茎挥发油主要成分是薄荷醇,根挥发油的主要成分是二十四烷。用薄荷不同部位提取的挥发油含量和成分有较大差别。为获得较高产率的薄荷醇成分,以薄荷叶获取挥发油为最佳原料。%To study the volatile components and contents of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq cultivated in Wuhan.The volatile oil of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq was extracted by steam distillation( SD) .The chemical components of volatile oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS).The yield of volatile oil from the leaf was 0.45%, The yield of volatile oil from the stem was 0. 2%, The yield of volatile oil from the roots was 0.02%.43 main vo1atile compounds were identified.Levomentho was main component of volatile oil from the leaf and the stem ,Tetracosane was main component of volatile oil from the root.There was great difference in volatile components and contents which were extracted from different part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.In order to obtain higher yield of Levomentho, leaf of Mentha haplocalyx Briq was the best Material.

  9. Experimental Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Origanum Volatile Oil on Dysentery Bacilli In Vivo and In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳; 黄庆华; 扬振德; 许汉林; 高清华

    2004-01-01

    To observe the germistatic and germicidal effects of origanum volatile oil (OVI) on the dysentery bacteria, the abdominal cavity of mice was infected with Shigella sonne (Sh. sonnei) and Shigella flexneri (Sh. flexneri) F2a. After OVI was given to the mice via gastric lavage, the effects of OVI on the infected mice were observed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for dysentery bacteria were determined in vitro. The results showed that origanum volatile oil showed obvious protective effect on mice infected with Sh.sonnei and Sh. flexneri F2a. and it had germistatic and germicidal effects on dysentry bacteria. We are led to conclude that origanum volatile oil is an effective medicine against the infection of dysentery bacteria.

  10. 不同等级橄榄油中挥发性特征成分的研究%Volatile characteristic components in olive oils of different grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾强; 王玥; 陈君义; 乙小娟; 刘一军

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components of olive oils were systematically studied by the method of headspace -solid phase microextraction - GC/MS ( HS - SPME - GC/MS ). Two characteristic components were detected in the chromatogram with retention time of 15.71 min and 19. 98 min by lots of detections and in-tercomparisons and the contents of the components were closely related to the grades of the olive oils. The two volatile characteristic components could indicate the grades of olive oils, and a new method of grade identification of olive oil was developed.%利用顶空-固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC/MS)法,对不同等级橄榄油中的挥发性成分进行了系统研究.通过大量检测和比对,从色谱图上分辨出两种保留时间分别为15.71 min和19.98 min的特征成分,其含量与橄榄油等级密切相关.该研究工作首次确定了两种能反映橄榄油等级的挥发性特征成分,为开发全新的橄榄油等级鉴别方法奠定了理论基础.

  11. Phytochemical screening and chemical variability in volatile oils of aerial parts of Morinda morindoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiazolu, J Boima; Intisar, Azeem; Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Runsheng; Wu, Zhongping; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    Morinda morindoides is an important Liberian traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, fever, worms etc. The plant was subjected to integrated approaches including phytochemical screening and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Phytochemical investigation of the powdered plant revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroidal compounds and volatile oil. Steam distillation followed by GC-MS resulted in the identification of 47 volatiles in its aerial parts: 28 were in common including various bioactive volatiles. Major constituents of leaves were phytol (43.63%), palmitic acid (8.55%) and geranyl linalool (6.95%) and stem were palmitic acid (14.95%), eicosane (9.67%) and phytol (9.31%), and hence, a significant difference in the percentage composition of aerial parts was observed. To study seasonal changes, similarity analysis was carried out by calculating correlation coefficient (r) and vector angle cosine (z) that were more than 0.91 for stem-to-stem and leaf-to-leaf batches indicating considerable consistency.

  12. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Oil from Hedyotis lancea%剑叶耳草挥发油的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘为高; 李勇; 朱小勇; 朱意麟; 李耀华; 罗彭

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究剑叶耳草挥发油的化学成分组成.方法:分别采用水蒸气蒸馏法(SD)和超临界CO2萃取法(SFE)提取制备两种挥发油;通过气质联用分析其化学成分组成,用面积归一化法确定各成分的相对百分含量.结果:水蒸气蒸馏法挥发油中分离出67个色谱峰,鉴定其中32个化合物,占挥发油总量的73.76%;超临界CO2萃取法挥发油中分离出82个色谱峰,鉴定其中45个化合物,占挥发油总量的61.62%.结论:剑叶耳草挥发油主要包括脂肪族含氧衍生物、芳香族含氧衍生物和萜含氧衍生物,但两种提取方法的挥发油成分组成和含量有差异.%Objective; To study the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Hedyotis lancea. Method; Two kinds of volatile oil were separately prepared by steam distillation ( SD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). The constituents were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the area normalization method to determine the relative percentage content of each component. Result; Sixty-seven compounds were isolated and 32 compounds were identified by SD that composed about 73. 76% of the total essential oil; and 82 compounds were isolated and 45 compounds were identified by SFE that composed about 61.62% of the total essential oil. Conclusion; The principal chemical constituents of the volatile oil from H. lancea are aliphatic derivatives, aromatic derivatives and terpene derivatives. There are some differences in the principal chemical constituents and content of the volatile oil extracted by SD and SFE.

  13. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  14. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  15. Characterization of the volatile oil compositions from Hypericum perforatum L. shoot cultures in different basal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Morshedloo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is the most important species of the genus Hypericum and produces a wide range of chemical constituents including essential oil. Regarding advantages of in vitro culture techniques in production of desired metabolites, the present study was aimed to investigate volatile constituents of H. perforatum shoots cultured in different basal media. Shoot cultures were established by culturing six nodes of aseptic plants in three liquid media including MS (Murashige and Skoog, B5 (Gamborg B-5 and half-strength B5 containing 30 g L-1 sucrose and 0.5 mg L-1 BA (6-benzyladenine. According to the results, growth and profile of volatile constituents of cultured shoots were affected by the type of medium used and shoots cultured in the B5 medium exhibited the highest growth which was reached to 42.95 g flask-1. On the other hand, 44 components were totally identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oils of cultured shoots. Decane (27.7%, menthol (8.9%, methyl decanoate (4.6% and β-elemene (4.6% were the major volatile constituents of the shoots cultured in MS medium, while eudesma4(15,7-dien-1-β-ol (8.1-7.5%, thymol (7-7.2% and 1,4-trans-1,7-trans-acorenone (5.2-5.5% were found as the principal components of shoots cultured in B5 and half-strength B5 media.

  16. Analysis of volatile oil in Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong-Radix Paeoniae Rubra by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ru LI; Yi-zeng LIANG; Fang-qiu GUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To analyze the volatile chemical components of the herbal pair Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong-Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RLC-RPR) and compare them with those of each of the herbs alone.Methods:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ,a chemometric resolution technique using the heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP) method.and the overall volume integration method were used.Results:In total,52,38,and 61 volatile chemical components in RLC,RPR,and RLC-RPR essential oils were determined,respectively,accounting for 95.14%,95.19%,and 89.68%ofthe total contents ofessential oil ofRLC,RPR,and RLC-RPR,respectively.The majn volatile chemical components were butyldienephthalide (20.65%) and ligustilide (50.15%) for RLC;and n-hexadecanoic acid (20.18%) ,[Z,Z]9,12-octadecadienoic acid (30.11%) ,2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (17.08%) for RPR,and butyldienephthalide (14.80%) ,and ligustilide (38.91%) for RLC-RPR.The main volatile chemical components of RLC-RPR were almost the same as those of RLC,but the relative amounts were altered.Conclusion:The number of volatile chemical components in RLC-RPR was almost equal to the sum of the number in the 2 constituent herbs.but the relative amounts were altered.Furthermore,an acid-base reaction takes place during the process of decocting the herbs.The data gathered in this study may be helpful for understanding the synergistic nature of this herb pair in traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h.

  18. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  19. Validation of SPME-GCMS method for the analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles responsible for sensory defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García-González, D L; Aparicio-Ruiz, R; Morales, M T

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma of virgin olive oil and also for its quality. The high number and different nature of volatile compounds drive to the need of a reliable analytical method that allows their proper quantification to explain the standard method of panel test. Although there are some analytical solutions available, they have not been validated and the regulatory bodies are reluctant to adopt them since they can be subjected to unknown errors. In this regards, the European Union has encouraged the validation of these analytical tools through the research program Horizon2020, which involves gaining knowledge from the analytical properties of the chemical methods for sensory assessment. This work is focused on the analytical validation of the methodology used to determine the actual concentration of volatiles in virgin olive oils when applying SPME-GCMS. The validation process includes the calibration curves for 29 volatile compounds responsible for the most common sensory perceptions in virgin olive oils, the determination of their working ranges with linear response, the detection and quantification limits, the sensitivity, the accuracy estimated as trueness and precision and the selectivity. Sixty-seven percent of the compounds presented a relative standard deviation in repeatability lower than 10%, and this percentage rises to 95% in lampante virgin olive oils. The accuracy was established in 97% of the studied volatile compounds. Finally, an empirical example of the ability of the method to discriminate virgin olive oils of different categories (extra virgin, virgin, ordinary and lampante) by the quantification of their volatiles is provided.

  20. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from flowers and leaves of new Passiflora hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Calevo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Passiflora is a genus of the Passifloraceae family with more than five hundred species, which are known for their edible fruits, their therapeutic properties and ornamental purposes, and they are very attractive both for the horticultural sector as well as for the herbal and pharmaceutical industry. A detailed chemical composition of Passiflora essential oil has been reported only for few main species (e.g. P. edulis Sims and P. incarnata L.. In this article we evaluated for the first time the essential oil composition of three Passiflora ornamental hybrids, exploring fresh flowers and leaves by GC/FID and GC/MS. Several compounds were identified, with a peculiar distribution in the hybrids: benzyl alcohol (7.6%, geraniol (13.7%, phytol (14,3%, eugenol (3.9%, 2-phenylethanol (4.7%, cis-3-hexenal (2.8% and palmitic acid (2% were the main compounds of the essential oil of fresh leaves of the hybrid P. ‘FSO-040711’; the highest percentages of benzyl alcohol (12.2% and 2-phenylethanol (13.6% were found in fresh flowers of P. ‘FSO-130913’ and  the highest amount of phytol (38.5% was present in the fresh leaves of P. ‘FSO-080415’. Eugenol (5.3% seems to be related to the typical honey/vanilla fragrance of the flowers of P. ‘FSO-040711’. Industrial relevance. The main bulk of constituents of the volatile fractions of Passiflora hybrids were found to be hydrocarbons and alcohols, while terpens and aldehydes occurred in lower amount. We are currently focus on investigating the biological activity of the Passiflora oil extracts for perfumery and cosmetic industry. Keywords. Maracuja; interspecific hybrids; essential oil; gas chromatography

  1. Volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (pinus densiflora siebold and zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Sung Hong; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  2. Volatile Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of the Bio-Oil Obtained by Pyrolysis of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora Siebold and Zucc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc. sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal properties of volatile oil from salt marsh mangrove plant of Sesuvium portulacastrum against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali; Venkatraman Anuradha; SyedAbudhair Sirajudeen; Prathasarathy Vijaya; Nagarajan Yogananth; Ramachandran Rajan; Peer Mohamed Kalitha Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the volatile oil from Sesuvium portulacastrum (S.portulacastrum ) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Volatile oil extract of S. portulacastrum was prepared in a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of volatile oil against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of two mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group.Results:Volatile oil extract of S. portulacastrum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value [(63±7.8) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=55.2-64.0] and LC90 value [(94.2±3.9) µL/mL)] in maximum activity with minimum concentration (200 µL/mL) of volatile oil and followed by maximum activity of 250 µL concentration showed LC50 value=(68.0±8.2) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=66.26-69.2 and LC50 value of (55.2±2.8) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=53.7-56.9, LC90=(95.2±1.25) µL/mL and followed by 250 µL of oil extract against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti respectively.Conclusions:It is inferred from the present study that, the extracts from salt marsh mangrove plan of S. portulacastum are identified as a potential source of safe and efficacious mosquito control agents for the management of vector borne diseases of malaria and dengue.

  4. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  5. Investigation of the volatile oils, lipid constituents and biological activity of Ballota andreuzziana, Teucrium zanonii andVerbena tenuisecta in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled A Abdelshafeek; Adnan A Elgattar; Aziza H Zarkoon; Mohamed A Alwahash; Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the chemical composition of essential oils and lipid constituents of Ballota andreuzziana (B. andreuzziana), Teucrium zanonii (T. zanonii)andVerbena tenuisecta (V. tenuisecta) growing in Libya, and to test the antibacterial activity of different extracts ofTeucrium zanonii.Methods: The volatile oils of all plants were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed byGC/MS method. The lipid constituents of plants were obtained by extraction with petroleum ether and fractionated into fatty alcohols, fatty acids and unsapoinfiable matters. Antibacterial activity ofT. zanonii extracts and antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii were also studied.Results: The volate oil ofB. andreuzziana was found to consists of20 compounds in which caryophyllin is the main one (63.1%), the volatile oil ofT. zanonii consists of74 compounds in which germacrene-D was the main compound, while the volatile oil ofV. tenuisecta consists of13compounds with1-octen-3- ol as a major constituent(52.87%). The study of antimicrobial activity of different extracts ofV. tenuisecta showed that, both methanol and butanol extracts exhibited the highest activity againstMycobactirium phlei (M. phlei) andCandida albicans (C. albicans) respectively, while petroleum ether, fatty alcohols and unsaponifiable fractions had no antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Investigation of the antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii usingDPPH method proved that, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed the highest activity where the inhibition percentage(I%) are 93.6 and92.1 respectively.Conclusions:This is the first report about the volatile oils of these plants whereT. zanonii have the highest content and the highest number of the identified compounds. The study of antioxidantT. zanonii extracts proved that, the ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous extracts have the highest antioxidant activity. Methanol and butanol extracts of

  6. Extraction and Identification of Volatile Oil in Bergamot Leaves%佛手叶挥发性成分的提取鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静芳; 蒋立勤; 钟晓明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this work was to study the chemical comparedof volatile oil from bergamot leaves,compareding with fresh bergamot fruits.Methods:Volatile oil in bergamot leaves and fruits were obtained by steam distillation,and the extracted components were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).Results:The yields of volatile oil from Jinhua and Hangzhou bergamot leaves was 0.58% and 0.32% sresparately,while there was 1.2% in fresh bergamot fruits.About thirty volatile compounds were separated and identified in Jinhua bergamot leaves,and forty volatile compounds were separated and identified in Hangzhou bergamot leaves.The main volatile components were Limonene and α-Litral,and higher contents were found in Jinhua bergamot leaves compared to that of Hangzhou' s.17 common volatile components were found in Jinhua bergamot leaves and the fruits.Conclusion:Relative amount of volatile compounds were identified in bergamot leaves.The main volatile compounds were olefins,aldehydes and alcohols.The contents of lmonene and o-citral were highest among the volatile compounds.This work provides the basic dates for the further study and usinge of Jinhua bergamot leaves.%目的:分析佛手叶中挥发油的含量及组成,并与佛手鲜果挥发油含量及组成进行比较.方法:采用蒸馏法提取挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析挥发油组成.结果:金华、杭州两地佛手叶中挥发油含量分别为0.58%和0.32%,佛手鲜果挥发油含量为1.2%;在金华的佛手叶挥发油中鉴定出30种化学成分,在杭州的佛手叶挥发油中鉴定出40种化学成分,挥发油主要成分为柠檬烯和α-柠檬醛,金华的佛手叶中两成分含量较高;从金华佛手叶中鉴定出17种与佛手果具有相同的挥发性成分.结论:在佛手叶中含有相当量的烯烃类、醛类和醇类等挥发性成分,其中柠檬烯和α-柠檬醛含量较高,本结果为佛手叶的深入研究及利用提供了基础.

  7. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  8. 迷迭香挥发油提取工艺优化及其化学成分分析%Optimization of Extraction Technology of Volatile Oil from Rosemary and Analysis on the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏妙; 郭占京; 卢汝梅; 蒙亮

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oil was extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by water steam distillation method. The extraction technology was optimized by orthogonal test. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were compared by GC-MS. According to orthogonal design, the optimum technology for extracting volatile oil from rosemary was, the herb was cut into pieces with length of 1 cm, then soaked for 3 h when the dosage of water was fifteen fold of material mass, and extracted for 4 h, under such conditions the extraction rate of volatile oil was 1.870%. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were similar. The quality was not affected by drying in the shade.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取迷迭香(Rosmarinus officindis L.)挥发油,运用正交设计优化提取工艺.结果表明,迷迭香挥发油最佳提取工艺条件为迷迭香剪成1 cm长的小段、料水质量比1∶15、浸泡时间3h、提取时间4h,此条件下挥发油的得率为1.870%.运用GC-MS技术分析并比较了迷迭香鲜样和干样挥发油的化学成分,结果表明二者化学成分基本相同,药材阴干后挥发油品质没有受到明显影响.

  9. Physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of oil extracted from dry alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Farga, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, phenolic acids and volatile compounds of alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy seed oil were evaluated. The crude oil content was 11.49%, ash 6.88%, moisture 6.12%, protein content 14.60%, total carbohydrate 24.77% and fiber 36.13%. The oil contain a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (74.63 mg·100 g−1 with oleic (C18:1 (57.77%, palmitic (C16:0 (18.65% and linoleic (C18:2 (12.88% acids as the most abundant. The relative density was 0.88 and the iodine value 105.59. The color analysis showed a value of 28.33 Y+1.43 R. The oil also had a high relative oxidative stability. The tocol composition showed that α-tocotrienol, γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol were in a higher concentration than the rest. Seven phenolic acids (caffeic, vanillic, galic, p-coumaric, ascorbic, cinnamic and ferulic were detected, with ascorbic acid as the predominant one (5.44 mg·100 g−1. In relation to the volatile composition, 48 compounds were found with Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol (56.73%; Hexadecenoic acid, Z-11- (18.52%; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z- (3.93% and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (3.04% as the most abundant. These findings demonstrated the potential of alhydwan seeds to be used as a good source of quality edible oil.En este estudio se ha determinado la composición química, las propiedades físico-químicas, ácidos fenólicos y compuestos volátiles de aceites de semillas de alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy. Las semillas contenían un 11.49% de aceite, 6.88% de cenizas, 6,12% de humedad, 14.60% de proteínas, 24.77% de carbohidratos totales y 36.13% de fibra. El aceite contiene 74,63 mg·100 g−1 de ácidos grasos insaturados, con oleico (C18: 1 (57,77%, palmítico (C16: 0 (18,65% y linoleico (C18: 2 (12,88% como los más abundantes. La densidad relativa fue de 0,88 y el índice de yodo de 105,59. El análisis del color mostró un valor de

  10. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive

  11. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  12. Nitric Oxide and Brassinosteroids Mediated Fungal Endophyte-Induced Volatile Oil Production Through Protein Phosphorylation Pathways in Atractylodes lancea Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Ren; Chuan-Chao Dai

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been isolated from almost every plant, infecting their hosts without causing visible disease symptoms, and yet have still proved to be involved in plant secondary metabolites accumulation. To decipher the possible physiological mechanisms of the endophytic fungus-host interaction, the role of protein phosphorylation and the relationship between endophytic fungus-induced kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) and brassinolide (BL) in endophyte-enhanced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets were investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Inoculation with the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 enhanced the activities of total protein phosphorylation, Ca2þ-dependent protein kinase, and volatile oil accumulation in A. lancea plantlets. The upregulation of protein kinase activity could be blocked by the BL inhibitor brassinazole. Furthermore, pretreatments with the NO-specific scavenger cPTIO significantly reduced the increased activities of protein kinases in A. lancea plantlets inoculated with endophytic fungus. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced fungus-induced NO production and volatile oil accumulation, but had barely no effect on the BL level. These data suggest that protein phosphorylation is required for endophyte-induced volatile oil production in A. lancea plantlets, and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and the NO pathway may occur and act as a downstream signaling event of the BL pathway.

  13. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive fr

  14. Dynamic headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, K; Lund, P; Hansen, L F; Holmer, G

    2000-10-01

    Protection against lipid oxidation and formation of unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors in oil-in-water food emulsions, such as fish oil enriched mayonnaise, is difficult to achieve. Volatile profiles from stored mayonnaises with different oil phase compositions were collected using a developed dynamic headspace sampling technique, in which interfering acetic acid was removed in situ with potassium hydroxide, and subsequently 148 volatiles were characterized and monitored by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistics showed correlation between the concentration of 62 volatiles and the fish oil and storage parameters, indicating the formation of lipid oxidation products, which impose fishy off-flavors. Further verification was obtained by gas chromatography/olfactometry, by which, among 78 odors, cis-4-heptenal and trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal were detected as distinct fishy notes. In total, 27 volatiles, including 1-penten-3-one, cis-2-penten-1-ol, cis-3-hexenal, cis-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1,cis-5-octadien-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, trans,cis-2, 4-heptadienal, and trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, were suggested to contribute to the developed unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors.

  15. Volatile organic compounds at oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver&nd...

  16. Influence of phosphorus content of coconut oil on deposit and performance of plant oil pressure stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, M.; Mueller, J. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik, Universitaet Hohenheim (440e), Garbenstrasse 9, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Influence of phosphorus lipids on formation of deposits and performance of plant oil pressure stoves was investigated. Refined coconut oil with an original phosphorous content of 5.9 mg/kg was used as base for fuel blends by adding lecithin to adjust increased phosphorous concentrations of 32.2, 51.6 and 63.0 mg/kg. The fuel blends were analysed for acid value, iodine value, total contamination, ash content and Conradson carbon residue according to standard methods. In burning trials, the specific fuel consumption, the required frequency of nozzle cleaning and the amount of deposits in the vaporizer were measured. Results showed an exponential increase of deposits in the vaporizer when phosphorous content was increased: deposits amounted to 0.12 g/kg of consumed fuel for unblended coconut oil and 0.92 g/kg for the blend with the highest phosphorous content. Furthermore, increased phosphorous content caused higher fuel consumption of 0.375 kg/h compared to 0.316 kg/h for the control. (author)

  17. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  18. Essential Oils and Non-volatile Compounds Derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa: Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity against Infectious Bacteria and MDR(multidrug resistant) Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min-Suk; Park, Dae-Hun; Choi, Chul-Yung; Kim, Gye-Yeop; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Cho, Seung-Sik

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa against general infectious microbes and drug resistant strains of clinical origin. The results indicate that both essential oil and non-volatile residue have broad inhibitory activity against test strains. Essential oil and non-volatile residues showed antimicrobial activity not only against general infectious bacteria, but also against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains.

  19. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  1. Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

  2. INFLUENCE OF THE VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONTENT TO RADIATION VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER LATEX (RVNRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRINOS, Hugo David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex is a dispersion of natural rubber particles in water. These particles are coated with aprotein layer which will stabilize the dispersion in water by forming an electric charge in the layer. Any differentcondition affecting this layer disturbs the stability of dispersion. Microorganism attack disturbs the protein layerand consequently the stability of the dispersion. By adding 1.2% by weight of NH3, the stability of the dispersioncan be improved. The fresh latex was irradiated by Co-60 with irradiation dose of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100 kGy.The results showed a relationship between the volatile fatty acid content (VFA, product from microorganismattack on carbohydrate and the green strength or the physical properties of vulcanized film. Low VFA numbershowing a higher physical strength of the film either un-vulcanized or vulcanized. It appeared that the structurewas responsible in yielding a good physical property of the film.

  3. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds.

  4. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-27

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  5. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E-nerolidol (52.5%, τ-cadinol (21.6% and S-falcarinol (3.6%. Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E-nerolidol (2 g, τ-cadinol (62 mg and S-falcarinol (21 mg, were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  6. Oil-Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Spillovers in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from a Multivariate GARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegerty Scott W.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent commodity price declines have added to worldwide macroeconomic risk, which has had serious effects on both commodity exporters and manufacturers that use oil and raw materials. These effects have been keenly felt in Central and Eastern Europe—particularly in Russia, but also in European Union member states. This study tests for spillovers among commodity-price and macroeconomic volatility by applying a VAR(1-MGARCH model to monthly time series for eight CEE countries. Overall, we find that oil prices do indeed have effects throughout the region, as do spillovers among exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, and output, but that they differ from country to country—particularly when different degrees of transition and integration are considered. While oil prices have a limited impact on the currencies of Russia and Ukraine, they do make a much larger contribution to the two countries’ macroeconomic volatility than do spillovers among the other macroeconomic variables.

  7. GC-MS Analysis of Coriander Volatile Oils from Yuxi County in Yunnan Province%云南玉溪芜荽挥发油成分的GG-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京娜; 陈霞; 杨冬; 张颖君; 杨崇仁

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析云南玉溪产芜荽的挥发油成分,比较不同产地芜荽挥发油组成,讨论其差异.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法从云南玉溪产芜荽中提取挥发油,通过气相色谱-质谱联用系统对挥发性成分进行分析.结果 检出41个色谱峰,用峰面积归一化法得出色谱峰的相时含量;与数据库时照,鉴定了其中的35个化合物.结论 云南玉溪产芜荽的挥发油成分与文献报道其它产地的有显著差异.%Objective To discuss the chemical differences of Coriander volatile oils from different producing areas. Methods Coriander volatile oils from Yuxi county of Yunnan was obtained by steam distillation extraction method. Results There are 41 peaks from the volatile oils were showed by GC-MS analysis. The relative content of each peak was detected by the normalization method of peak area. Among them, 35 peaks were identified by compared with MS database. Conclusion The volatile oils components of Yuxi Coriander had significant differences with that of other producing areas.

  8. Resolving the Ambiguity of Volatile Content in the Vestan Regolith through Dielectric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M.; Asmar, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011, Dawn entered orbit around 4 Vesta. An evolved and differentiated body, Vesta has been described as more of a proto-planet than an asteroid, and is similar in surface composition and history to the Moon. While differentiated and airless bodies such as these were assumed to have depleted any initial water content, recent missions to the Moon have discovered water at the poles and hydroxyl more generally across the surface. At Vesta, recent results from GRaND suggest a correlation of higher hydrogen concentrations at the regions of dark material on the surface, indicating volatile presence. An interesting topic of concern, therefore, is the form and quantification of this volatile content in regions of dark material at the surface and shallow subsurface of the Vestan regolith. Toward this end, the Dawn bistatic radar experiment, as well as Earth-based radar observations of Vesta, can quantify backscattering properties of the surface through the resulting amplitude, polarimetric and phase change of their radar waves. These waves are primarily affected by surface topography, roughness, and electromagnetic properties that vary with surface composition and geophysical properties. This results in a sensitivity to textural and dielectric variations, which could indicate compositional variation and/or signs of volatile enrichment. However, since surface roughness (textural variation) is poorly constrained, Earth-based radar observations yield large uncertainties when inferring dielectric properties. To address the resulting ambiguity, we model the dielectric properties of the regolith based on two complementary approaches: (1) dielectric laboratory measurement of spectral analogs to the dark material at various frequencies, temperatures, porosities, and dust-to-ice mass ratios; and (2) modeling of the dielectric constant distribution when combined with the inversion of calculated thermal inertia values. From this dielectric model we are able to invert

  9. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA) has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08). Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8) can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m-3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m-3) and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78) accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1) the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) aging rate constant, (2) assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3) the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4) heterogeneous chemistry, (5) the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6) biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider possibly important processes

  10. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Matthäus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa, were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil. The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol.

  11. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  12. Identification of volatile degradants in formulations containing sesame oil using SPME/GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wencan; Zhou, Pengzu; Wong-Moon, Kirby C; Cauchon, Nina S

    2007-06-28

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was used to identify an unknown degradant observed during stability studies of a pharmaceutical formulation containing sesame oil. SPME is a solvent-less, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive extraction method that minimizes sample preparation. SPME combined with GC is a widely used technique in certain fields, such as food, environmental analysis, forensics, and consumer products, but has only rarely been used for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. Hexanal, octanal, 2-octenal, 2-decenal, 2-undecenal, and 2,4-decadienal can be detected and identified by GC/MS, but they cannot be detected by LC/MS due to their volatility and low ionization efficiency under atmospheric pressure ionization conditions. Combining the MS data from the GC/MS with LC/DAD data resulted in the identification of the unknown degradant in the formulation as 2,4-decadienal. The presence of this and other aldehydes was attributed to the oxidative degradation of the unsaturated fatty-acid component in vegetable oils.

  13. 容县八角叶中挥发油成分气质联用分析%Study on Chemical Constitutes of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Illicium verum in Rongxian by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦静; 李芳耀; 杨新平; 邹登峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the leaves of Illicium verum. In Rongxian. Method; The volatile oil was extracted from the leaves by ultrasonicwave assisted steam distillation. The constituents of volatile oil were identified by GC-MS technology. Result; The yield of the collected oil of the leaves was 1.65%. Relative content of volatile oil was determined by peak area normalization and 35 kinds of chemical constituents were identified accounting for 98.08% of its total content. Conclusion; The principal chemical constituents of the essential oils are trans-anethole(71. 69% ) , estragole (5. 00% ) , a-pinene (3. 52% ) , cis-anethole (2. 86% ) , caryophyllene (1. 56% ), limonene ( 1. 37% ) , linalool (1. 29% ).%目的:采用GC-MS分析容县八角叶挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用超声波辅助水蒸气蒸馏法快速提取容县八角叶挥发油,并通过GC-MS联用技术对挥发油中成分进行分析鉴定.结果:八角叶挥发油得率为1.65%,采用面积归一化法对挥发油成分进行定量分析,共鉴定出35个化合物,占挥发油总量的98.06%.结论:容县八角叶挥发油主要成分为反式茴香脑(71.69%),草蒿脑(5.00%),α-蒎烯(3.52%),顺式茴香脑(2.86%),丁香烯(1.56%),柠檬烯(1.37%),芳樟醇(1.29%).

  14. Analysis of volatile compounds of Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents using SPME-DED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Estevez, Mario; Andrés, Ana I; Ruiz, Jorge

    2008-05-01

    In order to study the effect of both, ripening time and IMF content on the volatile profile of Iberian dry-cured loin, volatile compounds from the headspace of 10 Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents (IMF), low (average IMF content of 2.3%) and high (average IMF content of 6.7%), at days 40 and 55 of the ripening process were analysed using SPME coupled to a direct extraction device (DED) and subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Chromatographic areas of the main chemical families detected (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids) increased with ripening time. A higher total chromatographic area was detected in the headspace of high IMF loins compared to low IMF ones. Several volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidative reactions, such as hexanol, octanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal or (E)-2-decenal, and others from the degradation of certain amino acids, such as dimethylsulfide, 3-methylbutanal or phenylacetaldehyde, showed higher chromatographic areas in the headspace of high IMF loins than in low IMF ones. Thus, IMF content could influence both the generation of volatile compounds and the transfer of such compounds from the product matrix to the headspace.

  15. Chemical Costituents in Volatile Oil from Ganteling Capsule with GC-MS Analysis%感特灵胶囊中挥发油化学成分的 GC-MS 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海宇; 林美妤; 张庆贺; 刘传贵; 李平亚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To enrich the study of chemical composition and provide a theoretical basis for quality control, GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile oil components in Ganteling capsule. Method; The volatile oil components were extracted and isolated with steam distillation method according to ChP (2010). The chemical compositions were separated by GC capillary column chromatography, and the relative contents of constituents were determined by area normalization method, Result; Twenty seven compounds were detected and 24 compounds of them were identified by contrast with the mass standard map. And the compounds that the relative contents were more than 5% were palmitic acid ( 31.82%), falcarinol ( 16.89%), 1-naphthalenepropanol, a-ethenyldecahydro-a, 5, 5, 8a-tetramethyl-2-methylene-, [15, [la (R * ) , 4a/3, 8aa

  16. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Yunnan Weigela florida%云南产锦带花挥发油化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文晖; 梁倩

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Yunnan Weigela florida. METHODS: The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation, and identified by GC-MS. RESULTS: 16 compounds were isolated, including organic acid, alkane, phenols and ketone. The content of palmitic acid was the highest (53.048%), followed by linoleic acid (9.654%), pentacosane(8.967%),heptacosane(8.555%),tricosane (5.665%) and linolenic acid (3.848%). CONCLUSION: The study report the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Yunnan W. Florida for the first time and provide scientific basis for the further effective utilization of W. Florida.%目的:研究云南产锦带花挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取锦带花挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行化学成分分析.结果:共分离出16种化学成分,包含有机酸、烷烃、酚类和酮类.其中含量最高的是十六烷酸(53.048%),其次是亚油酸(9.654%)、正二十五烷(8.967%)、正二十七烷(8.555%)、正二十三烷(5.665%)和亚麻酸(3.848%).结论:本研究首次报道了云南产锦带花的挥发油化学成分,可为锦带花的进一步高效合理使用提供科学依据.

  17. DOES WTI OIL PRICE RETURNS VOLATILITY SPILLOVER TO THE EXCHANGE RATE AND STOCK INDEX IN THE US?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chun Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the volatility of the West Texas Intermediate oil spot returns (WTIR is affected by the Texas Light Sweet oil futures returns (FUR, the exchange rate returns between the US dollar and the Euro (ERR, and the S&P 500 energy index returns (EIR, and if any of those have changed over time. The daily data of the WTIR, the FUR, the ERR, and the EIR between the period of January 4, 2000 and September 30, 2009, were utilized. The empirical results of the multivariate GARCH of the BEKK model indicated that the WTIR is significantly affected by its own past volatility, and by the volatility of FUR, ERR, and EIR. Most likely, WTIR employs a structural conversion in our dummy variable for selected time points. This suggests that investors could use the FUR’s past volatility as a basis for WTIR purchase. In addition, the changes in ERR’s and EIR’s past volatility can be partially used as a basis for the same purpose.

  18. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    components. We also introduce a new vector HAR (VecHAR) modelfor the resulting simultaneous system, controlling for possible endogeneity of implied volatility inthe forecasting equations. We show that implied volatility is a biased and inefficient forecast in thebond market. However, implied volatility does...... statisticaltechniques are used to separate realized volatility into its continuous sample path and jumpcomponents, thus enhancing forecasting performance. We generalize the heterogeneous autoregressive(HAR) model to include implied volatility as an additional regressor, and to the separateforecasting of the realized...

  19. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong

    1998-01-01

    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for

  20. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P < 50-60 MPa), volatile-poor (H2O < 0.3-1.7 wt%; CO2 < 23-308 μg/g) magmatic conditions. These are manifested as andesitic magmas, recording

  2. Characterization of volatile components and odor-active compounds in the oil of edible mushroom Boletopsis leucomelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Sota; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oil from Boletopsis leucomelas (Pers.) Fayod was extracted by hydrodistillation with diethylether, and the volatile components of the oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The oil contained 86 components, representing 87.5% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were linoleic acid (15.0%), phenylacetaldehyde (11.2%), and palmitic acid (9.4%). Furthermore, sulfur-containing compounds including 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, 2-acetylthiazole, S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, and benzothiazole were detected using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. The odor components were evaluated by the odor activity value, and aroma extract dilution analysis was performed through gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The oil had a mushroom-like, fatty, and burnt odor. The main components contributing to the mushroom-like and fatty odor were hexanal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and (2E)-nonenal, while the burnt odor was due to furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl furfural, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, 2-acethylthiazole, and indole.

  3. α-Pinene- and β-myrcene-rich volatile fruit oil of Cupressus arizonica Greene from northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-03-01

    Cupressus arizonica Greene is an aromatic evergreen coniferous plant with great importance in urban horticulture and in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industries. The hydrodistilled volatile fruit oil of cultivated C. arizonica from northwest Iran was analysed by GC/MS. Forty-three components were identified, accounting for 96.4% of the total oil. Monoterpenoids (91.9%) dominated the identified components of the essential oil, followed by a lesser portion of sesquiterpenoids (4.2%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons (87.9%) were the principal subclass of components, with α-pinene (54.3%), β-myrcene (11.1%), δ-3-carene (6.5%) and limonene (6%) as main constituents. β-Pinene (4%), terpinolene (2.8%) and camphene (1.1%) were the other monoterpenoids present in notable amounts. α-Terpineol (1.4%) was the only representative of the oxygen-containing monoterpenoids. Sesquiterpenoids had a minor share in the volatile oil's composition. Hydrocarbonic compounds (91.1%) had a higher share compared to the oxygenated components (5%). Comparison of the essential oil profile of C. arizonica Greene plants cultivated in Iran showed remarkable quantitative but slight qualitative differences with previous reports from other parts of the world. In summary, the chemical and percentage composition of the studied oil from cultivated C. arizonica Greene from northwest Iran was characterised by a high occurrence of α-pinene and β-myrcene, and is thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  4. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane

    2017-03-01

    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  5. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  6. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  7. Variações no teor e na composição volátil de Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivada no campo e em casa de vegetação Variation in the content and volatile composition of Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivated in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Botrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition of the volatile oil of Hyptis marrubioides cultivated in field and greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, with ten replications for each type of cultivation. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The highest content of volatile oil was found for plants grown in field. The highest percentage of the compounds present in oils was observed in samples grown in the field, such as germacra-4(15,5,10(14-trien-1-α-ol (16.34%, β-caryophyllene (10.42%, γ-muurolene (12.83% and trans-thujone (9.98%. However, some compounds were found only in plants grown in a greenhouse, such as cis-muurol-5-en-4α-ol (10.84%, α-cadinol (3.06% and eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1β-ol (6.82%.

  8. Variation in volatile leaf oils of eleven eucalyptus species harvested from korbous arboreta (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaissi, Ameur; Medini, Hanène; Larbi Khouja, Mohamed; Simmonds, Monique; Lynene, Fréderic; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2010-07-01

    Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves of eleven species of the genus Eucalyptus L'Hér., i.e., E. astringens Maiden, E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. diversifolia Bonpl., E. falcata Turcz., E. ficifolia F. Muell., E. gomphocephala DC., E. lehmannii (Schauer) Benth., E. maculata Hook., E. platypus Hook., E. polyanthemos Schauer, and E. rudis Endl., harvested from Korbous arboreta (region of Nabeul, northeast of Tunisia) in April 2006, afforded essential oils in yields varying from 0.1+/-0.1 to 3.8+/-0.1%, dependent on the species. E. astringens and E. ficifolia showed the highest and the lowest mean percentage of essential oil amongst all the species examined, respectively. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 138 components, representing 74.0 to 99.1% of the total oil. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole, followed by trans-pinocarveol (1), spathulenol (2), alpha-pinene, p-cymene, (E,E)-farnesol, cryptone, globulol (3), beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpineol, viridiflorol, and alpha-eudesmol. The principal-component and the hierarchical-cluster analyses separated the eleven Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into seven groups, each constituting a chemotype.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six Botanical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Yan, Xue-Wei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Tan, Li-Hong; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Li, Na; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α-pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, cis-nerolidol, and germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa and Litsea pungens Hemsl. were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea.

  12. Effect of different extraction methods on fatty acids, volatile compounds, and physical and chemical properties of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alicia Ortiz; Dorantes, Lidia; Galíndez, Juvencio; Guzmán, Rosa I

    2003-04-09

    Because Mexico is the number one producer of avocados in the world, this fruit has potential as a source for oil extraction. It is appropriate to further investigate the detailed changes that the oil undergoes when different extraction methods are applied. This research paper presents the study of the physical and chemical changes, the fatty acids profile, the trans fatty acid content, and the identification of volatile compounds of the oils from avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.), obtained by four different extraction methods. The method with the greatest extraction yield was the combined microwave-hexane method. The amount of trans fatty acids produced in the microwave-squeezing treatment was <0.5 g/100 g. On the other hand, the amounts of trans fatty acids produced with the hexane and acetone treatments were 0.52 and 0.87 g/100 g, respectively. The method that caused the slightest modification to the oil quality was a novel combined extraction method of microwave-squeezing proposed by the authors.

  13. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  15. 川芎挥发油提取工艺的研究进展%Advances in research on extraction technologies of volatile oils from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽华; 张玮; 张丽娟; 朱全刚; 刘继勇; 高申

    2012-01-01

    Ligusticum chuan.riong Hort. is an important medicinal herb in which the main ingredients are volatile oils. The extraction technologies of volatile oils from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , including steam distillation,solvent extraction, water extraction coupling rectification, supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasonically enhanced supercritical CO2 extraction were summarized in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods in the terms of yield,components and content of extracts were analyzed. The development of the extraction technologies was also discussed.%川芎是一种重要的药用植物,其主要成分是挥发油.本文综述了川芎挥发油的各种提取方法,包括水蒸气蒸馏法、溶液萃取法、提取共沸精馏耦合新工艺、超临界流体萃取法和超声强化超临界CO2萃取法,从得率、提取得到的成分及含量等方面对各种方法的优缺点进行了比较和分析,并对其发展方向提出展望.

  16. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  17. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

    2010-03-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time.

  18. Chemical Composition of Volatiles; Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Goran M; Stamenković, Jelena G; Kostevski, Ivana R; Stojanović, Gordana S; Mitić, Violeta D; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oils obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticum root and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and MeOH extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity (47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); MeOH extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Quality Study of Volatile Oils from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii%石菖蒲挥发油质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴启端; 王淑英; 袁德俊; 吴雪茹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the constituents of volatile oils from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for evaluating its quality. Methods The volatile oils from 35 batches of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii were extracted by steam distillation. The volatile constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and their relative percentages were determined by area normalization. With the amount of their common components as the observation index, hierarchical clustering analysis was carried out with software SPSS 16. 0. Results Thirty-eight compounds from the volatile oil had been identified, and the common constituents were borneol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllen, cis-methyl isoeugenol, trans-methyl isoeugenol, beta-asarone, and alpha-asarone. The volatile oils from 35 batches of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii were clustered into 6 categories. Conclusion The quality of volatile oils varies greatly in different batches of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii, and it is needed to further study the quality standard of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii.%[目的]分析石菖蒲挥发油化学成分,探讨石菖蒲质量.[方法]采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取35份石菖蒲挥发油,并采用气相色谱—质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对挥发油化学成分进行分离鉴定,用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.以共有成分相对含量为指标进行聚类.[结果]共鉴定出石菖蒲挥发油中的38个化学成分,共有成分为龙脑、α-萜品醇、β-石竹烯、顺式甲基异丁香酚、反式甲基异丁香酚、β-细辛醚、α-细辛醚;35份石菖蒲挥发油可分为6类.[结论]石菖蒲挥发油质量差异较大,有必要对质量标准作进一步的研究.

  20. Association mapping of seed oil and protein content in Sesamum indicum L. using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Tide; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop for the high oil content and quality. The seed oil and protein contents are two important traits in sesame. To identify the molecular markers associated with the seed oil and protein contents in sesame, we systematically performed the association mapping among 369 worldwide germplasm accessions under 5 environments using 112 polymorphic SSR markers. The general linear model (GLM) was applied with the criteria of logP ≥ 3.0 and high stability under all 5 environments. Among the 369 sesame accessions, the oil content ranged from 27.89%-58.73% and the protein content ranged from 16.72%-27.79%. A significant negative correlation of the oil content with the protein content was found in the population. A total of 19 markers for oil content were detected with a R2 value range from 4% to 29%; 24 markers for protein content were detected with a R2 value range from 3% to 29%, of which 19 markers were associated with both traits. Moreover, partial markers were confirmed using mixed linear model (MLM) method, which suggested that the oil and protein contents are controlled mostly by major genes. Allele effect analysis showed that the allele associated with high oil content was always associated with low protein content, and vice versa. Of the 19 markers associated with oil content, 17 presented near the locations of the plant lipid pathway genes and 2 were located just next to a fatty acid elongation gene and a gene encoding Stearoyl-ACP Desaturase, respectively. The findings provided a valuable foundation for oil synthesis gene identification and molecular marker assistant selection (MAS) breeding in sesame.

  1. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric statisticaltech......, and bond options appear to be calibrated toincorporate information about future jumps in Treasury bond prices, and hence interest rates....... contain incremental information about future volatilityrelative to both components of realized volatility, and even subsumes the information contentof daily and weekly return based measures. Perhaps surprisingly, the jump component of realizedbond return volatility is, to some extent, predictable...

  2. Simulating the oxygen content of ambient organic aerosol with the 2D volatility basis set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Murphy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A module predicting the oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA has been developed using the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS framework. This model is an extension of the 1D-VBS framework and tracks saturation concentration and oxygen content of organic species during their atmospheric lifetime. The host model, a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model, is used to simulate air parcels arriving at Finokalia, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-08. Extensive observations were collected during this campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a thermodenuder to determine the chemical composition and volatility, respectively, of the ambient OA. Although there are several uncertain model parameters, the consistently high oxygen content of OA measured during FAME-08 (O:C = 0.8 can help constrain these parameters and elucidate OA formation and aging processes that are necessary for achieving the high degree of oxygenation observed. The base-case model reproduces observed OA mass concentrations (measured mean = 3.1 μg m−3, predicted mean = 3.3 μg m−3 and O:C (predicted O:C = 0.78 accurately. A suite of sensitivity studies explore uncertainties due to (1 the anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA aging rate constant, (2 assumed enthalpies of vaporization, (3 the volatility change and number of oxygen atoms added for each generation of aging, (4 heterogeneous chemistry, (5 the oxidation state of the first generation of compounds formed from SOA precursor oxidation, and (6 biogenic SOA aging. Perturbations in most of these parameters do impact the ability of the model to predict O:C well throughout the simulation period. By comparing measurements of the O:C from FAME-08, several sensitivity cases including a high oxygenation case, a low oxygenation case, and biogenic SOA aging case are found to unreasonably depict OA aging, keeping in mind that this study does not consider

  3. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  4. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84% of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR exhibited clear deposition, with a small average canopy resistance of 230 s m−1. Approximately 15% of the resolved BVOC flux from oil palm trees could be attributed to floral emissions, which are thought to be the largest reported biogenic source of estragole and possibly also toluene. Although on average the midday volume mixing ratio of estragole exceeded that of toluene by almost a factor of two, the corresponding fluxes of these two compounds were nearly the same, amounting to 0.81 and 0.76 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. By fitting the canopy temperature and PAR response of the MEGAN emissions algorithm for isoprene and other emitted BVOCs a basal emission rate of isoprene of 7.8 mg m−2 h−1 was derived. We parameterise fluxes of depositing compounds using a resistance approach using direct canopy measurements of deposition. We propose that it is important to include deposition in flux models, especially for secondary oxidation products, in order to improve flux predictions.

  5. 仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分研究%Determination of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.) Haw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯莎; 丁丽娜; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 安立群; 廖川

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究仙人掌中的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取经超微粉碎后的仙人掌[Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.)Haw]挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:共分离鉴定出32个化学成分,占总成分的98.097%,其中相对百分含量大于2%的分别确定为异丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Isobutyl phthalate)27.492%,棕榈酸(Palmific acid)16.716%,丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Butyl phthahte)11.257%,薄荷脑(Menthol)6.722%,亚油酸(Linoleic acid)5.995%,壬醛(Nonanal)4.594%,乙醛(Hexanal)3.614%,十二酸(Dodecanic acid)3.244%.结论:通过对仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分的分析鉴定及相对含量测定,为综合利用仙人掌植物资源等提供科学依据.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw.Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS.The constituents were identified by their mass spectra.The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas.Result: Thirteen-two kinds of chemical constituents in Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw were separated and characterized;which were representing 98.097% of the oil.Relative contents that were more than 2% were determined as Isobutyl phthalate 27.492%,Palmitic acid 16.716%,Butyl phthalate 11.257%,Menthol 6.722%,Linoleic acid 5.995%,Nonanal 4.594%,Hexanal 3.614%,Dodecanic acid 3.244%.Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils of micro-milling of Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw's comprehensive utilization to provide reference data.

  6. Analysis of Climate Change Effect on Camellia Oil Content in Fujian Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Hui-kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fujian Province is one of the main camellia oleifera production areas in China. Camellia oleifera is also an important characteristic varieties of woody oil, which can produce the high quality seed oil. By using of 0.5°(E×0.5°(Nlattice data of China ground temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2010 which came from National Meteorological Information Center in 2013, this paper extracted the corre-sponding decadal climate data of Fujian Province to carry on statistical and variation analysis, applied climate models of the integrated assess-ment for camellia oil content by using of ArcGIS geographic information technology and probability statistics method to regionalize the oil content of camellia oleifera temporal and spatial distribution from 1961s to 2010s in Fujian Province, analyzed the variation relationship be-tween the oil content and climate essential factor of the monthly decadal mean temperature and precipitation in September at the stage of the key growth period of camellia oil fat accumulation and transformation, evaluated the regional characteristics of camellia oil content variation affected by climate factors in Fujian Province from 1961s to 2010s. The results showed that the decadal mean precipitation in September had a positive significant correlation with oil content change and played a major role of camellia oleifera production in Fujian Province; the signif-icant characteristics of that oil content level in high or low followed the decadal alternate change. There were obviously different oil content level between high oil decadal(1960s, 1980s, 2000sand low oil decadal(1970s, 1990s, and its significant variation period was 20 years. The decadal difference was not significant in temperature coefficient of variation (CvT, which affected the oil content was not obvious either. But there had significant change between precipitation coefficient of variation(CvRand oil content coefficient of variation(Cvf, and their

  7. 冰糖草挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS Analysis of Chemical Components of Volatile Oil from Sweet Broomwort Herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亮; 黄健军

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究广西产冰糖草挥发油的化学组成及相对含量.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取黄杞叶中的挥发油,并通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用仪对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定,用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各组分相对百分含量.结果:从冰糖草挥发油中共分离出49个组分,鉴定了其中30个化合物,占总量的93.97%,主要成分为植酮(2-Pentadecanone,6,10,14-trimethyl-,19.75%)、石竹烯(caryophyllene,15.33%)、α-石竹烯(alpha.-caryophyllene,10.14%)、1S-(1,3a,3b,6a,6b) -十氢-3a-甲基-6-亚甲基-1-异丙基-环丁烷-[1,2,3,4]并二环戊烯、(cyclobuta[1,2:3,4]dicyclopentene,decahydro-3 a-methyl-6-methylene-1 -(1 -methylethyl) -,[ 1S-(1.alpha.,3a.alpha.,3b.beta.,6a.beta.,6b.alpha.)],6.53%)、氧化石竹烯(Caryophyllene oxide,4.90%)、表双环倍半水芹烯[(+)-Epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene,4.69%]、芳姜黄酮(Ar-tumerone,4.57%)、十七烷( heptadecane,4.13%)、肉豆蔻醛(tetradecanal,2.33%)、邻苯二甲酸异丁基十一烷酯(phthalic acid,isobutyl undecyl ester,2.11%)等.结论:广西产冰糖草挥发油中含脂肪酸、酯类、醇类、醛类、烃类等多种化学成分;分析结果可为冰糖草的质量控制提供依据,并为提高冰糖草的进一步开发利用提供了科学依据.%Objective: To ananlyze the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Sweet Broomwort Herb in Guangxi and determine their contents. Method: The volatile oil was extracted from Sweet Broomwort Herb by steam distillation, the amount of the components from the volatile oil was separated and identified by CC-MS, and the relative content of each component was calculated by area normalization method. Result: Fourty nine compounds were separated by GC and 30 of them were identified, which accounted for 93. 97% of volatile oil. The major components were 2-pentadecanone, 6, 10, 14-trimethyl- ( 19.75%), caryophyllene ( 15.33%), alpha. -caryophyllene (10

  8. Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

    1992-12-01

    The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected.

  9. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  10. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  11. The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0 ± 15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0 ± 9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8 ± 0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2 ± 0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils.

  12. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Quampah; Liu, Hai Ying; Xu, Hai Ming; Li, Jin Rong; Wu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Shui Jin; Shi, Chun Hai

    2012-01-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF(2) population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  14. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quampah Alfred; Hai Ying Liu; Hai Ming Xu; Jin Rong Li; Jian Guo Wu; Shui Jin Zhu; Chun Hai Shi

    2012-12-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF2 population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  15. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shao; Mei-Hua Bao; Dong-Sheng Ouyang; Chong-Zhi Wang; Chun-Su Yuan; Hong-Hao Zhou; Wei-Hua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordi...

  16. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  17. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  18. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils from Small Leaves Ku-Ding-Cha%小叶苦丁茶挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武宏伟; 赵丽元; 郑宜婷; 相婷; 李银

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To compare the chemical components of volatile oil from small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha which belonged to the family Oleaceae. [Method] Volatile oils of small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha in different production areas were extracted hy the technique of steam distillation; then,the components of volatile oils were analyzed by gas chromalography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). [Result] A total of 55 compounds were identified. There was great similarity in the old leaves and buds of Ku-Ding-Cha in different batches. Linalool had the highest content (48.34% -79.25% ) ; α-terpineol, geraniol and nerol had relatively high content. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific references for the quality control and reasonable utilization of the small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha.%[目的]分析比较不同品种或产地木犀科小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中挥发油成分的异同.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别对不同品种或产地的小叶苦丁茶中的挥发油进行提取,利用气质联用技术分析所提取的挥发油成分.[结果]共鉴定55个化合物,7个不同批次小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中的成分具有较大的相似性,相对含量最高的均为以芳樟醇(48.34%~79.25%)为主的单萜类成分,其他含量较高的成分有α-松油醇、香叶醇何橙花醇等.[结论]该方法为小叶苦丁茶的质量控制和资源合理开发利用提供了科学依据.

  19. Metal content and physicochemical parameters used as quality criteria in virgin argan oil: influence of the extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfil, Rocio; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; Bouzas, Paula R; Martínez, Olga; Sánchez, Jose Antonio

    2008-08-27

    Metal content was determined in 26 samples of virgin argan oil from Morocco. An ETA-AAS with previous sample dilution with MIBK technique was used. In oil obtained by traditional method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 4.0 mg/kg, Cu from 160.4 to 695.7 microg/kg, Cr from 10.3 to 55.3 microg/kg, Mn from 18.1 to 70.8 microg/kg, and Pb from 28.5 to 450.0 microg/kg. In oil obtained by a half-industrialized method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 mg/kg, Cu from 158.4 to 385.0 microg/kg, Cr from 10.0 to 48.1 microg/kg, Mn from 15.0 to 68.5 microg/kg, and Pb from 32.0 to 100.0 microg/kg. Acidity value, peroxide index, K270 and K232, humidity and sludge volatile, and insoluble sludges in petroleum ether were also determined. A high variability in these quality parameters and a decrease of the quality in the oils obtained by the traditional method were observed.

  20. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  1. Reduction of mouth malodour and volatile sulphur compounds in intensive care patients using an essential oil mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Park, Joohyang; Maddock-Jennings, Wendy; Kim, Dong Oak; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of an essential oil solution on levels of malodour and production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in patients nursed in intensive care unit (ICU). Thirty two patients received 3 min of oral cleaning using an essential oil solution (mixture of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, peppermint, Mentha piperita and lemon, Citrus limon) on the first day, and Tantum (benzydamine hydrochloride) on the second day. Two trained nurses measured the level of malodour with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) and VSC with a Halimeter before (Pre), 5 min after (Post I) and 1 h following treatment (Post II). The level of oral malodour was significantly different following the essential oil session, and differed significantly between two sessions at Post I (p essential oil, p essential oil session than Tantum at the Post II (p essential oil mixture of diluted tea tree, peppermint and lemon may be an effective method to reduce malodour and VSC in intensive care unit patients. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Oil of Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. From Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Babak Bahadori, Hassan Valizadeh , Mahdi Moridi Farimani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvia santolinifolia is a medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. Discovery of new natural antimicrobial agents is necessary because of microorganism’s resistance to common antibiotics. Methods: Essential oil of S. santolinifolia was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antibacterial, antifungal and general toxic activities of the essential oil were also evaluated. Results: Chemical analysis of the oil revealed that α-pinene (49.3%, β-eudesmol (20.0%, camphene (7.8% and limonene (7.7% are the major components of the essential oil of S. santolinifolia. The inhibition zones ranged from 11.5 to 23.8 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oil obtained from 200 to 800 µg/ml against several microbial strains. Conclusion: Our results showed that the volatile oil of S. santolinifolia could be considered as a rich source of natural agents for several uses as antibiotics against human pathogenic microbes.

  3. Analysis of GC-MS Before and After the Inclusion of Asarum Volatile Oilβ-CD%细辛挥发油β-环糊精包合前后GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑世志; 钟力

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of chemical composition and proportion before and after the inclusion of asarum volatile oil. Meth-ods:The volatile oil of as arum volatile oilβ-CD was adopted with the inclusion of saturated aqueous solution, whose components were analyzed with GC-MS chromatography before and after the inclusion. Results:39 components of asarum volatile oil before and after the inclusion were identi-fied, which accounted for, the relative percentage, 98.40%and 85.28%of the total volatile oil before and after the inclusion;the main toxic compo-nent was safrole and medicinal component was methyl eugenol, before the inclusion of whose relative percent contents were 20.21%and 22.68%, as well as 12.87%and 26.42%after the inclusion respectively. Conclusion:There is certain selective for the components inclusion of asarum volatile oil withβ-CD.%  目的:探讨细辛挥发油包合前后化学成分及比例的变化。方法:采用饱和水溶液法对细辛挥发油进行β-CD包合, GC-MS色谱法对细辛挥发油包合前后进行成分分析。结果:细辛挥发油β-CD包合前后均鉴定出39个成分,鉴定的成分分别占包合前后总挥发油相对百分含量的98.40%和85.28%;主要毒性成分黄樟醚和药效成分甲基丁香酚,包合前的相对百分含量分别为20.21%和22.68%,包合后分别为12.87%和26.42%。结论:β-CD对细辛挥发油各成分的包合具有一定的选择性。

  4. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-02-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P.

  5. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P. PMID:28240321

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  7. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  8. Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils of Three Species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae Grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lelis Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae grown in Brazil. The chemical composition of the volatile oils of L. flavescens and L. petersonii did not show any significant seasonal variation in the major components, while for Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum the levels of major constituents of the volatile oils varied with the harvest season. Major fluctuations in the composition of L. madidum subsp. sativum oil included α-pinene (0–15.2%, β-pinene (0.3–18.5%, α-humulene (0.8–30%, 1,8-cineole (0.4–7.1% and E-caryophyllene (0.4–11.9%. Levels of β-pinene (0.3–5.6%, terpinen-4-ol (4.7–7.2% and nerolidol (55.1–67.6% fluctuated seasonally in the L. flavescens oil. In L. petersonii, changes were noted for geranial (29.8–32.8%, citronellal (26.5–33.9% and neral (22.7–23.5%. The activity of the volatile oils against the tested bacteria differed, depending on season the oils were obtained. In general, the volatile oils were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Volatile Oxidation Compounds and Stability of Safflower, Sesame and Canola Cold-Pressed Oils as Affected by Thermal and Microwave Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiralan, Mustafa; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of heating and microwave treatment on the levels of volatile oxidation products and the stability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum) and canola (Brassica napus L.) cold-pressed oils. Cold-pressed oils were subjected to conventional heating (oven test) using air-forced oven at 60°C and microwave heating for 2 and 4 min. The changes in conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) values were monitored during treatments. As expected, heating generates an increase in CD and CT values. The volatile compounds in treated oils were determined using solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The obtained GC/MS data were used to characterize volatile compounds of cold-pressed oils during heating and microeave treatments. Under oven conditions, 2-heptenal and 2,4-heptadienal isomers were identified as major components in canola oil, while hexanal and 2-heptenal were found in high levels in safflower and sesame oils. Among volatiles, p-cymene was the dominant compound found in microwave-treated canola oil. In addition, hexanal and 2-hexenal were found at high amounts upon microwave treatment especially after 4 min of application.

  10. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  11. LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS IN COMBINING ABILITIES ESTIMATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Liović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of line x tester analysis for 15 sunflower genotypes of the Agricultural Institute Osijek are presented in this paper. Three A lines (cms and three Rf testers with different oil content level (low, medium, high in all combinations (nine crosses were crossed in 2010. In 2011, the lines, testers and their crosses were sown in field trials at two locations (Karanac and Osijek. The oil content was determined after harvesting, whereas line x tester analysis was conducted based on the obtained results. Variance of lines and testers, which refers to the general combining ability (GCA was much higher than the variance of line x tester, related to specific combining ability (SCA. It showed on dominant role of the additive component of genetic variance in the inheritance of oil content. Statistically significant differences were not determined between the GCA and SCA effects. The highest values of GCA for oil content had line 2 (medium oil content and tester 6 (high oil content at both locations. The largest contribution for oil content had lines (57.81 and 51.28 % followed by testers (28.88 and 26.27 % and the lowest accounts for interaction (13.31 and 22.45 % at both locations (Karanac and Osijek.

  12. Studies concerning the production of volatile oil, rhizomes and roots, to different genotypes of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. is considered to pertain to European species, with great ecologic plasticity, which allows its adaptation to climate conditions characteristics to plain areas and also to mountain areas up to an altitude of 2400 meters. The species is a well-known curative plant, with a long history and multiple uses. Essential oils deriving from this species revealed the interest of researchers in food industry, cosmetics and officinal industry, furthermore being used as additives too.The raw material from which essential oils are being extracted is represented mainly by rhizomes and roots. This study has the purpose to emphasize the differences of essential oils production registered based upon the genotypes diversity. Thus, 11 experimental variants have been used, with biologic material of different origin, from Romania, Poland, Germany and Russia; they have been measured in relation to their production of rhizomes, roots and volatile oil, in the ecological conditions of Brasov, Romania.The results proved the superiority of the variants was used Romanian variety M-100, but have also revealed a negative correlation between capacity and essential oil biosynthesis.

  13. Assay of Volatile Oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after Compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch by GC-MS%肉桂与黄连配伍前后挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严优芍; 钟伟健; 孙悦

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油成分的变化。方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取肉桂及黄连-肉桂中的挥发油,气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS )法分析提取物中挥发油成分。结果:与黄连配伍后,肉桂挥发油的主要组成成分不变,但绝大多数成分含量有所下降,同时有12个成分在配伍后消失,新增成分12~18个。结论:GC-MS法能全面地反映肉桂与黄连配伍后挥发油各个成分的变化,为两药配伍规律的研究提供一定的实验依据。%Objective To investigate the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl before and after compatibility with Coptis Chinensis Franch.Methods The volatile oil of Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Cinnamomum cassia Presl -Coptis Chinensis Franch extracted by steam distillation were analyzed by GC-MS.Results After compatibility,the main components of volatile oil in Cinnamomum cassia Presl didn’t change,but the contents of most components were decreased,there were 12 components existed in Cinnamomum cassia Presl disappeared whiles 12~18 new components occurred in the paired decoction.Conclusion GC-MS can be used to reflect the change of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl after compatibility,and the result will provide some evidence for the research of regular pattern of herb compatibility.

  14. Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of inhaled coriander volatile oil in amyloid β(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioanca, Oana; Hritcu, Lucian; Mihasan, Marius; Hancianu, Monica

    2013-08-15

    Coriandrum sativum L., commonly known as coriander and belonging to the Apiaceae family is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional value. In traditional medicine, coriander is recommended for the relief of pain, anxiety, flatulence, loss of appetite and convulsions. In the present study, the effects of inhaled coriander volatile oil (1% and 3%, daily, for 21days) extracted from C. sativum var. microcarpum on spatial memory performance were assessed in an Aβ(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The Aβ(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory errors, reference memory errors and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm maze task. Exposure to coriander volatile oil significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on spatial memory formation. Assessments of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampal tissue of Aβ(1-42)-treated rats showed a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a decrease of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) specific activities along with an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Coriander volatile oil significantly decreased SOD and LDH specific activities, increased GPX specific activity and attenuated the increased MDA level. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the coriander rats, thus suggesting antiapoptotic activity of the volatile oil. Therefore, our results suggest that exposure to coriander volatile oil ameliorates Aβ(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  15. Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia zerumbet is a medicinal plant from Asian origin used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, which effect is attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the major component of the essential oil. The objective of this work was to identify the essential oil secretory structures in the leaf, flower, root and rhizome of this plant, and analyze the content and the chemical composition of the oil in the different organs of the plant. Sections were subjected to histochemical test with Nadi reagent for in situ localization of secretion. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified in CG-EM/FID. The histochemical test was positive for terpenoids, confirming the presence of essential oil stored in secretory structures named oils cells present in all analyzed organs. The higher essential oil content was found on the leaf (0.30%, while the petal and the rhizome presented content of 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. It was not possible to determine essential oil content of the root due to the low amount of biomass produced. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil in the different plant organs, but the major constituent in all of them was the terpinen-4-ol, followed by 1,8 cineol in the leaf and by the α-terpineol in the flower and rhizome.

  16. Basic features of oil and gas content of the Dnieper-Donets Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanchuk, V.G.; Ponomareva, S.V.; Soldatenko, Y.I.

    1981-01-01

    North rim zone, central part of the basin, Priluskiy oil extracting region, southern rim zone, northern edge of the Donbas, northwest part of the basin are discussed. Brief characteristics of the oil and gas content of each of these regions are given. The basic oil reserves are concentrated in the Priluskiy region, the gas in the central part of the basin, in its southeast half adjoining the Donbass. Both the gas and the oil deposits are primarily arranged in depths up to 3,000 m, in places up to 4,000 m and more. In each region, the main oil and (or) gas reserves are associated with some one, less often two lithological-strategraphic complexes. In order to evaluate the outlook for oil and gas content in Dnieper-Donts Basin, one should take into consideration the distribution features of the oil and gas deposits both in a spatial respect, and over the section. This is especially important in selecting facilities for oil and gas deposit searches associated with zones of outcropping and variance, as well as for searching for deposits at great depths. In the Dnieper-Donets Basin where over a hundred oil and gas fields have currently been found, several local regions are isolated according to the nature of oil and gas content.

  17. Kernel oil content and oil composition in walnut (Juglans regia L.) accessions from north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggetti, Luca; Ferfuia, Claudio; Chiabà, Cristina; Testolin, Raffaele; Baldini, Mario

    2017-07-13

    Walnut oil use is currently limited by its poor oxidative stability due to the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Modifying the oil composition may be a goal in walnut breeding to increase interest in this crop. Exploring natural variability and identifying the main environmental factors affecting oil quality are necessary in crop selection. Therefore 190 wild accessions were collected and evaluated during 2013 and 2014 for oil content and its fatty acid profile and compared with five commercial cultivars as references. High variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid composition was found in the native walnut. Kernel oil content ranged from 54.2 to 72.2% (w/w). The major fatty acids were linoleic (range 46.9-68.6%), oleic (10.0-25.1%), linolenic (6.9-17.6%), palmitic (3.9-11.4%) and stearic (1.1-5.2%) acids. Some accessions had oil with a fatty acid ratio very different from the reference commercial cultivars, especially the oleic acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. A significant linear relationship and positive correlation between the daily minimum temperature and oleic acid content was observed in the wild walnuts. The wide variation in fatty acid content and composition allows superior accessions to be selected for diffusion among growers. A suitable strategy would be to make a selection against PUFA content rather than just for high oleic acid. In addition, the selected high oleic accessions, before being utilized per se or as donor parents in breeding programs, have to demonstrate they are not adversely affected by the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma batches, saturated in volatiles, at depths of 3.8-7.4 km, and (2) the ascent of more-differentiated and cogenetic volatile-poor basaltic andesites during historic-present eruptions, having longer residence times in the shallowest (< 3.4 km) and hence coolest regions of the magmatic plumbing system. We also report the first measurements of the compositions of noble-gas isotopes (He, Ne, and Ar) in fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene crystals. While the measured 40Ar/36Ar ratios (300-304) and 4He/20Ne ratios (9-373) indicate some degree of air contamination, the 3He/4He ratios (7.01-7.20 Ra) support a common mantle source for Holocene basalts and historic-present basaltic andesites. The magmatic source is interpreted as generated by a primitive MORB-like mantle, that is influenced to variable extents by distinct slab fluid components for basalts (Ba/La 76 and U/Th 0.8) and basaltic andesites (Ba/La 86 and U/Th 1.0) in addition to effects of magma differentiation. These values for the

  19. Determination of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum%果上叶挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛世昌; 王道平; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 刘文炜; 李计龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究果上叶中的挥发性成分.方法:利用有机溶剂-水蒸气蒸馏法提取果上叶挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:分离鉴定出38种化学成分,占挥发油总量91.448%,其中含量大于2%的分别为Z-9-十八烯醛18.075%、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚3.264%、棕榈酸5.413%、油酸25.079%、二十三烷6.344%、二十四烷3.768%、1-十八烯酸单甘油酯2.146%、亚油酸甘油酯4.953%、二十五烷4.332%、二十六烷3.387%、二十七烷3.841%、二十八烷3.102%.结论:本文采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对果上叶中的挥发性成分进行研究.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum. Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by organic-steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra. The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Result: Thirty-eight kinds of chemical components were identified from B. odoratissimum. The amount of the identified components was accounted for 91. 448% of all the volatile oil. The constituents whose relative content was more than 2% were determined as Z-9-octadecenal (18. 075% ), 2,4-Di-tertbutylphenol (3.264%), palmitic acid (5.413%), oleic acid (25.079%),tricosane (6. 344% ), tetracosane (3. 768% ), 1-Monoolein (2. 416% ), 1-monolinolein (4. 953% ), pontacosane (4. 332% ), hexacosane (3. 387% ), heptacosane (3. 841% ), octacosane (3. 102% ). Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils from B. odoratissimum by GC-MS.

  20. Development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, A. A.; Shangin, V. V.; Bukhman, V. G.; Volosnikov, D. V.; Skripov, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The research is devoted to development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine and testing it using the operating equipment. The device consists of a remote sensor, whose sensitive element is a 3-5-mm long wire probe 20 microns in diameter, and a measurement unit that comprises a microcontroller with a set of peripherals. The design of the device enables automation of the measurement procedure with a minimum number of preset settings and real-time output of information to the operator console. The software of the device provides two-stage pulse heating of the wire probe and a resistance temperature detector. The two-stage mode proves to be the most sensitive to appearance in the system of moisture, including its trace amounts. The characteristic time of the heating is of the order of 10 ms. The measurement procedure is based on a method that consists in automatic search for spontaneous boiling-up temperature of the oil accompanied by a characteristic response signal. The results were interpreted by formal correlation of the measured values with an array of calibration data obtained in similar experiments with well-defined oil samples. An experimental method for application of the device has been developed that takes into account technological factors, such as comparatively high values of the flow rate and the temperature of the oil in locations of the oil drain from bearings, the variability of these values, and the variety of noise types that accompany the operation of the thermal power equipment that complicate the online measurements. Tests of the device were carried out in locations of oil drain from supporting bearings. The test results have demonstrated the possibility of applying the device directly in the oil system of a turbine and provided a practical basis for development of a system of multipoint control of the technological scheme in real time.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  3. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.

  4. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  5. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  6. 四逆泡腾片中挥发油提取及包合工艺%Extraction of Volatile Oil and Preparation Technology of β-CyclodextrinInclusion from Sini Effervescent Tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅亮; 饶小勇; 黄恺; 徐兰; 桂婵; 封传华; 饶涛; 罗晓健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study on extraction process of volatile oil from dried ginger and its inclusive compound by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD ) from Sini effervescent tablet. Method: Orthogonal test was employed to investigate effect of water volume, soak time and distilled time on extraction of volatile oil; and took comparative test of saturated water solution method, colloid mill method, and ultrasound method, choose optimum inclusion method with inclusion efficiency of volatile oil, yield of inclusion and the content of oil in inclusion as comprehensive indexes; Optimum inclusion technology of colloid mill method was optimized by orthogonal test, and validate inclusion compound. Result:Optimum extraction technology conditions were to add 6 times the amount of water, and distilled 8 h without soaking; Optimum inclusion technology of colloid mill method was as. Follows: proportion of volatile oil to β-CD was 1: 8 ( Ml: g) , inclusion time was 45 min; the amount of water was 80 Ml. Conclusion: Inclusion technology ( colloid mill method) of volatile oil from dried ginger was simple, feasible and appropriated for large-scale production.%目的:研究四逆泡腾片中干姜油的提取及其β-环糊精包合的最佳工艺.方法:运用正交试验考察加水倍量、浸泡时间、蒸馏时间对挥发油提取量的影响;对胶体磨法、饱和水溶液法、超声法进行比较试验,以挥发油包合率、包合物收得率和包合物含油率为综合评价指标,选择最佳包合方法;采用正交试验法优选胶体磨法的最佳包合工艺,并对包合物进行验证.结果:最佳提取工艺为药材不浸泡、加6倍量水、蒸馏8h;胶体磨法的最佳包合工艺为挥发油与β-环糊精按(1 mL:8 g)投料、包合时间45 min,加水量80 mL.结论:胶体磨法包合干姜挥发油,工艺简单、可行,适合工业化大生产.

  7. Research Progress of Natural Spice Turmeric Volatile Oil%天然调味香料姜黄挥发油的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋杰; 姜子涛; 李荣

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric is a natural spice which has high edible and medicinal value.Its volatile oil is rich in turmerone,curcumene and so on.The chemical composition,extraction methods and biological activity of turmeric volatile oil are reviewed in this paper,and the application prospects of turmeric volatile oil are summarized.%姜黄是一种具有较高食用和药用价值的天然调味香料,其挥发油富含姜黄酮、姜黄烯等。综述了姜黄挥发油的化学成分、提取方法、生物活性,并对其应用前景进行了展望。

  8. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  9. 白术挥发油光照氧化及成分分析%Sunlight Oxidation of Volatile Oil from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Constituent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 阎克里; 赵丽; 刘焕蓉

    2011-01-01

    将样品分别置于-20℃保存和室外(20~29℃)进行光照氧化,然后利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)跟踪检测,通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对光照前后挥发油化学成分及含量的变化进行分析比较.从光照氧化前白术挥发油中鉴定出32个组分,占挥发油总成分的98.01%;从光照氧化后白术挥发油中鉴定出27个组分,占挥发油总成分的90.70%.光照氧化后增加了2个组分,消失了7个组分;含量降低的有8个,增加的有17个.含量降低最明显的组分是苍术酮和y-榄香烯;含量增加最明显的组分是白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ、β-桉叶醇、广木香内酯、Isovelleral和17-(1,5-二甲基已基)-10,13-二甲基-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-十四氢化-1H-环戊[a]3-菲酚.%To investigate the effect of sunlight oxidation on the composition and content changes of volatile oil, two volatile oil samples extracted from Atractylodes rnacrocephala Koidz were treated by preservation at -20℃ without sunlight and sunlight oxidation at 20 ~ 29℃, respectively. High performance liquid chromatagraphy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to analyze ingredients and their contents of the treated samples. 32 and 27 components were identified in the volatile oil without sunlight oxidation and with sunlight oxidation, which account for 98. 1% and 90.70% of the total components in the oil, respectively. After sunlight oxidation, 2 new components were found and 7 components disappeared. 8 components decreased and 7 components increased in their contents, in which Atractylon and γ-Elemene decreased remarkably, while Attractyenolide Ⅰ, Attractyenolide Ⅲ,β-Eudesmol, Costunolide, Isovelleral, and 17 ( 1,5 Dimethylhexyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1 H-cyclopen ta[a]phe-nanthren-3-ol increased dramatically.

  10. DOES VOLATILITY IN CRUDE OIL PRICE PRECIPITATE MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayoola Omojolaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of crude oil price changes on economic activity in an oil dependent economy-Nigeria. A small open economy structural vector autoregressive (SVAR technique is employed to study the macroeconomic dynamics of domestic price level, economic output, money supply and oil price in Nigeria. The sample covers the data from 1985:q1 to 2010:q4. The Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and the Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs results suggest that domestic policies, instead of oil-boom should be blamed for inflation. Also, oil price variations are driven mostly by oil shocks, however, domestic shocks are responsible for a reasonable portion of oil price variations.

  11. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits).

  12. Problem Solving for Volatilizing Situation in Nursing: Developing Thinking Process Supporting System using NursingNAVI® Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Satoko; Wako, Fumiko; Omori, Miho; Sudo, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    We have identified three foci of the nursing observation and nursing action respectively. Using these frameworks, we have developed the structured knowledge model for a number of diseases and medical interventions. We developed this structure based NursingNAVI® contents collaborated with some quality centered hospitals. Authors analysed the nursing care documentations of post-gastrectomy patients in light of the standardized nursing care plan in the "NursingNAVI®" developed by ourselves and revealed the "failure to observe" and "failure to document", which leaded to the volatility of the patients' data, conditions and some situation. This phenomenon should have been avoided if nurses had employed a standardized nursing care plan. So, we developed thinking process support system for planning, delivering, recording and evaluating in daily nursing using NursingNAVI® contents. A hospital decided to use NursingNAVI® contents in HIS. It was suggested that the system has availability for nursing OJT and time reduction of planning and recording without volatilizing situation.

  13. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  14. HS-SPME-GC-MS分析冷榨和热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质%Volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oil by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振童; 陈洁; 范璐; 刘国琴

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法( HS-SPME-GC-MS)对冷榨葵花籽油和不同炒籽温度下的热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质进行分析。结果表明:葵花籽油样品中共检测出59种挥发性物质,主要是萜烯类、醛酮类、烷烃类、杂环类及羧酸类物质;冷榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质主要是萜烯类、烷烃类及醛酮类物质,含量分别为38.96%、16.19%和12.20%;炒籽温度110、130、150℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质的种类与冷榨葵花籽油的相似,但含量有很大区别,而170℃和190℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质是吡嗪等杂环类物质和醛酮类物质。%The volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower see d oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at different temperatures were analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( HS - SPME - GC - MS ) . The results showed that 59 volatile compounds were detected in sunflower seed oils samples, which mainly were ter-penes, ketones and aldehydes, alkanes, heterocyclic and carboxylic acids. Terpenes, alkanes and ke-tones and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in cold -pressed sunflower seed oil, and their contents were 38 . 96%, 16 . 19% and 12 . 20% respectively; the kinds of volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 110 , 130℃ and 150℃ were similar to that in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil, while the contents were very different;the main volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 170℃ and 190℃ were pyrazines, alde-hydes and ketones.

  15. Optimization of the Inclusion Process of Volatile Oil from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.%薰衣草挥发油包合工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何沙沙; 廉宜君; 赵文彬; 任艳艳; 慕永歌; 陈韩英

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 优化薰衣草挥发油超声包合工艺,为薰衣草挥发油制剂的开发研究提供试验依据.[方法]以挥发油利用率为考察指标,采用单因素试验对薰衣草挥发油包合前溶解的乙醇浓度、乙醇用量进行考察;采用正交试验设计对薰衣草挥发油包合过程中各工艺参数进行优选.[结果] 薰衣草挥发油最佳包合工艺:挥发油用85%乙醇按1:25 的比例溶解,油:B-CD值为1:10,β-CD 浓度为12%,包合温度为55℃,超声包结时间为2.0 h.在最佳工艺条件下,薰衣草挥发油的利用率达到87.63%.[结论]该试验得到的包合工艺挥发油利用率高,操作简便,为薰衣草挥发油制剂的开发提供了试验依据.%[Objective] To optimize the inclusion process of Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil,so as to provide experimental basis for the developing and study of essential oil preparation products from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.. [ Method] Using utilization rate of volatile oil as an indicator,the concentration and use amount of ethanol employed to dissolve Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil were optimized by single factor test, and the inclusion process parameters were optimized by orthogonal test. [ Result ] With the proportion of 1:25,85% ethanol was used to dissolve the volatile oil. The optimum inclusion conditions for lavender volatile oil were as follows:ratio of essential oil to β-CD of 1: 10, β-CD concentration of 12% ,inclusion temperature of 55 ℃ and ultrasonic inclusion duration of 2.0 hours. Under the optimal inclusion process,the use rate of Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil reached as high as 87.63%. [ Conclusion] Simple in operation ,the inclusion process for Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil was high in utilization ratio,which provided experimental basis for the developing and study of essential oil preparation products from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.

  16. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  17. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants. PMID:27703209

  18. Analysis of Volatile Components of Bergamot Oil by GC/TOFMS%香柠檬油挥发性成分的GC-TOFMS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨斌; 王凯; 朱瑞芝; 冒德寿; 李智宇; 唐辉

    2015-01-01

    The volatile components of bergamot oil were analyzed by using of gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the peak area normalization method was used to calculate the relative content of each component. With the mass spectrometry library search , 53 compounds which account for 98.24%in the volatile components of bergamot oil , were identified by using reference literature and retention index. Beta-Pinene (17.59%), linalyl acetate (15.25%), para-cymene (12.83%), gamma-terpinene (10.96%), limonene (6.29%), terpinolene (5.10%), alpha-pinene (4.53%), linalool (3.80%), myrcene (2.98%), alpha-terpineol (2.40%), geranyl acetate (2.26%), p-cymenol (1.76%), neryl acetate (1.67%), ortho-cymene (1.54%), octyl acetate (1.27%), alpha-terpinene (1.04%), 1,8-cineole (1.04%), beta-caryophyllene (1.01%) were the main components. Among them , 40 components were terpenoids and their derivatives, which account for 81.97%in the volatile components of bergamot oil. The aroma of main volatile components of bergamot oil was analyzed , and it provided guidance for product development and flavouring.%利用气相色谱/飞行时间质谱,对香柠檬油的挥发性成分进行了分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算了各成分的相对含量.通过质谱库检索,保留指数比对,分析并确定出香柠檬油中的53个成分,占香柠檬油挥发性成分的98.24%.香柠檬油的主要成分为β-蒎烯(17.59%)、乙酸芳樟酯(15.25%)、对伞花烃(12.83%)、γ-萜品烯(10.96%)、柠檬烯(6.29%)、萜品油烯(5.10%)、α-蒎烯(4.53%)、芳樟醇(3.80%)、月桂烯(2.98%)、α-萜品醇(2.40%)、乙酸香叶酯(2.26%)、对甲基苯异丙醇(1.76%)、橙花醇乙酸酯(1.67%)、邻伞花烃(1.54%)、醋酸辛酯(1.27%)、α-萜品烯(1.04%)、桉叶油醇(1.04%)、β-石竹烯(1.01%)等.其中,萜类化合物及其衍生物共40个,占香柠檬油挥发性成分的81.97%.对香柠檬油中的主要挥发性成分的香气进行了分析,为产品开发和调香提供了指导.

  19. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  20. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Profiles of Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oil from Buža, Črna and Rosinjola Cultivars in Istria (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sladonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds found in virgin olive oil, mainly C6 and C5 volatile compounds biogenerated from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for their particular aroma. The composition of volatile compounds in olive oil depends on the cultivar, the ripening degree of the fruits and processing conditions. Among many different autochthonous cultivars in Istria (Croatia, some of the most prevalent are Buža, Črna and Rosinjola. The volatiles and sensory characteristics of their monovarietal virgin olive oil are little known. Therefore, fruits from these three cultivars were handpicked at the same ripening degree and processed under the same conditions. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of monovarietal virgin olive oil was carried out by the panel. Volatile composition was evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, previously optimized and validated. The main parameters affecting effectiveness, time and temperature of extraction were optimized. The extraction procedure showed detection and quantification limits, as well as linear ranges adequate for the analysis of selected volatile compounds. Good precision was obtained both in terms of intra-day repeatability (relative standard deviations generally lower than 7 % and inter-day precision. The tested types of monovarietal olive oil showed different volatile profiles, although E-2-hexenal was the main compound in all samples. Buža oil was the richest in total C6 and C5 volatile compounds. The results show that the most important contributors to the olive oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one, E-2-hexenal, hexanal, hexanol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol and Z-2-penten-1-ol. These chemical findings were compared with those provided by the panel test. Buža had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'other ripe fruits' and Rosinjola had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'bitter'. All results show

  1. The development of a rugged, field portable membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometer and its use as an on-line monitor for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in the Alberta Oil Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Davey [Applied Environmental Research Laboratories (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, steam assisted gravity drainage is a process often used to enhance oil recovery from open pit mining or heavy oil reservoirs. This process releases volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC/SVOC) into the atmosphere or process waters. Thus a field portable analytical instrument is needed to monitor VOC/SVOC. The aim of this paper is to present the development of such a tool and its results. A field portable membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometer was developed through a multiyear collaboration between Statoil, NTNU and Griffin. This technology can analyze both atmospheric and aqueous environmental samples. Calibrations of the system were carried out in a laboratory and the system was then tested in two field trials in the Alberta oil sands. This work gives results of these different tests and explores the use of thermally assisted membrane interfaces and in-membrane trap and release strategies.

  2. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  3. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  4. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  5. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  6. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  7. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  8. Study on the Chemical Components of Volatile Oils from Zingiber officinale in Guangxi by GC-MS%广西生姜挥发油化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建宁; 梁臣艳; 黄秋洁; 关小丽; 梁金妮

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical components of volatile oils of Zingiber officinale from different habitats in Guangxi. METHODS: The volatile oils were extracted by water distillation method and the chemical component was analyzed by GC-MS. RESULTS: The yield rate of volatile oils were 0.11%~0.23%. Twenty-one common components were present in volatile oils from Z officinale from five habitats in Guangxi, while the relative percentage content was between 60%-85%. The chemical components including lS-a-Pinene,Camphene,Cineole,Borneol,Nerol and Citral were found in Z. Officinale. There was significant difference in relative percentage of same components, particularly the highest percentage of nerol was 10 times as munch as the lowest. CONCLUSION: The chemical components of volatile oils in Z officinale from different habitats in Guangxi have little difference , but there is great difference in the same chemical components.%目的:测定广西境内5个不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对广西生姜挥发油化学成分进行分析.结果:广西5个产地的生姜挥发油得油率在0.11%~0.23%之间.5个产地的生姜挥发油中共有化学成分21个,相对百分含量在60%~85%之间.共有化学成分主要有1S-α-蒎烯(1S-α-Pinene)、莰烯(Camphene)、桉油精(Cineole)、龙脑(Borneol)、橙花醇(Nerol)和柠檬醛(Citral).不同产地的生姜挥发油中,同一成分相对百分含量差异较大,其中橙花醇的相对百分含量相差近10倍.结论:广西境内不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分差异不大,但同一成分的相对百分含量差异较大.

  9. 丁香挥发油对磷酸川芎嗪贴剂的经皮促渗作用%Percutaneous Enhancement Function of Volatile Oil from Eugenia caryophyllata on Ligustrazine Phospate Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红梅; 马云淑; 黄金娥; 张贵华; 康绍建

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察不同质量分数的丁香挥发油对磷酸川芎嗪贴剂的经皮促渗作用.方法:用改良Franz扩散池法,以氮酮为阳性对照,不含促渗剂的磷酸川芎嗪贴剂为阴性对照,考察含3%,5%,7%,10%的丁香挥发油对模型药磷酸川芎嗪经小鼠皮肤的促渗效果,采用HPLC测定磷酸川芎嗪的含量.结果:4种质量分数的丁香油对磷酸川芎嗪12h平均累积渗透量(Q12)分别为3.030,4.066,1.845,1.205 mg·cm-2;其12h时增渗倍数分别为1.54,2.06,0.96,0.62.与阴性对照组的Q12比较,5%丁香油与3%丁香油促渗作用显著.结论:3%,5%的丁香油能明显提高磷酸川芎嗪在贴剂中的渗透量,且促渗效果好.%Objective; To investigate percutaneous penetration effect of different concentration of volatile oil from Eugenia caryophyllata on ligustrazine phosphate (LP). Method; Modified Franz diffusion cell method was used, with azone as positive control, LP without penetration enhancers as negative control, penetration effect of 3% , 5% , 7% and 10% volatile oil from E. caryophyllata on LP through mouse skin were investigated, the content of LP was determined by HPLC. Result; Average cumulative permeation volume ( Ql2 ) of the 4 concentrations of volatile oil from E. caryophyllata on LP in 12 h were 3. 030, 4. 066, 1. 845 and 1. 205 mg-cm"2, respectively j and enhancing rates ( ER) in 12 h were 1.54, 2.06, 0.96 and 0.62, respectively. Compared with Qn of negative control group, 5% and 3% volatile oil from E. caryophyllata had significantly enhancing effect. Conclusion; 3% and 5% volatile oil from E. caryophyllata could enhance permeation volume of LP through mouse skin obviously, and had great enhancing effect.

  10. External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver — A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Pang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera, also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%, were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.

  11. Nine cycles of mass selection for increasing oil content in two maize (Zea mays L. synthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosulj Milorad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes in oil content, grain yield, percentage of broken plants and changes in yield components in the maize populations DS7u and YuSSSu. As estimations were performed at C0 and C9 for both populations, it was possible to observe changes occurring following long-term mass selection for high oil content. The synthetic population DS7u population was developed by recombination of 29 inbred lines of Yugoslav, Canadian and US origin. The synthetic population YuSSSu population is an Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSS(RC5. Progenies were derived according to the North Carolina Design II. Results indicated that nine cycles of selection led to statistically significant increase in oil content and statistically significant decrease for grain yield in both populations. Estimates of additive and dominance variances for grain oil content were highly significant in C0 and C9 of the population DS7u population. Dominance variance showed significance in the initial cycle of the population YuSSSu population, but it was not detected in the course of nine cycles of mass selection. Additive and dominance variances for grain yield were highly significant in both initial populations. Loss of significance did not result from selection, while the proportion of dominance vs. additive variance became greater. High narrow-sense heritability was detected for grain yield, oil content, moisture content, and cob percent in the initial cycles of both populations. Mass selection resulted in increased heritability for oil content and cob percent in the DS7u population and increased heritability for percentage of broken plants in the YuSSSu population. The strongest additive correlation between oil content and other traits was detected for grain moisture (r a = 0.90* in the C9 of the DS7u population.

  12. The effect of frying on glycidyl esters content in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-07-15

    The changes in palm oil, as affected by frying temperature, and content of the glycidyl esters (GEs) were studied. Potato chips were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated for 8 h daily over five consecutive days. Frying was conducted at three frying temperatures: 150, 165 and 180 °C. Thermo-oxidative alterations of the oil were measured by acid and anisidine values, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition and colour components formation. Content of GE was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that amount of products of hydrolysis, oxidation and polymerization (excluding decrease of degree of unsaturation) increased significantly as a function of frying temperature and time. Between GEs of fatty acids the most abundant were esters of palmitic and oleic acids. With increasing temperature and frying time, the content of GE decreased. The extent of GE decrease was correlated with degree of oil degradation.

  13. Productivity, Oil Content, and Oil Composition of Sweet Basil as a Function of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were believed to be important nutrient management tools for the production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'German') with desirable oil content and composition and also acceptable herbage yields. A multi-location research study was initiated to evaluate the effect of...

  14. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  15. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  16. Influence of Oil and Gas Emissions on Ambient Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds in Residential Areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. R.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, W.; Jacques, H.; Smith, K. R.; Terrell, R.; Helmig, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern Front Range (NFR) region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion in drilling of shale and tight sands oil and gas reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 24,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) for residents living near wells. Here we present observations of ambient atmospheric VOC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, and show that the C2-C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18 - 77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. These data are combined with VOC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, as well as with measurements conducted this summer in conjunction with the FRAPPE and DISCOVER-AQ flight campaigns, to investigate the spatial distribution of VOC enhancements in correlation with proximity to oil and gas production areas. We show that these compounds, including the BTEX aromatics, are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels in communities within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. These analyses demonstrate that VOC emissions from oil and gas operations represent a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR.

  17. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  18. Chemotaxonomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella genotypes based on peel oil volatile compounds--deciphering the genetic origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Liu

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study.

  19. New approach on volatile contents determination in silicate melt inclusions: A coupling X-ray microtomography and geochemical approach in Los Humeros caldera complex (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creon, L.; Levresse, G.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile contents and magma degassing behavior are known to affect the style, frequency, and intensity of near-surface magmatic processes. For this reason, much effort have been devoted to characterize the volatile evolution of shallow magmatic systems to better constrain volcanic history. Silicate melt inclusions (SMI) represent samples of melt that were isolated from the bulk magma at depth, thus preserving the PTX conditions of the pre-eruptive material. SMI are often affected by the formation of a bubble after trapping; this is a natural consequence of the PVTX properties of crystal-melt-volatile systems. Previous workers have recognized that bubble formation is an obstacle, which affects the interpretation of SMI trapping conditions based only on analysis of the glass phase. Indeed, they explained that bubbles can contain a significant percentage of the volatiles, particularly for those with low solubility in the melt (e.g. CO2). In this study, we propose to define the pre-eruptive PTX conditions of Los Humeros magma chamber using SMI from the various eruption events within 460 and 30 Ka. An innovative analytical coupling has been used in order to determine: (1) the volume of the SMI glass and bubble, using high resolution 3D X-ray microtomography; (2) the density and composition of the bubbles, using Raman spectroscopy; (3) the volatile element contents in glass, using NanoSIMS; and, (4) the major elements composition of the glass, using EPMA. The recalculated volatile concentrations of the total SMI (glass + bubble), illustrate clearly that the volatile content determinations using only the glass phase, underestimate drastically the total volatile content and therefore induce significant error on the determination of the pre-eruptive volcanic budget and on the constrain on the volcanic and thermal history. This study had moreover highlighted the complex evolution of Los Humeros composite magma chamber and, gave constrains for geothermal exploration purpose.

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds from Centaurium erythraea Rafn (Croatia and the Antimicrobial Potential of Its Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available GC and MS were used for the analysis of Croatian Centaurium erythraea Rafn essential oil (obtained by hydrodistillation and headspace (applying headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace contained numerous monoterpene hydrocarbons (the major ones were terpinene-4-ol, methone, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and limonene. Oxygenated monoterpenes were present in the headspace and oil, while 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate and verbenone were present only in the headspace. High headspace percentages of toluene and naphthalene were found, followed by hemimellitene. Lot of similarities were observed with Serbian C. erythraea oil [neophytadiene (1.4%, thymol (2.6%, carvacrol (6.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.7%], but different features were also noted such as the presence of menthol, menthone and phytone. The oil fractionation enabled identification of other minor compounds not found in total oil such as norisoprenoides, alk-1-enes or chromolaenin. The essential oil showed antimicrobial potential on Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. On the other hand, no antibacterial activity of the oil was observed on Pseudomonas fluorescens and Lysteria monocytogenes.

  1. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  2. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  3. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianyi; Becker, Heiko C; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Yaofeng; Ecke, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally regarded as a character with high heritability that is negatively correlated with protein content and influenced by plant developmental and yield related traits. To evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between these traits and oil content, QTL for oil content were mapped using data on oil content and on oil content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a segregating doubled haploid population of 282 lines derived from the F(1) of a cross between the old German cultivar Sollux and the Chinese cultivar Gaoyou. The material was tested at four locations, two each in Germany and in China. QTLMapper version 1.0 was used for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additive (a) and locus pairs with additive x additive epistatic (aa) effects. Clear evidence was found for a strong genetic relationship between oil and protein content. Six QTL and nine epistatic locus pairs were found, which had pleiotropic effects on both traits. Nevertheless, two QTL were also identified, which control oil content independent from protein content and which could be used in practical breeding programs to increase oil content without affecting seed protein content. In addition, six additional QTL with small effects were only identified in the conditional mapping. Some evidence was apparent for a genetic interrelationship between oil content and the number of seeds per silique but no evidence was found for a genetic relationship between oil content and flowering time, grain filling period or single seed weight. The results indicate that for closely correlated traits conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the level of individual QTL. Furthermore, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with small effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  4. Volatile constituents and antibacterial screening of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. growing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N; Palazzo, Maria C; Olowu, Rasaq A; Ogundajo, Akintayo

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS. The major components were found to be alpha-terpinene (63.1%), p-cymene (26.4%) and ascaridole (3.9%). The oil displayed no antibacterial activity against either Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus, or the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (MIC=1250 microg/mL). A cluster analysis of C. ambrosioides essential oils reveals at least seven distinct chemotypes: ascaridole, alpha-terpinene, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and limonene.

  5. Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Federica; Costa, Rosaria; Circosta, Clara; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle fruits (limes) was studied for its potential spasmolytic effects in relation to its chemical composition. The essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antispasmodic activity was evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum, aorta and uterus. The results indicated that the essential oil of C. aurantifolia possesses important spasmolytic properties, which are likely to be due to its major constituents, limonene (58.4%), beta-pinene (15.4%), gamma-terpinene (8.5%), and citral (4.4%).

  6. The Effect of Type of Oil and Degree of Degradation on Glycidyl Esters Content During the Frying of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oil degradation on the content of glycidyl esters (GEs) in oils used for the frying of French fries. As frying media, refined oils such as rapeseed, palm, palm olein and blend were used. French fries were fried for 40 h in oils heated to 180 °C in 30-min cycles. After every 8 h of frying, fresh oil and samples were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, color, refractive index, fatty acid composition, and content and composition of the polar fraction. GEs were determined by LC-MS. Hydrolysis and polymerization occurred most intensively in palm olein, while oxidation was reported for rapeseed oil. The degradation of oil caused increased changes in the RI of frying oils. Losses of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all samples, with the largest share in blend. The highest content of GE found in fresh oil was in palm olein (25 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest content of GE was found in rapeseed oil (0.8 mg kg(-1)). The palm oil, palm olein and blend were dominated by GEs of palmitic and oleic acids, while rapeseed oil was dominated by GE of oleic acid. With increasing frying time, the content of GEs decreased with losses from 47 % in rapeseed oil to 78 % in palm oil after finishing frying.

  7. Identification of unconditional and conditional QTL for oil, protein and starch content in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu; Guo; Xiaohong; Yang; Subhash; Chander; Jianbing; Yan; Jun; Zhang; Tongming; Song; Jiansheng; Li

    2013-01-01

    Oil, protein and starch are key chemical components of maize kernels. A population of 245 recombinant inbred lines(RILs) derived from a cross between a high-oil inbred line, By804, and a regular inbred line, B73, was used to dissect the genetic interrelationships among oil, starch and protein content at the individual QTL level by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping. Combined phenotypic data over two years with a genetic linkage map constructed using 236 markers, nine, five and eight unconditional QTL were detected for oil, protein and starch content, respectively. Some QTL for oil, protein and starch content were clustered in the same genomic regions and the direction of their effects was consistent with the sign of their correlation. In conditional QTL mapping, 37(29/8) unconditional QTL were not detected or showed reduced effects, four QTL demonstrated similar effects under unconditional and conditional QTL mapping, and 17 additional QTL were identified by conditional QTL mapping. These results imply that there is a strong genetic relationship among oil, protein and starch content in maize kernels. The information generated in the present investigation could be helpful in marker-assisted breeding for maize varieties with desirable kernel quality traits.

  8. Compositionally Controlled Volatile Content of Nominally Volatile-Free Minerals in the Continental Upper Mantle of Southern Gondwana (Patagonia & W. Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, E. E.; Gibson, S. A.; Leat, P. T.; Petrone, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    H2O and F contents affect many physical and chemical properties of the upper mantle, including melting temperature and viscosity. These elements are hosted by hydrous and F-rich phases, and by modally abundant, nominally-anhydrous/halogen-free mantle minerals, which can potentially accommodate the entire volatile budget of the upper mantle. We present high-precision SIMS analyses of H2O, and F in mantle xenoliths hosted by recently-erupted (5-10 Ka) alkali basalts from south Patagonia (Pali Aike) and older (c. 25 Ma) alkali basalts from localities along the Antarctic Peninsula. Samples are well characterised peridotites and pyroxenites, from a range of depths in the off-craton lithospheric mantle. Minerals are relatively dry: H2O contents of olivine span 0-49 ppm, orthopyroxene 150-235 ppm and clinopyroxene 100-395 ppm, with highest concentrations found in spinel-garnet lherzolites from Pali Aike. These H2O concentrations fall within the global measured range for off-craton mantle minerals. H2O and F are correlated, and the relative compatibility of F in mantle phases is clinopyroxene>orthopyroxene>olivine. However, elevated F concentrations of 100-210 ppm are found in pyroxenites from two Antarctic localities. This elevated F content is not correlated with high H2O, suggesting that these rocks interacted with a F-rich melt. In clinopyroxenes, F concentration is correlated with Ti, and the ratio of M1Ti to M1Al + M1Cr, suggesting a charge balanced substitution. Consistency between samples (excepting high-F pyroxenites) suggests a constant F-budget, and that concentrations in clinopyroxenes are controlled by mineral chemistry. In orthopyroxene, F correlates with CaO, but no other major or minor elements. Large variability of H2O concentrations within samples is attributed to diffusive loss during ascent. Cl is negligible in all samples, indicating little or no influence of slab fluids from this long-lived subduction zone.

  9. Assessment of Volatile Organic Compound and Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Well Pads using Mobile Remote and On-site Direct Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production were investigated using direct measurements of component-level emissions on well pads in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin and remote measurements of production pad-...

  10. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  11. Study on the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.on edible oils%紫花松果菊挥发油的油脂抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳; 杨秀梅; 江玲; 余德强; 袁艺

    2013-01-01

    Peroxide value, acid value and TBA value as indexes, rapeseed oil and lard as mediums, compared with the synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA.the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard was studied.The results showed that within the scope of the study,the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard were existed and were enhanced with the increasing amout.The antioxidant effect was obvious on rapeseed oil with the addition of 2g/kg volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.and the influence was almost equivalent to 0.2g/kg BHT and BHA.The antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon lard was less than rapeseed oil.%以过氧化值、酸值及TBA值为指标,以菜籽油和猪油为介质,并与人工合成抗氧化剂BHT和BHA进行对照,研究了紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油的抗氧化性能结果表明:在所研究的浓度范围内,紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油均具有一定的抗氧化作用,且具有剂量效应关系其中,添加量为2g/kg的紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油的抗氧化效果较为明显,几乎等效于0.2g/kg BHT和BHA的抗氧化作用.紫花松果菊挥发油对猪油的抗氧化效果则不及对菜籽油的抗氧化效果明显.

  12. EFFICACY OF PLANT VOLATILE OILS AGAINST STORED GRAIN INSECTS%几种植物挥发油杀虫效果的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李前泰; 宋永成

    2001-01-01

    Efficacy of Cinnamoum camphora oil, Chinese cinnamon oil and Luicium verum oil which were selected from eight plant volatile oils against the stored grain instcts (Sitophilus zeamais, Rhizopertha dominica,Tribolium confusum) was studied. The tests showed that the plant volatile oils were the fumigants and had contact toxicity, the insects died rapidly. The volatile oils can not only kill the present insects, but also can control occurance of progeny. The volatile oils had a strenthen repellency. About 80 % repellency rate was still retained through 4 weeks.%从天然植物中提取的挥发油经初步试验筛选出8种杀虫效果突出的植物,以黄樟油、肉桂油、八角油对试虫(玉米象、谷蠹和赤拟谷盗)作用方式的测定发现,这些植物挥发油具有强烈的熏杀和触杀作用,而且具有用量低,致死作用迅速等特点。用植物挥发油拌粮不但能杀灭当代害虫,而且能完全控制子代的发生。植物挥发油的驱避作用较强,经持续4周试验后其驱避率仍能保持在80%左右。 这些植物性物质来源广泛,可直接应用于谷物、种子、饲料等储藏物害虫的防治。具有广泛的应用前景。

  13. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  14. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India.

  15. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  16. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  17. Volatile Content of the Mid-ocean Ridge Mantle Inferred from Off-axis Seamounts and Intra-transform Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.; Nagle, A.; Forsyth, D. W.; Niu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis seamounts and intra-transform lavas provide more direct geochemical information of the mantle than axial lavas. These smaller volumes of melts undergo lower extent of crystal fractionation and mixing compared to basalts erupting within the ridge axis due to a lack of long-lived magma chambers or along axis melt migration. Therefore, their study provide not only a more reliable approach to determine the volatile content of the intrinsic components forming the Earth's upper mantle, but also help constrain mantle convection, heterogeneity, and crustal recycling. Samples from the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar (QDG) transform fault system (EPR 3°-5°S) and from northern EPR seamounts (5°-15° N) were collected during KN182-13 (R/V Knorr) and RAIT 02 (R/V Thomas Washington) expeditions, respectively. 159 submarine glasses were analyzed for major elements, trace elements, and volatile elements by triplicate analyses, as well as for Sr and Nd isotopes in a subset of samples. The QDG and northern EPR seamounts have similar trace element and isotopic composition that is consistent with melting of two-component mantle common to both regions. The degree of trace element enrichment (e.g. Th/La), isotopic composition, and depth of melt segregation (e.g. Sm/Yb) have a positive correlation and range from ultra depleted to relatively enriched compositions. In order to investigate the primary volatile content of submarine glasses we first considered shallow level processes, such as volatile degassing, sulfide saturation and interaction of melt with hydrothermally altered material. The vapor-melt equilibrium pressure (Dixon et al., 1995) indicates that the majority of the samples were super-saturated in CO2-H2O vapor at the pressure of eruption, which implies rapid magma ascent rate that prevented complete CO2 degassing. Samples that were sulfide saturated (Liu et al., 2007) and contaminated by seawater or seawater derived material (high Cl/K) were filtered out. F/Nd, Cl/K, and

  18. Interdependence And Forecasting Of S&P500, Oil, Euro / Dollar And 10-Year U.S. Interest Rate Markets: An Attempt Of Modelling Through The Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed KSAIER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We observe from the late 1990s an increasing phenomenon of volatility on these following markets: Oil (WTI price, Foreign Exchange (nominal Euro/Dollar, Stock Market (S&P 500 Index and Bond market (U.S.10-Year. After seizing the concept of volatility and overcoming its first definition of risk measure, we have evaluated their interdependencies from a VAR model, we have investigated the presence of long memory phenomenon in these series and we have carried out their forecasted trajectories from FIGARCH model. This paper is presented as follows: Section 1 opens on a definition of the volatility, Section 2 examines the interdependence of the studied markets; Section 3 provides a FIGARCH model in order to capture the dynamics and predict future market volatilities changes and Section 4 concludes."

  19. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport......This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk...... averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included...

  20. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  1. Volatile composition of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during initial lipid oxidation: influence of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruth, S M; Roozen, J P; Posthumus, M A; Jansen, F J

    1999-10-01

    The formation of odor active compounds resulting from initial lipid oxidation in sunflower oil-in-water emulsions was examined during storage at 60 degrees C. The emulsions differed in initial pH, that is, pH 3 and 6. The volatile compounds were isolated under mouth conditions and were analyzed by gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis. The lipid oxidation rate was followed by the formation of conjugated hydroperoxide dienes and headspace hexanal. The initial pH affected the lipid oxidation rate in the emulsions: the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the hexanal concentration in the static headspace were increased at pH 6. Pentanal, hexanal, 3-pentanol, and 1-octen-3-one showed odor activity in the emulsions after 6 days of storage, for both pH 3 and 6. Larger amounts of odor active compounds were released from the pH 6 emulsion with extended storage. It was shown that this increased release at pH 6 was not due to increased volatility because an increase in pH diminished the static headspace concentrations of added compounds in emulsions.

  2. Volatile oil prices: two propositions from economics and ''Realpolitik''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirl, F.

    1988-02-01

    This paper attempts to interpret OPEC's decision making process by analysing the political-economic behaviour of the Member Countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. The economic objectives of OPEC members is first discussed under the hypothesis of cooperation versus competition. A loose marketing arrangement among OPEC members is then assumed. Both approaches, pure economics and Real-politik lead to the same conclusion: the likelihood of a volatile price increase.

  3. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAZIANO, Talita Signoreti; CALIL, Caroline Morini; SARTORATTO, Adilson; FRANCO, Gilson César Nobre; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; COGO-MÜLLER, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet) and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine. PMID:28076463

  4. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  5. Measurement of the Relative Free Radical Content of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil/paper insulation degradation in transformers involves chemical and physical changes in the materials. Some of the chemical reactions involve very reactive intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals play a major role in a wide variety of ageing processes. The detection of these reactive species in oil may, in principle, provide useful information for monitoring oil degradation. This manuscript details a laboratory technique, which determines the relative content of free radicals in insulating oils of petroleum origin by a spectrophotometric method. Free radicals may be formed in oils under operating or test conditions. The procedure enables the determination of the relative concentration of free radicals, which can act as the precursors of decay products such as charge carriers, oxidized molecules, as well as polymerization products. The technique involves using a reactive free radical reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, added to oil to assess free radical concentration. This method is applicable to new, reclaimed, or used oils as well as naturally or artificially oxidized oil (the cause of aging can be chemical, physical, or electrical. In this contribution, free radicals were assessed following electrical discharge application in oil.

  6. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  7. Analysis of total contents of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-09-12

    The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils are the phenethyl alcohols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. An optimized method to quantify the total concentration of these substances in olive oils has been described. It consists of the acid hydrolysis of the aglycons and the extraction of phenethyl alcohols with a 2 M HCl solution. Recovery of the phenethyl alcohols from oils was very high (tyrosol, respectively. Precision values, both intraday and interday, remained below 3% for both compounds. The final optimized method allowed for the analysis of several types of commercial olive oils to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents. The results show that this method is simple, robust, and reliable for a routine analysis of the total concentration of these substances in olive oils.

  8. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  9. Study on Volatile Oil Components and Total Anti-oxidation Capacity and Simulated SOD Activity of Leaves from Michelia chapensis and M.fovelata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kaiyue; ZHANG Shuangquan; LI Xiaochu; FAN Yasu; LI Baocun

    2006-01-01

    The volatile oils from leaves of Michelia chapensis Dandy and M. foveolata Merr.ex Dandy were isolated by organic solvent extraction and their components were analyzed and quantified by GC/MS. Then, the total anti-oxidation capacity and simulated SOD activity were tested. Forty-four compounds in M. chapensis were identified and the main constituents are aromatic (1 1 .057%), ester (5.041%) and terpenoid compounds (19.772%). Fifty-two compounds in M. foveolata were identified, and their main constituents are aromatic (21.293%), alcohol (17.403%), alkene (6.909%), ester (5.657%) and alkane compounds (5.134%). The results showed that the two oils have strong anti-oxidation capacity and simulated SOD activity. The total anti-oxidation capacities were the highest when the volatile oil from M. foveolata was diluted by 50 times and that from M.chapensis by 100 times. The simulated SOD activity of volatile oil from M. chapensis was higher than that from M. foveolata, and CuZn-SODs in the two oils held 73%-74% of the total SOD. These results will provide scientific foundation for the exploration of the bioactivity of M. chapensis and M. foveolata.

  10. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae by GC-MS%金银花、连翘药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学锋; 陈飞龙; 罗佳波

    2009-01-01

    目的 考察金银花、连翘药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对金银花、连翘药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对金银花、连翘药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现金银花挥发油中检出的香叶醇、十四烷酸甲基酯、十六烷酸乙基酯、荧蒽、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸甲基酯、亚油酸等成分和连翘挥发油中检出的樟脑烯、α-松油烯、紫苏醇、蒎烯、棕榈醛、β-水茴香萜等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有柠檬烯、异长松叶烯、十九烷等.结论 金银花、连翘药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.%Objective To discuss the influence of drug compatibility on the components of the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae, Fructas Forsythiae and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that gerani]o, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, fluoranthene, 9, 12, 15-Octadeeatrienoic acid ethyl ester and linoleic acid was detectable in Flos Lonicerae but was undetectable in the drug pair; camphene, alpha-terpinene, perillaalcohol, 2-beta-pinene, beta-hexadecanal, phellandrene was de-tectable in Fructus Forsythiae but was undetectable in the drug pair; limonene, isolongifolene, nonadecane was detectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae.

  11. Study on Stability of Volatile Oil Extracted fromYinqiaosan Decoction%银翘散复方挥发油稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳宇; 江美芳; 林宏英; 袁瑞娟; 詹雪艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors affecting the stability of the volatile oil extracted fromYinqiaosan Decoction.Methods The main chemical compositions and the extraction repetitiveness of the compound volatile oil were determined by GC-MS, and the stability of multiple extracted volatile oil was studied. Absorbance of the compound volatile oil was used as the evaluation index, and the factors affecting the stability of the of the compound volatile oil were investigated, such as illumination, temperatures and pH values of volatile oil solution and metal ions.Results The results of the GC-MS chromatograph indicated that the main chemical compositions of the compound volatile oil extracted fromYinqiaosan Decoction twice were the same. The results of the stability of the volatile oil showed that the preservation temperature and illumination affected the stability of the volatile oil to a certain extent. The absorbance values of the compound volatile oil changed slowly when it was stored at a relatively low temperature (4℃) and shielded from light, and it was less stable when stored in normal temperature and under illumination. Meanwhile, the absorbance of the compound volatile oil changed quickly in acid or alkaline solutions and was in instability. The metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Fe3+, have chemical reactions with the compositions of the compound volatile oil and there was a big change in the UV-Vis spectrum of the compound volatile oils.Conclusion The compound volatile oil should be stored at a relatively low temperature (4℃) and shielded from light. At the same time, it should be stored avoiding acids, alkaline and the metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Fe3+, to guarantee its stability. This study provides a reference for the preservation conditions and the preparation conditions of the compound volatile oil extracted fromYinqiaosan Decoction.%目的:研究银翘散复方挥发油稳定性的影响因素。方法采用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)

  12. [Component analysis and acute hepatotoxicity of volatile oils from argy wormwood leaf extracted by different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Bai, Yang; Hong, Yanlong; Zhang, Xun

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the chemical composition and compare acute hepatotoxicity of essential oils extracted from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong by four different methods. Four extraction methods, including hydrodistillation extraction, supercritical fluid CO2 extraction, petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction and petroleum ether microwave extraction, were employed to prepare essential oil from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong. The products were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using GC-MS and GC-FID. Sixty mice were divided into 5 groups according to different essential oils and took the same dose orally, then after 5 hours, hepatic functional parameters in serum were detected such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and so on, and morphologic change of hepatic tissues was observed. The extraction rate of the four methods and identified compounds was 1.02%, 80 (hydrodistillation extraction), 2.46%, 56 (supercritical fluid CO2 extraction), 3.17%, 45 (petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction) and 3.32%, 78 (petroleum ether microwave extraction) respectively. Totally 153 compounds were identified from those essential oils. Compared with that of the control group, some hepatic functional parameters of hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid CO2 extraction groups rose significantly (P extracted from argy wormwood leaf by different methods may have not only different chemical composition, but also different acute hepatotoxicity, and monoterpenes and benzenes in the essential oils might induce acute hepatotoxicity.

  13. The Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Macroeconomic Activity in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Ito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s a large number of studies using a vector autoregressive (VAR model have been made on the macroeconomic effects of oil price changes. However, surprisingly few studies have so far focused on Russia, the world’s second largest oil exporter. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables in Russia using the VAR model. The time span covered by the series is from 1994:Q1 to 2009:Q3, giving 63 observations. The analysis leads to the finding that a 1% increase (decrease in oil prices contributes to the depreciation (appreciation of the exchange rate by 0.17% in the long run, whereas it leads to a 0.46% GDP growth (decline. Likewise, we find that in the short run (8 quarters rising oil prices cause not only the GDP growth and the exchange rate depreciation, but also a marginal increase in inflation rate.

  14. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  15. Influence of Ecological Conditions on Seeds Traits and Essential Oil Contents in Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica G ACIMOVIC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anise (Pimpinella anisum L. is an annual plant of the Apiaceae family, widely cultivated for seeds (fruits and essential oil. Under field condition anise is cultivated wide range of countries in Southern Europe including Serbia. Field experiments were carried out during two growing seasons, at three localities in order to determine the effect of different soil and climatic conditions on quality traits of anise seed principal traits (thousand seed mass, germination energy and total germination as well as on content and quality of its essential oil. During experiment thousand seed mass was significantly lower in 2012 in comparison to the previous year. Germination energy and total germination were significantly higher in 2011, because of more favourable weather conditions for seed development during this year. A significantly higher concentration of essential oil was accumulated in 2011 in comparison to 2012. This can be attributed to a longer period of fruit formation and synthesis of essential oils and better climate conditions. Unlike the content of essential oil, trans-anethole content was significantly higher in dry 2012 than in 2011. It can be concluded that drought caused significantly decrease in weight of thousand seed, germination energy and total germination and content of essential oil in anise. Contrary to this, trans-anethole content was significantly higher in the dry year. It can be assumed that under stress conditions the amount of trans-anethole in the essential oil increased, because in such conditions the plants produce more secondary metabolites, the substances that prevent oxidation processes in the cells.

  16. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  17. Chemical components of volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vulgare mill from different habitats by GC-MS%不同产地茴香根皮挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤凤; 美丽万·阿不都热依木; 周静

    2014-01-01

    To analyze and compare the chemical components of the volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. The components of volatile oil were separated and analyzed by GC-MS. The relative content of each constituent was calculated by normalization. Result showed that twenty-six components in the volatile oil of roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats were identified. 13,7,11,10,14,11,14,11,10,10 components were identified from Xiaoerbage,Lawati,Tacheng,Bageqi,Shufu,Lasikui,Manglai,Yili,Moyu,Buzhake of Xin-jiang. Dill Apiol and 1,3-benzodioxole,4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-and 1,3-benzodioxole,4-me-thoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-are its common and main ingredients,which account for 90. 81% ~96. 18% and 0. 54% ~2. 76% and 0. 10% ~3. 33% of the total oils.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取10个不同产地小茴香根挥发油,运用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)进行化学成分分析,面积归一化法测定各成分的相对百分含量。结果表明,从10个不同产地的茴香根挥发油中共鉴定出26个成分,其中肖尔巴格乡、阿瓦提乡、塔城、巴格其镇、疏附县、拉丝奎镇、芒来乡、伊犁、墨玉县、布扎克乡分别鉴定出了13、7、11、10、14、11、14、11、10、10个成分,其中莳萝芹菜脑、洋芹脑和肉豆蔻醚是它们的共有成分和主要成分,莳萝芹菜脑占挥发油总量的90.81%~96.18%,洋芹脑占挥发油总量的0.54%~2.76%,肉豆蔻醚占挥发油总量的0.10%~3.33%。

  18. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  19. Shrinkage Behavior of Polystyrene-based Foam Molded Parts Depending on Volatile Matter Content and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafafian, Carineh

    Polymer foam materials play a large role in the modern world. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) bead foam is a lightweight, low density, and good thermal and acoustic insulating material whose properties make it attractive for a number of applications, especially as building insulation. However, EPS also experiences post-molding shrinkage; it shrinks dimensionally from its molded size after processing. This means parts must be stored in warehouses until they are considered stable by the industry standard, DIN EN 1603. This often takes 11--18 weeks and is thus very timely and expensive. This study aims to decrease the post-molding shrinkage time of EPS foam by understanding the mechanisms of shrinkage behavior. Samples were split into two groups based on their amount of initial volatile matter content and storage conditions, then compared to a control group. Based on thermogravimetric analysis and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, the volatile matter content and composition was found to not be the sole contributor to EPS foam dimensional stability. Residual stress testing was done with the hole drilling method and Raman spectroscopy. As this type of testing has not been done with polymer foams before, the aim was to see if either method could reliably produce residual stress values. Both methods measured residual stress values with unknown accuracy. All samples stored at a higher temperature (60°C) reached dimensional stability by the end of this study. Thus, air diffusion into EPS foam, encouraged by the high temperature storage, was found to play a significant role in post-molding shrinkage.

  20. 固相微萃取-气质联用技术测定5种食用植物油挥发性成分%Detection of volatile components in 5 edible vegetable oils by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蓓; 章晴; 杨悠悠; 杨永坛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and classify the volatile components in 5 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, sesame oil, peanut oil, olive oil, and grape seed oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology.MethodsThe solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technology had been used to extract volatile components in those edible vegetable oils, and the volatile components in 5 kinds of edible vegetable oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).ResultsThe total of 101 volatile compounds were detected in 5 edible vegetable oils, with soybean oil 11, peanut oil 28, sesame oil 65, olive oil 25, and grape seed oil 5, respectively. The volatile compounds were mainly aldehydes, ester, alcohols, heterocyclic, phenols and acids. The major components were pentanal, hexanal and hexanoic acid in soybean oil, hexanal, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine and benzofuran, 2,3-dihydro- in peanut oil,2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl-, 2-formylpyrrole,2-furanmethanol, phenol, 2-methoxy-, pyrazine, methyl-,and pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl- in sesame oil,3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)- and 4-hexen-1-ol, acetate in olive oil, and hexanal in grape seed oil. ConclusionThe volatile composition and content are greatly different in 5 edible vegetable oils, which can provide reference to the adulteration of edible vegetable oil.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)对大豆油、芝麻油、花生油、橄榄油、葡萄籽油5种食用植物油中挥发性成分进行分析。方法采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)技术对5种食用植物油中的挥发性成分进行萃取,并结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术对挥发性成分进行测定。结果5种食用植物油中共检测出101种挥发性化合物,其中大豆油11种、花生油28种、芝麻油65种、橄榄油25种、葡萄籽油5种。主要包括醛类、酯类、醇类、杂环类、酚类、酸类等10类物质。大豆油中主要的挥发性成分有戊醛、已醛和己酸,花生油中主要

  1. Volatility spillover from world oil spot markets to aggregate and electricity stock index returns in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur; Oran, Adil [METU, Dept. of BA, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the inter-temporal links between world oil prices, ISE 100 and ISE electricity index returns unadjusted and adjusted for market effects. The traditional approaches could not detect a causal relationship running from oil returns to any of the stock returns. However, when we examine the causality using Cheung-Ng approach we discover that world oil prices Granger cause electricity index and adjusted electricity index returns in variance, but not the aggregate market index returns. Hence, our results show that the Cheung-Ng procedure with the use of disaggregated stock index returns can uncover new information that went unnoticed with the traditional causality tests using aggregated market indices. (author)

  2. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  3. Partitioning experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell: volatile content in the Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jephcoat, Andrew P; Bouhifd, M Ali; Porcelli, Don

    2008-11-28

    The present state of the Earth evolved from energetic events that were determined early in the history of the Solar System. A key process in reconciling this state and the observable mantle composition with models of the original formation relies on understanding the planetary processing that has taken place over the past 4.5Ga. Planetary size plays a key role and ultimately determines the pressure and temperature conditions at which the materials of the early solar nebular segregated. We summarize recent developments with the laser-heated diamond anvil cell that have made possible extension of the conventional pressure limit for partitioning experiments as well as the study of volatile trace elements. In particular, we discuss liquid-liquid, metal-silicate (M-Sil) partitioning results for several elements in a synthetic chondritic mixture, spanning a wide range of atomic number-helium to iodine. We examine the role of the core as a possible host of both siderophile and trace elements and the implications that early segregation processes at deep magma ocean conditions have for current mantle signatures, both compositional and isotopic. The results provide some of the first experimental evidence that the core is the obvious replacement for the long-sought, deep mantle reservoir. If so, they also indicate the need to understand the detailed nature and scale of core-mantle exchange processes, from atomic to macroscopic, throughout the age of the Earth to the present day.

  4. On the volatile enrichments and heavy element content in HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Petit, J -M; Zahnle, K; Biennier, L; Picaud, S; Johnson, T V; Mitchell, J B A; Boudon, V; Cordier, D; Devel, M; Georges, R; Griffith, C; Iro, N; Marley, M S; Marboeuf, U

    2010-01-01

    Favored theories of giant planet formation center around two main paradigms, namely the core accretion model and the gravitational instability model. These two formation scenarios support the hypothesis that the giant planet metallicities should be higher or equal to that of the parent star. Meanwhile, spectra of the transiting hot Jupiter HD189733b suggest that carbon and oxygen abundances range from depleted to enriched with respect to the star. Here, using a model describing the formation sequence and composition of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk, we determine the range of volatile abundances in the envelope of HD189733b that is consistent with the 20--80 Earth-masses of heavy elements estimated to be present in the planet's envelope. We then compare the inferred carbon and oxygen abundances to those retrieved from spectroscopy and we find a range of supersolar values that directly fit both spectra and internal structure models. In some cases, we find that the apparent contradiction between the s...

  5. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  6. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  7. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maxia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

  8. Vapor of volatile oils from Litsea cubeba seed induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest in lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Seal

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a major killer in cancer related human death. Its therapeutic intervention requires superior efficient molecule(s as it often becomes resistant to present chemotherapy options. Here we report that vapor of volatile oil compounds obtained from Litsea cubeba seeds killed human NSCLC cells, A549, through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Vapor generated from the combined oils (VCO deactivated Akt, a key player in cancer cell survival and proliferation. Interestingly VCO dephosphorylated Akt at both Ser(473 and Thr(308; through the suppression of mTOR and pPDK1 respectively. As a consequence of this, diminished phosphorylation of Bad occurred along with the decreased Bcl-xL expression. This subsequently enhanced Bax levels permitting the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol which concomitantly activated caspase 9 and caspase 3 resulting apoptotic cell death. Impairment of Akt activation by VCO also deactivated Mdm2 that effected overexpression of p53 which in turn upregulated p21 expression. This causes enhanced p21 binding to cyclin D1 that halted G1 to S phase progression. Taken together, VCO produces two prong effects on lung cancer cells, it induces apoptosis and blocked cancer cell proliferation, both occurred due to the deactivation of Akt. In addition, it has another crucial advantage: VCO could be directly delivered to lung cancer tissue through inhalation.

  9. Determination of tetrachloroethylene and other volatile halogenated organic compounds in oil wastes by headspace SPME GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Bezzi, R.; Torri, C.; Galletti, P.; Tagliavini, E. [Bologna Univ., Ravenna (Italy). Lab. of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A

    2007-09-15

    Oil wastes and slops are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, which may contain a variety of contaminants including tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) and other volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs). The analytical determination of PCE at trace levels in petroleum-derived matrices is difficult to carry out in the presence of large amounts of hydrocarbon matrix components. In the following study, we demonstrate that headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-MS analysis can be applied for the rapid measurement of PCE concentration in oil samples. The HS-SPME method was developed using liquid paraffin as matrix matching reference material for external and internal calibration and optimisation of experimental parameters. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg kg{sup -1}, and linearity was established up to 25 mg kg{sup -1}. The HS-SPME method was extended to several VHOCs, including trichloroethylene (TCE) in different matrices and was applied to the quantitative analysis of PCE and TCE in real samples.

  10. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-02-14

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under SRM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and SRM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under SRM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination.

  11. Analysis of Component and Extraction Technology of Maca Volatile Oil%玛卡挥发油的提取工艺与成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一波; 颜冬雪; 郑岩; 孙玉琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology and analyze the chemical composition of Maca volatile oil. Methods The yields of Maca volatile oil were investigated to compare different extraction technologies, including steam distillation (water), steam distillation ( salt water) , ultrasonic extraction method of petroleum ether and petroleum? ether soak extraction method. GC-MS was used to analyze the chemical composition of the volatile oil. Results Among the 4 methods, the steam distillation ( salt water) showed highest yield of Maca volatile oil. 78 chromatographic peaks were detected in the volatile oil sample by GC-MS and 26 chemi-cal compositions were identified, most of which were unsaturated components. Conclusion Steam distillation ( salt water) is an opti-mized method of extracting Maca volatile oil. phenylacetonitrile and benzyl isothiocyanate are main constituents of Maca volatilel oil ac-cording the GC-MS results.%目的:优化玛卡挥发油的提取工艺,并对挥发油的化学成分进行分析方法以挥发油得率为考察指标,比较水蒸气蒸馏法(水)、水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)、石油醚超声提取法、石油醚浸提法获取玛卡挥发油的提取工艺;采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对所提制的挥发油进行化学成分分析。结果4种玛卡挥发油提取方法,水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)提取的挥发油提取率最高。所得挥发油样品中检测出78个色谱峰,鉴定出26个化学成分,且多为不饱和成分。结论水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)能较好提制玛卡挥发油,经气相色谱质谱法( GC-MS)鉴定主要成分为苯乙腈类和异硫氰酸酯类。

  12. [The content and quality of Melissa officinalis essential oil after application of Rastim 30 DKV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverková, S; Hollá, M; Takeĺ, J

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the content and quality of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis in various leaf insertions in the course of the ontogenetic development of the plant. The quality of the drug after the administration of the preparation Rastin 30 DKV in the form of granules was not changed in comparison with control samples. The experimental work, subsequent analysis of samples, and evaluation of results led to conclusions important from the viewpoint of significant changes in the content and composition of the essential oil taking place in the plant in the course of the vegetation period.

  13. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  14. Nepetalactone content and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of Nepeta persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali; Oji, Khodamali

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, stem and root of Nepeta persica Boiss., analyzed by GC and GC/MS, were shown to contain 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (58.5%, 62.3%, 66.2% and 27.1%, respectively), and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (33.0%, 28.3%, 24.9% and 7.6%, respectively). The other main component of the flower and stem oils was alpha-pinene (3.6% and 4.4%) and of the leaf oil beta-ocimene (3.6%). In the root oil, other main constituents were alpha-pinene (40.4%), alpha-amorphene (5.3%), gamma-cadinene (2.9%), and cis-calamenene (2.5%). Nepetalactone was the major component of the flower, leaf and stem oils, which are thus important sources of nepetalactone. Antibacterial activities of the flower, leaf, stem and root oils were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The flower, leaf, stem, and root oils had difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oils might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  15. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  16. Extraction and GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Oils from Cymbopogon citratus(DC.) Stapf%香茅草挥发油的提取及其化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建芬; 韦寿莲; 陈子冲

    2015-01-01

    The volatile oil was extracted from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf by steam distillation, and optimized extraction condition by L9(34) Orthogonal experiments.The result showed that the optimal extraction condition was ratio of solid-liquid 1∶15, extraction time of 1.5 h, soak time of 24 h, and the yield of volatile oil was up to 0.576 7%under this condition. The chemical components of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS. As a result, 57 components were identified, which the main components were unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols, and the relative content of trans-Citral was 37.23%,cis-Citral was 31.81%, Lemon alcohol was 9.25%.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取香茅草中的挥发油,设计正交试验L9(34)优化提取条件。结果表明:料液比为1∶15(g/mL),提取时间为1.5 h,浸泡时间为24 h,香茅草挥发油的得率最高,为0.5767%。运用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对挥发油化学成分进行分析鉴定,确认香茅草挥发油中57个化学成分,主要成分为不饱和醛和醇,其中柠檬醛相对含量为37.23%,橙花醛相对含量为31.81%,柠檬醇相对含量为9.25%。

  17. 气相色谱法测定姜味草挥发油中橙花醛与香叶醛%GC Determination of Neral and Geranial in Volatile Oil of Micromeria Biflora.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤平; 江嘉冕; 陈潮珠; 劳碧婷

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取姜味草挥发油,用气相色谱法-氢火焰离子化检测器测定挥发油中橙花醛和香叶醛的含量。橙花醛和香叶醛的线性范围分别为0.0971~0.5826g·L~(-1)和0.1152~0.6912g·L~(-1)方法用于测定4批次姜味草挥发油中橙花醛与香叶醛的含量,橙花醛与香叶醛的质量分数分别为25.00%,29.57%,26.30%,28.59%和36.41%,43.80%,38.72%,41.52%。%The volatile oil of Micromeria biflora,was extracted by steam distillation,and the contents of neral and geranial in volatile oil were determined by GC with flame ionization detector(FID).Linearity ranges of neral and geranial found were between 0.097 1-0.582 6 g·L~(-1) and 0.115 2-0.691 2 g·L~(-1) respectively.The proposed method was applied to the analysis of samples from 4 batches of volatile oil of Micromeria biflora.,giving the results as follow:25.00%.29.57%,26.30%,28.59%for neral and 36.41%,43.80%,38.72%,41.52% for geranial.

  18. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  19. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  20. 肉桂等3种挥发油对苯甲酸透皮吸收的影响%The influence of Cinnamon oil and other volatile oils on percutaneous absorption of benzoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈琦; 胡晋红; 徐莲英

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of Cinnamon oil, Eugenia oil andGalangal oil on the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid. METHODS In order to compare the effect of the volatile oils and in combination with ethanol and propylene glycol on percutaneous penetration, the cumulative amount of benzoic acid penetrated through the skin was determined in vitro with Valia-Chien horizontal diffusion cell and HPLC.RESULTS All of the volatile oils enhanced remarkably the skin penetration of benzoic acid,and these volatile oils in combination with ethanol and propylene glycol increased the cummulative amount of benzoic acid,but decreased permeability coefficients.CONCLUSIONS Cinnamon oil, Eugenia oil and Galangal oil can be used to enhance the percutaneous absorption of benzoic acid.%目的:研究肉桂油、高良姜油、丁香油对苯甲酸透皮吸收的影响。方法:采用体外透皮双室扩散池和HPLC法,测定模型药物苯甲酸的累积渗透量,以考察不同浓度的肉桂油、高良姜油、丁香油对苯甲酸的促渗效果及挥发油与乙醇、丙二醇合用后的情况。结果:肉桂油、丁香油、丁香酚、高良姜油对苯甲酸均具有一定的促渗作用,挥发油与乙醇、丙二醇合用,使苯甲酸的累积渗透量增大,但渗透系数减小。结论:肉桂油、高良姜油、丁香油等能促进苯甲酸的透皮吸收。

  1. Phase relations and volatiles content of the Minopoli2 Campi Flegrei caldera shoshonitic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacapra, A.; Rutherford, M.; Civetta, L.

    2009-04-01

    New constraints on pre-eruption conditions of the Minopoli2 shoshonitic magma are provided by experimental studies. The products of this eruption represent the least evolved magma composition erupted in the first epoch of Campi Flegrei caldera activity (10.3-9.5 ka). Recent geochemical investigations (Mangiacapra et al.,2008)* on dissolved volatiles in the Minopoli2 phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), revealed a H2O- and CO2-rich shoshonitic magma, stored at two depths (8-9 and 2-3 km) where it experienced both open-system degassing, driven by crystallization, and flushing with a CO2-rich gas phase coming from deeper levels. Phase equilibrium experiments dry and with 3.5wt% H2O have been guided by the dissolved H2O and CO2 in MIs. The phase equilibria of the shoshonite with 3.5 wt% H2O shows that the observed phenocryst assemblage (olivine, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase and biotite) becomes stable at 1020±15 °C over the pressure range of 40 to 150 MPa and to higher pressures. The experimental data indicate that the shoshonite crystallised the phenocryst assemblage (15 vol%) at a depth of circa 9 Km and 1025 °C; only small degrees of additional crystallization occurred as the magma ascended to a depth of circa 3 km with degassing of some MIs. Sulphur speciation in glassy MIs was determined as ≥ 79% sulphate which is equivalent to a log fO2≥ NNO + 1.5. The low end of the fO2 range is interpreted to represent the pre-eruption magma at depth. The solubility of CO2 and H2O as a function of pressure in the Minopoli2 shoshonite have been experimentally calibrated. These results contribute to the understanding of magma chamber processes and conduit dynamics, relevant parameters for hazard assessment. * Mangiacapra A., R. Moretti, M. Rutherford, L. Civetta, G. Orsi and P. Papale (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Camp Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035550

  2. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Growth, essential oil content, and content of coumarin in young plants of guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlene Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine, mainly to treat respiratory disorders, which acts by dilating the bronchi, being coumarin one of the substances associated with this effect. Therefore, understanding the physiological behavior of this species and its responses to the environmental conditions is necessary to improve the cultivation methods. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of light spectrum control on growth, the essential oil content, and the content of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel. Plants were grown for four months under nets with 50% shading in gray, red, blue, and exposed to full sunlight (0%. The essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves through hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The identification and quantification of coumarin were performed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed the blue fabric allowed an increase in total dry matter accumulation and leaf area, as plants under red shading presented higher dry matter allocation to the roots. The smallest quantity of dry leaves was observed in plants grown under full sun exposure. Changes were not observed, however, in leaf weight ratio and in root/shoot proportion. The essential oil content of plants grown under blue net was 0.14%, which corresponded to an increase of 142% over the level found in plants grown under full sun exposure, as the coumarin content was not influenced by the net color. These results show that light can be modulated during cultivation, in order to obtain desirable morphological characteristics and maximize the production of active principles in this species.

  4. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  5. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  6. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  7. Determination of Sulfur Content at PPB Level in Light Oils by Oxidative Microcoulometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Defeng; He Pei

    2002-01-01

    A method for determination of sulfur content at ppb level in light oils is proposed. The key technique of the method includes the design of a new type of pyrolysis tube, which is characterized by large capacity and nested structure, and the optimization of operating conditions. The achievable lowest detection limit is 50ng/g. For the samples in which the sulfur content is less than lmg/L, this method features better precision and accuracy, good linearity and quicker test speed.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  9. Long Run Dynamic Volatilities between OPEC and non-OPEC Crude Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan, Hassan B.; Alhajhoj, Hassan R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the long-run dynamics of OPEC and non-OPEC crude oil prices is important in an era of increased financialization of petroleum markets. Utilizing an ECM within a threshold cointegration and CGARCH errors framework, we provide evidence on the cointegrating relationship and estimate how and to what extent the respective prices adjust to eliminate disequilibrium. Our findings suggest that the adjustment process of OPEC prices to the positive discrepancies is slow which implies that ...

  10. Deep-fat fried battered snacks prepared using super heated steam (SHS): Crispness and low oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Deventer, H. van

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of using super heated steam (SHS) as an alternative to pre-frying in oil, to decrease the oil content of deep-fried battered foods while obtaining crispy crusts, is shown in this manuscript. Pre-treatment of the batters in SHS for 1, 2 and 3. min was compared to pre-frying with oil f

  11. Deep-fat fried battered snacks prepared using super heated steam (SHS): Crispness and low oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Deventer, H. van

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of using super heated steam (SHS) as an alternative to pre-frying in oil, to decrease the oil content of deep-fried battered foods while obtaining crispy crusts, is shown in this manuscript. Pre-treatment of the batters in SHS for 1, 2 and 3. min was compared to pre-frying with oil f

  12. Deep-fat fried battered snacks prepared using super heated steam (SHS): Crispness and low oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Deventer, H. van

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of using super heated steam (SHS) as an alternative to pre-frying in oil, to decrease the oil content of deep-fried battered foods while obtaining crispy crusts, is shown in this manuscript. Pre-treatment of the batters in SHS for 1, 2 and 3. min was compared to pre-frying with oil

  13. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  14. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  15. Determination of elemental composition of volatile organic compounds from Chinese rose oil by spectral accuracy and mass accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming

    2011-10-30

    Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.

  16. Research on Cholinesterase Inhibitory Action and Chemical Constituents in the Volatile Oil of Radix Peucedani%前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制作用及化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚旻; 宋波; 李宗阳; 姜保平; 潘瑞乐

    2012-01-01

    Using micro plate high-throughput screening assay to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory action, and analyzing the main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani by the means of Gas Chromatography-Masa Spectrometer combined with Kovats index. The result shows that the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani has significant inhibitory activities of both Acetylcholinesterase ( AChE) and Butyr-ylcholinesterase (BuChE) ,the inhibition ratio of which were (63.76±1.99) % ,(51.53 ±1.70) % .respectively, when the content of the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani was lμL/mL. Meanwhile,32 main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peueedani has been identified,the main constituents are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, 1 -Methyl-3 - (1 -methylethyl) -benzene, (R ) -1 -Methyl-4- (1 -methyl-ethenyl)-cyclohexene,2-(4-Methtlcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol,2-hydroxyl-5-methyl-acetophenone,etc. The result suggests that Radix Peucedani maybe have a certain curative effect on neurodegenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer's disease.%运用微孔高通量筛选方法研究前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制活性,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术辅以Kovats 指数鉴定挥发油的主要化学成分.结果显示前胡挥发油对乙酰胆碱酯酶和丁酰胆碱酯酶均具有明显的抑制作用,当前胡挥发油浓度为1 μL/mL时,其抑制率分别为(63.76±1.99)%和(51.53±1.70)%;其挥发油共鉴定出32种化学成分,主要有α-蒎烯、左旋-β-蒎烯、月桂烯、1-甲基-3-(1-甲基乙基)苯、(R)-1-甲基-4-(1-甲基乙烯基)环己烯、萜品醇、2-羟基-5-甲基苯乙酮等.本研究结果提示前胡有可能对老年痴呆等神经退行性疾病有一定的治疗作用.

  17. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  18. AMMI Analysis of Yields and Oil Content in Some Linseed (Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interaction (GEI) among the varieties for yield and oil content. The experiment ... specific GEI terms, and for its ability to extract genotype and environment main effects. ...... interactions analysis of yield performance in bread wheat varieties across environments. ... MSc thesis, Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia. Taye G.

  19. 不同蒸馏方法提取辛夷挥发油的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Different Distillation Extraction of Flos Magnoliae Volatile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏程; 赵铭钦; 刘鹏飞; 刘会杰; 张欢欢; 包晓容; 姬小明; 魏跃伟

    2013-01-01

    Flos magnoliae volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation and simultaneous distillation and extraction, and then analzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with chemical component determination and comparative analysis. Results indicated that there were 30 volatile oils including rose oxide, terpinyl acetate, bornyl acetate extracted by steam distillation while 30 volatile oils including terpinolene, estragole, l-hydroxy-l,7-dimethyl-4-isopropyl-2,7-ring decyl diene extracted by simultaneous distillation. There were 28 volatile oils were mutual and firpene, beta pinene, eucalyptol, linalool, 1-camphor, alpha terpineol, alpha caryophyllene, (E)-beta acacia ene, geraniolene, cadinene, alpha burt orange tomato alcohol, famesol with high content. The color and average yield of volatile oil extracted by steam distillation and simultaneous distillation were pale yellow and 1.3% and 1.5% respectively. These results showed that distillation of volatile oil aroma quality and yield was better than those obtained by simultaneous distillation.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法与同时蒸馏萃取辛夷挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用方法进行了化学组分的测定和分析比较,水蒸气蒸馏法所得挥发油主要成分为30种,独有成分为玫瑰醚、乙酸松油酯、乙酸冰片酯.同时蒸馏法所得挥发油主要成分为30种,独有成分为萜品油烯、草蒿脑、1-羟基-1,7-二甲基4异丙基-2,7-环癸二烯.两种方法共有成分28种,含量较高的为蒎烯、β-蒎烯、桉叶油醇、芳樟醇、左旋樟脑、α-松油醇、α-石竹烯、(E)-β-金合欢烯、香叶烯、杜松油烯、α-毕橙茄醇、金合欢醇.水蒸气蒸馏法所得挥发油颜色浅黄,平均出油率为1.3%.同时蒸馏法所得挥发油颜色淡黄,平均出油率为1.5%.同时蒸馏萃取法无论从香气品质,含量,提取率均略高于水蒸气蒸馏法.

  20. A kinetic study on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of oil cakes:Effect of cellulose and lignin content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna Gottipati; Susmita Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of three different oil cakes such as Pongamia ( Pongamia Pinnata), Madhuca (Madhuca Indica), and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) were investigated in this study.The cellulose and lignin contents of oil cakes play very important role in pyrolysis and combustion processes.A kinetic investigation of three oil cakes was carried out and major part of the samples decomposed between 210 ℃ and 500 ℃.Pyrolysis and combustion were carried out with the mixtures of cellulose and lignin chemicals in different ratios and compared with the oil cakes.The biomass with higher cellulose content showed faster rate of pyrolysis than the biomass with higher lignin content.However at higher temperatures ( >600 ℃ ) all the oil cakes exhibited similar conversion at low heating rate in N2 atmosphere.Apparent activation energies increased for Madhuca and Pongamia oil cakes indicating the presence of more cellulose whereas, low activation energy of Jatropha confirms more lignin content.

  1. 互叶白千层花、果与叶挥发油成分的对比分析%Comparative Analysis on Chemical Components in Volatile Oils from Flowers,Fruits and Leaf of Melaleuca alternjfolja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玲; 刘布鸣; 林霄; 何开家; 白懋嘉

    2014-01-01

    以水蒸气蒸馏法提取互叶白千层花、果、叶三个不同部位的挥发油,采用气相色谱法、气相色谱-质谱联用法分别鉴定了花、果和叶中挥发油的化学成分,并比较互叶白千层不同部位挥发油的主要化学成分及含量差异。分析结果可为互叶白千层花、果研究提供试验依据。%The volatile oils were obtained by extracting flowers,fruits and leaf of Melaleuca alternifolia respectively with steam distillation.GC and GC-MS methods were applied to identify the components in these volatile oils from different parts of Melaleuca alternifolia ,and the differences and relative contents of the main chemical components were compared.The results provide experimental data for the study of flowers and fruits from Melaleuca alternifolia .

  2. Construction and analysis of correlation networks based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabonomics data for lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and intervention with volatile oil from Angelica sinensis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong-li; Ji, Peng; Xue, Zi-yu; Wei, Yan-ming

    2015-11-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known important traditional Chinese medicine that yields a volatile oil with anti-inflammatory effects. However, the holistic therapeutic effects and the mechanism underlying such effects of the volatile oil of A. sinensis (VOAS) are not yet well understood. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomic study was conducted to explore the significantly altered metabolites for better understanding of VOAS and to assess the integral efficacy of VOAS on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation rat model. Principal component analysis was used to investigate the global metabonomic alterations and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of VOAS in rats. Clear separations were observed in the comparison of the metabolite profiles of the normal control (NC) group, the LPS-stimulated group (MI), the VOAS group, and the dexamethasone (Dex) group. VOAS exerted therapeutic effects on the LPS-stimulated group, which were in accordance with the results of cytokine analyses and blood physiobiochemical assay. Furthermore, a total of 20, 17, and 22 metabolites distributed in 27 metabolic pathways were respectively identified in plasma, liver, and lung samples as significantly altered metabolites of MI, VOAS, Dex, and NC of the same background. Network analysis revealed that glycine, glutamate, malic acid, succinate, arachidonic acid, glycerol, galactose, and glucose were hub metabolites of the inflammation correlation network. Results indicated that VOAS exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect by adjusting the Krebs cycle, improving the glucose content, and restoring the fatty acid metabolism.

  3. Intracerebral injection of oil cyst content of human craniopharyngioma (oil machinery fluid) as a toxic model in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Hernández-Campos, Ma Elena; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Santamaría, Abel

    2014-04-01

    Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign epithelial cystic tumors of the sellar and suprasellar region with a high survival rate and high recurrence in children. CPs contain dense oily fluid, but little is known yet about this content and its contribution to tissue damage and tumoral growth. In this study, we developed a simple experimental model produced by intracortical injection to rats of the cyst fluid content collected from human CPs to explore its possible contribution to brain tissue damage. The cyst fluid of the CPs ("oil machinery fluid") was collected during surgical removal, briefly preserved and further tested in rats through intracortical infusion. The group receiving "oil machinery fluid" presented increased reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative damage to lipids and reactive gliosis accompanied by augmented immunoreactivity to peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin reductase 1 at 15, 30 and 45 days post-injection. Other markers of inflammation and cell damage were stimulated at all post-lesion days tested. There was also a body weight gain. The persistence of tissue damage and oxidative stress suggests that "oil machinery fluid" exerts progressive alterations similar to those observed in patients with CPs, supporting the concept that some components of cyst fluid may contribute to brain tissue damage in these patients.

  4. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively.

  5. Assessment of Volatile Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill by HS-SPME-GC-MS Using Different Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil and volatile obtained from the roots of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill was performed in this work. The Clevenger extractor was utilized in hydrodistillation of oil and chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS. The identification of compounds was confirmed by retention index (Kovats index obtained from a series of straight chain alkanes (C7–C30 and by comparison with NIST and ADAMS library. A total of 61 compounds were identified in essential oil by GC-MS. The extraction of volatile was performed also by the use of the solid phase microextraction (SPME with four different fibers. The essential oil extraction was extremely rapid (15 s to avoid saturation of the fiber and the MS detector. The majority of the composition of essential oil is the terpenes: β-pinene (major compound 9.16%, β-vatirene (8.34%, α-gurjunene (6.98%, α-pinene (6.35%, camphene (4.34%, tricyclene (3.79% and dehydro aromadendrene (3.52% it and aldehydes and alcohols. Through the SPME it was possible to determine the nine volatile compounds not identified in oil 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, pinocamphone, D-verbenon, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-(2-methyl-cyclopropyl-cyclohexene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, and (6-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dimethylehenyl methanol.

  6. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  7. GC-MS analysis of volatile oils from fresh and processed Typhonii Rhizoma%禹白附生品和制品挥发油成分及稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 陈晓珍; 罗应刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较禹白附生品和制品挥发油成分与含量的差别,并考察禹白附挥发性成分的稳定性.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别提取禹白附生品和制品挥发油,立即通过GC-MS技术分离并鉴定其中的化学成分;同时在不同条件进行放置,一定时间后再运用GC-MS技术分离并鉴定其中的化学成分;最后运用主成分分析法统计分析所得数据.结果:从禹白附生品中共分离鉴定出43个化合物,从制品中则共分离鉴定出34个化合物;其中共有成分15个.生品和制品中的主要成分、含量差异明显;不同条件放置后生品制品的挥发油成分发生明显变化.结论:禹白附生品和制品的挥发油主要成分不同,且含量差异显著;禹白附生品和制品的挥发油成分不稳定,挥发油成分在不同条件发生明显变化.%Typhonii Rhizoma is a toxic traditional Chinese medicine. Its toxic components remained unclear. To compare chemical composition of volatile oils from fresh and processed Typhonii Rhizoma qualitatively, volatile oils were obtained by stream distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The data obtained from GC-MS were processed by principal component analysis. From the essential oils of fresh and processed Typhonii Rhizoma, 43 compounds and 34 compounds were identified respectively. The chemical composition and content in the two oils was different. In the two essential oils 15 identical components were detected. The chemical components and their contents in the essential oils are changing with the storage.

  8. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  9. 小青龙贴中挥发油的提取工艺研究%Study on the Extraction Process of Volatile Oil in Xiaoqinglong Plaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志红; 陈磊垚; 刘欣怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best conditions of the extraction process of volatile oil in xi-aoqinglong plaster. Methods L9( 34 ) orthogonal test was adopted. The extraction rate of volatile oil was taken as the observation index. It was to observe the impacts of water amount, soak time and extraction time on the extraction rate of volatile ole in xiaoqinglong plaster. Results The extraction and soak time brought the best impact on the extraction of volatile oil, presenting the best significance. The water volume impacted less on the results. In consideration with the actual production, the final decision of the extraction process of volatile oil in xiaoqinglong plaster was: adding water 8 times as the weight of herbal materials, soaking for 1 h, steam distillation for 6 h. Conclusion In the verification test, the extraction rate of xiaoqinglong plaster of 3 batches is stable; the optimized extraction process of volatile oil is simple,stable and feasible. This process is suitable to be applied in the industrialized production.%目的 优选小青龙贴中挥发油的最佳提取工艺条件.方法 采用L9(34)正交试验方法,以得油率为考察指标,考察加水量、浸泡时间和提取时间三个因素对小青龙贴中得油率的影响.结果 提取时间和浸泡时间对提取挥发油的影响最大,最有显著性意义,加水量对结果的影响较小.结合实际生产,最终确定小青龙贴中挥发油的提取工艺为:药材加8倍量水,浸泡1 h,水蒸气蒸馏6 h.结论 验证试验中三批小青龙贴得油率稳定,所优选的挥发油提取工艺简单、稳定、可行,适用于工业化大生产.

  10. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  11. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

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    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  12. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  13. Volatile Components of Essential Oil from Mulberry Variety “Longsang 1” Leaves%龙桑一号桑叶精油的挥发性组分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 王海英; 刘姗姗; 蒋乃翔

    2011-01-01

    The mulberry variety “Longsang 1” (Morus alba) was cultivated in Gannan Forest Mulberry Industry Science and Technology Demonstration Field of the Qiqihar City in Heilongjiang Province in Northeastern China.In July,August and September of 2009,the leaves of “Longsang 1” were collected,then the volatile components of the essential oils in the leaves were hydrodistillated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that phytol (alcohols),hexahydrofamesyl acetone (ketones),heptacosane,and pentacosane (hydrocarbons) were the common volatile components of the essential oil.Hexadecanoic acid was dominant in the essential oil from leaves collected in July and August.(E) -β-farnesene,(Z) -β-famesene,β-bisabolene,trans-α-bergamotene and α-curcumene were the main volatile flavor compounds in the essential oil from leaves collected in September.Air-dried mulberry leaves collected in September has relatively high medicinal value due to their higher content of terpenoids in the essential oil.%桑品种龙桑一号(Morus alba)栽培于中国东北黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市甘南林场桑产业科技示范园.2009年7月、8月和9月的桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油中的挥发性组分经水蒸馏提取后进行了气相色谱-质谱(GCMS)分析.结果表明桑叶精油的共有组分是植醇(醇类化合物)、六氢金合欢丙酮(酮类化合物)、二十七烷和二十五烷(烃类化合物).棕榈酸为7月和8月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的共有第一主成分.顺式-β-金合欢烯、反式-β-金合欢烯、β-甜没药烯、反式-α-佛手柑油烯和α-姜黄烯是9月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的主要芳香组分.萜类化合物相对含量较高的9月份采集的干桑叶精油具有药用价值.

  14. Study on the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Volatile Oil from Matricaria Chamomilla L%洋甘菊挥发油抗炎作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艺; 龙子江; 杨俊杰; 袁彩红

    2011-01-01

    采用动物体内抗炎实验模型等方法研究洋甘菊挥发油的抗炎效果.观察洋甘菊挥发油的体内抗炎作用.结果表明:洋甘菊挥发油各剂量组对蛋清致大鼠足肿胀、棉球植入法致大鼠肉芽增生及二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀均有不同程度的抑制作用.洋甘菊挥发油对急性炎症、慢性炎症及对急性炎症引起的肿胀、渗出有一定的抑制作用,洋甘菊挥发油有显著的抗炎作用.%The purpose is to study the anti-inflammatory effects of volatile oil in Matricaria Chamomilla, the animal test was adopted in this research. The results showed that volatile oil had certain effects on acute inflammation caused by egg white, on granulation hyperplasia of chronic inflammation and on the swelling and exudate caused by the acute inflammation Different doses of volatile oil had different effects on swelling of mice foots caused by egg white, on granulation hyperplasia induced by embedding cotton into rats armpits and on swelling of mice ears by daubing xylene. The anti-inflammatory effects of volatile oil were obviously.

  15. Analysis of Volatile oil from Flos Chrysanthemi by GC-MS%菊花挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昌洪; 黄爱华; 许汉香

    2012-01-01

    目的:对菊花的挥发油成分进行分析,为菊花的综合利用提供指导.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取菊花挥发油,经乙酸乙酯萃取处理,以GC-MS法分析其化学成分.结果:在菊花的挥发油中检测出74个化合物,确认了其中24个.结论:菊花挥发油中主要成分中,1-甲基-5-亚甲基-8-异丙基-1,6-环癸二烯(15.777%)含量最高,有7个化合物为以往文献中未曾报道.%Objective; To analyze the constituents of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum to provide guidance for comprehensive utilization of Chrysanthemum. Method: The volatile oil from Chrysanthemum was extracted by steam distillation followed by ethyl acetate extraction. The chemical compositions were analyzed by GC-MS method. Result: Seventy-four compounds of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum were detected, among them, 24 ones were confirmed. Conclusion; Among the constituents in volatile oil from Chrysanthemum, l-methyl-methylene-8-isopropyl-l ,6-ring-5-decadiene (15.777% ) is the main component, and 7 other compounds have not bepn reported in the literature before.

  16. Sensory analysis and volatile