WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatile natural gas

  1. Price and volatility transmissions between natural gas, fertilizer, and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Xiaoli Liao; Trujillo-Barrera, Andrés; Wiggins, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the price and volatility transmission between natural gas, fertilizer (ammonia), and corn markets, an issue that has been traditionally ignored in the literature despite its significant importance. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  2. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  3. Measuring and testing natural gas and electricity markets volatility : evidence from Alberta's deregulated markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, A.; Shahmoradi, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics

    2005-03-01

    A number of innovative methods for modelling spot wholesale electricity prices have recently been developed. However, these models have primarily used a univariate time series approach to the analysis of electricity prices. This paper specified and estimated a multivariate GARCH-M model of natural gas and electricity price changes and their volatilities, using data over the deregulated period between January 1996 to November 2004 from Alberta's spot power and natural gas markets. The primary objective of the model was to investigate the relationship between electricity and natural gas prices. It was noted that the model allows for the possibilities of spillovers and asymmetries in the variance-covariance structure for natural gas and electricity price changes, and also for the separate examination of the effects of the volatility of anticipated and unanticipated changes in natural gas and electricity prices. Section 2 of the paper provided a description of the model used to test for causality between natural gas and electricity price changes, while section 3 discussed the data and presented the empirical results. It was concluded that there is a bidirectional causality between natural gas and electricity price changes. However, neither anticipated nor unanticipated natural gas price volatility causes electricity price changes. Anticipated electricity price volatility has a causal effect on natural gas. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geman, Helyette [Birkbeck, University of London (United Kingdom); ESCP-EAP (France); Ohana, Steve [ESCP-EAP (France)

    2009-07-15

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  5. Volatile organic compounds at oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver&nd...

  6. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Associated with Natural Gas Production in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Zahn, A.; Graus, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, G.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Technological advances such as hydraulic fracturing have led to a rapid increase in the production of natural gas from several basins in the Rocky Mountain West, including the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah and the Upper Green River basin in Wyoming. There are significant concerns about the impact of natural gas production on the atmosphere, including (1) emissions of methane, which determine the net climate impact of this energy source, (2) emissions of reactive hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, and their contribution to photochemical ozone formation, and (3) emissions of air toxics with direct health effects. The Energy & Environment - Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS) in 2012 was focused on addressing these issues. During UBWOS, measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments from a ground site and a mobile laboratory. Measurements at the ground site showed mixing ratios of VOCs related to oil and gas extraction were greatly enhanced in the Uintah basin, including several days long periods of elevated mixing ratios and concentrated short term plumes. Diurnal variations were observed with large mixing ratios during the night caused by low nighttime mixing heights and a shift in wind direction during the day. The mobile laboratory sampled a wide variety of individual parts of the gas production infrastructure including active gas wells and various processing plants. Included in those point sources was a new well that was sampled by the mobile laboratory 11 times within two weeks. This new well was previously hydraulically fractured and had an active flow-back pond. Very high mixing ratios of aromatics were observed close to the flow-back pond. The measurements of the mobile laboratory are used to determine the source composition of the individual point sources and those are compared to the VOC enhancement ratios observed at the ground site. The

  7. Volatile properties of particles emitted by compressed natural gas and diesel buses during steady-state and transient driving modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Meyer, N K; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L

    2012-01-03

    Volatile properties of particle emissions from four compressed natural gas (CNG) and four diesel buses were investigated under steady-state and transient driving modes on a chassis dynamometer. The exhaust was diluted utilizing a full-flow continuous volume sampling system and passed through a thermodenuder at controlled temperature. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. We show that while almost all the particles emitted by the CNG buses were in the nanoparticle size range, at least 85% and 98% were removed at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. Closer analysis of the volatility of particles emitted during transient cycles showed that volatilization began at around 40 °C, with the majority occurring by 80 °C. Particles produced during hard acceleration from rest exhibited lower volatility than those produced during other times of the cycle. On the basis of our results and the observation of ash deposits on the walls of the tailpipes, we suggest that these nonvolatile particles were composed mostly of ash from lubricating oil. Heating the diesel bus emissions to 100 °C removed ultrafine particle numbers by 69-82% when a nucleation mode was present and just 18% when it was not.

  8. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  9. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  10. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-03

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts.

  11. Testing Co-Volatility Spillovers for Natural Gas Spot, Futures and ETF Spot using Dynamic Conditional Covariances

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wang, Yanghuiting

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere is substantial empirical evidence that energy and financial markets are closely connected. As one of the most widely-used energy resources worldwide, natural gas has a large daily trading volume. In order to hedge the risk of natural gas spot markets, a large number of hedging strategies can be used, especially with the rapid development of natural gas derivatives markets. These hedging instruments include natural gas futures and options, as well as Exchange Traded Fund (ETF...

  12. Testing Co-Volatility Spillovers for Natural Gas Spot, Futures and ETF Spot using Dynamic Conditional Covariances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Wang (Yanghuiting)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere is substantial empirical evidence that energy and financial markets are closely connected. As one of the most widely-used energy resources worldwide, natural gas has a large daily trading volume. In order to hedge the risk of natural gas spot markets, a large number of hedging

  13. Oil and Natural Gas Industry Sources Covered by the 2012 New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the 2016 NSPS for Methane and VOCs, by Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a 2016 table that looks at oil and natural gas industry site types and lists the applicable rules for the 2012 and 2016 new source performance standards (NSPS) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) rules.

  14. Equipment Leaks of Volatile Organic Compounds From Onshore Natural Gas Processing Plants for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for equipment leaks of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from onshore natural gas processing plants by reading the rule summary, rule history, federal register citations, and the code of federal regulations

  15. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  16. Ambient air/near-field measurements of methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from a natural gas facility in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Bonsang, Bernard; Baisnee, Dominique; Vogel, Félix; Yver Kwok, Camille; Ars, Sébastien; Finlayson, Andrew; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1970's, the natural gas consumption saw a rapid growth in large urban centers, thus becoming an important energy resource to meet continuous needs of factories and inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can be a substantial source of methane (CH4) and pollutants in urban areas. For instance, we have determined that about 20% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in downtown Paris are originating from this emission source (Baudic, Gros et al., in preparation). Within the framework of the "Fugitive Methane Emissions" (FuME) project (Climate-KIC, EIT); 2-weeks gas measurements were conducted at a gas compressor station in Northern Europe. Continuous ambient air measurements of methane and VOCs concentrations were performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (model G2201, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, USA) and two portable GC-FID (Chromatotec, Saint-Antoine, France), respectively. On-site near-field samplings were also carried out at the source of two pipelines using stainless steel flasks (later analyzed with a laboratory GC-FID). The objective of this study aims to use VOCs as additional tracers in order to better characterize the fugitive methane emissions in a complex environment, which can be affected by several urban sources (road-traffic, others industries, etc.). Moreover, these measurements have allowed determining the chemical composition of this specific source. Our results revealed that the variability of methane and some VOCs was (rather) well correlated, especially for alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.). An analysis of selected events with strong concentrations enhancement was performed using ambient air measurements; thus allowing the preliminary identification of different emission sources. In addition, some flasks were also sampled in Paris to determine the local natural gas composition. A comparison between both was then performed. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented here.

  17. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  19. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  20. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  1. Technology and the Prospects for Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Rogner, H.-H.

    1988-01-01

    In most long-term energy analysis, the role of natural gas in future energy supplies has been inextricably bound to the prevailing outlook for oil. More often than not energy policy levied to oil issues was automatically extended to natural gas. Consequently, the economic and environmental aspects of natural gas at the consumer's end of the energy chain have been clouded by the resource outlook for oil as well as the uncertainties and volatility of the international oil market. The resou...

  2. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  3. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  4. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  5. Natural sparkling guava wine: volatile and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although different tropical fruit species have been used in the development of fermented beverages, there are only few references in the literature to the production of natural sparkling wines from fruits other than grapes. In this sense, the objective of the present research was the development and physicochemical and volatile characterization of a natural sparkling guava wine produced by the champenoise method. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique on samples. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which 51 were identified. Esters were the predominant class of volatile compounds (a total of 26, followed by alcohols (10, terpenes (9, ketones (3, and acids (3. Volatile compounds with possible odoriferous activity were reported in the beverage, including ethyl octanoate, ethyl 5-hexenoate, phenethyl acetate, (E-β-damascenone, (E-ethyl cinnamate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl 3-(E-hexenoate, and methyl 5-hexenoate. Natural sparkling guava wine produced showed a complex composition of fruity and floral aromas. Furthermore, the use of the champenoise method, traditionally applied to grapes, enabled the manufacture of a natural sparkling guava wine with physicochemical characteristics equivalent to those of sparkling wines made from grapes.

  6. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  7. Natural gas for traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleef, B. (Gasbedrijf Centraal Nederland, Utrecht)

    1989-09-01

    The advantages of natural gas as a motor fuel are well known, but nevertheless its application has not yet got off the ground in the Netherlands. In June 1989 the Ministry of Transport and Public Works put the Dutch ecologically sound bus running on natural gas officially into service. For this bus an existing diesel engine was made fit for natural gas. Because of an especially developed carburettor system, an ignition system that is new for vehicles, and a new speed regulation, the emission of the various noxious substances is 10 to 100 times lower than in the case of a diesel engine. 4 figs., 8 ills.

  8. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  9. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  10. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  12. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  13. Thermochromatography study of volatile polonium species in various gas atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Eichler, Robert; Piguet,David; Mendonça, Tania Melo; Stora, Thierry; Schumann, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena related to the volatilization of polonium and its compounds are critical issues for the safety assessment of the innovative lead–bismuth cooled type of nuclear reactor or accelerator driven systems. The formation and volatilization of different species of polonium and their interaction with fused silica was studied by thermochromatography using carrier gases with varied redox potential. The obtained results show that under inert and reducing conditions in the absence of moisture, elemental polonium is formed. Polonium compounds more volatile than elemental polonium can be formed if traces of moisture are present in both inert and reducing carrier gas. The use of dried oxygen as carrier gas leads to the formation of polonium oxides, which are less volatile than elemental polonium. It was also found that the volatility of polonium oxides increases with increasing oxidation state. In the presence of moisture in an oxidizing carrier gas, species are formed that are more volatile than the oxides and le...

  14. Recent methods for the determination of volatile and non-volatile organic compounds in natural and purified drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchet, A; Legrand, M F; Arpino, P; Dilettato, D

    1991-01-02

    Four analytical protocols for the extraction and preconcentration of organic residues in natural or purified drinking water were investigated and compared: closed loop stripping analysis; simultaneous extraction-distillation; purge and trap analysis; continuous liquid-liquid extraction. Organic extracts were submitted to a variety of separation and identification techniques. Volatiles were determined by conventional capillary column gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, using triple-stage quadrupole instruments. Non-volatile and thermally labile molecules were investigated by several different techniques (high-temperature gas chromatography, capillary column supercritical fluid chromatography, pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermospray liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and conventional fast-atom bombardment with tandem mass spectrometry). Several samples recently examined in the laboratory provide examples of this multitechnique approach for a more complete knowledge of the organic carbon distribution in water-dissolved organic matter, taking into account organic substances with widely different volatilities, polarities and thermal stabilities.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  12. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  1. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  2. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  7. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  9. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  11. Natural gas; Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, A.

    2010-09-15

    Among all the different energies which will answer to the world demand, natural gas has undoubtedly a particular and preferential position. It possesses indeed several favourable factors, among them a lower CO{sub 2} release than the other fossil resources. Natural gas will have to continue its development and to affirm its role in the years 2030. (O.M.)

  12. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  13. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  14. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...important, running for 710 km from Ciudad Pemex to Mérida in the Yucatan Peninsula. It was built to provide natural gas to the Mérida III combined cycle

  16. Thermochromatography study of volatile tellurium species in various gas atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Neuhausen, Jörg; Eichler, Robert; Piguet, David; Schumann, Dorothea

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption interaction of tellurium species with fused silica was studied by thermochromatography. Trace amounts of tellurium were obtained by irradiating elemental tin with α-particles. Different tellurium species were obtained using carrier gases with varied redox potential. Adsorption enthalpies of the obtained species were calculated allowing for the identification of some species. Elemental tellurium or SnTe was deposited in thermochromatography experiments when using both dried and deoxygenated He and H2 as carrier gases. Tellurium dioxide was deposited in thermochromatography experiments when using dry oxygen as carrier gas. Tellurium dioxide was found to be significantly less volatile compared to elemental Te or SnTe. The deposition of a species with still lower volatility occurring under less oxidizing conditions was tentatively assigned to tellurium monoxide, TeO. Species more volatile than elemental tellurium or SnTe, most likely Te-hydroxides, were detected in experiments using moist H2 as carrier gas. In moist oxidizing gas, species more volatile than TeO2 were found, most likely Te-oxyhydroxides. The obtained results provide valuable input to design experiments for studying the volatility of tellurium's heavier homologue polonium and its compounds, which represent one of the major radiological concerns for the use of lead-bismuth-eutectic as coolant and target material for innovative accelerator-driven systems or spallation sources.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  18. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  19. European Natural Gas Seasonal Effects on Futures Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Beatriz; Torró, Hipòlit

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first to discuss the design of futures hedging strategies in European natural gas markets (NBP, TTF and Zeebrugge). A common feature of energy prices is that conditional mean and volatility are driven by seasonal trends due to weather, demand, and storage level seasonalities. This paper follows and extends the Ederington and Salas (2008) framework and considers seasonalities in mean and volatility when minimum variance hedge ratios are computed. Our results show that hedging...

  20. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  1. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  2. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  3. [Analysis of volatile and non-volatile compositions in ginger oleoresin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kunyou; Wang, Chao; Xu, Kun; Yin, Hongzong

    2008-11-01

    Ginger oleoresin was extracted from Zingiber officinale Rose. var. Laiwudajiang by the technique of supercritical fluid extraction. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry technique were employed to analyze the ginger oleoresin. This analysis resulted in the detection of 3 hitherto unknown natural compounds, 24 compounds previously reported as pungent compounds and 50 volatile compounds from ginger. The volatile compounds were mainly alpha-zingiberene (22.29%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (8.58%), alpha-farnesene (3.93%), beta-bisabolene (3.87%), alpha-curcumene (2.63%), which were mostly consisted of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The pungent compounds of ginger were mainly 6-gingerol (9.38%), 6-shogaol (7.59%), zingerone (9.24%) produced by the thermal degradation of gingerols or shogaols. The mass spectral fragmentation patterns for the three new compounds (6-isogingerol, (Z)-10-isoshogaol, (E)-10-isoshogaol) are discussed and interpreted.

  4. Evaluation of volatilization as a natural attenuation pathway for MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Volatilization and diffusion through the unsaturated zone can be an important pathway for natural attenuation remediation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. The significance of this pathway depends primarily on the distribution of immiscible product within the unsaturated zone and the relative magnitude of aqueous-phase advection (ground water recharge) to gaseous-phase diffusion. At a gasoline spill site in Laurel Bay, South Carolina, rates of MTBE volatilization from ground water downgradient from the source are estimated by analyzing the distribution of MTBE in the unsaturated zone above a solute plume. Volatilization rates of MTBE from ground water determined by transport modeling ranged from 0.0020 to 0.0042 g m-2/year, depending on the assumed rate of ground water recharge. Although diffusive conditions at the Laurel Bay site are favorable for volatilization, mass loss of MTBE is insignificant over the length (230 m) of the solute plume. Based on this analysis, significant volatilization of MTBE from ground water downgradient from source areas at other sites is not likely. In contrast, model results indicate that volatilization coupled with diffusion to the atmosphere could be a significant mass loss pathway for MTBE in source areas where residual product resides above the capillary zone. Although not documented, mass loss of MTBE at the Laurel Bay site due to volatilization and diffusion to the atmosphere are predicted to be two to three times greater than mass loading of MTBE to ground water due to dissolution and recharge. This result would imply that volatilization in the source zone may be the critical natural attenuation pathway for MTBE at gasoline spill sites, especially when considering capillary zone limitations on volatilization of MTBE from ground water and the relative recalcitrance of MTBE to biodegradation.

  5. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  6. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  7. Improve natural gas sampling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiskoot, R.J.J. (Jiskoot Autocontrol, Kent (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    Accurate and reliable sampling systems are imperative when confirming natural gas' commercial value. Buyers and sellers need accurate hydrocarbon-composition information to conduct fair sale transactions. Because of poor sample extraction, preparation or analysis can invalidate the sale, more attention should be directed toward improving representative sampling. Consider all sampling components, i.e., gas types, line pressure and temperature, equipment maintenance and service needs, etc. The paper discusses gas sampling, design considerations (location, probe type, extraction devices, controller, and receivers), operating requirements, and system integration.

  8. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  9. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  10. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  11. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  12. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  13. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  14. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  15. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  16. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  17. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  18. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experiences and domestic situation in natural gas sector. On this basis, we presented the following proposals and implement approaches to ultimately achieving the market-oriented reform of natural gas pricing in China. First, the ex-factory prices for those residential gas users will be adjusted, which should be differentiated from those for the non-residential gas users. Second, the present natural gas pricing mechanism should be perfected with pipeline fees and gas storage fees being both added. Third, an integrated natural gas pricing system should be improved with differential prices implemented. Fourth, natural gas spot transaction should be promoted and energy measurement in gas metering and pricing should also be put into practice.

  20. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  2. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  3. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  4. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively, Applicants...

  5. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... state status in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1508(a)(2). Summary of the Application Liberty Natural Gas...

  6. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  7. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  8. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  9. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Chemical generation of volatile species of copper - Optimization, efficiency and investigation of volatile species nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoukal, Jakub; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2017-07-18

    This work is a comprehensive study on chemical generation of volatile species (VSG) of copper for analytical atomic spectrometry. VSG was carried out in a flow injection mode in a special arrangement of the generator. Atomization in a diffusion flame atomizer (DF) with atomic absorption spectrometry detection was mostly used for VSG optimization. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized to investigate generation efficiencies and feasibility of VSG system for ultratrace analysis. Concentration of individual reagents, namely of nitric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and various reaction modifiers, was optimized with respect to generation efficiency. Triton X-100 and Antifoam B were chosen as the best combination of the modifiers owing to sixfold increase in sensitivity, decrease of tailing of measured signals and long-term repeatability. The addition of 500 μg L(-1) of Ag was found crucial to maintain identical generation efficiency at low concentrations of Cu. This phenomenon was ascribed to the change in the size of generated species. The release and generation efficiency were accurately determined as 56-58 and 31-32%, respectively. The contribution of co-generated aerosol to release and generation efficiency measured by means of Cs and Ba was found negligible, only 0.40 and 0.13%, respectively, which underlines highly efficient VSG of Cu. The nature of volatile species was investigated by various approaches. The results cannot provide the decisive evidence. However, experiments with the DF, ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the generated species are not volatile in the true sense but that they are strongly associated with fine aerosol co-generated during VSG. Cu clusters or nanoparticles of very small size (< 10 nm) are presumed but the formation of metastable copper hydride cannot be conclusively excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag

    2011-12-01

    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  12. Gas-liquid partitioning of halogenated volatile organic compounds in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondo, Daniel; Barankova, Eva [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dohnal, Vladimir, E-mail: dohnalv@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Binding of halogenated VOCs with cyclodextrins examined through g-l partitioning. > Complex stabilities reflect host-guest size matching and hydrophobic interaction. > Presence of halogens in the guest molecule stabilizes the binding. > Thermodynamic origin of the binding varies greatly among the systems studied. > Results obey the guest-CD global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationship. - Abstract: Gas-liquid partitioning coefficients (K{sub GL}) were measured for halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely 1-chlorobutane, methoxyflurane, pentafluoropropan-1-ol, heptafluorobutan-1-ol, {alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluorotoluene, and toluene in aqueous solutions of natural {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-cyclodextrins (CDs) at temperatures from (273.35 to 326.35) K employing the techniques of headspace gas chromatography and inert gas stripping. The binding constants of the 1:1 inclusion complex formation between the VOCs and CDs were evaluated from the depression of the VOCs volatility as a function of CD concentration. The host-guest size matching and the hydrophobic interaction concept were used to rationalize the observed widely different affinity of the VOC-CD pairs to form the inclusion complex. The enthalpic and entropic component of the standard Gibbs free energy of complex formation as derived from the temperature dependence of the binding constant indicate the thermodynamic origin of the binding to vary greatly among the systems studied, but follow the global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationships reported previously in the literature.

  13. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  14. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  17. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  18. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  19. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachina, A.

    2008-07-01

    Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activities in urban and industrial areas cause environmental problems such as air quality degradation, respiratory diseases, climate change, global warming, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major air pollutants, emitted largely by industry, transportation and households. Many VOCs are toxic, and some are considered to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. A wide spectrum of VOCs is readily oxidized photocatalytically. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) over titanium dioxide may present a potential alternative to air treatment strategies currently in use, such as adsorption and thermal treatment, due to its advantageous activity under ambient conditions, although higher but still mild temperatures may also be applied. The objective of the present research was to disclose routes of chemical reactions, estimate the kinetics and the sensitivity of gas-phase PCO to reaction conditions in respect of air pollutants containing heteroatoms in their molecules. Deactivation of the photocatalyst and restoration of its activity was also taken under consideration to assess the practical possibility of the application of PCO to the treatment of air polluted with VOCs. UV-irradiated titanium dioxide was selected as a photocatalyst for its chemical inertness, non-toxic character and low cost. In the present work Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was mostly used. In transient studies platinized TiO{sub 2} was also studied. The experimental research into PCO of following VOCs was undertaken: - methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the basic oxygenated motor fuel additive and, thus, a major non-biodegradable pollutant of groundwater; - tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary product of MTBE hydrolysis and PCO; - ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) as one of the reduced sulphur pungent air pollutants in the pulp-and-paper industry; - methylamine (MA) and dimethylamine (DMA) as the amino compounds often

  20. Preliminary study natural gas; Foerstudie naturgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamnevik, Stefan; Carlsson, Tomas; Dyhr, Kurt

    2000-09-01

    FOA has carried out a preliminary study on natural gas for the Swedish National Energy Administration. To use natural gas as an energy source could be one step towards use of carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen content. It has a high heat of combustion, 55 MJ/kg, and a low emission of carbon dioxide, 2.8 kg/kg fuel or 0.051 kg/MJ. The carbon dioxide emission per energy unit is twice as high for coal, 75% higher for wood fuels, and 27% higher for fuel oils. The Swedish natural gas network starts at Malmoe and ends at Hyltebruk. The natural gas used is imported from Denmark by Sydgas AB. It would be possible in the future to get connections to the Russian and the Norwegian networks and also to import LNG by ship and store it to buffer the different consumption demands during summer and winter. Natural gas is non-toxic but can be suffocating due to too low oxygen content at high concentrations. Combustion with an inadequate air supply will form toxic carbon monoxide like other carbonaceous fuels. Natural gas/air mixtures may explode like other gaseous fuels. The gas is lighter than air and is therefore dispersed better than heavier gases like LPG. Natural gas is difficult to detonate unlike other gases.

  1. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  2. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  3. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  6. Natural gas in the cereal industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezat; Solana (Gaz de France, Division Industrie Gaz, 75 - Paris)

    1985-05-01

    The cereal industries such as malt factories, biscuit factories, production of flour, semolina, starch and pasta are high energy consumers. Natural gas is now very much used for direct or indirect processes, for boilers or for ovens and this article present the various advantages of natural gas for these purposes: cost savings, flexibility of use, direct application, reduced pollution and associated charges.

  7. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  9. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  10. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  11. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry.

  12. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  13. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  14. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  15. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  16. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  17. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  18. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  20. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE GAS... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas...

  1. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  2. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  3. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  4. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  5. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  6. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  7. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

    2009-06-16

    It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  8. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4*(C3H8] and [(C2H62] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84 in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  9. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  10. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  11. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  12. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  13. Safe purging of natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, T.K. (Arco Oil and Gas Co. (US)); Euchner, J.A. (Nynex Corp. (US))

    1988-11-01

    When a newly constructed natural gas pipeline is put into service, it can be safely purged of air by injection of a slug of inert gas, such as N/sub 2/. The method of sizing the required slug is based on a model of dispersion in turbulent flow in conjunction with flammability limits.

  14. Natural Gas Annual 1984. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, E.H.

    1985-12-31

    This publication provides information on deliveries of natural gas to large end users by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code for 5 heating years from 1980-1981 through 1985-1985. Tables are presented showing deliveries of natural gas: (1) to the top 20 industries; (2) to large end users by SIC; (3) by the top 100 distributors; (4) to large end users by industry and state; and (5) to large end users by state. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  16. Hydrothermally carbonized plant materials: patterns of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Roland; Dorgerloh, Ute; Helmis, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Diakité, Mamadou; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    The nature and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in chars generated by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is of concern considering their application as soil amendment. Therefore, the presence of VOCs in solid HTC products obtained from wheat straw, biogas digestate and four woody materials was investigated using headspace gas chromatography. A variety of potentially harmful benzenic, phenolic and furanic volatiles along with various aldehydes and ketones were identified in feedstock- and temperature-specific patterns. The total amount of VOCs observed after equilibration between headspace and char samples produced at 270°C ranged between 2000 and 16,000μg/g (0.2-1.6wt.%). Depending on feedstock 50-9000μg/g of benzenes and 300-1800μg/g of phenols were observed. Substances potentially harmful to soil ecology such as benzofurans (200-800μg/g) and p-cymene (up to 6000μg/g in pine wood char) exhibited concentrations that suggest restrained application of fresh hydrochar as soil amendment or for water purification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  18. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals (or chars) derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Also, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program addresses the contributions and the mechanisms of cofiring natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization.

  19. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  20. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  1. Canadian natural gas : review of 2007/08 and outlook to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    This report discussed natural gas industry trends in Canada and the United States. An overview of the current state of the North American natural gas market was provided in addition to a historical record of 2007. Recent natural gas market dynamics related to supply and demand were evaluated using statistical data from the National Energy Board (NEB); the United States Energy Information Administration (EIA); and Statistics Canada. Natural gas consumed by oil sands producers represented 412 billion cubic feet. The data indicated that major changes are now occurring in the North American gas market. While Canadian gas production has declined, unconventional gas development will result in higher Canadian production levels. Producers are now paying higher prices for shale prospective land in British Columbia (BC). Natural gas prices have dropped significantly as a result of the volatility of crude oil prices. North American storage volumes have also fallen from 3.5 Tcf to 3.3 Tcf. Net exports in 2007 represented 56 per cent of the total gas produced in Canada. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplies will moderate the price of natural gas in the future. It was concluded that new regulation and policies must not impede the sustainable development of natural gas supplies. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 32 figs.

  2. Natural gas utilization study: offshore Newfoundland, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This study is designed to quantify the natural gas resources of Newfoundland, identify production and transportation options and outline the terms of reference for a follow-up study. Phase One of the study (i.e. this one) is considered a scoping study, whereas Phase Two will be devoted to a comprehensive examination of all critical issues. The ultimate objective is to create a development strategy for natural gas in Newfoundland. Current estimates of the natural gas resource base for the Province is 61.9 Tcf. Of the discovered resources (8.2 Tcf in total) 4.2 Tcf, to perhaps 5.2 Tcf, are in the Jeanne d`Arc Basin. In the near term, the resources of the Jeanne d`Arc represent the best opportunity for development, although a preliminary analysis of stand-alone gas development in the Jeanne d`Arc Basin does not show a positive rate of return on the cost/price assumptions used in the study. Chapters 1 and 2 of the report contain background on natural gas resources throughout the world, and a summary and conclusions with regard to the study of Newfoundland natural gas resources. Chapters 3 to 6 contain a detailed assessment of the resource endowment in Newfoundland and Labrador, an overview of natural gas production and transportation systems, and the results of a preliminary economic analysis of natural gas potential in Newfoundland taking into account resource size, timing, development and operating costs, prices and fiscal systems. Chapter 7 provides the terms of reference for Phase Two of the study.

  3. Natural gas profile: the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on the number of establishments and employment in each segment, natural gas consumption for each segment in each U.S. state, natural gas prices in various U.S. regions, fuel conservation possibilities in the baking industry, FEA policy on curtailment of gas supplies, and the economic impact of such possible curtailments. (LCL)

  4. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company 12..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These...

  5. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG CITIGROUP... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and...

  6. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal Building...

  7. Natural gas storage; Stockage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-07-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  8. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  9. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  10. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  11. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  12. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-02

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.

  13. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  14. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  15. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  16. Evaporation release behavior of volatile fission products from liquid sodium pool to the inert cover gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, T.; Miyahara, S. [Oarai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oaraimachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In fuel failure of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, released volatile fission products (VFPs) such as iodine and cesium from the fuel will be dissolved into the liquid sodium coolant and transferred to the cover vaporization. In the cover gas system of the reactor, natural convection occurs due to temperature differences between the sodium pool and the gas phase. The release rates of VFPs together with sodium vaporization are considered to be controlled by the convection. In this study, three analytical models are developed and examined to calculate the transient release rates using the equilibrium partition coefficients of VFPs. The calculated release rates are compared with experimental results for sodium and sodium iodide. The release rate of sodium is closest to the calculation by the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The release rate of sodium iodide obtained from the experiment is between the release rates calculated by the model based on heat-and-mass transfer analogy and the Hill`s theory. From this study, it is confirmed that the realistic release rate of sodium is able to be calculated by the model based on the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The conservative release rate of sodium iodide is able to be calculated by the model based on the Hill`s theory using the equilibrium partition coefficient of sodium iodide. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  17. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  18. Air impacts of increased natural gas acquisition, processing, and use: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher W; Zielinska, Barbara; Pétron, Gabrielle; Jackson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, technological advancements in the United States and Canada have led to rapid and intensive development of many unconventional natural gas plays (e.g., shale gas, tight sand gas, coal-bed methane), raising concerns about environmental impacts. Here, we summarize the current understanding of local and regional air quality impacts of natural gas extraction, production, and use. Air emissions from the natural gas life cycle include greenhouse gases, ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), air toxics, and particulates. National and state regulators primarily use generic emission inventories to assess the climate, air quality, and health impacts of natural gas systems. These inventories rely on limited, incomplete, and sometimes outdated emission factors and activity data, based on few measurements. We discuss case studies for specific air impacts grouped by natural gas life cycle segment, summarize the potential benefits of using natural gas over other fossil fuels, and examine national and state emission regulations pertaining to natural gas systems. Finally, we highlight specific gaps in scientific knowledge and suggest that substantial additional measurements of air emissions from the natural gas life cycle are essential to understanding the impacts and benefits of this resource.

  19. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) as part of the environmental review of the Liberty... governing their licensing, and the receipt of the current application for the proposed Liberty Deepwater...

  20. Gas Sensor for Volatile Anesthetic Agents Based on Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Sebastian; Popovska-Leipertz, Nadejda; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    Continuous monitoring of respiratory and anesthetic gases during a surgery is of vital importance for the patient safety. Commonly the gas composition is determined by gas chromatography or a combination of IR-spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. This study presents a concept for an optical sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering which offers several advantages compared to established systems. All essential components can be detected simultaneously, no sample preparation is necessary and it provides fast response times. To reach the performance of a commonly used gas monitor signal gain has to be increased e.g. by using a multi pass setup.

  1. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Characterization of the volatile profile of thistle honey using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Mangia, A; Mattarozzi, M; Musci, M

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a headspace solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the characterization of the volatile fraction of thistle honey and compared with a dynamic headspace extraction method. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used. The effects of extraction time, equilibration time and salt addition on extraction yield were evaluated. The volatile fraction of seven Italian thistle honey samples was extracted under the optimized conditions and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characterization of the volatile profile was performed in terms of nature and relative amount of the extracted compounds. A total of 40 compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, were identified. The relative amounts of 16 compounds found in all the analyzed thistle honeys, i.e. nonanal, furfural, decanal, 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, benzaldehyde, α-linalool, lilac aldehyde (isomer IV), hotrienol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, a not identified compound, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and methyl anthranilate, were calculated and submitted to statistical analysis, in order to define for each compound a typical range. On the basis of the obtained data, a characteristic set of values was defined for thistle honey volatile fingerprint. The developed model proved to be effective in recognizing the botanical origin of thistle honey. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural vs. Anthropogenic: Combined Measurements of Methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) for Investigating Sources of Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, N.; Assan, S.; Gros, V.; Laville, P.; Loubet, B.; Ciuraru, R.; Baisnee, D.; Bonsang, B.; Sarda Esteve, R.; Chuppin, G.; Truong, F.; Lafouge, F.; Vogel, F. R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is the second globally most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, whose emissions contribute more than 1/3 of today's additional anthropogenic warming. Methane is emitted from the production and transport of coal, oil and natural gas, as well as from livestock and agricultural practices as well as from natural sources such as e.g. wetlands, freshwaters and wild fauna. Volatile organic compounds constitute less than 0.1% of the total atmospheric composition; however, their emissions and further atmospheric photo-oxidation reactions produce ozone and secondary organic aerosols which have adverse effects on climate and air quality. We measured the concentration of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropland located in the North-West of Europe during June 2016. The measurements site was located nearby a farm and a methanizer bioreactor, therefore was affected by contrasted sources of emissions: agricultural practices, enteric digestion of livestock, animal manures as well as possible leakages from the biogas unit. Here, measurements of methane, its isotopic composition, and VOCs concentrations are combined to investigate the fingerprint of these sources. Specifically, VOCs, as alkanes which are co-emitted by natural gas, and other compounds as ammonia and NOx will help to unravel the different sources contributions.

  4. Characterization of aroma volatiles in select tangerine hybrids by gas chromatography-olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma volatiles in orange juice have been well studied1 but little information is available on those found in fresh tangerine. Five of 25 tangerine hybrids studied in the 2007-2008 season were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) using the time intensity (Osme) method. The choice of sa...

  5. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  6. How Volatile is ENSO for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Global Economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes two indexes in order to capture the volatility inherent in El Niños Southern Oscillations (ENSO), develops the relationship between the strength of ENSO and greenhouse gas emissions, which increase as the economy grows, with carbon dioxide being the major

  7. How Volatile is ENSO for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Global Economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes two indexes in order to capture the volatility inherent in El Niños Southern Oscillations (ENSO), develops the relationship between the strength of ENSO and greenhouse gas emissions, which increase as the economy grows, with carbon dioxide being the major greenhouse

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with headspace for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, V I; Sapelnikova, S V; Djazhenko, E V; Teplova, G I; Shajdulina, G F; Kudasheva, F Kh

    2004-02-05

    Headspace analysis combined with high-resolution gas chromatography and detection by mass spectrometry was evaluated for the analysis of 53 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in river waters, waste waters and treated water samples down to 0.1 microgl(-1) concentration levels. The conditions optimised included sample thermostatting time and temperature, autosampler parameters and the nature of salt, added to the sample. The pollutions origin and their seasonal rippling have been done. It was shown that the content of VOCs in river water mainly correlates to the content of these compounds in waste waters, which shows the anthropogenic character of the pollutions.

  9. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  10. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  11. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  12. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  13. Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups in aroma volatiles compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2016-01-15

    Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Here, we analysed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural sub-groups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). We found that mandarin varieties among tangors ('Temple', 'Ortanique'), tangelos ('Orlando', 'Minneola') and King ('King') had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the sub-groups common mandarin ('Ora', 'Ponkan'), clementine ('Oroval', 'Caffin'), satsuma ('Okitsu', 'Owari') and Mediterranean mandarin ('Avana', 'Yusuf Efendi'). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups according to their aroma-volatile profiles. Although we found wide differences in aroma-volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural sub-groups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural sub-group. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma-volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programmes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Gas phase measurements of pyruvic acid and its volatile metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby J; Sommer, Evan D; Saleska, Scott R; Huxman, Travis E; Harley, Peter C; Abrell, Leif

    2010-04-01

    Pyruvic acid, central to leaf carbon metabolism, is a precursor of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that impact air quality and climate. Although the pathways involved in the production of isoprenoids are well-known, those of several oxygenated VOCs remain uncertain. We present concentration and flux measurements of pyruvic acid and other VOCs within the tropical rainforest (TRF) biome at Biosphere 2. Pyruvic acid concentrations varied diurnally with midday maxima up to 15 ppbv, perhaps due to enhanced production rates and suppression of mitochondrial respiration in the light. Branch fluxes and ambient concentrations of pyruvic acid correlated with those of acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetic acid, isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. While pyruvic acid is a known substrate for isoprenoid synthesis, this correlation suggests that the oxygenated VOCs may also derive from pyruvic acid, an idea supported by leaf feeding experiments with sodium pyruvate which resulted in large enhancements in emissions of both isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs. While feeding with sodium pyruvate-2-(13)C resulted in large emissions of both (13)C-labeled isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs, feeding with sodium pyruvate-1-(13)C resulted in only (13)C-labeled isoprenoids. This suggests that acetaldehyde, ethanol, and acetic acid are produced from pyruvic acid via the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass system (in which the 1-C carbon of pyruvic acid is lost as CO(2)) and that acetone is also derived from the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid.

  15. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  16. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  17. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  19. Natural gas and petroleum, the loveless revenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R. [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    With the notable exception of the United States of America, petroleum and natural gas reserves are the government property. The exploitation of these resources can be carried out by or shared with a private company in agreement with the government, on the condition of land leasing, joint venture participation, or payment of specific taxes. This paper gives an historical review of worldwide petroleum and natural gas exploitation systems in use from the end of the nineteenth century to now. Nationalization, land leasing, production sharing contracts, foreign investments are discussed and illustrated with the examples of Arab and Middle East countries, Indonesia, Venezuela and USSR in their historical socio-economical and political contexts. The key of success lies in the adaptability of negotiations and in the establishment of mutual confidence agreements. (J.S.).

  20. Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

  1. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  2. [Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in workplace air by protable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H B; Su, C J; Tang, H F; Ruan, Z; Liu, D H; Wang, H; Qian, Y L

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To establish a method for rapid determination of 47 volatile organic compounds in the air of workplace using portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS). Methods: The mixed standard gas with different concentration levels was made by using the static gas distribution method with the high purity nitrogen as dilution gas. The samples were injected into the GC-MS by a hand-held probe. Retention time and characteristic ion were used for qualitative analysis,and the internal standard method was usd for quantitation. Results: The 47 poisonous substances were separated and determined well. The linear range of this method was 0.2-16.0 mg/m(3),and the relative standard deviation of 45 volatile ovganic compounds was 3.8%-15.8%. The average recovery was 79.3%-119.0%. Conclusion: The method is simple,accurate,sensitive,has good separation effect,short analysis period, can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in the workplace, and also supports the rapid identification and detection of occupational hazards.

  3. Air concentrations of volatile compounds near oil and gas production: a community-based exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Gregg P; Breech, Ruth; Chernaik, Mark; Cox, Caroline; Larson, Denny; Thomas, Deb; Carpenter, David O

    2014-10-30

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other drilling and well stimulation technologies are now used widely in the United States and increasingly in other countries. They enable increases in oil and gas production, but there has been inadequate attention to human health impacts. Air quality near oil and gas operations is an underexplored human health concern for five reasons: (1) prior focus on threats to water quality; (2) an evolving understanding of contributions of certain oil and gas production processes to air quality; (3) limited state air quality monitoring networks; (4) significant variability in air emissions and concentrations; and (5) air quality research that misses impacts important to residents. Preliminary research suggests that volatile compounds, including hazardous air pollutants, are of potential concern. This study differs from prior research in its use of a community-based process to identify sampling locations. Through this approach, we determine concentrations of volatile compounds in air near operations that reflect community concerns and point to the need for more fine-grained and frequent monitoring at points along the production life cycle. Grab and passive air samples were collected by trained volunteers at locations identified through systematic observation of industrial operations and air impacts over the course of resident daily routines. A total of 75 volatile organics were measured using EPA Method TO-15 or TO-3 by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Formaldehyde levels were determined using UMEx 100 Passive Samplers. Levels of eight volatile chemicals exceeded federal guidelines under several operational circumstances. Benzene, formaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were the most common compounds to exceed acute and other health-based risk levels. Air concentrations of potentially dangerous compounds and chemical mixtures are frequently present near oil and gas production sites. Community-based research can provide an

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Boundary Layer in Tikveš, Kopački Rit Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač-Andrić, E.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents one of the first measurements of volatile hydrocarbon concentrations within the surface layer of the troposphere in Tikveš, Kopaeki Rit Nature Park. This Nature Park is situated about 20 kilometres from the city of Osijek and represents an interesting example of the interaction of the urban and rural (wetland areas, which is also the reason for selecting the Tikveš site as the measurement station.Volatile organic compounds with two to seven carbon atoms were measured and analysed on a gas chromatograph with flame ionization (FID and mass-selective detector (MSD. The results for the hydrocarbons with 2 to 7 carbon atoms are shown. Ozone volume fractions in the air were also measured. All data obtained are given as hourly averages: for volatile hydrocarbons of concentrations and for ozone of volume fractions. The most significant changes in the concentration were found for ethane, propane and butane. With the exception of isoprene, whose daily concentration changes similarly as found for ozone, the daily variations of the measured hydrocarbons in Tikveš differ from the observed ozone diurnal variation. The Spearman's test showed no significant negative correlation between the measured hydrocarbons.

  5. Volatile compounds in Spanish, French, and American oak woods after natural seasoning and toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-09-24

    The volatile composition (volatile phenols, phenolic aldehydes, furanic compounds, lactones, phenyl ketones, and other related compounds) of Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea was studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in relation to the processing in barrels cooperage and in relation to the French oak of Quercus robur (Limousin) and Quercus petraea (Allier) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. The volatile composition of seasoned oak woods varied according to individual trees, species, and origins, and the differences were more significant in Spanish species with respect to American species than with respect to French species. The toasting process influenced the volatile composition of wood. It led to high increases in the concentration of volatile phenols, furanic aldehydes, phenyl ketones, and other related structures, but the effect on w-lactones levels depended on species and origin. The volatile composition in Spanish oak species evolved during toasting like in French and American oak, but quantitative differences were found, especially important in American species with respect to European species.

  6. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  7. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  8. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower investment cost, shorter construction time, and new plants canmore easily be sited. NGCC can also be fitted with carbon capture equipment either during construction or as aretrofit. As a result, NGCC is seen as a potential bridge to a low-CO2 future, which would increasingly rely ontechnologies such as wind, solar, advanced nuclear, and carbon capture as those technologies mature [Cole et al.(2016), Nichols and Victor (2015), and C2ES (2013)]. A logical approach may be to displace coal with new NGCCin the near-term, building NGCC near geological storage sites. Later the NGCC could be retrofit with CO2 capture(NGCC-CCS) when the regulatory or economic drivers are in place [IEA (2007)]. There are, however, technicalchallenges to widespread deployment of NGCC-CCS. First, fugitive methane emissions associated with natural gasproduction, transmission, and distribution processes could offset some of the climate benefits of using natural gas[McJeon et al. (2014)]. Second, applying carbon capture retrofit technologies to NGCC results in cost and energypenalties [Teir et al. (2010)], both of which affect its competitiveness. Third, the lower carbon content of natural gasmay yield difficulties in captur

  9. Analysis by gas liquid chromatography of production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic bacteria grown on solid medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, R J; Wilks, M.; Tabaqchali, S

    1985-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids produced in Robertson's cooked meat medium by a range of clinically relevant anaerobes were compared by gas liquid chromatography with those produced in blood agar. The same volatile fatty acid profiles were obtained in both media, although the concentration of acids was lower in blood agar. We conclude that detection of volatile fatty acids from a pure culture of an organism on solid medium is practicable and offers advantages over the conventional technique.

  10. Abundant Shale Gas Resources: Long-Term Implications for U.S. Natural Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Krupnick, Alan

    2010-01-01

    According to recent assessments, the United States has considerably more recoverable natural gas in shale formations than was previously thought. Such a development raises expectations that U.S. energy consumption will shift toward natural gas. To examine how the apparent abundance of natural gas and projected growth of its use might affect natural gas prices, production, and consumption, we use NEMS-RFF to model a number of scenarios—reflecting different perspectives on natural gas availabil...

  11. World trade in liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P. J.; Daniels, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of LNG projects make it evident that significant activity is continuing on the development of base-load LNG projects to serve all three major gas markets: Europe, Japan, and the United States. These activities have resulted in the development of an international LNG trade of approximately 48.2 billion m/sup 3//y. This represents nearly one-third of the current level of pipeline import/exports of natural gas. By 1982, when all of the projects considered to be firm or under construction are implemented, LNG trade will have grown to a level of 53.7 billion m/sup 3//y. With the implementation of the probable projects by the mid-1980's, this level could increase to more than 112.55 billion m/sup 3//y. Assuming that the 102.2 billion m/sup 3//y of pipeline import/export projects currently proposed and under construction are implemented in the same period, LNG's relatively more rapid growth will have increased to 48% of the amount of natural gas traded by pipeline.

  12. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Suk Bin

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

  13. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  14. Refocused energy policy: a natural gas perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    The present adminstration's policy on energy development is briefly summarized. While the Department of Energy will be dismantled, several important functions will be preserved and will continue elsewhere in government. The administration's aim is not to present an energy blueprint to predetermine energy solutions, rather, policy is based on the belief that the marketplace must be allowed to determine the most economic and durable energy sources. Revision of the federal leasing policy is discussed. Free market pricing of oil and gas is another key aspect of the new energy policy. The development of advanced technology in the areas of natural gas recovery, methane from coalbed, development of tight sands deposits, geopressured aquifers, and coal gasification is also discussed.

  15. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  16. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  17. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  18. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, Western U.S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of June 2004. This is a static dataset even...

  19. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  20. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  1. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  2. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  3. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  4. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  5. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  6. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  7. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a sudden increase in demand and utilization of natural gas in Nigeria; this may be attributed to federal government policy on establishment of independent power plants and the rising cost of kerosene and fire wood. This increase in demand for natural gas call for design and construction of pipelines for natural gas ...

  8. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... Onshore Pipeline is a part of the Liberty Natural Gas Project, which will include a deepwater port (Port...

  9. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may, without...

  10. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  11. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services pursuant...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  13. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  14. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an order...

  15. Determination of volatile marker compounds in raw ham using headspace-trap gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Wirth, Melanie; Konstanz, Annette; Becker, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika

    2017-03-15

    A simple, reliable and automated method was developed and optimized for qualification and quantification of aroma-relevant volatile marker compounds of North European raw ham using a headspace (HS)-Trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID) analysis. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected with this HS-Trap GC-MS method amongst which the largest groups were ketones (12), alcohols (8), hydrocarbons (7), aldehydes (6) and esters (3). The HS-Trap GC-FID method was optimized for the parameters: thermostatting time and temperature, vial and desorption pressure, number of extraction cycles and salt addition. A validation for 13 volatile marker compounds with limits of detection in ng/g was carried out. The optimized method can serve as alternative to conventional headspace and solid phase micro extraction methods and allows users to determine volatile compounds in raw hams making it of interest to industrial and academic meat scientists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reformed natural gas. Appendix; Reformeret naturgas. Appendiks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  17. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  19. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  20. Tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester determination by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón Fernando; del Carmen Estrada-Montoya, María

    2004-09-08

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography were used for tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester quantitation. Several factors determined the differences in tequila volatile profiles obtained by the SPME technique, namely, sampling mode, fiber coating, and fiber exposure time. Each of these factors determined the most suitable conditions for the analysis of volatile profiles in tequila. Volatile extraction consisted of placing 40 mL of tequila in a sealed vial kept at 40 degrees C. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber was immersed in the liquid for 60 min and desorbed for 5 min into the gas chromatograph. The identified volatiles by mass spectrometry were mainly alcohols, esters, and ketones. The calibration curves for ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, and decanoate followed linear relationships with highly significant (p tequila samples. Quantitative differences in ethyl esters were found for the four most commonly known tequila types: silver, gold, aged, and extra-aged.

  1. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... CANADA CORPORATION 12-151-LNG SEMPRA LNG MARKETING, LLC 12-155-LNG DTE GAS COMPANY 12-175-NG MAGNOLIA LNG... ENERGY GAS MARKETING, LIMITED PARTNERSHIP.. 13-19-LNG ROYAL BANK OF CANADA 13-21-NG AECO GAS STORAGE... March 25, 2013. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Oil and Gas...

  2. Natural gas and energy revolution: A case study of Sichuan–Chongqing gas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For a full and accurate understanding of the position and role of natural gas in China's energy revolution and providing a decision-making reference for the scientific establishment of natural gas development strategies and the deepening of the energy revolution, this paper analyzed the role of natural gas in guiding the energy revolution in China and points out the main direction of natural gas utilization in the Sichuan–Chongqing gas province which takes the lead in China's natural gas industry. The study provides the following findings. First, with a huge space for development, natural gas will play an important role in China's third energy revolution. Second, natural gas resources are abundant and have a huge potential for development in China. Third, natural gas can be used for a large range of purposes in the Sichuan–Chongqing gas province. In addition to be used as city gas, natural gas can also be used for industrial fuel mainly as a substitute for coal, transportation, distributed energy, peak-shaving power generation, and high-end natural gas chemical raw materials. Some conclusions are made. First, as the cleanest fossil energy and the best fuel, natural gas will play an irreplaceable role in China's third energy revolution in the 21st century. Second, the Sichuan–Chongqing gas province is rich in natural gas, hydropower and other renewable resources. By 2020, it will become the largest gas production province in China, with natural gas production over 550 × 108 m3. By 2030, driven by the rapid development of shale gas, gas production in the province is expected to exceed 800 × 108 m3. Third, the Sichuan–Chongqing gas province is likely to become the leader in China's third energy revolution.

  3. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  4. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  5. Legislative competence relative to natural gas; Competencia legislativa atinente ao gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para Habilitacao em Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    The expansion of the gas industry in our country in the actual days, allied to the constitutional authorization for the private initiative acting in this sector provides the establishment of precise rules to the consequent market consolidation. In spite of the exigencies, one realises that the law no. 9.487/97, often denominated as Oil Law, does not rule in its fullness the specifics situations concerned to the natural gas. Despite the elaboration of the natural gas Law is a target of the governmental politics, overcoming the question pondered, there is not, until now, a detailed study of the legislative competency regimen relative to the natural gas. This very work, notably, gathers relevance in front of the State shape adopted in our country and the federative pact historically built; while aiming the complex distribution of legislative power made to each one of the political entities, there is need to establish the limits of performance to the sort of the coming gas Law, under penalty its arising with an unconstitutionality defect confronting to the federative pact. In the sense of clarifying the probably doubts around the subject and allowing that power comes closer to the people are our considerations proposed for. (author)

  6. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Air pollutant emissions from the development, production, and processing of Marcellus Shale natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban A; Adams, Peter J; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale is one of the largest natural gas reserves in the United States; it has recently been the focus of intense drilling and leasing activity. This paper describes an air emissions inventory for the development, production, and processing of natural gas in the Marcellus Shale region for 2009 and 2020. It includes estimates of the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and primary fine particulate matter (Gas Rule. These regulations significantly reduce the Marcellus VOC and NOx emissions, but there are significant opportunities for further reduction in these emissions using existing technologies. The Marcellus Shale is one of the largest natural gas reserves in United States. The development and production of this gas may emit substantial amounts of oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds. These emissions may have special significance because Marcellus development is occurring close to areas that have been designated nonattainment for the ozone standard. Control technologies exist to substantially reduce these impacts. PM2.5 emissions are predicted to be negligible in a regional context, but elemental carbon emissions from diesel powered equipment may be important.

  8. The perspectives of the natural gas in Mexico; Las perspecivas del gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez S, Luis [DIAVAZ S.A de C.V, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    As never before in the last year we have suffered the increases in the cost of the natural gas. For those who are not aware, the prices have gone from 2.48 dollars per million BTU a year ago to 9.57 last month. The truth is that we are facing a true world-wide energy crisis. From one year to date the prices of all the energy sources have increased an average superior to 30%, including increases in Diesel oil, LP Gas, Natural Gas, Turbine fuel. The causes are many and very varied, from efficiency decisions, as in the case of the electrical Generation that has chosen to incline definitively to the natural gas, confusing de-regulations as in the case of California, increases of demand beyond the anticipated by economic activity, changes of consumption pattern, etc.. This demonstrates the well focussed and the opportunity of this Seminar, since there is no doubt that it has become imperative a single and efficient criterium on this so limited resource. In Mexico, the situation is very similar. Recently a measurement has been implemented that tries to palliate the conjunctural effects of this crisis and PEMEX has put to the disposition of the users a contract at fixed price, for three years and by a specific amount. [Spanish] Como nunca antes en el ultimo ano hemos resentido los incrementos en el gasto del gas natural. Para quien no este al tanto los precios han pasado de 2.48 dolares por millon de BTU hace un ano a 9.57 el mes pasado. La verdad es que os estamos enfrentando a una verdadera crisis energetica mundial. De un ano para aca todos los energeticos han aumentado un promedio superior al 30%, incluyendo aumentos en Diesel, Gas LP, Gas Natural, Turbosina. Las causas son muchas y muy variadas, desde decisiones de eficiencia, como en el caso de la Generacion electrica que ha optado por inclinarse definitivamente por el gas natural, desregulaciones confusas como en el caso de California, incrementos de demanda mas alla de lo previsto por actividad economica, cambios

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  10. The lead-lag relationships between spot and futures prices of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Liu, Li

    2018-01-01

    The lead-lag relationships between spot and futures markets are of great interest for academics. Previous studies neglect the possibility of nonlinear behaviors which may be caused by asymmetry or persistence. To fill this gap, this paper uses the MF-DCCA method and the linear and nonlinear causality tests to explore the causal relationships between natural gas spot and futures prices in the New York Mercantile Exchange. We find that spot and futures prices are positive cross-correlated, the natural gas futures can linearly Granger cause spot price, and there are bidirectional nonlinear causality relationships between natural gas spot and futures prices. Further, we explore the sources of nonlinear causality relationships, and find that the volatility spillover can partly explain the nonlinear causality and affect their cross-correlations.

  11. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i

  12. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  13. Liquefaction and merchandising of offshore natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.W. (LGA Gastechnik G.m.b.H., Remagen (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-01-01

    The liquefaction of offshore natural gas is a relatively new technology, and years of intensive research and development indicate that it is now feasible. But problems can occur in the phase of merchandising the cryogenic liquid. In this context, the necessary steps start with the intermediate product storage which maybe integrated in the liquefaction platform, or which possibly has to be on an external structure. The product transfer from the platform to the exporting tanker is another problem area. The paper deals with the principle design features of the liquefaction plant's supporting structure (barge, semisubmersible or fixed platform). Special emphasize is given to the technical, the operational and the economic aspects of the product transfer from the offshore liquefaction site to the coastal terminal and these considerations are summarized under the heading merchandising.

  14. Volatile organic compound gas sensor based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Moon, Seung Eon; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jongdae

    2013-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with nanoparticle size were fabricated to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) existed in building, especially, formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. The sensing materials for screen printing were prepared using roll milling process with binder. The crystallite sizes of prepared materials were about 15 nm through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas existing in building. In particular, the sensors showed responses to HCHO gas at sub ppm as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repeativity, selectivity, and response time of sensor. The transients were very sharp, taking less than 2 s for 90% response. The sensor has shown very stable response at 350 degrees C and followed a very good behavior and showed 60% response in 50 ppb HCHO concentration at 350 degrees C operating temperatures.

  15. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  16. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  17. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talaber, Leah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McPherson, Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parrott, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manzanares, Trevor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  18. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit

  19. The generation and accumulation of natural gas from Yinan 2 gas pool in Kuqa Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.Q.; Xiao, X.M.; Tang, Y.C.; Xiao, Z.Y.; Mi, J.L.; Liu, D.H.; Shen, J.G.; Liu, J.Z.

    2004-12-01

    By using the methods of hydrocarbon generation kinetics and carbon isotope kinetics, combined with geological background of natural gas pool formation, the generation and accumulation of natural gas from Yinan 2 gas pool was studied in Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin. Natural gas of Yinan 2 gas pool is mainly derived from Middle and Lower Jurassic coal-bearing source rocks, and generally belongs to long time-accumulated gas. It is suggested that Yinan 2 gas is chiefly accumulated in the last 5 Ma, its R-o ranges from 1.25% to 1.95%, and the loss rate of natural gas is about 25%-30%. This work not only complements and reduces the deficiency of formation model of natural gas pools which traditionally depends on the matching relationships between source rock, reservoir, cap rock, and trap, but also is a useful reference in the study of other gas pools.

  20. Measurement of gas and volatile elements production rates in molten lead bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, M

    2004-01-01

    Production rates of gas and volatile elements produced following spallation raction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid LBE target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of great interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA coupled with an evolution code such as ORIHET3. Preliminary results show good comparison with MC data for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I results indicate that only a fraction of the produced isotopes are released.

  1. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  2. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL−1, and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL−1. This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis. PMID:26819905

  3. Determination of volatile sulphur compounds in air at the parts per trillion level by Tenax trapping and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A

    1986-09-24

    A gas chromatographic technique is described for measuring various volatile sulphur compounds (H2S, COS, CS2, thiols, sulphides, disulphides) in air at the parts per trillion level. The sulphur compounds are trapped and concentrated at -196 degrees C in a small glass tube filled with the porous polymer Tenax GC. The excess of water in the air samples is pretrapped by calcium chloride, which drying agent does not adsorb any of the sulphur volatiles. The Tenax trap tube fits exactly in the injection port of the gas chromatograph, where the adsorbed sulphur compounds are liberated at 200 degrees C directly into the carrier gas stream and are transferred to the gas chromatographic column. The sulphur compounds are then assayed by means of a flame photometric detector. The Tenax trap tubes can be stored at -196 degrees C for more than 1 week without any loss of sulphur volatiles.

  4. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  5. Method for analysis of polar volatile trace components in aqueous samples by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2005-05-15

    A new method has been developed for direct analysis of volatile polar trace compounds in aqueous samples by gas chromatography. Water samples are injected onto a short packed precolumn containing anhydrous lithium chloride. A capillary column is coupled in series with the prefractionation column for final separation of the analytes. The enrichment principle of the salt precolumn is reverse to the principles employed in conventional methods such as SPE or SPME in which a sorbent or adsorbent is utilized to trap or concentrate the analytes. Such methods are not efficient for highly polar compounds. In the LiCl precolumn concept, the water matrix is strongly retained on the hygroscopic salt, whereas polar as well as nonpolar volatile organic compounds show very low retention and are eluted ahead of the water. After transfer of the analytes to the capillary column, the retained bulk water is removed by backflushing the precolumn at elevated temperature. For direct injections of 120 microL of aqueous samples, the combined time for injection and preseparation is only 3.5 min. With this procedure, direct repetitive automated analyses of highly volatile polar compounds such as methanol or tetrahydrofuran can be performed, and a limit of quantification in the low parts-per-billion region utilizing a flame ionization detector is demonstrated.

  6. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  7. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  8. Experimental Simulation of the Exploitation of Natural Gas Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates are cage-like crystalline compounds in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming solids at low temperature and high pressure. Natural gas hydrates are widely distributed in permafrost regions and offshore. It is estimated that the worldwide amounts of methane bound in gas hydrates are total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on earth. A proper understanding of the relevant exploitation technologies is then important for natural gas production applications. In this paper, the recent advances on the experimental simulation of natural gas hydrate exploitation using the major hydrate production technologies are summarized. In addition, the current situation of the industrial exploitation of natural gas hydrate is introduced, which are expected to be useful for establishing more safe and efficient gas production technologies.

  9. Technical note: Characterization of key volatile odorants in rabbit meat using gas chromatography mass spectrometry with simultaneous distillation extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the key volatile compounds in both male and female rabbit meat. Simultaneous distillation extraction with dichloromethane was adopted to extract the volatile compounds in Hyla rabbit meat. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified with 2, 4, 6-thimethylpyridine as internal standard. Seventeen volatile aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 2 ketones, 2 acids, 1 heterocyclic compound, 2 alkanes and 7 esters were detected. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, (E, E-2, 4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol and (Z-2-decenal were the key odorant compounds, with high relative odour activity value. Furthermore, the concentration of volatile compounds in male rabbit meat was higher than that in female rabbit meat.

  10. The liberalization of natural gas market: from the natural monopoly to competitive market; La liberalizacion del mercado del gas natural. Del monopolio a un regimen de competencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasines Garcia, L. A. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The problems related to the efficient economic regulation of the bundled companies authorised to supply natural gas a result of the asymmetric information about the real costs of natural gas supply, joined to the increase of the density and degree of amortization of the natural gas grid have pushed the governments of the most developed countries of the world to promote competition in the natural gas market. The main instruments used to achieve that aim are the opening of the gird to third parties, the liberalization of the natural gas supply and the unbundling of the natural gas companies. (Author) 44 refs.

  11. Adsorbed natural gas usage in vehicles; Uso veicular do gas natural adsorvido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Flavio Barboza; Miller, Francisco Mateus; Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the actual state of development of the natural gas storage in activated carbons (ANG - adsorbed natural gas) for vehicles applications. This paper also presents the technological challenges that must be overcome to turn ANG viable for vehicles applications. The main results published in ANG, its theoretical limit and a preliminary comparison between the ANG and the GNC technologies are also presented in this work. The parameters used in that comparison were storage capacity, reservoir's weight and volume. The maximum methane storage capacity in activated carbon monoliths (theoretical limit), determined by molecular simulation, is lower than the CNG ones. Therefore, the ANG contribution to vehicles applications is not related to a higher storage capacity but to its lower working pressure, that represents an advantage by the following aspects: reduction or elimination the loss of useful space inside the vehicle; safety and price reduction of NG at fueling station. (author)

  12. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  13. Air ionization as a control technology for off-gas emissions of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO2 and H2O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O3). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O3, NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  15. A numerical study of liquid film distribution in wet natural gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.; Xu, W. W.; Guan, X. R.; Wang, J. J.; Jin, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    The software of FLUENT was used to simulate the gas-liquid turbulent flow in wet natural gas pipeline of the Puguang gas field. The RNG k- ɛ model was used to simulate the turbulent flow, the Mixture model was used to simulate gas-liquid mixed phase, and the Eulerian wall film model was used to simulate the formation and development of liquid film. The gas phase flow field characteristics, the distribution of the axial and circumferential film thickness, and the droplet distribution in the pipeline were studied when the gas Reynolds number is 7.72 × 106(10.8m/s). The results can be concluded as followed: Liquid film distributes unevenly along the circumferential direction and mostly distributes under the pipeline wall because of gravity. The impact of the dean vortex and centrifugal force in the straight section can also influence the liquid film distribution. The wall shear stress distributions in horizontal straight pipeline is concerned with liquid membrane volatility, and consistent with the film volatility period, the wall shear stress reached the maximum value in a certain position of wave front. The influence of the wall shear stress on the film fluctuation in inclined pipeline is weakened by gravity and other factors.

  16. Flow restriction of multicontrolled natural gas; Restritor de fluxo de gas natural microcontrolado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Suzuqui, Moises [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Scucuglia, Jose W.; Cortez, Marco A.A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the specific cases of control in the operation of natural gas distribution is of the automatic restriction of the outflow due the violations of standards of draining of the natural gas in the ducts. With the objective to get a device of low cost, with national technology and high technological value aggregate, developed an electronic, microcontrolled, programmable device, and of low cost, that will function connected the sensors and valves of flow control, of form to monitor in real time the outflow of draining of the natural gas in the respective ducts and to restrict of automatic form the outflow, that necessary or always convenient. The developed hardware was conceived using micro controllers of high performance with capacity of reading of sensors of pressure, temperature and measurers of outflow. Had to a serial communication and the storage in memory of mass with 264 capacity of Kbytes is possible the pertinent visualization of graphs and reports to the behavior of the outflow and performance of the system. An internal RTC - Real Clock Teams, added to the hardware a clock and a calendar for acquisition of data in the schedule defined, as well as the possibility of unloading of the data through the telephonic line, using one embedded modem. (author)

  17. Gas chromatographic study of the volatile products from co-pyrolysis of coal and polyethylene wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Blanco, C G; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R; Díez, M A

    2001-05-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the volatile products distribution of co-processing of coal with two plastic wastes, low-density polyethylene from agriculture greenhouses and high-density polyethylene from domestic uses, in order to explain the observed decrease in coal fluidity caused by polyethylene waste addition. Polymeric materials, although they are not volatile themselves, may be analysed by gas chromatography through the use of pyrolysis experiments. In this way, a series of pyrolysis tests were performed at 400 and 500 degrees C in a Gray-King oven with each of the two plastic wastes, one high-volatile bituminous coal and blends made up of coal and plastic waste (9:1, w/w, ratio). The pyrolysis temperatures, 400 and 500 degrees C, were selected on the basis of the beginning and the end of the coal plastic stage. The organic products evolved from the oven were collected, dissolved in pyridine and analysed by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The analysis of the primary tars indicated that the amount of n-alkanes is always higher than that of n-alkenes and the formation of the alkenes is favoured by increasing the pyrolysis temperature. However, this effect may be influenced by the size of the hydrocarbon. Thus, the fraction C17-C31 showed a higher increase of n-alkenes/n-alkanes ratio than other fractions. On the other hand, the difference between the experimental and estimated values from tars produced from single components was positive for n-alkanes and n-alkenes, indicating that co-pyrolysis of the two materials enhanced the chemical reactivity during pyrolysis and produced a higher conversion than that from individual components.

  18. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030....

  19. Removal of volatile organic compounds by natural materials during composting of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N G; Akdemir, A; Ergun, O N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of poultry litter. The natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite as the natural materials were used for the reducing of VOCs. Composting was performed in a laboratory scale in-vessel composting plant. Poultry litter was composted for 100 d with volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. The VOCs were tested using the FT-IR method by VOCs analyzer. Studies showed that VOCs generation was the greatest in the control treatment without any natural materials. The natural materials significantly reduced VOCs. At the end of the processes, removal efficiency was 79.73% for NZ treatment, 54.59% for EP treatment, 88.22% for P treatment and 61.53% for EV treatment. Potential of removal for VOCs on poultry litter matrix using natural materials was in order of: P>NZ>EV>EP.

  20. Natural Gas in China: Market evolution and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, Chinas natural gas consumption increased by 23.8% and attained 69.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) (NBS 2008). Thanks to this rapid increase, China became one of the world's top 10 countries in terms of natural gas consumption. Moreover, according to the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008, China will become the top natural gas consuming country in the Asia-Pacific region, overtaking Japan by 2015.

  1. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  2. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  3. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This brochure summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  4. Atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the barnett shale natural gas production region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sullivan, David W; Allen, David T

    2014-05-06

    Hourly ambient hydrocarbon concentration data were collected, in the Barnett Shale Natural Gas Production Region, using automated gas chromatography (auto-GC), for the period from April 2010 to December 2011. Data for three sites were compared: a site in the geographical center of the natural gas production region (Eagle Mountain Lake (EML)); a rural/suburban site at the periphery of the production region (Flower Mound Shiloh), and an urban site (Hinton). The dominant hydrocarbon species observed in the Barnett Shale region were light alkanes. Analyses of daily, monthly, and hourly patterns showed little variation in relative composition. Observed concentrations were compared to concentrations predicted using a dispersion model (AERMOD) and a spatially resolved inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from natural gas production (Barnett Shale Special Emissions Inventory) prepared by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), and other emissions information. The predicted concentrations of VOC due to natural gas production were 0-40% lower than background corrected measurements, after accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. Hourly and daily variations in observed, background corrected concentrations were primarily explained by variability in meteorology, suggesting that episodic emission events had little impact on hourly averaged concentrations. Total emissions for VOC from natural gas production sources are estimated to be approximately 25,300 tons/yr, when accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. This region produced, in 2011, approximately 5 bcf/d of natural gas (100 Gg/d) for a VOC to natural gas production ratio (mass basis) of 0.0006.

  5. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  6. Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Gas Service Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangduan Yimrungruang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas service station workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs sources, such as gasoline vapor emissions, and motor vehicle exhausts, may be exposed to highly elevated VOCs levels. This study investigates air samples from gas service stations in Thailand to evaluate the health risks following inhalation exposure. Personal air samplings were obtained at nine gas service stations in Chonburi, Thailand from October to December 2007. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and hexane in the air from the workplaces were significantly higher than in a control group of office workers (p<0.05. However, all VOCs in these air samples were lower than TWA limit of Thailand and the OSHA standard. Samples of urine, collected after 8-h work periods which were analyzed for VOCs metabolites, including t,t muconic acid, hippuric acid, mandelic acid and m-hippuric acid, demonstrate that the average levels of metabolites in gas service station workers and in controls were close, except for t,t muconic acid of gas service station workers which displayed higher levels than the in the controls. The lifetime cancer and noncancer risks for the workers exposed to VOCs were also assessed. Results show that all nine gas service stations in this study had a elevated lifetime cancer risk ranging from 53 to 630 per million, thus exceeding the normal risk of 1 per million. For noncancer risks, the levels in all gas stations ranged between 0.03 and 0.4, which is well below the reference hazard level of 1.0. Benzene may the most important cause of both cancer and noncancer risk followed by 1,3 butadiene.

  7. An analysis of the types and distribution characteristics of natural gas reservoirs in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu Zhangyou Yue Dali Wu Shenghe Zhang Xiaoyu Chen Ce Ni Yuqiang

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas reservoir beds of different areas in China can be divided into three kinds, clastic natural gas reservoir bed, carbonate natural gas reservoir bed and special natural gas reservoir bed...

  8. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  9. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  10. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  11. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  12. Buying natural gas in the spot market: risks related to the natural gas industry globalization; Aquisicao de gas natural em bases 'spot': riscos associados a globalizacao da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The growth of the international natural gas trade during the last decade resulted in the expectation that this product would be traded as a commodity. This expectation created a boom in the investments related to the commercialization of natural gas between borders, especially in the distinct segments of the chain of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Different agents launched themselves into liquefaction and regasification enterprises, and the ordering of ships also showed significant growth. Despite that, the natural gas market still cannot be considered global, and international gas transactions are primarily done within regional markets. This article investigates the challenges posed to the constitution of a global natural gas market. These challenges represent risks to the commercialization of this product in spot bases, for the agents that launch themselves into projects to export or import LNG to be commercialized through short term contracts in the international market for this product. (author)

  13. Impact of hydrogen insertion on vehicular natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangueto, Karina Maretti; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering. Energy Dept.], Email: karinakms@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to analyze the possibility of insertion of hydrogen in the vehicular natural gas or even the insertion of the hydrogen in the compressed natural gas used in Brazil. For the production of this hydrogen, the spilled turbinable energy from Itaipu would be harnessed. The calculation of production can be extended to other power plants which are close to the natural gas pipelines, where the hydrogen would be introduced. Then, it was analyzed the consumption of natural gas in vehicles in Brazil, the regulation of transportation, the sales of compressed natural gas to fuelling station, the specifications that the piped gas should follow to be sold, and how much hydrogen could be accepted in the mix. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....

  15. Market prospective of natural gas 2010-2025; Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Bautista, Alejandro; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Navarrete Barbosa, Juan Ignacio [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy, in compliance to Article 109 of the Natural Gas Regulations, publishes the Prospective natural gas market 2010-2025, which contains the most current information about the historical evolution and growth prospects of the domestic market country's natural gas and its role in the international context. This foresight is attached to the lines of action established in the National Energy Strategy, ratified by Congress in April 2010 in regard to strengthening the transportation infrastructure of natural gas, in order to ensure the supply of this fuel, therefore remains congruence with the instruments of power sector planning. The first one concerns the international panorama of natural gas in the different producing and consuming regions around the world. Chapter two provides a current perspective of those actions in the sector within the regulatory framework for natural gas in Mexico. The third chapter details the issues that occurred in the natural gas market during the period 1999-2009 and the fourth chapter discusses the expected evolution of demand and domestic supply of natural gas by 2025. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia, en el cumplimiento al Articulo 109 del Reglamento de Gas Natural, publica la Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025, la cual contiene la informacion mas actualizada acerca de la evolucion historica y las expectativas de crecimiento del mercado interno de gas natural del pais y su papel en el contexto internacional. Esta Prospectiva se apega a las lineas de accion establecidas en la Estrategia Nacional de Energia, ratificada por el Congreso en abril de 2010, en lo relativo a fortalecer la infraestructura de transporte de gas natural, con el fin de asegurar el suministro de este combustible, por lo cual se mantiene congruencia con los instrumentos de planeacion del sector energetico. La Prospectiva esta integrada por cuatro capitulos. El primero se refiere al panorama internacional del gas natural en las

  16. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  18. software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... software for optimum design and simulation of natural gas pipeline. General Gas equation coupled with correlations for friction factor, Reynolds number, viscosity of gas mixture, compressibility factor etc were used to developed an algorithm from which the software was developed using VISUAL BASIC 6.0.

  19. Dutch natural gas strategy : Historic perspective and challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Luthi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight a watershed in the natural gas legacy of the Netherlands: after 50 years of successful gas development, production output of conventional fields will decline from 2010 onwards. The projected decline in Dutch gas output will lead to a loss of future income for the State. In the past, E&P

  20. Experimental Study of Gas Explosions in Hydrogen Sulfide-Natural Gas-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vagner Gaathaug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of turbulent combustion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and natural gas was performed to provide reference data for verification of CFD codes and direct comparison. Hydrogen sulfide is present in most crude oil sources, and the explosion behaviour of pure H2S and mixtures with natural gas is important to address. The explosion behaviour was studied in a four-meter-long square pipe. The first two meters of the pipe had obstacles while the rest was smooth. Pressure transducers were used to measure the combustion in the pipe. The pure H2S gave slightly lower explosion pressure than pure natural gas for lean-to-stoichiometric mixtures. The rich H2S gave higher pressure than natural gas. Mixtures of H2S and natural gas were also studied and pressure spikes were observed when 5% and 10% H2S were added to natural gas and also when 5% and 10% natural gas were added to H2S. The addition of 5% H2S to natural gas resulted in higher pressure than pure H2S and pure natural gas. The 5% mixture gave much faster combustion than pure natural gas under fuel rich conditions.

  1. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  2. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  3. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  4. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  5. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  6. Natural gas supply-demand situation and prospect in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 21st century, the reserves of conventional natural gas as well as tight gas in China have been decreasing and their annual production growth rates have been generally reduced from double-digit to one-digit number of percentage. It is predicted that natural gas production will possibly reach up to 134 billion m3 in 2015; and if the marketable rate is 90%, the gas supply volume will probably be 120.6 billion m3 in 2015. Since shale gas development just has started currently, about 0.6 billion m3 of the marketable shale gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. The CBM gas production especially such gas consumption has long been lagged behind the expected targets, and what's more, flaws exist in their statistics; on this basis, it is assumed that the marketable CBM gas will be 4 billion Nm 3 in 2015. With so many achievements made in the coal gas exploitation, it is forecasted that about 5.5 billion m3 coal gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. In total, the domestic fuel gas supply is roughly estimated to be 131 billion m3 in 2015; if the gas consumption in the year is presumably 231 billion m3, about 100 billion m3 gas will then be imported in 2015. From the presumable actual imports of piped gas and LNG terminals, there is still a gap of 27–30 billion m3 in 2015. Therefore, it is suggested that more LNG receiving terminals be put into production in advance and the increment of import gas be needed from Middle Asia. Also, it is proposed that the statistics be completed on the practical marketable fuel gas quantity in the fundamental study of energy planning in the National 13th Five-Year Plan. In conclusion, the economic system reform process is the key to the further development of oil and gas industry in China.

  7. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice... Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 5, 2012) (Notice Of Technical... and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 17, 2012) (Supplemental Notice Of Technical...

  8. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa. Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  9. Using zeolites to eliminate mercaptans from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemkov, V.V.; Afanasev, U.M.; Dubinskii, V.M.; Frolov, G.S.; Krigman, L.E.; Kuzmenko, N.M.; Oppengein, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Results from experimental tests on an adsorption method for eliminating mercaptains from Orenburg natural gas using zeolites are given. An engineering and economic comparison of three methods for eliminating mercaptans from natural gas is given, including a method employing zeolite, the use of an alkaline solution employing catalytic reclamation of a saturated absorbent, and using a tributyl phosphate solution.

  10. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  12. A Shaky Business: Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, H.R.A.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in (social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced

  13. Multidimensional gas chromatography using microfluidic switching and low thermal mass gas chromatography for the characterization of targeted volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Hawryluk, M; Shellie, R A; Cortes, H J

    2013-05-03

    Volatile organic compounds such as light hydrocarbons, dienes, and aromatic compounds are often encountered in the manufacturing and processing environments of chemical and petrochemical segments. These compounds need to be closely monitored for process optimization, plant maintenance and industrial hygiene purposes. A high throughput analytical approach has been successfully developed and implemented for the accurate measurement of fourteen commonly encountered analytes. The approach incorporates a recently introduced 5-port planar microfluidic device configured for use as a Deans switch for multidimensional gas chromatography. The use of multidimensional gas chromatography allows the elimination of potential chromatographic contaminants with a substantial enhancement of stationary phase selectivity via the use of columns with different separation mechanisms, and the back-flushing of heavier undesired hydrocarbons. A low thermal mass gas chromatographic module was employed in the second dimension of the two-dimensional gas chromatography system and was used to provide independent temperature control, and rapid heating and cooling to meet the high throughput requirements. By successfully combining these concepts, complete analysis of fourteen targeted components can be conducted in less than 120s. Repeatability of retention times for all compounds was found to be less than 0.05% (n=20). Repeatability of area counts at two levels, namely 10ppmv and 1000ppmv over a period of two days was found to be less than 3% (n=20). Apart from methane, which has a detection limit of 0.4ppmv, the rest of the compounds were found to have detection limits of less than 0.2ppmv. Compounds of interest were found to be linear over a range of 500ppbv-3000ppmv with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  15. Forecasting natural gas consumption in China by Bayesian Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With rapid growth of natural gas consumption in China, it is in urgent need of more accurate and reliable models to make a reasonable forecast. Considering the limitations of the single model and the model uncertainty, this paper presents a combinative method to forecast natural gas consumption by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. It can effectively handle the uncertainty associated with model structure and parameters, and thus improves the forecasting accuracy. This paper chooses six variables for forecasting the natural gas consumption, including GDP, urban population, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, energy efficiency and exports of goods and services. The results show that comparing to Gray prediction model, Linear regression model and Artificial neural networks, the BMA method provides a flexible tool to forecast natural gas consumption that will have a rapid growth in the future. This study can provide insightful information on natural gas consumption in the future.

  16. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  19. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  20. Natural Gas Information 2013 with 2012 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    A detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only the OECD countries but also the rest of the world, this publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices. The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: Americas, Asia-Oceania and Europe, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end-user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination.

  1. Volatile constituents of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves using headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Sayamol; Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Thongpoon, Chalermporn; Machan, Theeraphan; Wongchuphan, Rattana

    2014-12-01

    The volatile components of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves, collected from Surat Thani province, Thailand were studied by using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The four fibers employed to extract the volatiles were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), carboxane-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene-carboxane (PDMS-DVB-CAR). The volatile constituents of M. koenigii fresh leaves were also extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-one compounds were identified by these fibers. Five major compounds, γ-terpinene, β-caryophyllene, β-phellandrene, a-selinene and a-pinene, were detected in all fibers. The PDMS-DVB-CAR fiber was considered as the best for trapping key volatiles of M. koenigii fresh leaves.

  2. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  3. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... TRANSCANADA POWER MARKETING LTD 12-149-NG WALLER LNG SERVICES, LLC d/b/a WALLER POINT LNG....... 12-152-LNG... MARKETING, LLC 12-166-NG TRANSALTA ENERGY MARKETING CORP 12-167-NG GDF SUEZ GAS NA LLC 12-171-LNG CASTLETON..., 2013. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global...

  4. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yee, L. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Issacman-VanWertz, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wernis, R. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2, NOx, and black carbon, it has become increasingly apparent that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is substantially enhanced. Research is urgently needed to elucidate fundamental processes of natural and anthropogenically influenced VOC oxidation and the contribution of these processes to SOA formation. GoAmazon 2014/15 afforded study of the chemical transformations in the region downwind of Manaus, Brazil, where local biogenic VOC emissions are high, and their chemical oxidation can be studied both inside and outside of the urban plume to differentiate the role of anthropogenic influence on secondary aerosol formation during oxidation of these natural VOC emissions. To understand the connection between primary biogenic VOC emissions and their secondary products that form aerosols, we made time-resolved molecular level measurements by deploying a Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) and a sequential filter sampler during two intensive operational periods (IOPs) of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. The SV-TAG measured semi-volatile organic compounds in both the gas and particle phases and the sequential filter sampler collected aerosols on quartz fiber filters in four-hour increments used for offline analysis. SV-TAG employed novel online derivatization that provided chemical speciation of highly oxygenated or functionalized compounds that comprise a substantial fraction of secondary organic aerosols, yet are poorly characterized. It also provided partitioning of these compounds between the vapor and particle phases at sufficient time resolution to define the importance of competing atmospheric processes. These measurements were supported by offline analysis of the filters using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

  5. Determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in polyamine epichlorohydrin solution by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Wan, Xiao-Fang; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Run-Quan

    2017-05-05

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of residual epichlorohydrin (ECH) and the by-product 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) in polyamine epichlorohydrin (PAE) solution. It was based on the vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of these analytes at 60°C for 30min in a closed headspace sample vial before GC measurement. It was found that matrix of the PAE solution had the effect on the headspace equilibrium of these species and therefore a standard addition must be applied in the method validation. The results showed that the present method has a good measurement precision (RSD volatile organic compounds in the commercial PAE resin solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile sulfur compounds from heated milk using static headspace sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K R; Reineccius, G A

    1992-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to test the feasibility of using gas chromatography with static headspace sampling as an objective tool to measure milk flavor quality. Heated milk off-flavor was chosen for study. Different strategies were tried for increasing the sensitivity of a commercially available headspace method, including salting out with sodium sulfate, cryofocusing during injection, and applying backpressure to the sampling loop. With the aid of a sulfur-specific detector, the resulting system was sufficiently sensitive to detect the sulfur volatiles, H2S and dimethyl sulfide, at the concentrations found in pasteurized skim milk. Milk that was heated to varying degrees was analyzed, and the analytical results were compared with the intensity of heated flavor as determined by a sensory panel. For skim milk, correlations were moderately strong: Spearman's correlation coefficients for H2S and dimethyl sulfide were .75 and .60, respectively. Correlations were weak for whole milk.

  7. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Melak, Anthony; Noreiga, Felix; Noriega, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Gundersen, Cynthia; Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Cooper, Curt; Edmonson, Charles; Nolan, J. Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  8. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  9. How Much Leakage Renders the Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Natural Gas Equivalent to Coal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N., II; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Under ideal circumstances, generating electricity from natural gas releases approximately half the carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions of coal. However, because the primary component of natural gas (i.e., methane) is a potent greenhouse gas, accounting for leakage is crucial when considering natural gas as a bridge fuel. This presentation answers the question: How much leakage renders the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of natural gas equivalent to coal? To answer this question, we present a simple model that assumes the GHG footprint for each fuel is the sum of emissions from (1) electricity generation and (2) natural gas leakage. Emissions resulting from electricity generation are taken from published life-cycle assessments (LCAs). Emissions from natural gas leakage are estimated assuming that natural gas is 80% methane, which is converted to carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) global warming potential (GWP). One complication in using the GWP is its dependence on time horizon, where shorter time horizons penalize methane emissions more, and longer time horizons less. Specifically, the IPCC considers time horizons of 20, 100 and 500 years for comparison between the differing greenhouse gases. To explicitly account for the effect of time horizon, the results presented here are shown on a straightforward plot of GHG footprint versus time horizon for natural gas leakage rates of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8%. This plot shows that natural gas leakage of 2.0% or 4.8% eliminates half of natural gas's GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- or 100-year time horizons, respectively. Leakage of 3.9% or 9.1% completely eliminates the GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- and 100-year time horizons, respectively. Results indicate that leakage control is essential for the electricity generated from the combustion of natural gas to create a smaller GHG footprint than the electricity generated from the combustion of coal.

  10. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  11. Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the

  12. Overview of natural gas in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Panorama do gas natural no Rio Grande do Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Pedro Helio Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GREEN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This work draws a picture of what the natural gas means to Rio Grande do Norte in its quantitative dimension, expressed in the numbers and reserve indicators, production and structure of consume. In another dimension, it broaches the processes of energetic substitution by the natural gas in the state energetic matrix. (author)

  13. The consumers defense versus the crisis of the natural gas; A defesa do consumidor diante da crise do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, William Lima [Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Economico, Energia, Industria e Servicos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the notorious unavailability of natural gas, the crisis initiated by the government of Bolivia and considering the irreversible damage that would be caused to consumers by the lack of product, which the solutions to ensure the minimum rights, or even discourage the consumption of gas for integrate with new prospects for rational use of energy. We discussed about the crisis and the role of the state in the Consumer Protection and the new sphere of regulation for the industry Gas Natural. (author)

  14. Improved of Natural Gas Storage with Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) Technology Using Activated Carbon from Plastic Waste Polyethylene Terepthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Hardhi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia imports high amount of Fuel Oil. Although Indonesia has abundant amount of natural gas reserve, the obstacle lies within the process of natural gas storage itself. In order to create a safe repository, the ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) technology is planned. ANG technology in itself has been researched much to manufacture PET-based activated carbon for natural gas storage, but ANG still has several drawbacks. This study begins with making preparations for the equipment and materials that will be used, by characterizing the natural gas, measuring the empty volume, and degassing. The next step will be to examine the adsorption process. The maximum storage capacity obtained in this study for a temperature of 27°C and pressure of 35 bar is 0.0586 kg/kg, while for the desorption process, a maximum value for desorption efficiency was obtained on 35°C temperature with a value of 73.39%.

  15. Natural gas network resiliency to a "shakeout scenario" earthquake.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Corbet, Thomas Frank,; Brooks, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    A natural gas network model was used to assess the likely impact of a scenario San Andreas Fault earthquake on the natural gas network. Two disruption scenarios were examined. The more extensive damage scenario assumes the disruption of all three major corridors bringing gas into southern California. If withdrawals from the Aliso Canyon storage facility are limited to keep the amount of stored gas within historical levels, the disruption reduces Los Angeles Basin gas supplies by 50%. If Aliso Canyon withdrawals are only constrained by the physical capacity of the storage system to withdraw gas, the shortfall is reduced to 25%. This result suggests that it is important for stakeholders to put agreements in place facilitating the withdrawal of Aliso Canyon gas in the event of an emergency.

  16. Development and validation of a portable gas phase standard generation and calibration system for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Veres; J. B. Gilman; J. M. Roberts; W. C. Kuster; C. Warneke; I. R. Burling; J. de Gouw

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of an accurate, portable, dynamic calibration system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Mobile Organic Carbon Calibration System (MOCCS) combines the production of gas-phase VOC standards using permeation or diffusion sources with quantitative total organic carbon (TOC) conversion on a palladium surface to CO2 in the presence of...

  17. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and of volatile lipid oxidation products from fish lipid extracts are analyzed by multivariate data analysis [principal component analysis (PCA)]. Peak alignment is necessary in order to include all sampled points of the chromatograms in the data set....

  18. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  19. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  20. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  1. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  2. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.Y.; Zhao, W.Z.; Zhang, S.C.; Liang, Y.B.; Wang, Z.J.

    2007-11-15

    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way, oil cracking gases contain usually some H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  3. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  4. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  5. Use of compressed natural gas in automotive vehicles; Uso del gas natural comprimido aplicado en vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, Adrian [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The natural gas is natural origin energy (fossil fuel); it contains predominantly 90 percent methane; does not require transformation process for its use; is supplied the 24 hours to commerce, industries and homes by underground pipes; it is lighter than air; it is not corrosive, nor absorbent or toxic. For those reasons a study was performed where it is widely justified why the natural gas ought to be used in vehicles. [Spanish] El gas natural es un energetico de origen natural (combustible fosil), contiene predominantemente 90 por ciento de metano, no requiere proceso de transformacion para su utilizacion, llega directamente las 24 horas del dia a los hogares, comercios e industrias por tuberias subterraneas, es mas ligero que el aire, no es corrosivo, no es absorbente y no es toxico. Por esas razones se hizo un estudio donde se justifica ampliamente porque el gas natural debe utilizarse en vehiculos.

  6. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  7. Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant

  8. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  9. Purging of nitrogen from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.; Blakemore, P.P.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a process for separating one or more of the group of light hydrocarbons. It comprises from one to five carbon atoms in each molecule from nitrogen in a stream of gas containing same, comprising passing such a stream of gas through an absorption column at substantially ambient temperature, or below and elevated pressure in intimate contact with an absorbent comprised primarily of a poly alpha olefin, for preferentially absorbing the group of light hydrocarbons with respect to the nitrogen in the gas; passing the non-absorbed gas comprised predominantly of nitrogen out of the absorption column to waste or to recovery for use or for future processing; passing the resulting rich absorbent containing the absorbed light hydrocarbons into a desorber means operating at substantially ambient temperature but at a pressure lower than that of the absorber means, thus effecting desorption of at least some of the light hydrocarbons; and separately recovering the desorbed light hydrocarbons and the resultant lean absorbent from the desorber.

  10. Marine prospecting for petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzung, G.

    1982-01-01

    The contribution presents a review of areas of oceans and seas, where prospecting for oil and gas is carried out. Prospecting in marine areas is characterized by advancing to growing water depths and in hospitable climatic districts. The growing expenditures, connected with these circumstances, call for a more careful preparation of drilling work.

  11. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  12. Determination of moisture and volatile content in coal by pressure change and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.; Hannifan, M.R.

    1981-04-01

    Calcium carbide/water reaction products and the volatiles produced in a constant temperature/volume reactor are chromatographically separated and quantified. Volatile content is estimated from the pressure change.

  13. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region.

  14. Smart with Natural Gas in the built environment; Slim met Gas in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, H.; Oude Elberink, L.; Holwerda, B. [et al.] (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    This magazine addresses the future of the energy system, the role of natural gas in the energy transition process and innovative (gas) technology for the built environment [Dutch] In dit magazine komen de toekomst van de energievoorziening, de rol van aardgas in het energietransitieproces en innovatieve (gas)technologie voor de gebouwde omgeving aan bod.

  15. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  16. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  18. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    A statistical summary of the year-end 1976 total reserves is presented along with deliverability of the interstate pipeline companies and pertinent comparisons with information developed from annual reports filed over the preceding 13 years. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies declined in 1976 by 8.5 trillion cubic feet, or 8.0 percent, from 106.8 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of the year. A five-year tabulation shows that domestic interstate gas reserves have declined from 161.3 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year 1972 to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of 1976, a decline of 63.0 trillion cubic feet, or 39.0 percent. The pipelines continue to show a declining annual deliverability from their year-end dedicated reserves. This is expected because of the decline since 1967 in the volume of reserves dedicated to the interstate pipeline companies. Compared with deliverability estimates made from their 1975 year-end reserves, the current deliverability estimates based on 1976 year-end reserves are approximately 5 percent less in volume than the 1975 year-end estimates for the respective accumulated deliveries during the five-year periods following the year-end estimates.

  19. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  20. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenjia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to the method,the different types of users can pay reasonable fee.This method not only considers the investment income recovery but also considers the different types of users paying a reasonable fee.We hope the new pricing model can give a reference to the development of China's natural gas industry.

  1. Natural gas turbine topping for the iris reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Paramonov, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear power plant designs are typically characterized by high capital and low fuel costs, while the opposite is true for fossil power generation including the natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle currently favored by many utilities worldwide. This paper examines potential advantages of combining nuclear and fossil (natural gas) generation options in a single plant. Technical and economic feasibility and attractiveness of a gas turbine - nuclear reactor combined cycle where gas turbine exhaust is used to superheat saturated steam produced by a low power light water reactor are examined. It is shown that in a certain range of fuel and capital costs of nuclear and fossil options, the proposed cycle offers an immediate economic advantage over stand-alone plants resulting from higher efficiency of the nuclear plant. Additionally, the gas turbine topping will result in higher fuel flexibility without the economic penalty typically associated with nuclear power. (author)

  2. MOFs for storage of natural gas in mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, S.; Arnold, L.; Gaab, M.; Maurer, S.; Weickert, M.; Mueller, U. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Gummaraju, R.; SantaMaria, M.; Wilson, K.; Garbotz, C.; Lynch, J. [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are supposed to have high potential in gas storage, particular in the storage of natural gas (NG) for mobile applications. Due to the shale gas exploration and the cost advantage of natural gas on the North American market as well as the environmental benign behavior upon combustion, storage of gaseous fuels will become more important for future mobility. The main challenge with all gaseous fuels is the limited range of the fuel stored on board of a vehicle. Instead of increasing the pressure in the tank, which would lead to heavy tanks and high compression costs, MOFs might help to improve the energy density of the gas stored in a tank resulting in an increased driving distance or reduced space needed for the gas tanks. (orig.)

  3. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    During this quarter, work began on the regional structural and geologic analysis of the greater Green River basin (GGRB) in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The ultimate objective of the regional analysis is to apply the techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project to sweet-spot delineation in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-type Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the GGRB. The primary goal of this work is to partition and high-grade the greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Cretaceous tight gas play. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998 consisted of three tasks: (1) Acquire necessary data and develop base map of study area; (2) Process data for analysis; and (3) Initiate structural study. The first task and second tasks were completed during this reporting period. The third task was initiated and work continues.

  4. The economic value of Indonesia's natural gas: a quantitative assessment of three gas policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is regarded as the future energy of Indonesia and the natural gas sector has a strategic role to play in national development. This role can be seen in the state revenue and multiplier effect it generates, for example, in the growth of employment levels. Its contribution to the national

  5. Assessment of a combined gas chromatography mass spectrometer sensor system for detecting biologically relevant volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Oliver; Wieczorek, Tom; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Persad, Raj; Ratcliffe, Norman

    2017-12-06

    There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications including breath research the sensor responses (i.e. resistance changes w.r.t. concentration of VCs) remain largely unreported. This paper addresses that issue by comparing the response of a metal oxide sensor directly with a mass spectrometer (MS), whereby both detectors are interfaced to the same GC column using an s-swafer. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of an in-house fabricated ZnO/SnO 2 thick film MOS was superior to a modern MS for the detection of a wide range of volatile compounds (VCs) of different functionalities and masses. Better techniques for detection and quantification of these VCs is valuable, as many of these compounds are commonly reported throughout the scientific literature. This is also the first published report of a combined GC-MS sensor system. These two different detector technologies when combined, should enhance discriminatory abilities to aid disease diagnoses using volatiles from e.g. breath, and bodily fluids. Twenty-nine chemical standards have been tested using solid phase micro-extraction; 25 of these compounds are found on human breath. In all but two instances the sensor exhibited the same or superior limit of detection compared to the MS. Twelve stool samples from healthy participants were analysed; the sensor detected, on average 1.6 peaks more per sample than the MS. Similarly, analysing the headspace of E. coli broth cultures the sensor detected 6.9 more peaks per sample versus the MS. This greater sensitivity is primarily a function of the superior limits of detection of the metal oxide sensor. This shows that systems based on the combination of chromatography systems with solid state sensors shows promise for a range of applications.

  6. Long-term stability measurements of low concentration Volatile Organic Compound gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nick; Amico di Meane, Elena; Brewer, Paul; Ferracci, Valerio; Corbel, Marivon; Worton, David

    2017-04-01

    VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are a class of compounds with significant influence on the atmosphere due to their large anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. VOC emissions have a significant impact on the atmospheric hydroxyl budget and nitrogen reservoir species, while also contributing indirectly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol. However, the global budget of many of these species are poorly constrained. Moreover, the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) have set challenging data quality objectives for atmospheric monitoring programmes for these classes of traceable VOCs, despite the lack of available stable gas standards. The Key-VOCs Joint Research Project is an ongoing three-year collaboration with the aim of improving the measurement infrastructure of important atmospheric VOCs by providing traceable and comparable reference gas standards and by validating new measurement systems in support of the air monitoring networks. It focuses on VOC compounds that are regulated by European legislation, that are relevant for indoor air monitoring and for air quality and climate monitoring programmes like the VOC programme established by the WMO GAW and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). These VOCs include formaldehyde, oxy[genated]-VOCs (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and terpenes (a-pinene, 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and R-limonene). Here we present the results of a novel long term stability study for low concentration formaldehyde, oxy-VOC and terpenes gas mixtures produced by the Key-VOCs consortium with discussion regarding the implementation of improved preparation techniques and the use of novel cylinder passivation chemistries to guarantee mixture stability.

  7. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  8. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  9. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelena Ziemele; Dagnija Blumberga; Normunds Talcis; Ilze Laicane

    2013-01-01

      In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler...

  10. Clean-running lube oil for natural gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Phillips 66 has completed extensive laboratory and field development of a new industrial lubricant incorporating a proprietary additive package, designed specifically for two- and four-cycle natural gas engines. Phillips 66 engineers say the commercially available Eclipse T 20W-40 ashless multigrade oil offers four distinct benefits for natural gas engines. The oil runs cleaner, is barium-free, offers the performance benefits of a multi-viscosity oil, and significantly reduces engine deposits, ring sticking and sludge. The new oil is recommended for all two-cycle natural-gas-fueled engines such as Clark, Cooper-Bessemer and Ajax, as well as Caterpillar four-cycle natural gas engines. Other four-cycle engines also have experienced reduced engine deposits and reduced downtime with Eclipse T oil and specific preventive maintenance practices, the company says. 2 figs.

  11. Review of codes, standards, and regulations for natural gas locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report identified, collected, and summarized relevant international codes, standards, and regulations with potential : applicability to the use of natural gas as a locomotive fuel. Few international or country-specific codes, standards, and regu...

  12. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Well geospatial dataset contains point features representing permitted locations, most of which have been drilled and completed, or drilled...

  14. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Data includes volume and price for long term and short term, and gas exported to Canada and Mexico on a short term or spot market basis.

  15. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  16. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  17. Sceneries and projections of demands of natural gas in Brazil; Cenario e projecoes das demandas de gas natural no pais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianca, Marcos Duilio de Oliveira; Marques, Ziney Dias [SENAI - Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sistema FIRJAN

    2004-07-01

    Interest in Natural Gas in Brazil emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, against a background in which the global giants of the petroleum and gas industries stated that reserves within the country were not commercially viable. This scenario changed with the discovery of numerous oil and gas fields and resulted in the participation of numerous foreign companies bidding for exploration and production rights in the new fields established by ANP. Natural Gas has come to assume a new dimension with further recent discoveries in Santos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe and Urucu, with proven reserves in the order of 490 billion m3. This new dimension is reinforced by PETROBRAS's current strategic plan which considers investments in the order of 3.5 Billion U$ dollars for the production, processing and transport of Natural Gas and half a billion dollars for thermoelectric power stations. The use of Natural Gas in industries, in general, and in the generation of electricity will provide a strong push for the country's economy, substituting other sources of energy with the recognized advantages for production and reduced environmental impact. In this new era 24 gas distribution companies, widely distributed throughout Brazil, are also programming new investments to make best the use of Natural Gas for industry, commerce, for the residential sector and throughout all the national territory. (author)

  18. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but unce...

  19. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  20. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. There...

  1. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  2. Mergers and acquisitions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, D.A.; Brown, M.L.

    1984-04-26

    Three examples of natural gas distribution companies involved in merger activity illustrate how the distribution as well as the transmission side of the industry may be attractive to potential acquiring companies seeking diversification. Although the mergers are a new phenonmenon, the acquiring firms are attracted by the overlapping service areas and the operating efficiency of the regulated distributors. They also see a possible outlet for surplus natural gas. 1 table.

  3. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  4. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  5. The gas phase structure of α -pinene, a main biogenic volatile organic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Huet, Thérèse R.

    2017-12-01

    The gas phase structure of the bicyclic atmospheric aerosol precursor α-pinene was investigated employing a combination of quantum chemical calculation and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion. The very weak rotational spectra of the parent species and all singly substituted 13C in natural abundance have been identified, from 2 to 20 GHz, and fitted to Watson's Hamiltonian model. The rotational constants were used together with geometrical parameters from density functional theory and ab initio calculations to determine the rs, r0, and rm(1 ) structures of the skeleton, without any structural assumption in the fit concerning the heavy atoms. The double C=C bond was found to belong to a quasiplanar skeleton structure containing 6 carbon atoms. Comparison with solid phase structure is reported. The significant differences of α-pinene in gas phase and other gas phase bicyclic monoterpene structures (β-pinene, nopinone, myrtenal, and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane) are discussed.

  6. Case Study - internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Estudo de caso - corrosao interna em dutos transportadores de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, A.C.V. da; Barbosa, A.F.F.; Silva, D.R. da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Corrosao]. E-mail: anacecilia@eol.com.br; andreafranciscab@yahoo.com; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; Pimenta, G.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Peixoto, D.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2003-07-01

    One of the aspects what more characterize the gas natural is the possibility of your state physical can be adapted the conditions of transport , since the zone where is producing until the region where it is consumer (distant only one from another), you can stand out this three principal alternatives: gas pipelines; in the form of liquefied, in cryogenic ships; in the form of derive compounds that can be liquids or solid. For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the carbons steels used in the equipment and natural gas pipelines of the production reservoirs until the denominated city gates, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, because, the failures for internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines can carry serious environmental problems, damages to the image of the distributors companies and prejudices related to operational continuity. Some aspects of the processing of the natural gas are argued, as well as your effect regarding the internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines. To leave of this analysis, it tries establishing a monitoring and controlling methodology of the internal corrosion in field for natural gas pipelines. For chemical characterization of the samples of the black powder were used analyses for Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence. (author)

  7. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  8. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  9. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  10. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil--challenges to understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturnus, Frank; Fahimi, Isabelle; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Heal, Mathew R; Matucha, Miroslav; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Schroll, Reiner; Svensson, Teresia

    2005-07-01

    The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic acids in the environment. Moreover, both groups are produced in higher amounts by natural chlorination of organic matter, e.g. by soil microorganisms, marine macroalgae and salt lake bacteria, and show similar metabolism pathways. Elucidating the origin and fate of these organohalogens is necessary to implement actions to counteract environmental problems caused by these compounds. While the anthropogenic sources of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines are relatively well-known and within human control, knowledge of relevant natural processes is scarce and fragmented. This article reviews current knowledge on natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soils, with particular emphasis on processes in the rhizosphere, and discusses future studies necessary to understand the role of forest soils in the formation and degradation of these compounds. Reviewing the present knowledge of the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil has revealed gaps in knowledge regarding the actual mechanisms behind these processes. In particular, there remains insufficient quantification of reliable budgets and rates of formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil (both biotic and abiotic processes) to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems regarding the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale

  12. Spatial Air Quality Impacts of Increased Natural Gas Development and Use in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.; Pacsi, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    fine PM2.5 concentrations are reduced as the price of natural gas decreased in Texas. The air quality impacts were predominantly driven by changes in the electricity generation sector rather than in the fuel-supply chain. The areas in which the largest changes in ozone and fine PM were modeled were regions with several coal-fired power plants, which were dispatched less frequently in our model as the price of natural gas decreased. Ozone decreases were largest in magnitude in the afternoon hours during times which were relevant for the daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentration, on which the Federal ozone standard is based. Despite localized increases in NOx and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with the natural gas production in the Barnett Shale, ozone concentrations were modeled to decrease in the region with decreasing natural gas prices.

  13. Logistical management system for natural gas distribution; Sistema de gestao logistica para a distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Joao Bosco F.; Nobre Junior, Ernesto F.; Praca, Eduardo R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transportes e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Federal Government has the very purpose of increasing the participation of the Natural Gas in the primary energy internal supply from 7,5% nowadays to about 12% till 2010. However, for that, it is necessary to eliminate the great impedance represented by the restricted accessibility to the product, due to the high distribution costs involved. So, there is an urgent need for availability of technologies to help natural gas distribution systems. This paper proposes an innovative logistics-based approach on the subject of the natural gas distribution, through a computational tool (GASLOG System) to be applied in the North and Northeastern urban and country areas of Brazil, with initial case study in the city of Fortaleza. In its conception, the GASLOG System focuses on the point-of-view of everyone of the actors involved with the natural gas distribution process trying to respond their particular necessities in the sector. (author)

  14. Variance Analysis of Wind and Natural Gas Generation under Different Market Structures: Some Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Jenkin, T.; Lipowicz, D.; Arent, D. J.; Cooke, R.

    2012-01-01

    Does large scale penetration of renewable generation such as wind and solar power pose economic and operational burdens on the electricity system? A number of studies have pointed to the potential benefits of renewable generation as a hedge against the volatility and potential escalation of fossil fuel prices. Research also suggests that the lack of correlation of renewable energy costs with fossil fuel prices means that adding large amounts of wind or solar generation may also reduce the volatility of system-wide electricity costs. Such variance reduction of system costs may be of significant value to consumers due to risk aversion. The analysis in this report recognizes that the potential value of risk mitigation associated with wind generation and natural gas generation may depend on whether one considers the consumer's perspective or the investor's perspective and whether the market is regulated or deregulated. We analyze the risk and return trade-offs for wind and natural gas generation for deregulated markets based on hourly prices and load over a 10-year period using historical data in the PJM Interconnection (PJM) from 1999 to 2008. Similar analysis is then simulated and evaluated for regulated markets under certain assumptions.

  15. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  16. Natural gas distribution in Brazil - opportunities of improvement; Distribuicao de gas natural no pais - oportunidades de melhoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Silvia R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintella, Odair M.; Farias Filho, Jose R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Great are the challenges established by the Brazilian Government related to goals to be achieved for the increment of the Natural Gas participation in brazilian energetic matrix, from current 5% to 12%, up to 2010. The enlargement of the distribution infrastructure of the gas (gas-pipelines 'mesh') in Brazil is considered one of the greatest challenges for the growth of the Brazilian market of Natural Gas, accomplishment that involves elevated investments. This paper presents a model of Management System for the good organizational performance of the small Natural Gas Supplying Brazilian Companies focused on criteria of Leadership, Strategies and Plans and Results, established by the Premio TOP Empresarial and by the 'Rumo a Excelencia', held by the 'Progama Qualidade Rio' and 'Fundacao para o Premio Nacional da Qualidade', respectively. The management practices of these companies were reviewed, considering the context of the energetic Brazilian scenario, subjected to the political and operational definitions and uncertainties, the available financial resources, limited or not prioritized, and actual barriers to be surpassed by the Gas Supplying Companies in order to achieve the pre-established government goals for this segment. The implementation of the proposed simplified Model, seen as improvement opportunities for the segment of Natural Gas distribution, will lead the Gas Distribution Companies to a intermediary stage envisioning the real steps towards the excellence of the performance. (author)

  17. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...) HOLDINGS, LLC 12-174-LNG VITOL INC 12-176-NG EXELON GENERATION COMPANY, LLC 12-181-NG HUSKY MARKETING AND SUPPLY COMPANY 12-182-NG DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 12-187-LNG DYNEGY MARKETING AND TRADE, LLC 13-02-NG..., 2013. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global...

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  19. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Natural gas imports and exports: Third quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the third quarter of 1998 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  1. Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

  2. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  3. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  4. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY MARKETING L.P 12-03-NG WPX ENERGY MARKETING, LLC 11-157-NG CAMERON LNG, LLC 11-145-LNG CANNAT ENERGY INC 11-158-NG... Federal holidays. Issued in Washington, DC, on February 22, 2012. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas...

  5. Acid Gas Emissions Measured by COSPEC, Volatile Trap, and Filter Pack at Volcán Villarrica, South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, J. B.; Kress, V. C.; Delmelle, P.; Hersum, T. G.

    2001-12-01

    Volcán Villarrica is a basaltic andesite stratovolcano 170 km SE of Temuco, Chile. Villarrica has been characterized by continuous degassing from a summit lava lake since 1985. We present new measurements of the flux of SO2, HCl, and HF from Villarrica using correlation spectrometry (COSPEC) combined with the method of volatile traps and filter packs. COSPEC measurements yielded an average SO2 flux of 460+/-260 tons/day SO2. This is greater than, but within error of, the 260+/-170 tons/day SO2 measured by us last year. We assume H2S emission is negligible. Volatile trap and filter pack measurements were made at the summit crater. To test for diffuse degassing on the flanks of the volcano, we conducted a soil CO2 flux survey. Using an accumulation chamber configured with a continuous infrared CO2 gas analyzer, we found diffuse degassing of CO2 to be undetectable. We assume flank degassing of other gases is similarly low. Four volatile traps (6N KOH solution in a plastic beaker) were deployed at the active crater on three occasions for periods ranging from 8 to 13 days. Acid gas species were absorbed into the alkaline solution and the relative concentrations of SO4, Cl, and F were obtained by ion chromatography. Volatile traps yielded an average SO2/HCl ratio of 5.9+/-1.2 and HCl/HF ratio of 4.1+/-0.7. This compares with an average SO2/HCl ratio of 9.3+/-2.6 and HCl/HF ratio of 3.0+/-0.4 obtained with volatile traps in the 2000 field season. Twenty-three gas measurements were made using filter packs during eight summit days. Using a small vacuum pump we filtered the gas through a series of three paper filters each impregnated with a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. Total filtration time varied from 3 to 46.5 minutes. Filtration time was chosen so that nearly all of the acid gases were absorbed by the first two filters in the filter stack. Relative concentrations of the acid gas species (SO4, Cl, and F) absorbed onto the filter paper were obtained by ion

  6. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Freise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Invested and Net Energy of conventional natural gas and oil production in Western Canada by a variety of methods to explore the energy dynamics of the peaking process. All these methods show a downward trend in EROI during the last decade. Natural gas EROI fell from 38:1 in 1993 to 15:1 at the peak of drilling in 2005. The drilling intensity for natural gas was so high that net energy delivered to society peaked in 2000–2002, while production did not peak until 2006. The industry consumed all the extra energy it delivered to maintain the high drilling effort. The inability of a region to increase net energy may be the best definition of peak production. This increase in energy consumption reduces the total energy provided to society and acts as a contracting pressure on the overall economy as the industry consumes greater quantities of labor, steel, concrete and fuel. It appears that energy production from conventional oil and gas in Western Canada has peaked and entered permanent decline.

  7. Determination of volatile organic compounds in river water by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, M A; Abedin, M Z; Islam, M S

    2004-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method is described employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) using dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) for determination of volatile organic compound (VOC) from the Buriganga River water of Bangladesh. The method was applied to detect the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and cumene (BTEXC) in the sample collected from the surface or 15 cm depth of water. Two-hundred ml of n-hexane-pretreated and filtered water samples were applied directly to a C18 SPE column. BTEXC were extracted with dichloromethane and average concentrations were obtained as 0.104 to 0.372 microg/ml. The highest concentration of benzene was found as 0.372 microg/ml with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.2%, and cumene was not detected. Factors influencing SPE e.g., adsorbent types, sample load volume, eluting solvent, headspace and temperatures, were investigated. A cartridge containing a C18 adsorbent and using dichloromethane gave better performance for extraction of BTEXC from water. Average recoveries exceeding 90% could be achieved for cumene at 4 degrees C with a 2.7% RSD.

  8. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

  9. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum effects on urea-degrading bacteria and ammonia volatilization from broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2017-08-01

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among studies and the mechanism responsible for decreasing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 20 or 40% flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) to broiler litter on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water potential, urea-degrading bacteria abundance, NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and nitrogen (N) mineralization in several 21-d experiments. The addition of FGDG to broiler litter increased EC by 24 to 33% (P broiler litter decreased NH3 volatilization by 18 to 28% (P broiler litter with 20% FGDG can decrease NH3 volatilization and increase the fertlizer value of broiler litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  11. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS, has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera, Tokushima (Ulva prolifera, and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza. Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera. Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum. Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  12. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.

  13. Opportunities and Challenges for the Extraction of Natural Gas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that revenues from resource extraction are intrinsically time limited; natural gas reserves will be depleted overtime. .... Secondly, natural resource wealth has specific features which distinguish it from other types of wealth. .... International mining and oil companies that seek to maximize profits find that they can lower the ...

  14. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  15. Focus on the Development of Natural Gas Hydrate in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice, and mainly composed of methane, is identified as a potential clean energy for the 21st century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad. We then analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects, resource, technology, economy and policy, with five forces model and Politics Economics Society Technology method. The results show China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however, backward technologies and inadequate investment have seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate; thus, China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to commercialization gas hydrate as soon as possible.

  16. New sources of energy: Natural gas from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    Landfills are producing a large amount of biogas. The reason is the anaerobic fermentation. Biogas consists mainly of methane (up to 60 Vol.-%) and carbon dioxide. Safety reasons (fire and bad smell) are asking for a gas collecting system in the landfill in order to burn the biogas. Only a few landfills are using the energy of the collected biogas to run generators or water heating plants. By means of hollow fibre membranes it will now be possible to recover the methane by separating the carbon dioxide. The product is a high methane gas which can be used as natural gas. Due to this new developed gas separation technology a landfill owner is able to sell the methane gas to gas distributors.

  17. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however, did...

  18. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH 4 ) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH 4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  19. Storage of natural gas in adsorbent materials; Armazenamento de gas natural em materiais adsorventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A.; Silva, Claudio F. da; Dantas, Jose H.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); Moraes, Caetano [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz G. de M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a review of our research work in methane storage with adsorbents. The performance of three overseas (CA1, CA2, CA3) and one local-made (CAN) activated carbons were evaluated as natural gas adsorbent materials for storage in automotive reservoirs. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of these materials was also made so to correlate them with the storage capacity, in volume basis. The effects of micropore volume, pore size distribution, specific area and bulk density were considered in the analysis of the results. The storage tests showed that CA1 activate carbon presented the highest storage capacity (84,2 V/V) due for its very high specific area and micropore volume (95 %). CA2's activated carbon was the second best with 75,7 V/V of storage capacity, CA3 and CAN carbons presenting stored capacities of 55,4 V/V and 53,2 V/V respectively. (author)

  20. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  1. Gas-shell-encapsulation of Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling and Increase the Efficacy of Volatile Organic Compound Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Albert T.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A method to encapsulate activated carbon particles is presented that reduces fouling of these particles with Natural Organic Matter (NOM) to preserve their adsorption capacity for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from water in the presence of NOM. The encapsulation method uses an oil-in-water

  2. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites: Optimization of the HS-SPME procedure and sample storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković Semren, Tanja; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Safner, Toni; Brajenović, Nataša; Tariba Lovaković, Blanka; Pizent, Alica

    2018-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics research of human volatile urinary metabolome can be used to identify potential biomarkers associated with the changes in metabolism related to various health disorders. To ensure reliable analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), parameters affecting the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure have been evaluated and optimized. The influence of incubation and extraction temperatures and times, coating fibre material and salt addition on SPME efficiency was investigated by multivariate optimization methods using reduced factorial and Doehlert matrix designs. The results showed optimum values for temperature to be 60°C, extraction time 50min, and incubation time 35min. The proposed conditions were applied to investigate urine samples' stability regarding different storage conditions and freeze-thaw processes. The sum of peak areas of urine samples stored at 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C up to six months showed a time dependent decrease over time although storage at -80°C resulted in a slight non-significant reduction comparing to the fresh sample. However, due to the volatile nature of the analysed compounds, more than two cycles of freezing/thawing of the sample stored for six months at -80°C should be avoided whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Gas Sweetening by Ultra-Microporous Polyimides Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghunaimi, Fahd

    2017-05-01

    Most natural gas fields in Saudi Arabia contain around 10 mol.% carbon dioxide. The present technology to remove carbon dioxide is performed by chemical absorption, which has many drawbacks. Alternatively, membrane-based gas separation technology has attracted great interest in recent years due to: (i) simple modular design, (ii) potential cost effectiveness, (iii) ease of scale-up, and (iv) environmental friendliness. The state-of-the-art membrane materials for natural gas sweetening are glassy cellulose acetate and polyimide, which were introduced in the 1980s. In the near future, the kingdom is planning to boost its production of natural gas for power generation and increase the feedstock for new petrochemical plants. Therefore, the kingdom and worldwide market has an urgent need for better membrane materials to remove carbon dioxide from raw natural gas. The focus of this dissertation was to design new polyimide membrane materials for CO2/CH4 separation exhibiting high permeability and high selectivity relative to the standard commercial materials tested under realistic mixed-gas feed conditions. Furthermore, this study provided a fundamental understanding of structure/gas transport property relationships of triptycene-based PIM-polyimides. Optimally designed intrinsically microporous polyimide (PIM-PIs) membranes in this work exhibited drastically increased CO2/CH4 selectivities of up to ~75. In addition, a novel triptycene-based hydroxyl-containing polyimide (TDA1-APAF) showed 5-fold higher permeabilities over benchmark commercial materials such as cellulose acetate. Furthermore, this polyimide had a N2/CH4 selectivity of 2.3, thereby making it possible to simultaneously treat CO2- and N2-contaminated natural gas. Also, TDA1-APAF showed a CO2 permeability of 21 Barrer under binary 1:1 CO2/CH4 mixed-gas feed with a selectivity of 72 at a partial CO2 pressure of 10 bar which are significantly better than cellulose triacetate. These results suggest that TDA1

  4. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bailey, B.K.; Colucci, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart and Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level 1 electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 liter MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  5. The Spatial Footprint of Natural Gas-Fired Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, S. M.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Mohammadi, E.; Ben-Horin, D.; Urrea, V.; Marceau, D.

    2015-12-01

    Consistent comparisons of the amount of land required for different electricity generation technologies are challenging because land use associated with fossil fuel acquisition and delivery has not been well characterized or empirically grounded. This research focuses on improving estimates of the life cycle land use of natural gas-fired electricity (m2/MWh generated) through the novel combination of inventories of natural gas-related infrastructure, satellite imagery analysis and gas production estimates. We focus on seven counties that represent 98% of the total gas production in the Barnett Shale (Texas), evaluating over 500 sites across five life cycle stages (gas production, gathering, processing, transmission, and power generation as well as produced water disposal). We find that a large fraction of total life cycle land use is related to gathering (midstream) infrastructure, particularly pipelines; access roads related to all stages also contribute a large life cycle share. Results were sensitive to several inputs, including well lifetime, pipeline right of way, number of wells per site, variability of heat rate for electricity generation, and facility lifetime. Through this work, we have demonstrated a novel, highly-resolved and empirical method for estimating life cycle land use from natural gas infrastructure in an important production region. When replicated for other gas production regions and other fuels, the results can enable more empirically-grounded and robust comparisons of the land footprint of alternative energy choices.

  6. Busy season: Trading... natural gas marketers revel in regulatory changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    1998-01-05

    Natural gas marketers are anxiously awaiting the second upheaval in the market as the states in the USA begin to deregulate the electric industry in the first few months of 1998. Given that natural gas as the power source of choice to generate electricity is rapidly gaining universal acceptance, the deregulation of electricity spells great opportunities for the natural gas industry. Prior to deregulation of the natural gas industry, supply aggregators such as Pan-Alberta Gas Ltd., ProGas Ltd., and Westcoast Gas Services Inc., held most of the contracts with the U.S. interstate pipelines. Following deregulation, producers began to sell gas directly to Canadian and U.S. local distribution companies and cogeneration plants. Independent marketers also joined the fray, buying from the producers and reselling on the open market. Recently, producers appeared to be changing course, moving from selling primarily to marketers such as Enron in the USA and Engage Energy and Duke Energy in Calgary, to establishing and solidifying relationships directly with consumers. The pros and cons of these new market trends were explored. It also attempted to determine the effects of these changing trends on the gas and electricity industries, and to sort out the winners and losers in this scramble to gain a share of the market. As far as Canadian producers are concerned, short-term contracts are the favoured form of marketing their product. Despite many uncertainties in this transition period, they expect to continue drilling in anticipation of rising demand and rising prices in the near term.

  7. Towards a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Carolyn A

    2002-05-01

    Gas clathrate hydrates were first identified in 1810 by Sir Humphrey Davy. However, it is believed that other scientists, including Priestley, may have observed their existence before this date. They are solid crystalline inclusion compounds consisting of polyhedral water cavities which enclathrate small gas molecules. Natural gas hydrates are important industrially because the occurrence of these solids in subsea gas pipelines presents high economic loss and ecological risks, as well as potential safety hazards to exploration and transmission personnel. On the other hand, they also have technological importance in separation processes, fuel transportation and storage. They are also a potential fuel resource because natural deposits of predominantly methane hydrate are found in permafrost and continental margins. To progress with understanding and tackling some of the technological challenges relating to natural gas hydrate formation, inhibition and decomposition one needs to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. This fundamental understanding is also important to the broader field of inclusion chemistry. The present article focuses on the application of a range of physico-chemical techniques and approaches for gaining a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrate formation, decomposition and inhibition. This article is complementary to other reviews in this field, which have focused more on the applied, engineering and technological aspects of clathrate hydrates.

  8. Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals pending approval are implemented, there will be a rapid increase in the use of liquefied natural gas in the United States. The facilities required include liquefaction plants, large ocean-going tankers, import-receiving terminals, storage depots, and gas-transmission pipelines. A description is presented of the risks and impacts presented by LNG operations in the near future. The safety issues are summarized and the origins of public concern in two LNG facilities siting disputes are examined. Some of the important criteria that need to be evaluated for responsible decision making are suggested. On balance, the overall risks of LNG supply systems are probably less than those of some energy systems now in use. Nevertheless, continued attention to the potential risks is needed to ensure that this remains true.

  9. Characterization of Coconut Shell Liquid Volatile Matter (CS-LVM) by Using Gas Chomatroghaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Ermawati; Rahmat; Arsyad, Jumiati; Riskayanti, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Generally, the coconut shell is only used for the fuel of furnace or is just burnt in which this will just create pollution. One way of solving this problem is by re-processing the coconut shell as raw materials for making liquid volatile matter (LVM) by pyrolysis method. Coconut shell is part of the coconut fruit at which having biological function to protect fruit core and is located on the inner side of the fiber with a thickness ranging from 3-6 mm. Coconut shell is classified as hardwood, mainly composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, with water content of approximately 6-9 %. Coconut shell is more suitable for pyrolysis process, since they contain less amount of ash, more amount of volatile matter and available with lower cost in rural areas during all the sessions of the year. This research was aimed at determining the influence of pyrolysis temperature towards the LVM volume of coconut shell. LVM was made of condensing the smoke of pyrolysis result from the coconut shell while the analysis of compound composition of LVMcoconut shell used Gas Chromatography. Based on the result of the research, it was known that the pyrolysis, at the temperatures of 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C can create LVM volume as many as 204.167 mL kg-1, 208,33 mL kg-1 and 216.67 mL kg-1. The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 400°C was made of ammonia (12. 41%), acetic acid (37.27%), phenol (31.66%), furfural (4.16%), and alcohol (5.01%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 500°C was made ofammonia (12.22%), hydrazine (5.61%), acetic acid (40.96%), phenol (32.82%), and alcohol (3.10%), furfural (5.30%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 600°C was made of ammonia (15.49%)), acetic acid (36,01%), phenol (32.85%)), alcohol (6.75%)), and furfural (4.62%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 700°C was made of ammonia (15,.), acetic acid (35.20%), phenol (22.60%), alcohol (5.07%), and furfural (4,90%). From this result, it can be seen that LVM has big advantages

  10. Prospective of the Natural Gas marketing 2002-2011; Prospectiva del Mercado de Gas Natural 2002-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    According with the 109 Th Article of the Natural Gas Regulations the Secretaria de Energia publishes this prospective of the Natural gas market 2002-2011 which describes and analyses the necessities of Mexico in relation with this industry in the mentioned period. Here aspects such as: the present and future international panorama of the natural gas market, international prices, the world demand with base in the Department of Energy (DOE) turnover of the United States, Advances of the in force regulatory framework, Sales, the National Gas pipeline system, Evolution of the National market, Demand at regional and sectoral scales, Supply analysis, Programs and projects of energy savings, natural gas balance with the high demand scene, the methodology of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo for calculating the self-generation demand of the electric energy by sector, a glossary with the more used terms, conversion factors and abbreviations and acronyms used in the document are treated. In the next ten years, the national demand of natural gas will suffer an annual average growth of 7.4% passing from 4358 millions of daily cubic feet (mm pcd) in 2001 to 8883 mm pcd in 2011. (Author)

  11. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  12. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dowe, Nancy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  14. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  16. Characterization of volatile composition of Laurencia dendroidea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gressler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the characterization of the volatile compounds of Laurencia dendroidea. Solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol, hydrodistillation extracts and headspace solid-phase microextraction samples were obtained and analyzed by GC-MS. Forty-six volatile components were identified in L. dendroidea, among them hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters and terpenes.

  17. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Capillary Fluid Dynamic Restriction Effects on Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne; Quinn, Jacqueline; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Bond, Josephine; Starr, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload aims to show the presence of water in lunar regolith, and establish a proving ground for NASAs mission to Mars. One of the analysis is performed by the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a fluid network that facilitates the transport of volatile samples to a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. The understanding of fluid dynamics directed from the GC to the MS is important due to the influence of flow rates and pressures that affect the accuracy of and prevent the damage to the overall GC-MS instrument. The micro-scale capillary fluid network within the GC alone has various lengths and inner-diameters; therefore, determination of pressure differentials and flow rates are difficult to model computationally, with additional complexity from the vacuum conditions in space and lack of a lunar atmosphere. A series of tests were performed on an experimental set-up of the system where the inner diameters of the GC transfer line connecting to the MS were varied. The effect on chromatography readings were also studied by applying these lines onto a GC instrument. It was found that a smaller inner diameter transfer line resulted in a lower flow rate, as well as a lower pressure differential across the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) unit of the GC and a negligible pressure drop across the mock-up capillary column. The chromatography was affected with longer retention times and broader peak integrations. It was concluded that a 0.050 mm inner diameter line still proved most suitable for the systems flow rate preferences. In addition, it was evident that this small transfer line portrayed some expense to GC signal characteristics and the wait time for steady-state operation.

  18. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  19. [Poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas: 22 cases study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Min; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Ming-Chang; He, Meng

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the case characteristics of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas and provide references for forensic identification and prevention of such accidents. Twenty-two cases of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas in Minhang District during 2004 to 2013 were collected. Some aspects such as general conditions of deaths, incidence time, weather, field investigation, and autopsy were retrospectively analyzed. In the 22 cases, there were 15 males and 16 females. The age range was between 2 and 82 years old. The major occurring time was in January or February (8 cases in each) and the cases almost occurred in small area room (21 cases). There was wide crack next to the exhaust port when the gas water heater was been used in all cases. There are more prone to occurrence of exhaust gas poisoning of imperfect combustion of natural gas in small area room with a ventilation window near the exhaust port of gas water heated. It shows that the scene of combustion exhaust gas poisoning should be more concerned in the cold season.

  20. The natural gas vehicles; Le gaz naturel vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) is a new ''clean'' fuel used for the urban public transports which can be adapted to the vehicles. It is the same gas as those for the cooking and the heating, but compressed at 200 bars. this document presents this abundant energy sources, the bound emissions standards, the technical and economical aspects, the environmental advantages, the today implementation and compare the french policy towards the NGV to other countries. (A.L.B.)

  1. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  2. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H...

  3. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  4. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan AVCI

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be rapidly spreading all over the world in near future. In this paper, treatment, liquefaction, transport, storage, regasification, distribution and utilisation of LNG are examined. Particular attention has given into liquefaction of natural gas.

  5. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

  6. Adsorption of volatile polonium and bismuth species on metals in various gas atmospheres. Pt. I. Adsorption of volatile polonium and bismuth on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Neuhausen, Joerg; Dressler, Rugard; Piguet, David; Voegele, Alexander; Schumann, Dorothea [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Radiochemistry; Eichler, Robert [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Radiochemistry; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. for Chemistry and Biochemistry; Rijpstra, Kim [Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM); Cottenier, Stefaan [Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM); Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Polonium isotopes are considered the most hazardous radionuclides produced during the operation of accelerator driven systems (ADS) when lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is used as the reactor coolant and as the spallation target material. In this work the use of gold surfaces for capturing polonium from the cover gas of the ADS reactor was studied by thermochromatography. The results show that gaseous monoatomic polonium, formed in dry hydrogen, is adsorbed on gold at 1058 K. Its adsorption enthalpy was calculated as -250±7 kJ mol{sup -1}, using a Monte Carlo simulation code. Highly volatile polonium species that were observed in similar experiments in fused silica columns in the presence of moisture in both inert and reducing gas were not detected in the experiments studying adsorption on gold surfaces. PoO{sub 2} is formed in both dry and moist oxygen, and its interaction with gold is characterized by transport reactions. The interaction of bismuth, present in large amounts in the atmosphere of the ADS, with gold was also evaluated. It was found that bismuth has a higher affinity for gold, compared to polonium, in an inert, reducing, and oxidizing atmosphere. This fact must be considered when using gold as a material for filtering polonium in the cover gas of ADS.

  7. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S.; Jaron, K.; Adragna, M.; Coyle, S.; Foley, C.; Hawryn, S.; Martin, A.; McConnell, J. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  8. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the research will be focused on the preliminary analyses of hydrogen fuel based power production technologies utilizing hydrogen fuel in a large size, heavy-duty gas turbines in integrated reformer combined cycle (IRCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. The research will be expanded step-by-step to include other advanced (e.g., Net Power, a potentially transformative technology utilizing a high efficiency CO2 conversion cycle (Allam cycle), and chemical looping etc.) pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies applied to natural gas, other fossil fuels (coal and heavy oil) and biomass/biofuel based on findings. Screening analysis is already under development and data for the analysis is being processed. The immediate action on this task include preliminary economic and environmental analysis of power production technologies applied to natural gas. Data for catalytic reforming technology to produce hydrogen from natural gas is being collected and compiled on Microsoft Excel. The model will be expanded for exploring and comparing various technologies scenarios to meet our goal. The primary focus of this study is to: 1) understand the chemic

  9. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  10. Tanker for liquefied natural gas. Development, technology, design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H. (Howaldtswerke - Deutsche Werft A.G., Kiel (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-12-01

    The article reports on the development of transport of liquefied natural gas overseas and the technical developments required for this purpose. The tank systems most frequently used for LNG tankers are described. Further, a report is given on the construction of two 125,800 cu. metre LNG/LPG tankers, which were built by the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft shipyard at Kiel in the past year. The considerations which led to the use of spherical tanks are discussed. Finally, the possible development of the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) overseas is discussed.

  11. Market screening of natural gas reformers; Markedsscreening af naturgasreformere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themsen, J. [Dantherm A/S (Denmark); Pagh Nielsen, M.; Knudsen Kaer, S. [AAU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents results from the project: Market screening of natural gas reformers. The project objective was to screen the natural gas reformers available on the international market. The technology is developing rapidly, and the results from this project will assist in determining the focus for the future Danish activities and in setting up ambitious and realistic targets. The reformer screening is partly based on AAU and Dantherm's experiences from previous studies, and the screening has been further extended with a number of activities, including seminars and contact with some of the most interesting suppliers. (BA)

  12. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  13. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-11-01

    In this dissertation, the metathesis route of metal chalcogenide aerogel synthesis was expanded by conducting systematic studies between polysulfide building blocks and the 1st-row transition metal linkers. Resulting materials were screened as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated. The effect of the presence of different counter-ion within chalcogel frameworks on the adsorption capacity of the chalcogels was studied on AFe3Zn3S17 (A= K, Na, and Rb) chalcogels. The highest adsorption capacity toward hydrocarbons and gases was observed on Rb based chalcogels. Adopting a new building block [BiTe3]3- with the 1st-row transition metal ions results in the formation of three high BET surface area chalcogels, KCrBiTe3, KZnBiTe3, and KFeBiTe3. The resulting chalcogels showed preferential adsorption of toluene vapor, and remarkable selectivity of CO2, indicating the potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes. The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 are also reported. Rare earth metal ions react with the thiostannate clusters in formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Obtained chalcogels have high BET surface areas, and showed notable adsorption capacity toward CO2 and toluene vapor. These chalcogels have also been engaged in the absorption of different organic molecules. The results reveal the ability of the chalcogels to distinguish among organic molecules on their electronic structures; hence, they could be used as sensors. Furthermore, the synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 and Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2- chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3

  15. Comparison of two common adsorption materials for thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of biogenic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcillo, Andrea; Jakimovska, Viktorija; Widdig, Anja; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2017-09-08

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly collected from gaseous samples by adsorption to materials such as the porous polymer Tenax TA. Adsorbed compounds are subsequently released from these materials by thermal desorption (TD) and separated then by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Tenax TA is known to be particularly suitable for non-polar to semipolar volatiles, however, many volatiles from environmental and biological samples possess a rather polar character. Therefore, we tested if the polymer XAD-2, which so far is widely used to adsorb organic compounds from aqueous and organic solvents, could provide a broader coverage for (semi)polar VOCs during gas-phase sampling. Mixtures of volatile compounds covering a wide range of volatility (bp. 20-256°C) and different chemical classes were introduced by liquid spiking into sorbent tubes with one of the two porous polymers, Tenax TA or XAD-2, and analyzed by TD/GC-MS. At first, an internal standard mixture composed of 17 authentic standards was used to optimize desorption temperature with respect to sorbent degradation and loading time for calibration. Secondly, we tested the detectability of a complex standard mixture composed of 57 volatiles, most of them common constituents of the body odor of mammals. Moreover, the performance of XAD-2 compared with Tenax TA was assessed as limit of quantitation and linearity for the internal standard mixture and 33 compounds from the complex standard mixture. Volatiles were analyzed in a range between 0.01-∼250ng/tube depending on the compound and material. Lower limits of quantitation were between 0.01 and 3 ng±0.9). Interestingly, we found different kinetics for compound adsorption with XAD-2, and a partially better sensitivity in comparison with Tenax TA. For these analytes, XAD-2 might be recommended as an alternative of Tenax TA for TD/GC-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Kariptas, Cagatay; Biyikoglu, Hikmet; Ozarpa, Cevat

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867km of gas lines with 750 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. The natural gas comes to Istanbul city borders with 70bar in 30inch diameter steel pipeline. The gas pressure is reduced to 20bar in RMS stations and distributed to district regulators inside the city. 110 of 750 district regulators are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers in order to cut gas flow during an earthquake event in the case of ground motion parameters exceeds the certain threshold levels. Also, state of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the gas pipelines are detected. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 750 district regulator sites. IGDAS Real-time Earthquake Risk Reduction algorithm follows 4 stages as below: 1) Real-time ground motion data transmitted from 110 IGDAS and 110 KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) acceleration stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI data center. 2) During an earthquake event EEW information is sent from IGDAS Scada Center to the IGDAS stations. 3) Automatic Shut-Off is applied at IGDAS district regulators, and calculated parameters are sent from stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI. 4) Integrated building and gas pipeline damage maps are prepared immediately after the earthquake event. The today's technology allows to rapidly estimate the

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Impurities in Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride Monomer Solution by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis method for volatile impurities in diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC monomer solution was established in this paper. The volatile impurities were quantitatively analyzed with trichloromethane as extraction solvent and n-hexane as internal standard by using gas chromatography (GC coupled with solvent extraction, and the chromatographic conditions, quantitative methods, and extraction conditions were systematically investigated in detail. The results showed that excellent linear relationships of 5 volatile impurities (dimethylamine, allyldimethylamine, allyl chloride, allyl alcohol, and allyl aldehyde were obtained in the range of 1–100 mg·L−1. The method also showed good specificity, recovery (95.0%–107.5%, and relative standard deviation (RSD, 1.40%–7.67%. This method could accurately detect the whole volatile impurities in DADMAC monomer solution quantitatively in one time with a low detection limit. Furthermore, this method is conducive to the preparation of highly pure DADMAC monomer and the development of national and international standards of the DADMAC monomer product quality, and the results could provide a strong foundation for the regulation and mechanism research of impurities on monomer reactivity in polymerization.

  18. Identification of signature volatiles to discriminate Candida albicans, glabrata, krusei and tropicalis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Moritz; Hartwig, Stefan; Schütte, Eyke; Gillissen, Bernhard; Preissner, Robert; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Kastner, Isabell; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection of the oral cavity. Clinical diagnoses require mycological confirmation, which is time-consuming in case of culture testing. The aim of the study was to identify signature volatiles to develop a chairside breath test to diagnose oral candidiasis. Headspaces above Candida albicans, glabrata, tropicalis, krusei cultures, and growth media as control were analysed after eight and 24 h using offline gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The identification of signature volatiles was assisted using various microbial databases. Retrieved volatile patterns enabled Candida species discrimination in vitro. For C. albicans 3-methyl-2-butanone and styrene and for C. krusei a combination of p-xylene, 2-octanone, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate were found to be specific. 1-hexanol was found in C. tropicalis, but is emitted by a variety of other microorganisms. C. glabrata was characterised through the absence of these volatiles. The development of a breath test is a promising approach in confirming suspicions of oral candidiasis. To confirm the retrieved results in vivo, breath tests in affected and healthy subjects have to be performed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  20. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY..., 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... outlined for calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source category...

  1. Regulation of natural gas: the issue of open access; Regulacao em materia de gas natural: a questao do livre acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandes, Ingrid; Siqueira, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present work discusses the question of the open access to the natural gas ducts, trying to show the most relevant aspects of it. Analyzing the regulation existent in Brazil and the main important characteristics of the natural gas activities, it will be tried to suggest new directions to be taken in the future. The open access it is a very important way to introduce new agents on the sector and, in that way, the discussions that try to show new aspects of it, are very relevant (author)

  2. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H.

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  3. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline

  4. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  5. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  6. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO 2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis, 1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  7. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  8. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carvalho

    Full Text Available Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water......) calculations, structural transitions, and predictions at low temperatures. Furthermore, model predictions for representative multicomponent mixtures are presented and compared against the ISO-standard GERG-water model and other selected models. In most cases, very good agreement with experimental data...

  10. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  11. Marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt, R.P.; Delaney, T.D.

    1973-01-01

    This report covers in some detail most of the major areas of consideration involved in the marine carriage of LNG. Some of the fields investigated and reviewed are the world's total energy picture and the particular requirements of natural gas in the United States in the near future. (GRA)

  12. Update on the REIPPPP, clean coal, nuclear, natural gas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milazi, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available text setting out South Africa’s electricity plan over the next 20 years. The document indicates timelines on the roll out of key supply side options such as renewable energy, the nuclear, natural gas and coal build programmes, as well as peaking...

  13. The Contribution of Natural Gas Vehicles to Sustainable Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for 23% of energy-related CO2 emissions, and transport associated CO2 emissions will more than double by 2050. This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development.

  14. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than

  15. Infrastructures for natural gas : The challenges of internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.; De Jong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The European natural gas infrastructure is facing the challenge of adapting itself to an increasingly international pattern of supply and demand, while the coordination of transactions is getting more and more complex. New patterns of trade are evolving, reflecting the consequences of the gradual

  16. Gas Cooled, Natural Uranium, D20 Moderated Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, R.C.; Beasley, E.G.; DeBoer, T.K.; Evans, T.C.; Molino, D.F.; Rothwell, W.S.; Slivka, W.R.

    1956-08-01

    The attractiveness of a helium cooled, heavy water moderated, natural uranium central station power plant has been investigated. A fuel element has been devised which allows the D20 to be kept at a low pressure while the exit gas temperature is high. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that, using currently available materials, competitive nuclear power in foreign countries is possible.

  17. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  18. Opportunities and Challenges for the Extraction of Natural Gas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies areas which need adequate preparation in order to ensure that the extraction of natural gas becomes the main driver for inclusive and sustainable growth and development in Tanzania, including reduction in donor dependence. The preparedness package includes ensuring that: fiscal regime to capture ...

  19. Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

  20. US Natural Gas Price and Its Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsing-Chien

    Research has shown that the Henry Hub natural gas price and the WTI crude oil price are cointegrated in the long run; however, the short term relationship between these two energy prices draws continued discussions and remains inconclusive so far. This paper uses advanced nonlinear time series method MARS VAR to study the dynamic relationship between natural gas price movements and crude oil prices over the past 14 years of daily data. The main finding is that WTI crude oil prices were causally prior to Henry Hub natural gas prices prior to 2004. After this period a decoupling occurred that was captured by the MARS VAR model but not seen in other research using vector error correction model (VECM) that does not support thresholds. Moreover, the out-of-sample forecasting power of MARS VAR is superior to VECM, which based on the cointegration assumption. The research findings may have significant implications of commodity pricing, hedging, and risk management to natural gas local distribution company (LDC), and the Energy Administration.

  1. The natural gas for vehicles; Le gaz naturel pour vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  2. Natural gas in the world. Prospects for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This book reviews natural gas reserves and resources, supply and demand forecasting up to the year 2000 and in a less precise estimation to the year 2020 in regional analysis including North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and USSR, Africa, Middle East, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, other Asiatic countries and Oceania.

  3. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  4. 77 FR 4220 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Natural Gas Companies AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In... Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies. The Commission finds that these particular reporting... natural gas companies subject to the Commission's jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as...

  5. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas... suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension volume as follows: 5.62 thousand cubic feet of natural gas, measured in accordance with 30 CFR part 250...

  6. 76 FR 58741 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Natural Gas Companies AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies that are currently codified in our regulations. The...) Interstate natural gas companies subject to the Commission's jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as...

  7. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND...

  8. 75 FR 51031 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 30, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural Gas...), and sections 157.7 and 157.18 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for...

  9. Future view on Norwegian natural gas distribution, 2015 - 2025; Framtidsbilde for norsk naturgassdistribusjon, 2015 - 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einang, P M; Hennie, E; Jetlund, A S; Bertelsen, T; Skjelvik, J M

    2005-05-15

    The report shows how the available market for natural gas can realised as LNG and CNG. The necessary investments in infrastructure and cost for the different solutions are also included. The expected price development natural gas and the connection prices for natural gas versus crude oil are shown. The report also shows the environmental benefits possible by choosing natural gas

  10. Natural gas: Imports and exports third quarter report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies with authorizations to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1993 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months (October 1992--September 1993). Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  11. Analysis of luwak coffee volatile by using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography (Analisa senyawa volatil kopi luwak dengan menggunakan mikroekstrasi fase padat dan kromatolgi gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The approach to authenticate Luwak coffee is made through analysis of volatile compounds of luwak coffee. Luwak coffee bean from type of arabica obtained from Andungsari Plantation in Bondowoso district, East Java Province Indonesia, was wet processed and sundried prior to roasting step. As many as 120 g green bean was roasted at 170-220°C for 8-12 minutes until reached light brown colour (Agtron scale 65 and was ground prior to extraction. Volatile compounds of roasted Luwak arabica coffee bean were extracted by using solid phase microextraction (SPME at 60°C for 30 minutes. The extracted analyte was subsequently transferred into GC-FID system by splitless injection at 260°C with five minutes sampling time, continued with separation through 50% phenyl 50% dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column and oven temperature programmed from 60°C to 180°C with rate of 5°C/min. Resulted chromatogram shows major peaks mainly in Rt 8.360-9.981, and Rt 9.705-14.778, and minor peaks identified before Rt 10 and after Rt 24. Varied sample quantity ranged within 0.5-2.5 g produced chromatograms which were not significantly different (p=0.08. This research also observed the use of γ-picoline (4-methylpyridine as internal standard. It was showed that γ-picoline appeared at Rt 8.6~ without overlaying other peaks originated from sample. Concentration of γ-picoline at 0.05 μL/g, resulted separable peaks. These findings showed that the use of solid phase microextraction and GC-FID is capable to be apply for identification and quantification of Luwak coffee

  12. Method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography in daily practice

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Makhomet, Andrey A; Guguchkina, Tatiana I; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2016-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography (GC) is investigated from different sides including method testing on prepared standard solutions like cognac and brandy, different ethanol-water solutions and certified reference material CRM LGC5100 Whisky-Congeners. Analysis of obtained results of experimental study from four different laboratories shows that relative bias between the experimentally measured concentrations calculated in accordance with proposed method and the values of concentrations assigned during the preparation by gravimetric method for all analyzed compounds does not exceed 10 %. It is shown that relative response factors (RRF) between analyzed volatile compounds and ethanol do not depend on time of analysis and are constant for every model of GC. It is shown the possibility to use predetermined RRF in daily practice of testing laboratories and to implement this new method in the international s...

  13. Analysis of Volatile Components of Varietal English Wines Using Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Caven-Quantrill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS, to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel tank-fermented/matured Huxelrebe, Ortega, Schönburger and Siegerrebe varietal wines from a commercial English vineyard, with corresponding wines produced by oak cask (‘barrel’ fermentation/maturation. Aroma profiles of tank and barrel wines were different, with more volatiles detected and net concentrations being higher in barrel wines. Long chain ethyl carboxylate esters were generally more abundant in barrel wines, whereas acetate esters were generally more prominent in tank wines. By conducting a short (~7 month maturation period in secondhand (third or fourth fill casks, it was possible to make wines with more complex aromas, but without obvious oak aroma.

  14. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  15. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Evaluation and Application of a Solid Adsorbent Method for Monitoring Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds from Oil and Gas Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Helmig, D.; Thompson, C. R.; Wang, W.; Terrell, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Residential communities are being increasingly impacted by emissions from oil and gas development and this has driven the need for simple, effective, and low-cost methods for air quality monitoring. Primary emissions from oil and gas production consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ranging from the short chain alkanes and alkenes to aromatic and semi-volatile species; many of these are a concern from both an air quality and public health viewpoint, as they can lead to local ozone pollution and increased risk of cancer or respiratory illness. The fate of hydrocarbons once in the atmosphere is ultimately oxidation through to CO2 and water, adding to the greenhouse gas burden. Measurement techniques that are capable of identifying and quantifying the full range of primary emissions of concern are required to assess community exposure to air toxics and to better inform residents, as well as local and state legislators. Here, we present evaluation of a low-cost air monitoring technique using stainless steel diffusion cartridges containing multiple solid adsorbents. Over the course of a three-month period in summer of 2014, cartridges were deployed at five monitoring sites located around Boulder County in the Northern Colorado Front Range, and exposed to ambient air for periods of up to four days along with concurrent sampling using stainless steel SUMMA canisters. Samples collected with both methods were subsequently analyzed for VOCs by GC-FID and the results were compared to determine the accuracy and precision of the diffusion cartridge method. Results of this evaluation show that the diffusion cartridge method has the potential to be a simple and low-cost solution for widespread exposure monitoring in communities near oil and gas development regions. Such measurements may also provide supporting evidence on wider effects on greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas development operations.

  17. Effect of retrograde gas condensate in low permeability natural gas reservoir; Efeito da condensacao retrograda em reservatorios de gas natural com baixa permeabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Paulo Lee K.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Ligero, Eliana L.; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Most of Brazilian gas fields are low-permeability or tight sandstone reservoirs and some of them should be gas condensate reservoir. In this type of natural gas reservoir, part of the gaseous hydrocarbon mixture is condensate and the liquid hydrocarbon accumulates near the well bore that causes the loss of productivity. The liquid hydrocarbon formation inside the reservoir should be well understood such as the knowledge of the variables that causes the condensate formation and its importance in the natural gas production. This work had as goal to better understanding the effect of condensate accumulation near a producer well. The influence of the porosity and the absolute permeability in the gas production was studied in three distinct gas reservoirs: a dry gas reservoir and two gas condensate reservoirs. The refinement of the simulation grid near the producer well was also investigated. The choice of simulation model was shown to be very important in the simulation of gas condensate reservoirs. The porosity was the little relevance in the gas production and in the liquid hydrocarbon formation; otherwise the permeability was very relevant. (author)

  18. Substitution of petroleum liquefied gas for natural gas in a metallurgical industry: a case study; Substituicao de gas liquefeito de petroleo por gas natural em uma siderurgica: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Isac Quintao; Miranda, Luciano Lellis; Fullin Junior, Benjamin; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; Manella, Roberto [Aperam South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Utilidades e Eficiencia Energetica; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-12-21

    Minas Gerais is a State where there is no production of natural gas. Aiming to increase the consumption of natural gas in Minas Gerais, PETROBRAS increase the network of gas natural distribution in the State of Minas Gerais and the State concessionaire (GASMIG) installed the Project of Natural Gas Valley. The case study is associated to an enterprise that firmed contract for supplying of natural gas. The fuel to be substituted is the Liquefied Petroleum Gas and the results of the substitution were shown. The advantages of the substitution were related to costs, and environmental aspects with the reduction of CO{sub 2} production. The natural gas contains a lower content of impurities and is operated with higher safety than the petroleum liquefied gas. (author)

  19. Study on seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and its potential use for freshness evaluation by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke; Luo, Lin; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-05

    Seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases are various and can be used for freshness evaluation during storage. It is imperative to obtain the full volatile information prior to the further study of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage. Also, the efficient data-processing method is another important factor for the interpretation of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and related potential volatile markers. In this work, a new analytical strategy, including the efficient sampling technique, sensitive detection and suitable data-processing method, for seafood freshness evaluation was developed based on the volatile profile characteristics during storage. First, the study of volatiles of seafood samples including razor clam, redspot swimming crab and prawn at different storage phases were conducted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Then, seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases were statistically interpreted by a combination data-processing method including normalization, principle component analysis (PCA) and common model strategy. The different seafood volatile profile characteristics and potential volatile markers were attempted to be distilled. The results tentatively suggested that the different seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage could reflect the transitional changing seafood freshness and provide more precise warning information for seafood spoilage during storage than any single chemical markers. This work developed an analytical method for study of seafood volatile profile characteristics and tentatively proposed a new idea of using seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage for the freshness evaluation from the point of view of analytical chemistry. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-01-01

    The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, re...