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Sample records for volatile floral attractants

  1. Drought and leaf herbivory influence floral volatiles and pollinator attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood. Investigating the mechanisms by which species interactions may shift under altered environmental conditions will help form a more predictive understanding of such shifts. In particular, components of climate change have the potential to strongly influence floral volatile organic...

  2. Floral scent of Canada thistle and its potential as a generic insect attractant.

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    El-Sayed, A M; Byers, J A; Manning, L M; Jürgens, A; Mitchell, V J; Suckling, D M

    2008-06-01

    The flowers of Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.), attract a wide range of insects, including pollinators and herbivorous species. This attraction is primarily mediated by floral odor, which offers potential for developing generic insect attractants based on odor. In this study, we have analyzed the chemical composition of the volatiles produced by Canada thistle flowers. Nineteen floral compounds were identified in the headspace, including phenylacetaldehyde (55%), methyl salicylate (14%), dimethyl salicylate (8%), pyranoid linalool oxide (4.5%), and benzaldehyde (3.5%). Other minor compounds include benzyl alcohol, methylbenzoate, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, furanoid linalool oxide, p-anisaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene, benzylacetate, benzyl tiglate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, benzyl benzoate, isopropyl myristate, and 2-phenylethyl ester benzoic acid. The relative attractiveness of various doses of the main floral volatile compound phenylacetaldehyde (i.e., 10, 100, 200, and 400 mg) was tested for insect attraction. Both the total catch and the biodiversity of insect species trapped increased as the loading of phenylacetaldehyde increased. Volatiles were chosen from the odors from the flowers of Canada thistle and formulated and tested in the field. An 11-component blend was the most attractive of several floral blends tested. These findings indicate that chemical components of flower odors of Canada thistle can serve as a generic insect attractant for monitoring of invasive pest species.

  3. How to be an attractive male: floral dimorphism and attractiveness to pollinators in a dioecious plant

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    Waelti Marc O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual selection theory predicts that males are limited in their reproductive success by access to mates, whereas females are more limited by resources. In animal-pollinated plants, attraction of pollinators and successful pollination is crucial for reproductive success. In dioecious plant species, males should thus be selected to increase their attractiveness to pollinators by investing more than females in floral traits that enhance pollinator visitation. We tested the prediction of higher attractiveness of male flowers in the dioecious, moth-pollinated herb Silene latifolia, by investigating floral signals (floral display and fragrance and conducting behavioral experiments with the pollinator-moth, Hadena bicruris. Results As found in previous studies, male plants produced more but smaller flowers. Male flowers, however, emitted significantly larger amounts of scent than female flowers, especially of the pollinator-attracting compounds. In behavioral tests we showed that naïve pollinator-moths preferred male over female flowers, but this preference was only significant for male moths. Conclusion Our data suggest the evolution of dimorphic floral signals is shaped by sexual selection and pollinator preferences, causing sexual conflict in both plants and pollinators.

  4. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

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    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  5. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

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    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  6. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

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    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  7. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  8. Assessment of synthetic floral-based attractants and sugar baits to capture male and female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Fikrig, Kara; Johnson, Brian J; Fish, Durland; Ritchie, Scott A

    2017-01-17

    The viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, including dengue and Zika viruses, are rapidly expanding in geographic range and as a threat to public health. In response, control programs are increasingly turning to the use of sterile insect techniques resulting in a need to trap male Ae. aegypti to monitor the efficacy of the intervention. However, there is a lack of effective and cheap methods for trapping males. Thus, we attempted to exploit the physiological need to obtain energy from sugar feeding in order to passively capture male and female Ae. aegypti (nulliparous and gravid) in free-flight attraction assays. Candidate lures included previously identified floral-based (phenylacetaldehyde, linalool oxide, phenylethyl alcohol, and acetophenone) attractants and an attractive toxic sugar bait-based (ATSB) solution of guava and mango nectars. A free-flight attraction assay assessed the number of mosquitoes attracted to each candidate lure displayed individually. Then, a choice test was performed between the best-performing lure and a water control displayed in Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Results from the attraction assays indicated that the ATSB solution of guava and mango nectars was the most promising lure candidate for males; unlike the floral-based attractants tested, it performed significantly better than the water control. Nulliparous and gravid females demonstrated no preference among the lures and water controls indicating a lack of attraction to floral-based attractants and sugar baits in a larger setting. Although the guava-mango ATSB lure was moderately attractive to males when presented directly (i.e. no need to enter a trap or other confinement), it failed to attract significantly more male, nulliparous female, or gravid female Ae. aegypti than water controls when presented inside a Gravid Aedes Trap. Our findings suggest that the use of volatile floral-based attractants and sugar mixtures that have been identified in the literature is not an effective

  9. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction

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    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant-pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that...

  10. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

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    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  11. Ecology and evolution of floral volatile-mediated information transfer in plants.

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    Schiestl, Florian P

    2015-04-01

    Floral volatiles are complex, multi-functional signals that are often used by pollinators in combination with other signals, such as color. Floral visitors use floral scent to estimate the amount of reward present in flowers, to facilitate the identification of a specific host flower or as signals that chemically resemble those important for pollinator insects in other ecological contexts. There is good evidence that floral scent evolves under selection imposed by both mutualists and antagonists. Antagonists may often limit the amount of scent emitted by flowers, thus contributing to spatial population variation, and select for phenotypic plasticity after enemy attack. Floral scent is also an important component of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation, as it often co-varies with color and morphology in sister species with different pollination systems. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Floral Reward, Advertisement and Attractiveness to Honey Bees in Dioecious Salix caprea

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    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants. PMID:24676333

  13. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

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    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  14. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

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    Stefan Dötterl

    Full Text Available In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  15. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L. IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

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    LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE KIILL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, in areas with the following melon hybrids: Yellow type, Piel de Sapo, Cantaloupe and Galia. For studies on floral morphology and biology, hermaphrodites and male flowers of each hybrid were analyzed for their size and nectar chamber size, pollen and nectar production, anthesis time and flower lifespan. Floral visitors were observed simultaneously in hybrids of three types of melon, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., in the two study sites. Evaluations of the corolla diameter and flower height indicated that the hermaphrodite flowers were larger in size than male flowers in all types of melon investigated, in both study sites. As for nectar chamber, male flowers are larger in width, but smaller in height, compared to hermaphrodite flowers. Regarding the volume of nectar, differences were found between floral types for the hybrids evaluated, in the two study sites; the hermaphrodite flowers produced 2-7 times more nectar than male flowers in all studied hybrids. Observations of visits of Apis mellifera to areas with simultaneous flowering of the three types of melon demonstrated differences in the frequency of visits between hybrids, floral type and foraged resource. Flowers of the hybrids Piel de Sapo and Cantaloupe exhibited larger corolla diameter, larger dimensions of the nectar chamber and greater supply of resources for foraging, which could explain the higher number of visits of bees to their flowers in the sites studied.

  16. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

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    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhythmic emission of floral volatiles from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. 'Quatre Saisons'.

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    Picone, Joanne M; Clery, Robin A; Watanabe, Naoharu; MacTavish, Hazel S; Turnbull, Colin G N

    2004-07-01

    The control of rhythmic emission of floral volatiles emitted from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. 'Quatre Saisons' throughout floral development under various light regimes was studied. 2-Phenylethanol was the major volatile emitted in addition to monoterpenols, oxidised monoterpenols, monoterpenes and aromatic compounds. All detected volatiles were emitted rhythmically, with maximum peaks coinciding 8-10 h into a 12-h photoperiod. For some compounds a secondary, nocturnal peak was apparent. The primary and secondary maxima both occurred at approximately 24-h intervals. Rhythms appeared to be regulated endogenously: rhythmic emission continued upon exposure to continuous light or continuous darkness, and a phase shift in emission was induced upon inversion of the photoperiod. Additionally, emission continued after flower excision. A similar profile of free volatiles was stored within the floral tissue, together with glycosidic forms of 2-phenylethanol (>99% beta-D-glucoside), benzyl alcohol, citronellol and geraniol. Regression analysis indicated a significant decrease in glycosylated 2-phenylethanol through the photoperiod. These results suggest that glycosylated volatiles stored within petals may be a source of rhythmically emitted volatiles.

  18. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

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    Kellenberger, Roman T; Schlüter, Philipp M; Schiestl, Florian P

    2016-01-01

    Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  19. Meligethes aeneus pollen-feeding suppresses, and oviposition induces, Brassica napus volatiles: beetle attraction/repellence to lilac aldehydes and veratrole

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    Insect pollination and pollen-feeding can reduce plant volatile emissions and future insect floral attraction, with oviposition having different effects. Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is a pollen-feeding pest beetle of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae). We measured pla...

  20. Integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis of Magnolia champaca identifies biosynthetic pathways for floral volatile organic compounds.

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    Dhandapani, Savitha; Jin, Jingjing; Sridhar, Vishweshwaran; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2017-06-14

    Magnolia champaca, commonly known as champak is a well-known tree due to its highly fragrant flowers. Champak floral scent is attributed to a complex mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These aromatic flowers are widely used in flavors and fragrances industry. Despite its commercial importance, the VOC biosynthesis pathways in these flowers are largely unknown. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of fully opened champak flowers to discover the active VOC biosynthesis pathways as well as floral scent-related genes. Volatile collection by headspace method and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified a total of 43 VOCs from fully opened champak flowers, of which 46.9% were terpenoids, 38.9% were volatile esters and 5.2% belonged to phenylpropanoids/benzenoids. Sequencing and de novo assembly of champak flower transcriptome yielded 47,688 non-redundant unigenes. Transcriptome assembly was validated using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based approach for randomly selected unigenes. The detailed profiles of VOCs led to the discovery of pathways and genes involved in floral scent biosynthesis from RNA-seq data. Analysis of expression levels of many floral-scent biosynthesis-related unigenes in flowers and leaves showed that most of them were expressed higher in flowers than in leaf tissues. Moreover, our metabolite-guided transcriptomics, in vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and transgenic studies identified (R)-linalool synthase that is essential for the production of major VOCs of champak flowers, (R)-linalool and linalool oxides. As our study is the first report on transcriptome analysis of Magnolia champaca, this transcriptome dataset that serves as an important public information for functional genomics will not only facilitate better understanding of ecological functions of champak floral VOCs, but also provide biotechnological targets for sustainable production of champak floral scent.

  1. Differential Contribution of Jasmine Floral Volatiles to the Aroma of Scented Green Tea

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    Jian-Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea volatiles’ generation and retention over manufacturing processes are crucial for tea quality. In this study, floral volatile adsorption and retention in green tea scented with Jasminum sambac flowers were examined over the scenting process. Out of 34 enhanced volatiles in the scented tea, β-ionone, β-linalool, indole, and methyl anthranilate were the most potent odorants with 5.1–45.2-fold higher odor activity values than the corresponding controls in the nonscented tea. Scenting efficiencies for the floral volatiles retained in the scented tea (the percentage of volatile abundance over its corresponding amount in jasmine flowers ranged from 0.22% for α-farnesene to 75.5% for β-myrcene. Moreover, due to additional rounds of heat treatment for scented green tea manufacturing, some volatiles such as carotenoid-derived geraniol and β-ionone and lipid-derived (Z-jasmone were heat-enhanced and others such as nonanal were heat-desorbed in the scented green tea. Our study revealed that dynamic volatile absorption and desorption collectively determined tea volatile retention and tea aroma. Our findings may have a great potential for practical improvement of tea aroma.

  2. Bacterial Volatiles Attract Gravid Secondary Screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2016-04-01

    Bovine blood inoculated and incubated with bacteria was tested to determine if secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), would be attracted to the incubated substrate for oviposition. Five species of bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca (Flugge), Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Proteus vulgaris Hauser, Providencia rettgeri Hadley, Elkins and Caldwell, and Providencia stuartii Ewing, previously isolated from animal wounds infested by primary screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were used. Incubated substrates were tested in a two-choice cage bioassay to study landing response and oviposition by gravid C. macellaria. Significantly more flies landed on substrates containing P. mirabilis than on substrates with other species of bacteria. Klebsiella oxytoca-treated substrates attracted the least flies. Substrates containing bacteria incubated for 72 h attracted significantly more flies than those incubated for 24-, 48-, or 96-h period. In 3-h duration oviposition tests, substrates with P. rettgeri attracted significantly more flies to oviposit than the other four species. The most eggs were recorded when substrates treated with all five species of bacteria were offered for oviposition. It is likely that multiple active chemicals present in the volatiles from substrates treated with all five species result in greater response than those in a single species. At least 72-h incubation seems to be necessary to obtain the most active volatile chemicals. Results suggest that C. macellaria uses similar chemical cues as C. hominivorax from bacteria volatiles as oviposition attractant/stimulant.

  3. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness.

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    Klocko, Amy L; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Brunner, Amy M; Shevchenko, Olga; Aldwinckle, Herb; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness.

  4. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Klocko

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness.

  5. Analysis of Floral Volatile Components and Antioxidant Activity of Different Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Cheng, Ping; Wang, Jin-Hui; Li, Hong

    2017-10-23

    This study investigated the volatile flavor compounds and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of chrysanthemums that was extracted from the fresh flowers of 10 taxa of Chrysanthemum morifolium from three species; namely Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Yellow, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Red, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Pink, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) White, Pericallis hybrid Blue, Pericallis hybrid Pink, Pericallis hybrid Purple, Bellis perennis Pink, Bellis perennis Yellow, and Bellis perennis White. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. The volatile flavor compounds from the fresh flowers were collected using dynamic headspace collection, analyzed using auto thermal desorber-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified with quantification using the external standard method. The antioxidant activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays, and the results showed that the antioxidant activity of each sample was not the same. The different varieties of fresh Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were distinguished and classified by fingerprint similarity evaluation, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis. The results showed that the floral volatile component profiles were significantly different among the different Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. A total of 36 volatile flavor compounds were identified with eight functional groups: hydrocarbons, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, aldehydes, and esters. Moreover, the variability among Chrysanthemum morifolium in basis to the data, and the first three principal components (PC1, PC2, and PC3) accounted for 96.509% of the total variance (55.802%, 30.599%, and 10.108%, respectively). PCA indicated that there were marked differences among Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of the PCA analysis. In conclusion, the results of

  6. Analysis of Floral Volatile Components and Antioxidant Activity of Different Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the volatile flavor compounds and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of chrysanthemums that was extracted from the fresh flowers of 10 taxa of Chrysanthemum morifolium from three species; namely Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Yellow, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Red, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Pink, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. White, Pericallis hybrid Blue, Pericallis hybrid Pink, Pericallis hybrid Purple, Bellis perennis Pink, Bellis perennis Yellow, and Bellis perennis White. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. The volatile flavor compounds from the fresh flowers were collected using dynamic headspace collection, analyzed using auto thermal desorber–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified with quantification using the external standard method. The antioxidant activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays, and the results showed that the antioxidant activity of each sample was not the same. The different varieties of fresh Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were distinguished and classified by fingerprint similarity evaluation, principle component analysis (PCA, and cluster analysis. The results showed that the floral volatile component profiles were significantly different among the different Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. A total of 36 volatile flavor compounds were identified with eight functional groups: hydrocarbons, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, aldehydes, and esters. Moreover, the variability among Chrysanthemum morifolium in basis to the data, and the first three principal components (PC1, PC2, and PC3 accounted for 96.509% of the total variance (55.802%, 30.599%, and 10.108%, respectively. PCA indicated that there were marked differences among Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of the PCA analysis. In conclusion, the

  7. Floral Strips Attract Beneficial Insects but Do Not Enhance Yield in Cucumber Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2017-04-01

    Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control. Flowers were planted within a commercial cucumber field in 20-m-long strips in a randomized complete block design with six replications in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Some floral treatments successfully attracted more beneficial insects than others, but the beneficials did not disperse out to the cucumber plants. Cucumber yield was unaffected by flowers with one exception: in 2015, cucumber yield in the sweet alyssum plots were greater than those in plots with no flowers. Our research indicates that adding flowers to cucumber fields to increase services from beneficial insects needs to be further investigated to better understand the effect of factors such as relative flowering strip size. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  9. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  10. Pollination ecology of Silene acutifolia (Caryophyllaceae): floral traits variation and pollinator attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buide, María Luisa

    2006-02-01

    The floral display influences the composition of pollinators interacting with a plant species. Geographic and temporal variation in pollinator composition complicates the understanding of the evolutionary consequences of floral display variation. This paper analyses the relationships between Silene acutifolia, a hermaphroditic perennial herb, and its pollinators, based on field studies in the north-west of Spain. Studies were conducted over three years (1997-1999). Firstly, the main pollinators of this species were determined for two years in one population. Secondly, pollen limitation in fruit and seed production was analysed by supplementary hand pollinations, and counting the pollen grains and tubes growing in styles for two different-sized populations. Finally, the effect of flower size and number on the rate of visitation and total seed number was examined for 15 marked plants. The primary pollinators were long-tongued insects, including Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera, but the composition and visitation frequencies differed between years. Pollen limitation occurred in one of the years of study. There was between-population variation in the number of pollen grains and pollen tubes found in styles, suggesting pollen limitation in one population. Overall, pollinators visited plants with more open flowers more frequently, and pollinated more flowers within these plants. Conversely, petal and calyx sizes had no effect on insect visitation. Plants with higher rates of visits produced higher number of seeds, suggesting that pollinator-mediated limitation of seed and fruit production may be important in some years.

  11. Volatile-Mediated Attraction of Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum to Tomato and Eggplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewa L. C. Darshanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is known to be affected by plant volatile cues, but its attraction or repellent to specific volatile cues has not been deeply studied yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the most attractive plant among cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and eggplant (Solanum melongena to evaluate the volatiles of plants to identify the chemical compound(s that attract T. vaporariorum. We speculated that whitefly–host plant interaction primarily depends on plant volatile emissions and that once the plant is damaged, it might attract more whiteflies. Three intact (uninfested tomato, four intact eggplant cultivars and whitefly infested plants of the most whitefly attractive tomato and eggplant cultivars were examined by behavioral assay experiments for attractiveness to T. vaporariorum and headspace volatile were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whiteflies had the highest preference for the intact eggplant Kuai Yuan Qie (KYQ among the eggplant and the tomato plant cultivars in bioassay experiments. Although both male and female whiteflies were significantly more attracted to infested KYQ plants than to intact plants, whitefly females did not select conspecific-infested YG plants. The volatile emissions among different plant cultivars in individual species and infested versus intact plants were significantly different. Among these volatiles, identified major green leaf volatiles [(Z-3-hexen-1-ol] and terpenoids [α-pinene, (E-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, azulene] showed a constitutive relationship with the most whitefly preference plants. Our findings provide new insights into the chemical compounds that attract or repel whiteflies.

  12. Volatile-Mediated Attraction of Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum to Tomato and Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshanee, Hewa L. C.; Ren, Hui; Ahmed, Nazeer; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to be affected by plant volatile cues, but its attraction or repellent to specific volatile cues has not been deeply studied yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the most attractive plant among cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) to evaluate the volatiles of plants to identify the chemical compound(s) that attract T. vaporariorum. We speculated that whitefly–host plant interaction primarily depends on plant volatile emissions and that once the plant is damaged, it might attract more whiteflies. Three intact (uninfested) tomato, four intact eggplant cultivars and whitefly infested plants of the most whitefly attractive tomato and eggplant cultivars were examined by behavioral assay experiments for attractiveness to T. vaporariorum and headspace volatile were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whiteflies had the highest preference for the intact eggplant Kuai Yuan Qie (KYQ) among the eggplant and the tomato plant cultivars in bioassay experiments. Although both male and female whiteflies were significantly more attracted to infested KYQ plants than to intact plants, whitefly females did not select conspecific-infested YG plants. The volatile emissions among different plant cultivars in individual species and infested versus intact plants were significantly different. Among these volatiles, identified major green leaf volatiles [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol] and terpenoids [α-pinene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, azulene] showed a constitutive relationship with the most whitefly preference plants. Our findings provide new insights into the chemical compounds that attract or repel whiteflies. PMID:28775733

  13. Jasmonic acid and herbivory differentially induce carnivore-attracting plant volatiles in Lima bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Gols, R.; Ludeking, D.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lima bean plants respond to feeding damage of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with the emission of a complex blend of volatiles that are products of several different biosynthetic pathways. These volatiles attract the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of

  14. Differential attraction of malaria mosquitoes to volatile blends produced by human skin bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Andriessen, Rob; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bukovinszkiné Kiss, Gabriella; Schulz, Stefan; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A; Schraa, Gosse; Smallegange, Renate C

    2010-12-30

    The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is mainly guided by human odour components to find its blood host. Skin bacteria play an important role in the production of human body odour and when grown in vitro, skin bacteria produce volatiles that are attractive to A. gambiae. The role of single skin bacterial species in the production of volatiles that mediate the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes has remained largely unknown and is the subject of the present study. Headspace samples were taken to identify volatiles that mediate this behaviour. These volatiles could be used as mosquito attractants or repellents. Five commonly occurring species of skin bacteria were tested in an olfactometer for the production of volatiles that attract A. gambiae. Odour blends produced by some bacterial species were more attractive than blends produced by other species. In contrast to odours from the other bacterial species tested, odours produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not attractive to A. gambiae. Headspace analysis of bacterial volatiles in combination with behavioural assays led to the identification of six compounds that elicited a behavioural effect in A. gambiae. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for a role of selected bacterial species, common on the human skin, in determining the attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes. This information will be used in the further development of a blend of semiochemicals for the manipulation of mosquito behaviour.

  15. Attraction of Chrysoperla carnea complex and Chrysopa spp. lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphid sex pheromone components and a synthetic blend of floral compounds in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Voigt, Erzsébet; Tóth, Miklós

    2010-12-01

    The deployment of synthetic attractants for the manipulation of lacewing populations as aphid predators is currently used in integrated pest management. This study investigates a synthetic bait comprising floral compounds previously found to attract the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and, for the first time, the aphid sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol and (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, in field experiments in Hungary, for their ability to manipulate lacewing populations. The synthetic floral bait attracted both sexes of the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and Chrysopa formosa Brauer showed minimal attraction. The aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted males of C. formosa and C. pallens (Rambur). When the two baits were combined, Chrysopa catches were similar to those with aphid sex pheromone baits alone, but carnea complex catches decreased significantly (by 85-88%). As the floral bait alone attracted both sexes of the carnea complex, it showed potential to manipulate the location of larval density via altering the site of oviposition. Aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted predatory males of Chrysopa spp. and can potentially be used to enhance biological control of aphids. For the carnea complex, however, a combination of both baits is not advantageous because of the decrease in adults attracted. Assumptions of intraguild avoidance underlying this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of bark beetle pheromones on the attraction of Monochamus alternatus to pine volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Ting Fan; Daniel Miller; Long-Wa Zhang; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the attraction of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Dryocoetes luteus Blandford and Orthotomicus erosusWollaston (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol and (+)-α-pinene and the bark beetle pheromones, ipsenol and ipsdienol. M. alternatus were attracted to traps baited...

  18. Volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae are attractive to conspecific moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Guo-Chang; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Xin, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2014-10-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles have been reported to play a role in the host-searching behavior of herbivores. However, next to nothing is known about the effect of volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae on the behavior of conspecific adults. Here, we found that tea plants infested by E. obliqua caterpillars for 24 h were more attractive to both virgin male and female E. obliqua adults than were intact, uninfested tea plants; moreover, mated female E. obliqua moths were more attracted by infested tea plants and preferentially oviposited on these plants, whereas male moths were repelled by infested plants once they had mated. Volatile analysis revealed that the herbivore infestation dramatically increased the emission of volatiles. Among these volatiles, 17 compounds elicited antennal responses from both male and female virginal moths. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we found that 3 of the 17 chemicals, benzyl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, and (Z)-3-hexenal, were attractive, but two compounds, linalool and benzyl nitril, were repellent to virgin male and female moths. One chemical, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, was attractive only to virgin males. Mated females were attracted by three compounds, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenal; whereas mated males were repelled by (Z)-3-hexenol. The findings provide new insights into the interaction between tea plants and the herbivores, and may help scientists develop new measures with which to control E. obliqua.

  19. CYP76C1 (Cytochrome P450)-Mediated Linalool Metabolism and the Formation of Volatile and Soluble Linalool Oxides in Arabidopsis Flowers: A Strategy for Defense against Floral Antagonists[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, Agnès; Ginglinger, Jean-François; Beran, Franziska; Schneider, Bernd; Leiss, Kirsten; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool is one of the most frequently encountered volatile compounds in floral scents. Various linalool oxides are usually emitted along with linalool, some of which are cyclic, such as the furanoid lilac compounds. Recent work has revealed the coexistence of two flower-expressed linalool synthases that produce the (S)- or (R)-linalool enantiomers and the involvement of two P450 enzymes in the linalool oxidation in the flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana. Partially redundant enzymes may also contribute to floral linalool metabolism. Here, we provide evidence that CYP76C1 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a cascade of oxidation reactions and is the major linalool metabolizing oxygenase in Arabidopsis flowers. Based on the activity of the recombinant enzyme and mutant analyses, we demonstrate its prominent role in the formation of most of the linalool oxides identified in vivo, both as volatiles and soluble conjugated compounds, including 8-hydroxy, 8-oxo, and 8-COOH-linalool, as well as lilac aldehydes and alcohols. Analysis of insect behavior on CYP76C1 mutants and in response to linalool and its oxygenated derivatives demonstrates that CYP76C1-dependent modulation of linalool emission and production of linalool oxides contribute to reduced floral attraction and favor protection against visitors and pests. PMID:26475865

  20. CYP76C1 (Cytochrome P450)-Mediated Linalool Metabolism and the Formation of Volatile and Soluble Linalool Oxides in Arabidopsis Flowers: A Strategy for Defense against Floral Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boachon, Benoît; Junker, Robert R; Miesch, Laurence; Bassard, Jean-Etienne; Höfer, René; Caillieaudeaux, Robin; Seidel, Dana E; Lesot, Agnès; Heinrich, Clément; Ginglinger, Jean-François; Allouche, Lionel; Vincent, Bruno; Wahyuni, Dinar S C; Paetz, Christian; Beran, Franziska; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Leiss, Kirsten; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2015-10-01

    The acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool is one of the most frequently encountered volatile compounds in floral scents. Various linalool oxides are usually emitted along with linalool, some of which are cyclic, such as the furanoid lilac compounds. Recent work has revealed the coexistence of two flower-expressed linalool synthases that produce the (S)- or (R)-linalool enantiomers and the involvement of two P450 enzymes in the linalool oxidation in the flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana. Partially redundant enzymes may also contribute to floral linalool metabolism. Here, we provide evidence that CYP76C1 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a cascade of oxidation reactions and is the major linalool metabolizing oxygenase in Arabidopsis flowers. Based on the activity of the recombinant enzyme and mutant analyses, we demonstrate its prominent role in the formation of most of the linalool oxides identified in vivo, both as volatiles and soluble conjugated compounds, including 8-hydroxy, 8-oxo, and 8-COOH-linalool, as well as lilac aldehydes and alcohols. Analysis of insect behavior on CYP76C1 mutants and in response to linalool and its oxygenated derivatives demonstrates that CYP76C1-dependent modulation of linalool emission and production of linalool oxides contribute to reduced floral attraction and favor protection against visitors and pests. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Klocko, Amy L.; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Brunner, Amy M.; Shevchenko, Olga; Aldwinckle, Herb; Strauss, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of bot...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), horseradish (radish, rutabagas, turnip roots), leafy greens (spinach, swiss chard), lettuce (head leaf), okra..., berry and nut crops—almonds, apples, apricots, berries (blackberry, boysenberry, dewberry, loganberry...

  3. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.W.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested

  4. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study,

  5. Attraction of egg-killing parasitoids toward induced plant volatiles in a multi-herbivore context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusumano, A.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Colazza, S.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit volatile organic compounds which may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. In nature, plants are often attacked by multiple herbivores, but the majority of studies which have investigated indirect plant

  6. The Venus flytrap attracts insects by the release of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Scheerer, Ursel; Kruse, Jörg; Burzlaff, Tim; Honsel, Anne; Alfarraj, Saleh; Georgiev, Plamen; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Ghirardo, Andrea; Kreuzer, Ines; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap.

  7. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  8. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  9. Identification and field evaluation of pear fruit volatiles attractive to the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Fei; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Plant volatiles play a key role in host plant location of phytophagous insects. Cydia molesta is an important pest of pear fruit late in the growing season. We identified and quantified volatiles from immature and mature fruits of six pear varieties by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Attractiveness of synthetic blends to adults based on gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) activity was investigated in both field and laboratory. Consistent electroantennographic activity was obtained for 12 compounds from headspace collections of the mature fruits of the six pear varieties. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among six odor profiles. Among the six mixtures, the mixture of 1-hexanol, nonanal, ethyl butanoate, butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate, and farnesene (different isomers) with a 1:1:100:70:7:5:1:4 ratio from the variety Jimi and the mixture of nonanal, ethyl butanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and farnesene with a 1:100:1:32:1:2 ratio from the variety Huangjin were highly attractive to both sexes in the field. However, male captures were much higher than those of females. Further wind tunnel tests proved that both sexes exhibited upwind flight to the lures, but only males landed on the source. Our finding indicates that mixtures mimicking Jimi and Huangjin volatiles attract both females and males of C. molesta, and these host volatiles may be involved in mate finding behavior.

  10. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  11. UV-B light contributes directly to the synthesis of chiloglottone floral volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Ranamalie; Poldy, Jacqueline; Matsuba, Yuki; Barrow, Russell A.; Hemmi, Jan M.; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids attract their specific male wasp pollinators by means of 2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones or ‘chiloglottones’, representing a newly discovered class of volatiles with unique structures. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV-B light at low intensities is directly required for chiloglottone biosynthesis in Chiloglottis trapeziformis. Methods Chiloglottone production occurs only in specific tissue (the callus) of the labellum. Cut buds and flowers, and whole plants with buds and flowers, sourced from the field, were kept in a growth chamber and interactions between growth stage of the flowers and duration and intensity of UV-B exposure on chiloglottone production were studied. The effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide were also examined. Key Results Chiloglottone was not present in buds, but was detected in buds that were manually opened and then exposed to sunlight, or artificial UV-B light for ≥5 min. Spectrophotometry revealed that the sepals and petals blocked UV-B light from reaching the labellum inside the bud. Rates of chiloglottone production increased with developmental stage, increasing exposure time and increasing UV-B irradiance intensity. Cycloheximide did not inhibit the initial production of chiloglottone within 5 min of UV-B exposure. However, inhibition of chiloglottone production by cycloheximide occurred over 2 h of UV-B exposure, indicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis to sustain chiloglottone production under UV-B. Conclusions The sepals and petals of Chiloglottis orchids strongly block UV-B wavelengths of light, preventing chiloglottone production inside the bud. While initiation of chiloglottone biosynthesis requires only UV-B light, sustained chiloglottone biosynthesis requires both UV-B and de novo protein biosynthesis. The internal amounts of chiloglottone in a flower reflect the interplay between developmental stage

  12. Calling from distance: attraction of soil bacteria by plant root volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Gerards, Saskia; Hundscheid, Maria; Melenhorst, Jasper; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2018-01-22

    Plants release a wide set of secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many of those compounds are considered to function as defense against herbivory, pests, and pathogens. However, little knowledge exists about the role of belowground plant VOCs for attracting beneficial soil microorganisms. We developed an olfactometer system to test the attraction of soil bacteria by VOCs emitted by Carex arenaria roots. Moreover, we tested whether infection of C. arenaria with the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum modifies the VOCs profile and bacterial attraction. The results revealed that migration of distant bacteria in soil towards roots can be stimulated by plant VOCs. Upon fungal infection, the blend of root VOCs changed and specific bacteria with antifungal properties were attracted. Tests with various pure VOCs indicated that those compounds can diffuse over long distance but with different diffusion abilities. Overall, this work highlights the importance of plant VOCs in belowground long-distance plant-microbe interactions.

  13. Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Sagel, A; Chen, H; Skoda, S R

    2014-05-01

    Gravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are attracted to the volatiles from waste larval rearing media to deposit eggs. Studies were conducted to identify volatile chemicals from the waste larval media and determine their effectiveness to attract gravid flies to oviposit. Volatiles were collected using solid-phase microextraction method, and five active chemicals, namely, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In electroantennography studies, antennae ofgravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), responded positively to each of the identified compounds. A synthetic blend of these five compounds in the ratio of 335:200:57:1:12 was prepared and tested for its effectiveness to attract both C. hominivorax and C. macellaria using laboratory bioassay methods. Significantly more gravid C. macellaria were attracted to and landed on substrates treated with 10-fold diluted blends compared with those landed on substrates treated with ethanol only (as control). Only a few young females and young and old males were attracted to the substrates treated with the synthetic blend. The C. hominivorax females laid significantly more eggs on substrates treated with waste media, 10-fold diluted blend, and 100-fold diluted blend than on substrates with undiluted blend or ethanol. Similarly, C. macellaria deposited significantly more eggs on substrates treated with waste media, 10-fold diluted blend, and 100-fold diluted blend compared with substrates with undiluted blend or ethanol. C. macellaria females deposited significantly less amount of eggs than did C. hominivorax females. These results indicate that the synthetic blend of five compounds identified may serve as an oviposition attractant for C. hominivorax as well as for C. macellaria.

  14. Relation between HLA genes, human skin volatiles and attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Beijleveld, Hans; Qiu, Yu Tong; Maliepaard, Chris; Verduyn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W; Claas, Frans H J; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A; Smallegange, Renate C

    2013-08-01

    Chemical cues are considered to be the most important cues for mosquitoes to find their hosts and humans can be ranked for attractiveness to mosquitoes based on the chemical cues they emit. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are considered to be involved in the regulation of human body odor and may therefore affect human attractiveness to mosquitoes, and hence, affect the force of malaria transmission. In the present study the correlations between HLA profiles, human skin volatiles and human attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto were examined. Skin emanations of 48 volunteers were collected by rubbing a foot over glass beads. Previously the attractiveness of these emanations to An. gambiae was determined. In this study, the chemical composition of these emanations was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and blood samples of all volunteers were taken for HLA analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Fisher's exact test and random forest regression were used to test for correlations between individuals classified as either highly or poorly attractive to mosquitoes and their HLA profile and volatile composition. HLA profiling suggests that people carrying HLA gene Cw∗07 are more attractive to mosquitoes. GC-MS revealed that limonene, 2-phenylethanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were associated with individuals that were poorly attractive to An.gambiae and lactic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid and octanal with individuals that were highly attractive. Such compounds offer potential for disruption of mosquito behavior in malaria intervention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthetic grape volatiles attract mated Lobesia botrana females in laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    In laboratory experiments, we identified and quantified volatiles emitted by inflorescences and berries of two grape varieties (Trebbiano and Sangiovese) and examined the effects of the volatiles on oviposition by the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. Compared to Trebbiano, Sangiovese is relatively more susceptible to L. botrana infestations under natural conditions. Chemical and electrophysiological analysis indicated only quantitative differences between the volatiles released by the two varieties. In a dual-choice oviposition bioassay based only on volatile cues, females did not show any preference between the two varieties. The six major components of the odor profiles that were GC-EAD-active to female antennae included: limonene, 4,8-dimethyl-1,(E)-3,7-nonatriene, (+/-)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. At the beginning of the berry touch phenological stage, their proportions were about 10:0.6:0.4:0.5:0.9:0.6 in Trebbiano and 10:1:0.4:1.5:0.4:0.3 in Sangiovese. A six-component synthetic lure (with the proportion 10:1:1:1:1:1, which approximated the ratio of components released by both varieties) was used in further laboratory oviposition bioassays. Depending on its dosage, the synthetic lure either attracted or repelled oviposition. L. botrana females laid significantly more eggs in the presence of either the grape bunches or the synthetic lure at the attractive dosage. In a release-capture experiment conducted in a field cage that covered two grapevine rows, the synthetic lure was more attractive than a grape cluster or a blank control, and it stimulated oviposition on the vegetation near the lure. The results indicate that L. botrana uses olfactory cues to select oviposition sites and that an artificial lure, containing the major volatiles released by two grape varieties, may be useful in monitoring female activity in the field.

  16. Further field evaluation of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles as attractants for beneficial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G

    2005-03-01

    Fifteen synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) were field-tested for attractivity to beneficial insects in two experiments conducted in an open field and a hop yard in Washington State. Eleven insect species or families showed significant attraction to 13 HIPVs. The ladybeetle, Stethorus punctum picipes, was attracted to sticky traps baited with methyl salicylate (MeSA), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (He), and benzaldehyde (Be). The minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor, was attracted to traps baited with MeSA, He, Be, and octyl aldehyde (Oa), and the bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens, responded to MeSA, indole, and trans-2-hexen-1-al. The mymarid wasp, Anagrus daanei, was attracted to He, Oa, and farnesene. The chloropid fly, Thaumatomyia glabra, was highly attracted to methyl anthranilate. Insect families responding to HIPVs included Syrphidae (MeSA, He), Braconidae ((Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, He, cis-jasmone (J), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), methyl anthranilate (MeA)), Empididae (MeSA), Sarcophagidae (MeSA, Be, J, nonanal and geraniol), Tachinidae (Be), and Agromyzidae (MeSA). Micro-Hymenoptera (primarily parasitic wasp families) were attracted to MeSA, He, and indole. These results are discussed with respect to known properties and bioactivity of the tested HIPVs and to their potential as tools for recruiting natural enemies into agroecosystems.

  17. Constitutive and herbivore-induced systemic volatiles differentially attract an omnivorous biocontrol agent to contrasting Salix clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Anna; Boddum, Tina; Stenberg, Johan A; Orians, Colin M; Björkman, Christer

    2013-01-01

    While carnivores are known to be attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, little is known about how such volatiles may affect the behaviour of omnivorous predators that may use both plants and herbivores as food. Here, we examine how systemically produced plant volatiles, in response to local herbivore damage, differentially attract a key omnivorous predator, Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), to single clones of three species of Salix: S. viminalis, S. dasyclados and S. cinerea. The profiles of the plant volatiles produced were found to vary among Salix clones and between herbivore-damaged and intact plants. Anthocoris nemorum was attracted to the volatiles released from undamaged plants of all three species, but most strongly to a native S. cinerea clone. Plants damaged by the herbivorous leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were generally more attractive than undamaged plants, with A. nemorum responding to systemic changes in the damaged plants where the experimental design specifically excluded volatiles released from the actual site of damage. When comparing damaged plants, the S. dasyclados clone was more attractive to A. nemorum than the S. viminalis clone-a somewhat surprising result since this Salix clone is considered relatively resistant to P. vulgatissima, and hence offers a limited amount of prey. Our experiments highlight that both constitutive and induced plant volatiles play a role in omnivore attraction, and this emphasizes the importance of considering odours of released volatiles when cropping and breeding Salix for increased resistance to herbivores.

  18. Air pollutants degrade floral scents and increase insect foraging times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Jose D.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Roulston, T.'ai; Chen, Bicheng; Pratt, Kenneth R.

    2016-09-01

    Flowers emit mixtures of scents that mediate plant-insect interactions such as attracting insect pollinators. Because of their volatile nature, however, floral scents readily react with ozone, nitrate radical, and hydroxyl radical. The result of such reactions is the degradation and the chemical modification of scent plumes downwind of floral sources. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are developed to investigate dispersion and chemical degradation and modification of floral scents due to reactions with ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical within the atmospheric surface layer. Impacts on foraging insects are investigated by utilizing a random walk model to simulate insect search behavior. Results indicate that even moderate air pollutant levels (e.g., ozone mixing ratios greater than 60 parts per billion on a per volume basis, ppbv) substantially degrade floral volatiles and alter the chemical composition of released floral scents. As a result, insect success rates of locating plumes of floral scents were reduced and foraging times increased in polluted air masses due to considerable degradation and changes in the composition of floral scents. Results also indicate that plant-pollinator interactions could be sensitive to changes in floral scent composition, especially if insects are unable to adapt to the modified scentscape. The increase in foraging time could have severe cascading and pernicious impacts on the fitness of foraging insects by reducing the time devoted to other necessary tasks.

  19. Insect attraction to herbivore-induced beech volatiles under different forest management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-10-01

    Insect herbivore enemies such as parasitoids and predators are important in controlling herbivore pests. From agricultural systems we know that land-use intensification can negatively impact biological control as an important ecosystem service. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of management regime for natural enemy pressure and biological control possibilities in forests dominated by European beech. We hypothesize that the volatile blend released from herbivore-infested beech trees functions as a signal, attracting parasitoids and herbivore enemies. Furthermore, we hypothesize that forest management regime influences the composition of species attracted by these herbivore-induced beech volatiles. We installed flight-interception traps next to Lymantria dispar caterpillar-infested young beech trees releasing herbivore-induced volatiles and next to non-infested control trees. Significantly more parasitoids were captured next to caterpillar-infested trees compared to non-infested controls, irrespective of forest type. However, the composition of the trophic guilds in the traps did vary in response to forest management regime. While the proportion of chewing insects was highest in non-managed forests, the proportion of sucking insects peaked in forests with low management and of parasitoids in young, highly managed, forest stands. Neither the number of naturally occurring beech saplings nor herbivory levels in the proximity of our experiment affected the abundance and diversity of parasitoids caught. Our data show that herbivore-induced beech volatiles attract herbivore enemies under field conditions. They further suggest that differences in the structural complexity of forests as a consequence of management regime only play a minor role in parasitoid activity and thus in indirect tree defense.

  20. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  1. Intraspecific combinations of flower and leaf volatiles act together in attracting hawkmoth pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kárpáti

    Full Text Available Insects pinpoint mates, food and oviposition sites by olfactory cues. Recognizing and localizing a suitable target by olfaction is demanding. Odor sources emit characteristic blends of compounds that have to be identified against an environmentally derived olfactory background. This background, however, does not necessarily disturb the localization of a source. Rather, the contrary. Sex pheromones become more attractive to male moths when being presented against a relevant plant background. Here we asked whether such olfactory coaction also characterizes foraging cues. The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta feeds on nectar from wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and sacred datura Datura wrightii flowers. We tested how leaf-derived volatile blends as a background affect the moths' approach to flower blends. We found coaction when a flower blend was presented against a conspecific leaf volatile background but not when the blend was presented against volatiles emitted by the other host plant or by a non-host plant. Hence, our results reveal a species-specific coaction between flower blend and leaf volatile background. The ability to integrate information from different odor sources on one plant might provide the moth with a fine-grained analysis of food site quality.

  2. Prey and non-prey arthropods sharing a host plant : Effects on induced volatile emission and predator attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jetske G.; Hordijk, Cornelis A.; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Dicke, Marcel

    It is well established that plants infested with a single herbivore species can attract specific natural enemies through the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. However, it is less clear what happens when plants are simultaneously attacked by more than one species. We analyzed volatile

  3. Prey and Non-prey Arthropods Sharing a Host Plant: Effects on Induced Volatile Emission and Predator Attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.G.; Hordijk, C.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that plants infested with a single herbivore species can attract specific natural enemies through the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. However, it is less clear what happens when plants are simultaneously attacked by more than one species. We analyzed volatile

  4. Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Obrycki, J. J.; Ochieng, Samuel A.; Baker, Thomas C.; Pickett, J. A.; Smiley, D.

    2005-06-01

    It is well documented that host-related odors enable many species of parasitoids and predatory insects to locate their prey and prey habitats. This study reports the first characterization of prey and prey host odor reception in two species of lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Say) and Chrysopa oculata L. 2-Phenylethanol, one of the volatiles emitted from their prey’s host plants (alfalfa and corn) evoked a significant EAG response from antennae of C. carnea. Traps baited with this compound attracted high numbers of adult C. carnea, which were predominantly females. One of the sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol of an aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) attracted only C. oculata adults. Single sensillum recordings showed that the olfactory neurons of C. carnea responded to both 2-phenylethanol and aphid sex pheromone components, but those of C. oculata only responded to the latter.

  5. The key role of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in the attraction of scarab beetle pollinators: a unique olfactory floral signal shared by Annonaceae and Araceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Dötterl, Stefan; Kaiser, Roman; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Teichert, Holger; Gibernau, Marc; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Schlindwein, Clemens; Gottsberger, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Cyclocephaline scarabs are specialised scent-driven pollinators, implicated with the reproductive success of several Neotropical plant taxa. Night-blooming flowers pollinated by these beetles are thermogenic and release intense fragrances synchronized to pollinator activity. However, data on floral scent composition within such mutualistic interactions are scarce, and the identity of behaviorally active compounds involved is largely unknown. We performed GC-MS analyses of floral scents of four species of Annona (magnoliids, Annonaceae) and Caladium bicolor (monocots, Araceae), and demonstrated the chemical basis for the attraction of their effective pollinators. 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole, a nitrogen and sulphur-containing heterocyclic compound previously unreported in flowers, was found as a prominent constituent in all studied species. Field biotests confirmed that it is highly attractive to both male and female beetles of three species of the genus Cyclocephala, pollinators of the studied plant taxa. The origin of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in plants might be associated with the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1), and we hypothesize that the presence of this compound in unrelated lineages of angiosperms is either linked to selective expression of a plesiomorphic biosynthetic pathway or to parallel evolution.

  6. Plant pathogen-induced volatiles attract parasitoids to increase parasitism of an insect vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eMartini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plant pathogens and arthropods have been predominantly studied through the prism of herbivorous arthropods. Currently, little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on the third trophic level. This question is particularly interesting in cases where pathogens manipulate host phenotype to increase vector attraction and presumably increase their own proliferation. Indeed, a predator or a parasitoid of a vector may take advantage of this manipulated phenotype to increase its foraging performance. We explored the case of a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, which modifies the odors released by its host plant (citrus trees to attract its vector, the psyllid Diaphorina citri. We found that the specialist parasitoid of D. citri, Tamarixia radiata, was attracted more toward Las-infected than uninfected plants. We demonstrated that this attractiveness was due to the release of methyl salicylate. Parasitization of D. citri nymphs on Las-infected plants was higher than on uninfected controls. Also, parasitization was higher on uninfected plants baited with methyl salicylate than on non-baited controls. This is the first report of a parasitoid ‘eavesdropping’ on a plant volatile induced by bacterial pathogen infection, which also increases effectiveness of host seeking behavior of its herbivorous vector.

  7. Herbivory induces systemic production of plant volatiles that attract predators of the herbivore: extraction of endogenous elicitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Baarlen, van P.; Wessels, R.; Dijkman, H.

    1993-01-01

    It was previously shown that in response to infestation by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), lima bean plants produce a volatile herbivoreinduced synomone that attracts phytoseiid mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) that are predators of the spider mites. The production of predator-attracting

  8. The olfactory component of floral display in Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine R; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Floral scent is a key component of floral display, and probably one of the first floral attractants linking insect pollinators to the radiation of Angiosperms. In this article, we investigate floral scent in two extra-tropical genera of Annonaceae. We discuss floral scent in the context of differing pollination strategies in these genera, and compare their scent to that of a close tropical relative. Floral volatiles were collected for Annona glabra, Asimina and Deeringothamnus whole flowers and dissected floral organs, using a standardized static-headspace solid phase microextraction method. Scents were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified using known standards. The floral scents of these species are highly dynamic, varying between floral organs, sexual stages and species. Maroon-flowered species of Asimina produce 'yeasty' odors, dominated by fermentation volatiles and occasionally containing sulfurous or nitrogenous compounds. White-flowered species of Asimina and Deeringothamnus produce pleasant odors characterized by lilac compounds, benzenoids and hydrocarbons. Annona glabra produces a strong, fruity-acetonic scent dominated by 3-pentanyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. The fermented/decaying scents of maroon-flowered species of Asimina suggest mimicry-based pollination strategies similar to aroids and stapeliads, whereas the pleasant scents of white-flowered species of Asimina suggest honest, reward-based pollination strategies. The scent of Annona glabra is typical of specialized beetle pollination systems common to tropical Annonaceae.

  9. Attraction of the tea aphid, toxoptera aurantii, attraction to combinations of volatiles and colors related to tea plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tea aphid, Toxoptera aurantii Boyer (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS from air passed over intact tea shoots (ITSV). Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the winged tea aphids to ITSV as w...

  10. Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus Glabratus, To Leaf Volatiles of its Host Plants in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Xavier; Hughes, Marc A; Smith, Jason A; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-07-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an important pest of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swamp bay (P. palustris) trees in forests of the southeastern USA. It is also a threat to commercially grown avocado. The beetle is attracted to host wood volatiles, particularly sesquiterpenes. Contrary to other ambrosia beetles that attack stressed, possibly pathogen-infected, and dying trees, X. glabratus readily attacks healthy trees. To date little is known about the role of leaf volatiles in the host selection behavior and ecology of X. glabratus. To address this question, an olfactometer bioassay was developed to test the behavioral response of X. glabratus to plant leaf volatiles. We found that X. glabratus was attracted to the leaf odors of their hosts, redbay and swamp bay, with no attraction to a non-host tree tested (live oak, Quercus virginiana), which served as a negative control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS/MS) analysis of leaves revealed the absence of sesquiterpenes known to be attractive to X. glabratus and present in host wood, suggesting that additional leaf-derived semiochemicals may serve as attractants for this beetle. An artificial blend of chemicals was developed based on GC/MS analyses of leaf volatiles and behavioral assays. This blend was attractive to X. glabratus at a level that rivaled currently used lures for practical monitoring of this pest. This synthetic redbay leaf blend also was tested in the field. Baited traps captured more X. glabratus than unbaited controls and equivalently to manuka oil lures. We hypothesize that leaf volatiles may be used by X. glabratus as an additional cue for host location.

  11. Mosquito attraction: crucial role of carbon dioxide in formulation of a five-component blend of human-derived volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Jacobs, F.; Rijk, de M.; Mukabana, W.R.; Verhulst, N.O.; Menger, D.J.; Takken, W.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii (An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular 'M form') to an expanded blend of human-derived volatiles were assessed in a dual-port olfactometer. A previously documented attractive three-component blend consisting of NH3, (S)-lactic acid, and

  12. Are apple and hawthorn fruit volatiles more attractive than ammonium carbonate to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. In the eastern U.S. where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonel...

  13. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous

  14. Smelling the wood from the trees: Non-linear parasitoid responses to volatile attractants produced by wild and cultivated cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Bullock, J.M.; Dicke, M.; Bukovinszky, T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies on herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), little is known about which specific compounds are used by natural enemies to locate prey- or host- infested plants. In addition, the role of HIPVs in attracting natural enemies has been restricted largely to

  15. Smelling the Wood from the Trees: Non-Linear Parasitoid Responses to Volatile Attractants Produced by Wild and Cultivated Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Bullock, J.M.; Dicke, M.; Bukovinszky, T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies on herbivoreinduced plant volatiles (HIPVs), little is known about which specific compounds are used by natural enemies to locate prey- or host- infested plants. In addition, the role of HIPVs in attracting natural enemies has been restricted largely to agricultural

  16. The Ratio between Field Attractive and Background Volatiles Encodes Host-Plant Recognition in a Specialist Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir K. Knudsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles emitted by plants convey an array of information through different trophic levels. Animals such as host-seeking herbivores encounter plumes with filaments from both host and non-host plants. While studies showed a behavioral effect of non-host plants on herbivore host location, less information is available on how a searching insect herbivore perceives and flies upwind to a host-plant odor plume within a background of non-host volatiles. We hypothesized here that herbivorous insects in search of a host-plant can discriminate plumes of host and non-host plants and that the taxonomic relatedness of the non-host have an effect on finding the host. We also predicted that the ratio between certain plant volatiles is cognized as host-plant recognition cue by a receiver herbivorous insect. To verify these hypotheses we measured the wind tunnel response of the moth Argyresthia conjugella to the host plant rowan, to non-host plants taxonomically related (Rosaceae, apple and pear or unrelated to the host (Pinaceae, spruce and to binary combination of host and non-host plants. Volatiles were collected from all plant combinations and delivered to the test insect via an ultrasonic sprayer as an artificial plume. While the response to the rowan as a plant was not affected by the addition of any of the non-host plants, the attraction to the corresponding sprayed headspace decreased when pear or apple but not spruce were added to rowan. A similar result was measured toward the odor exiting a jar where freshly cut plant material of apple or pear or spruce was intermixed with rowan. Dose-response gas-chromatography coupled to electroantennography revealed the presence of seven field attractive and seven background non-attractive antennally active compounds. Although the abundance of field attractive and of some background volatiles decreased in all dual combinations in comparison with rowan alone, an increased amount of the background compounds (3E-4

  17. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Menger, David; Takken, Willem

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations collected from armpits were less attractive to An. coluzzii compared to hands or/and feet. The difference may have been caused by deodorant residues, which were found in the armpit samples and not in those of hands and feet. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were asked to avoid using skincare products for five days, and thereafter, no differences in attractiveness of the body parts to mosquitoes were found. The detected deodorant compound isopropyl tetradecanoate inhibited mosquito landings in a repellent bioassay. It is concluded that the volatiles emanated from different body parts induced comparable levels of attraction in mosquitoes, and that skincare products may reduce a person's attractiveness to mosquitoes.

  18. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Niels O; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David Menger; Willem Takken

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations ...

  19. Indoor volatiles of primary school classrooms in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, are attractants to Aedes aegypti females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, J.L.T.; Delgado, S.M.R.; Takken, W.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the behavioral response of Aedes aegypti females to volatile compounds collected in indoor primary school classrooms. Volatiles were collected from classrooms from 0800 through 1030 h and 1130 through 1400 h in urban and rural schools in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Female responses to

  20. Circadian rhythms in floral scent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles eFenske

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT1 (ODO1, EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI, and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success.

  1. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-10-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

  2. Natural volatiles impair the response of Hylobius abietis adults to synthetic attractants in Norway spruce clear cut areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonard Duduman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years it has been known that mature adults of Hylobius abietis are attracted by the combination of alpha-pinene and ethanol. However, it is not clear to what extent weevil response to these stimuli is influenced when large quantities of similar volatile substances are present in the environment, and how the response depends on the release rate of volatile substances from traps. Nothing that,in fresh Norway spruce clear-cuttings, the mature weevils were equally attracted to the traps baited with dispencers having different release rates, we assumed that the experiment results were affected by the abundance of natural volatile substancesissued from the fresh slash, which masked the differences between olfactory signals released from traps. To verify this hypothesis, the experiment conducted in fresh clear-cuttings was repeated in exactly the same place after almost a year, when the overground slash were old. For seven weeks, at the beginning of growing season 2008, in two experimental areas, 6 different combinations of alpha-pinen and ethanol were tested using the traps buried in the soil. In both experimental area was captured about the same number of weevils and catch dynamics were similar. In the first two weeks of experimentation, when there were the highest captures, but also for the entire period of experimentation, there were significant differences between the tested variants in what concerns the average number of captures, the traps baited with dispenser providing higher release rate of ethanol and alpha-pinene having higher catches. This shows that in the first season of vegetation the weevil response to the attractants was affected by the profusion of similar volatile substances issued from natural sources (fresh cutt stumps, branches, foliage, bark etc..

  3. Natural volatiles impair the response of Hylobius abietis adults to synthetic attractants in Norway spruce clear cut areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonard Duduman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years it has been known that mature adults of Hylobius abietis are attracted by the combination of alpha-pinene and ethanol. However, it is not clear to what extent weevil response to these stimuli is influenced when large quantities of similar volatile substances are present in the environment, and how the response depends on the release rate of volatile substances from traps. Nothing that, in fresh Norway spruce clear-cuttings, the mature weevils were equally attracted to the traps baited with dispencers having different release rates, we assumed that the experiment results were affected by the abundance of natural volatile substances issued from the fresh slash, which masked the differences between olfactory signals released from traps. To verify this hypothesis, the experiment conducted in fresh clear-cuttings was repeated in exactly the same place after almost a year, when the overground slash were old. For seven weeks, at the beginning of growing season 2008, in two experimental areas, 6 different combinations of alpha-pinen and ethanol were tested using the traps buried in the soil. In both experimental area was captured about the same number of weevils and catch dynamics were similar. In the first two weeks of experimentation, when there were the highest captures, but also for the entire period of experimentation, there were significant differences between the tested variants in what concerns the average number of captures, the traps baited with dispenser providing higher release rate of ethanol and alpha-pinene having higher catches. This shows that in the first season of vegetation the weevil response to the attractants was affected by the profusion of similar volatile substances issued from natural sources (fresh cutt stumps, branches, foliage, bark etc..

  4. Induced release of a plant-defense volatile 'deceptively' attracts insect vectors to plants infected with a bacterial pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S Mann

    Full Text Available Transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. Pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. Experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vector. D. citri were attracted to volatiles from pathogen-infected plants more than to those from non-infected counterparts. Las-infected plants were more attractive to D. citri adults than non-infected plants initially; however after feeding, psyllids subsequently dispersed to non-infected rather than infected plants as their preferred settling point. Experiments with Las-infected and non-infected plants under complete darkness yielded similar results to those recorded under light. The behavior of psyllids in response to infected versus non-infected plants was not influenced by whether or not they were carriers of the pathogen. Quantification of volatile release from non-infected and infected plants supported the hypothesis that odorants mediate psyllid preference. Significantly more methyl salicylate, yet less methyl anthranilate and D-limonene, was released by infected than non-infected plants. Methyl salicylate was attractive to psyllids, while methyl anthranilate did not affect their behavior. Feeding on citrus by D. citri adults also induced release of methyl salicylate, suggesting that it may be a cue revealing location of conspecifics on host plants. Infected plants were characterized by lower levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, and iron, as well as, higher levels of potassium and boron than non-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that host selection behavior of D. citri may be modified by bacterial infection of plants, which alters release of

  5. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  6. Exposure of Lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced conspecific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choh, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Ozawa, R.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatiles emitted by herbivore-damaged plants can cause responses in downwind undamaged neighboring plants, such as the attraction of carnivorous enemies of herbivores. One of the open questions is whether this involves an active (production of volatiles) or passive

  7. Variation in Volatiles from Fruits of Mango and Marula Attractive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detached mature green mango fruit emitted a few esters in addition to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The ripe yellow mango fruit emitted large quantities of esters and smaller proportions of terpenoids. Several esters, similar to ripe yellow mangoes, were identified in volatiles of ripe yellow marula fruits. A total of 17 ...

  8. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  9. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R; Epsky, Nancy D

    2011-05-01

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain α-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. α-Copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant compound, and male C. capitata respond to material from both hosts (e.g., Litchi chinensis) and non-hosts (e.g., Ficus benjamina) that contain α-copaene. Avocado, Persea americana, recently was found to contain varying amounts of α-copaene in the bark and underlying cambial tissue. Short-range attraction bioassays and electroantennography (EAG) were used to quantify responses of sterile male C. capitata to samples of rasped wood from four avocado genotypes, L. chinensis, and F. benjamina. Gas chromatography-mass spectral (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify and quantify the major sesquiterpenes. Attraction and EAG amplitude were correlated, with L. chinensis eliciting the highest and F. benjamina the lowest responses. Responses to the avocado genotypes were intermediate, but varied among the four types. GC-MS identified 13 sesquiterpenes, including α-copaene, from all samples. Amounts of α-copaene in volatile collections from samples (3 g) ranged from 11.8 μg in L. chinensis to 0.09 μg in F. benjamina, which correlated with short-range attraction and EAG response. α-Copaene ranged from 8.0 to 0.8 μg in the avocado genotypes, but attraction and EAG responses were not correlated with the amount of α-copaene. Differences in enantiomeric structure of the α-copaene in the different genotypes and/or presence of additional sesquiterpenes may be responsible for the variation in male response. EAG responses were correlated with the amount of several other sesquiterpenes including α-humulene, and this compound elicited a strong antennal response when tested alone.

  10. Novel synthetic compounds enhance the attractiveness of host-plant volatiles: An opportunity to boost detection and monitoring of Asian citrus psyllid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the absence of pheromone attractants, host-plant volatiles offer the most likely means of improving capture levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) with sticky cards and other types of visual traps. However, developing scent lures that can compete with the attractiveness of actual host-plants, espe...

  11. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    free liquid jug traps. Geden [20] reported that a 25% dilution of farm-grade blackstrap molasses was as effective as the Farnam attractant at a...black- strap molasses, and a deionized water control, were pipetted onto 5-cm filter paper disks. After letting the solvent completely evaporate, a disk

  12. Season-long volatile emissions from peach and pear trees in situ, overlapping profiles, and olfactory attraction of an oligophagous fruit moth in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar-Rodriguez, A; Orschel, B; Dorn, S

    2013-03-01

    Insect herbivores that have more than one generation per year and reproduce on different host plants are confronted with substantial seasonal variation in the volatile blends emitted by their hosts. One way to deal with such variation is to respond to a specific set of compounds common to all host plants. The oriental fruit moth Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta is a highly damaging invasive pest. The stone fruit peach (Prunus persica) is its primary host, whereas pome fruits such as pear (Pyrus communis) are considered secondary hosts. In some parts of their geographic range, moth populations switch from stone to pome fruit orchards during the growing season. Here, we tested whether this temporal switch is facilitated by female responses to plant volatiles. We collected volatiles from peach and pear trees in situ and characterized their seasonal dynamics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also assessed the effects of the natural volatile blends released by the two plant species on female attraction by using Y-tube olfactometry. Finally, we related variations in volatile emissions to female olfactory responses. Our results indicate that the seasonal host switch from peach to pear is facilitated by the changing olfactory effect of the natural volatile blends being emitted. Peach volatiles were only attractive early and mid season, whereas pear volatiles were attractive from mid to late season. Blends from the various attractive stages shared a common set of five aldehydes, which are suggested to play an essential role in female attraction to host plants. Particular attention should be given to these aldehydes when designing candidate attractants for oriental fruit moth females.

  13. Sex difference in attraction thresholds for volatile odors from male and estrous female mouse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, M J; Keverne, E B

    2002-03-01

    Volatile urinary odors from opposite sex conspecifics contribute to mate recognition in numerous mammalian species, including mice. We used a simple habituation/dishabituation testing procedure to ask whether the capacity to detect and investigate decreasing concentrations of volatile urinary odors is sexually differentiated in mice. Beginning 2 months after gonadectomy and in the absence of any sex steroid treatment, adult, sexually naive male and female CBA x C57Bl/6 F1 hybrid mice received two series of daily tests that involved the presentation of different dilutions of urine from C57Bl/6 males followed by urine from estrous females. Each test session began with three consecutive presentations of deionized water (10 microl on filter paper for 2 min, behind a mesh barrier which prevented direct physical access, in the home cage at 1-min intervals) followed by three presentations of one of five different dilutions of urine (a different dilution on each test day). Males and females showed equivalent, significant habituation/dishabituation responses (low investigation times for successive water presentations; increased investigation of the first urine stimulus, followed by a decline in successive urine investigation times) to both male and female urine/water dilutions of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20. However, only female mice responded reliably to 1:40 and 1:80 dilutions of both types of urine, pointing to a sex dimorphism in the detection and/or processing of biologically relevant, volatile urinary odors by the main olfactory system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  14. Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Attractive to Rhagoletis zephyria Flies from the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Olsson, Shannon B; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Mattsson, Monte; Schwarz, Dietmar; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests. In other flight tunnel assays, snowberry flies from two sites in Washington state, USA, displayed significantly greater levels of upwind oriented flight to sources with the snowberry volatile blend compared with previously identified volatile blends from domestic apple (Malus domestica) and downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) fruit from the eastern USA, and domestic apple, black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) from Washington state. Selected subtraction assays showed that whereas removal of DMNT or 1-octen-3-ol significantly reduced the level of upwind flight, removal of myrcene and β-caryophyllene, or dimethyl trisulfide alone did not significantly affect the proportion of upwind flights. Our findings add to previous studies showing that populations of Rhagoletis flies infesting different host fruit are attracted to unique mixtures of volatile compounds specific to their respective host plants. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that differences among flies in their behavioral responses to host fruit odors represent key adaptations involved in sympatric host plant shifts, contributing to host specific mating and generating prezygotic reproductive isolation among members of the R. pomonella sibling species complex.

  15. The physics of pollinator attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J

    2017-10-01

    Contents 350 I. 350 II. 350 III. 352 IV. 353 V. 353 353 References 354 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects. We discuss the interaction between flower, pollinator and gravity, and how petal surface structure can influence that interaction. Finally, we consider the role of electrostatic forces in pollen transfer and pollinator attraction. We conclude that this new interdisciplinary field is evolving rapidly. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christina M; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Silicon Supplementation Alters the Composition of Herbivore Induced Plant Volatiles and Enhances Attraction of Parasitoids to Infested Rice Plants

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    Jian Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is important in plant defenses that operate in a direct manner against herbivores, and work in rice (Oryza sativa has established that this is mediated by the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant defenses also operate indirectly, by the production of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs that attract predators and parasitoids of herbivores. These indirect defenses too are mediated by the jasmonate pathway but no earlier work has demonstrated an effect of Si on HIPVs. In this study, we tested the effect of Si supplementation versus Si deprivation to rice plants on subsequent HIPV production following feeding by the important pest, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses showed lower production of α-bergamotene, β-sesquiohellandrene, hexanal 2-ethyl, and cedrol from +Si herbivore-infested plants compared with -Si infested plants. These changes in plant chemistry were ecologically significant in altering the extent to which parasitoids were attracted to infested plants. Adult females of Trathala flavo-orbitalis and Microplitis mediator both exhibited greater attraction to the HIPV blend of +Si plants infested with their respective insect hosts compared to -Si infested plants. In equivalent studies using RNAi rice plants in which jasmonate perception was silenced there was no equivalent change to the HIPV blend associated with Si treatment; indicating that the effects of Si on HIPVs are modulated by the jasmonate pathway. Further, this work demonstrates that silicon alters the HIPV blend of herbivore-infested rice plants. The significance of this finding is that there are no earlier-published studies of this phenomenon in rice or any other plant species. Si treatment to crops offers scope for enhancing induced, indirect defenses and associated biological control of pests because parasitoids are more strongly attracted by the HIPVs produced by +Si plants.

  18. Silicon Supplementation Alters the Composition of Herbivore Induced Plant Volatiles and Enhances Attraction of Parasitoids to Infested Rice Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhu, Jiwei; Zhang, Pengjun; Han, Liwei; Reynolds, Olivia L; Zeng, Rensen; Wu, Jinhong; Shao, Yue; You, Minsheng; Gurr, Geoff M

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is important in plant defenses that operate in a direct manner against herbivores, and work in rice (Oryza sativa) has established that this is mediated by the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant defenses also operate indirectly, by the production of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract predators and parasitoids of herbivores. These indirect defenses too are mediated by the jasmonate pathway but no earlier work has demonstrated an effect of Si on HIPVs. In this study, we tested the effect of Si supplementation versus Si deprivation to rice plants on subsequent HIPV production following feeding by the important pest, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed lower production of α-bergamotene, β-sesquiohellandrene, hexanal 2-ethyl, and cedrol from +Si herbivore-infested plants compared with -Si infested plants. These changes in plant chemistry were ecologically significant in altering the extent to which parasitoids were attracted to infested plants. Adult females of Trathala flavo-orbitalis and Microplitis mediator both exhibited greater attraction to the HIPV blend of +Si plants infested with their respective insect hosts compared to -Si infested plants. In equivalent studies using RNAi rice plants in which jasmonate perception was silenced there was no equivalent change to the HIPV blend associated with Si treatment; indicating that the effects of Si on HIPVs are modulated by the jasmonate pathway. Further, this work demonstrates that silicon alters the HIPV blend of herbivore-infested rice plants. The significance of this finding is that there are no earlier-published studies of this phenomenon in rice or any other plant species. Si treatment to crops offers scope for enhancing induced, indirect defenses and associated biological control of pests because parasitoids are more strongly attracted by the HIPVs produced by +Si plants.

  19. High Level of Nitrogen Makes Tomato Plants Releasing Less Volatiles and Attracting More Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Nazrul; Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production is seriously hampered by the infestation of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM 1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1). The infestation behavior of the whiteflies could be affected by the quantity of plant released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to nitrogen concentrations of the plant. In this study, we determined the infestation behavior of B. tabaci to the tomato plants that produced different levels of VOCs after application of different levels of nitrogen with a wind tunnel and an olfactometer. We also analyzed the VOCs released from nitrogen-treated tomato plants using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the production of eight VOCs (β-pinene, (+)-4-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was reduced after the plants were treated with high levels of nitrogen. However, more whiteflies were attracted to the tomato plants treated with high levels of nitrogen than to the plants treated with normal or below normal levels of nitrogen. These results clearly indicated that nitrogen can change the quality and quantity of tomato plant volatile chemicals, which play important roles in B. tabaci host plant selection. PMID:28408917

  20. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Kim, Mi Jung; Dhandapani, Savitha; Tjhang, Jessica Gambino; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-07-01

    The pleasant fragrance of ylang ylang varieties (Cananga odorata) is mainly due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the flowers. Floral scents are a key factor in plant-insect interactions and are vital for successful pollination. C. odorata var. fruticosa, or dwarf ylang ylang, is a variety of ylang ylang that is popularly grown in Southeast Asia as a small shrub with aromatic flowers. Here, we describe the combined use of bioinformatics and chemical analysis to discover genes for the VOC biosynthesis pathways and related genes. The scented flowers of C. odorata var. fruticosa were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a total of 49 VOCs were identified at four different stages of flower development. The bulk of these VOCs were terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. To identify the various terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these essential oils, we performed RNA sequencing on mature flowers. From the RNA sequencing data, four full-length TPSs were functionally characterized. In vitro assays showed that two of these TPSs were mono-TPSs. CoTPS1 synthesized four products corresponding to β-thujene, sabinene, β-pinene, and α-terpinene from geranyl pyrophosphate and CoTPS4 produced geraniol from geranyl pyrophosphate. The other two TPSs were identified as sesqui-TPSs. CoTPS3 catalysed the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to α-bergamotene, whereas CoTPS2 was found to be a multifunctional and novel TPS that could catalyse the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes, β-ylangene, β-copaene, and β-cubebene. Additionally, the activities of the two sesqui-TPSs were confirmed in planta by transient expression of these TPS genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Genetic Variation in Jasmonic Acid- and Spider Mite-Induced Plant Volatile Emission of Cucumber Accessions and Attraction of the Predator Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Francel W. A.; Luckerhoff, Ludo L. P.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) respond to spider–mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage with the release of specific volatiles that are exploited by predatory mites, the natural enemies of the spider mites, to locate their prey. The production of volatiles also can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. We analyzed volatile emissions from 15 cucumber accessions upon herbivory by spider mites and upon exposure to jasmonic acid using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Upon induction, cucumber plants emitted over 24 different compounds, and the blend of induced volatiles consisted predominantly of terpenoids. The total amount of volatiles was higher in plants treated with jasmonic acid than in those infested with spider mites, with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (E)-β-ocimene as the most abundant compounds in all accessions in both treatments. Significant variation among the accessions was found for the 24 major volatile compounds. The accessions differed strongly in total amount of volatiles emitted, and displayed very different odor profiles. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which is suggestive of common metabolic pathways. A number of cucumber accessions also were tested for their attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites. Differences in the attraction of predatory mites by the various accessions correlated to differences in the individual chemical profiles of these accessions. The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents. PMID:20383796

  2. Inhibition of predator attraction to kairomones by non-host plant volatiles for herbivores: a bypass-trophic signal.

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    Qing-He Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect predators and parasitoids exploit attractive chemical signals from lower trophic levels as kairomones to locate their herbivore prey and hosts. We hypothesized that specific chemical cues from prey non-hosts and non-habitats, which are not part of the trophic chain, are also recognized by predators and would inhibit attraction to the host/prey kairomone signals. To test our hypothesis, we studied the olfactory physiology and behavior of a predaceous beetle, Thanasimus formicarius (L. (Coleoptera: Cleridae, in relation to specific angiosperm plant volatiles, which are non-host volatiles (NHV for its conifer-feeding bark beetle prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Olfactory detection in the clerid was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD for a subset of NHV components. Among NHV, we identified two strongly antennally active molecules, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol. We tested the potential inhibition of the combination of these two NHV on the walking and flight responses of the clerid to known kairomonal attractants such as synthetic mixtures of bark beetle (Ips spp. aggregation pheromone components (cis-verbenol, ipsdienol, and E-myrcenol combined with conifer (Picea and Pinus spp. monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, terpinolene, and Delta(3-carene. There was a strong inhibitory effect, both in the laboratory (effect size d = -3.2, walking bioassay and in the field (d = -1.0, flight trapping. This is the first report of combining antennal detection (GC-EAD and behavioral responses to identify semiochemical molecules that bypass the trophic system, signaling habitat information rather than food related information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results, along with recent reports on hymenopteran parasitoids and coleopteran predators, suggest that some NHV chemicals for herbivores are part of specific behavioral signals for the higher trophic level and not part of a background noise. Such bypass

  3. Egg parasitoid attraction toward induced plant volatiles is disrupted by a non-host herbivore attacking above or belowground plant organs.

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    Rihem eMoujahed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to insect oviposition by emission of oviposition-induced plant volatiles (OIPVs which can recruit egg parasitoids of the attacking herbivore. To date, studies demonstrating egg parasitoid attraction to OIPVs have been carried out in tritrophic systems consisting of one species each of plant, herbivore host, and the associated egg parasitoid. Less attention has been given to plants experiencing multiple attacks by host and non-host herbivores that potentially could interfere with the recruitment of egg parasitoids as a result of modifications to the OIPV blend. Egg parasitoid attraction could also be influenced by the temporal dynamics of multiple infestations, when the same non-host herbivore damages different organs of the same plant species. In this scenario we investigated the responses of egg parasitoids to feeding and oviposition damage using a model system consisting of Vicia faba, the above-ground insect herbivore Nezara viridula, the above- and below-ground insect herbivore Sitona lineatus, and Trissolcus basalis, a natural enemy of N. viridula. We demonstrated that the non-host S. lineatus disrupts wasp attraction toward plant volatiles induced by the host N. viridula. Interestingly, V. faba damage inflicted by either adults (i.e. leaf-feeding or larvae (i.e. root-feeding of S. lineatus, had a similar disruptive effect on T. basalis host location, suggesting that a common interference mechanism might be involved. Neither naïve wasps or wasps with previous oviposition experience were attracted to plant volatiles induced by N. viridula when V. faba plants were concurrently infested with S. lineatus adults or larvae. Analysis of the volatile blends among healthy plants and above-ground treatments show significant differences in terms of whole volatile emissions. Our results demonstrate that induced plant responses caused by a non-host herbivore can disrupt the attraction of an egg parasitoid to a plant that is also infested

  4. Understanding intraspecific variation of floral scent in light of evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Schatz, Bertrand; Dufay, Mathilde

    2017-07-01

    Among the various floral traits involved in pollinator attraction and potentially under selection mediated by pollinators, floral scent/fragrance has been less investigated than other components of floral phenotype. Whether or not pollinator-mediated selection impacts floral scents depends on the heritability of scent/fragrance and the occurrence of some variation within species. Although most studies have investigated how scent varies among species, growing amounts of data are available on variation at the intraspecific level. The results of 81 studies investigating intraspecific variation of floral scents in 132 taxa were reviewed. For each study, whether variation was found in either identity, proportion or absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was recorded, as well as information with the potential to explain variation, such as methodology, plant origin or pollination biology. Variation was found for almost all investigated species, both among individuals (among and sometimes within populations) and within individuals across different temporal scales. Cases in which such variation is a possible result of pollinator-mediated selection were analysed, by discussing separately selection related to variation in pollinator identity/behaviour among populations or across time, deceit pollination and sex-specific selection. Not surprisingly, in many cases, pollinator-mediated selection alone does not explain the observed variation in floral scent. This led us to review current knowledge on less investigated factors, such as selection mediated by natural enemies, genetic drift and gene flow, environmental constraints, phylogenetic inertia, or biochemical constraints that could be invoked to explain scent variation. This review highlights the great potential of analysing floral scent variation and including it in integrated studies of floral phenotypes. We also have identified the current gaps in our understanding of this complex signal and we propose

  5. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, Natalia; Klempien, Antje; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

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    Gupta Alok K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene, lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1 &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2 encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1 and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2, were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia.

  7. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  8. Attractiveness of Host Plants at Different Growth Stage to Kudzu Bug, Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae): Behavioral Responses to Whole Plant and Constitutive Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Hu, X P; van Santen, E; Zeng, X N

    2017-12-05

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is an invasive pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., that has recently been detected in the United States. This study investigated whether there was a differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages, and whether the attraction was related to soybean constitutive volatiles. Greenhouse choice assays examined the behavioral orientation preference of adult bugs exposed to four growth stages of whole soybean plants: vegetative (V2), flowering (R1), pod (R3), and seed (R5). Results show that significantly more adults landed on plants in the early reproductive stage R1 than in other stages. Laboratory olfactometer assays also demonstrate that significantly more adult bugs were attracted to R1 plants, with females responding more strongly than males. Both greenhouse and olfactometer assays indicate that the differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages was mediated by plant constitutive volatiles. These results offer an insight into kudzu bug chemical and behavioral ecology and thus are of great significance for optimizing the timing of field scouting and treatment as well as the development of soybean pest management programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts.

  10. Volatility

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    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  11. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain a-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. a-copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant comp...

  12. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

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    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  13. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  14. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  15. Field evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles as attractants for beneficial insects: methyl salicylate and the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G

    2003-07-01

    Synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV), was demonstrated to be an attractant for the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis, in two field experiments conducted in a Washington hop yard. Significantly greater numbers of C. nigricornis were trapped on MeSA-baited sticky cards (mean: 2.8 +/- 0.4/card/week) than on unbaited cards (0.45 +/- 0.15) during June-September. Cards baited with two other HIPVs, hexenyl acetate and dimethyl nonatriene, did not attract more C. nigricornis than did unbaited traps (0.30 +/- 0.10, 0.44 +/- 0.15, respectively). MeSA-baited Unitraps captured 1.9 +/- 0.5 C. nigricornis/trap/week during July-August compared to 0.20 +/- 0.20/trap/week in methyl eugenol-baited traps and 0.03 +/- 0.03/trap/week in unbaited traps. The potential use of MeSA in enhancing C. nigricornis populations in Washington hop yards as an aid to conservation biological control of aphids and mites is discussed.

  16. Pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae) by night-active bees: a new nocturnal pollination system mediated by floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, G D; Pinheiro, M; Dötterl, S; Alves-Dos-Santos, I

    2017-03-01

    Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit developed, yet little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and breeding system of C. phaea. We collected the floral visitors and tested the pollinators' effectiveness. We also determined the floral scents released at night and during daytime, and studied behavioural responses of crepuscular/nocturnal bees towards these scents. The flowers of cambuci were self-incompatible and had pollen as the only resource for flower visitors. Anthesis lasted around 14 h, beginning at 04:30 h at night. The flowers released 14 volatile compounds, mainly aliphatic and aromatic compounds. We collected 52 species of floral visitors, mainly bees. Nocturnal and crepuscular bees (four species) were among the most frequent species and the only effective pollinators. In field bioassays performed at night, nocturnal/crepuscular bees were attracted by a synthetic scent blend consisting of the six most abundant compounds. This study describes the first scent-mediated pollination system between a plant and its nocturnal bee pollinators. Further, C. phaea has several floral traits that do not allow classification into other nocturnal pollination syndromes (e.g. pollinator attraction already before sunrise, with pollen as the only reward), instead it is a plant specifically adapted to nocturnal bees. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Trading direct for indirect defense? Phytochrome B inactivation in tomato attenuates direct anti-herbivore defenses whilst enhancing volatile-mediated attraction of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Leandro E; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Boccalandro, Hernán E; Dicke, Marcel; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2016-12-01

    Under conditions of competition for light, which lead to the inactivation of the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB), the growth of shade-intolerant plants is promoted and the accumulation of direct anti-herbivore defenses is down-regulated. Little is known about the effects of phyB on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which play a major role as informational cues in indirect defense. We investigated the effects of phyB on direct and indirect defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using two complementary approaches to inactivate phyB: illumination with a low red to far-red ratio, simulating competition, and mutation of the two PHYB genes present in the tomato genome. Inactivation of phyB resulted in low levels of constitutive defenses and down-regulation of direct defenses induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Interestingly, phyB inactivation also had large effects on the blends of VOCs induced by MeJA. Moreover, in two-choice bioassays using MeJA-induced plants, the predatory mirid bug Macrolophus pygmaeus preferred VOCs from plants in which phyB was inactivated over VOCs from control plants. These results suggest that, in addition to repressing direct defense, phyB inactivation has consequences for VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in canopies, presumably attracting predators to less defended plants, where they are likely to find more abundant prey. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Orchid mimics honey bee alarm pheromone in order to attract hornets for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Yi-bo, Luo; Xi-qiang, Song; Ayasse, Manfred

    2009-08-25

    Approximately one-third of the world's estimated 30,000 orchid species are deceptive and do not reward their pollinators with nectar or pollen. Most of these deceptive orchids imitate the scent of rewarding flowers or potential mates. In this study, we investigated the floral scent involved in pollinator attraction to the rewardless orchid Dendrobium sinense, a species endemic to the Chinese island Hainan that is pollinated by the hornet Vespa bicolor. Via chemical analyses and electrophysiological methods, we demonstrate that the flowers of D. sinense produce (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol and that the pollinator can smell this compound. This is a major compound in the alarm pheromones of both Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey bees and is also exploited by the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum) to locate its prey. This is the first time that (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol has been identified as a floral volatile. In behavioral experiments, we demonstrate that the floral scent of D. sinense and synthetic (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol are both attractive to hornets. Because hornets frequently capture honey bees to feed to their larvae, we suggest that the flowers of D. sinense mimic the alarm pheromone of honey bees in order to attract prey-hunting hornets for pollination.

  19. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    on meadows. Nectaries are secretory structures that synthesize and release nectar, a multi-component carbohydrate-rich aqueous solution. The relative location of nectaries within a flower is under pressure to maximize relations with pollinators, and hence to ensure the deposition of pollen on the stigma by pollinators. Nectaries are common in Ranunculaceae. Location, morphology and structure of the floral nectaries differ among Ranunculaceae representatives. Nectaries are tubular in Helleborus spp. or situated in nectary spurs (Aconitum, Aquilegia. Nectaries consist of an external epidermis, a photosynthesizing parenchyma, large branches of vascular tissue, a nectar-producing parenchyma, and an internal epidermis (Vesprini et al. 2008. Nectar production is generally associated with mutualistic relations with animals that rely on sugar secretions in their nutrition. Interspecies differences in the amount of nectar produced and nectar chemistry are noted among Ranunculaceae species. Significant variations in nectar carbohydrate composition between male and female sexual phases occur both in the protandrous and protogynous flowers. In Aconitum carmichaelii, male-phase flowers produced 2.4-fold more nectar than femalephase flowers. Nectar sugar composition can differ between species within genera. The nectar can be sucrose-dominant, e.g. in Aconitum carmichaelii or sucrose-rich and lacking glucose in A. lycoctonum (Antoń & Denisow 2014. Variability in nectar production and/or carbohydrate composition in an individual plant may be considered to be evolutionarily significant. It can modify insect movements between flowers and plants, impact on visitation rates, reduce geitonogamy and thus increase plant fitness by cross-pollination. The floral morphology and the type of the floral attractant in Anemone sylvestris is an example of the inbetween form from entomophily to anemophily (lack of nectar, papillous stigma, dense hairs situated between single carpels, small pollen

  20. The chemical nature of fetid floral odours in stapeliads (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae-Ceropegieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Andreas; Dötterl, Stefan; Meve, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    By emitting strong fetid scents, sapromyiophilous flowers mimic brood and food sites of flies to attract them as pollinators. To date, intensive comparative scent analyses have been restricted to sapromyiophilous Araceae. Here, we analysed flower volatiles of fetid stapeliads to improve our understanding of the floral biology of fly pollinated species, and to learn whether mimicry types comparable to those found in Araceae exist. Floral volatiles of 15 species out of 11 genera within the Asclepiadoideae-Ceropegieae-Stapeliinae were collected via headspace adsorption and thermal desorption and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). Data were analysed using CNESS-NMDS statistics. Sapromyiophilous stapeliads are highly diverse in their scent composition, in which sulphur compounds, benzenoids, fatty acid derivatives or nitrogen-containing compounds dominate. Four groups are evident: species with high p-cresol content but low amounts of polysulphides (herbivore faeces mimicry); species with mainly polysulphides and low amounts of p-cresol (carnivore/omnivore faeces or carcass mimicry); species with high amounts of heptanal and octanal (carnivore/omnivore faeces or carcass mimicry); and species with hexanoic acid (urine mimicry). Considering the findings in the unrelated Araceae, our results support the universality of different mimicry types that are obviously subsumed under the sapromyiophilous syndrome.

  1. Floral scent and pollinators of the holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedonia D Sipes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral scent is likely important to the pollination of parasitic plants, despite that it has not been well-studied. We studied the pollination ecology of the North American stem holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae at two field sites in Texas. To identify effective pollinators, we collected floral visitors to P. thurberi flowers, observed their foraging behavior, and looked for P. thurberi pollen on their bodies. Augochloropsis metallica bees (Halictidae and eumenine potter wasps (Vespidae were pollinators. P. thurberi flowers are visually inconspicuous but produce a strong fruity fragrance. GC/MS analysis of whole floral extracts and dynamic headspace samples revealed the fragrance to be an unusually simple bouquet of raspberry ketone and several eugenols. Comparison of scent profiles to those from uninfected host plants (Dalea formosa allowed putative separation of parasite and host volatiles. This is the first report of the constituents of floral fragrance in Apodanthaceae.

  2. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling.

  3. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon

    OpenAIRE

    Wessinger, Carolyn A.; Hileman, Lena C.; Rausher, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include larg...

  4. Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Horth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent

  5. Floral biology and reproductive isolation by floral scent in three sympatric aroid species in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentrich, H; Kaiser, R; Gottsberger, G

    2010-07-01

    We studied the reproductive biology of three sympatric Araceae species, Anthurium sagittatum, A. thrinax and Spathiphyllum humboldtii in French Guiana. The plants flowered simultaneously and were visited by scent-collecting male euglossine bees, which were apparently their major pollinators. In total, each species was visited by 3-7 euglossine species, and 2-3 euglossine species accounted for at least 80% of all flower visits, with visits being plant species-specific. Floral scent consisted of 6-10 main compounds, which made up 76-94% of the total amount of volatiles and were specific in these high amounts to each plant species. We suggest that the different floral scents lead to clear separation of the main pollinating euglossine species, providing a directed and efficient intraspecific pollen flow that results in high reproductive success. Since the simple floral (inflorescence) morphology of the studied plants does not support any morphological mechanisms to exclude visitors, as for example in euglossine-pollinated perfume orchids, floral scent might be of major importance for the reproductive isolation and sympatric occurrence of these plants.

  6. Interspecific and Intersexual Differences in the Chemical Composition of Floral Scent in Glochidion Species (Phyllanthaceae in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae genus are pollinated exclusively by host-specific Epicephala (Gracillariidae moths. Floral scent has been thought to play key role in the obligate pollination mutualism between Glochidion plants and Epicephala moths, but few studies have been reported about chemical variation in floral volatiles of Glochidion species in China. Floral volatiles of male and female flowers of five Glochidion species in south China were collected by dynamic headspace absorption technique and then were chemically analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 69 compounds were identified from floral scents of five investigated species. Glochidion hirsutum and G. zeylanicum showed no qualitative differences in floral scent, whereas there were clear variations of floral scent among other species (G. eriocarpum, G. daltonii, and G. sphaerogynum and also they distinctly differed from these two species. Male flowers emitted significantly more scent than female flowers. Glochidion plants exhibited qualitative and quantitative differences in floral scent between two sexes of flowers. The findings suggest that the volatile variation of floral scent among Glochidion species reflects adaptations to specific pollinators. Sexual dimorphism in floral scent has evolved to signal alternative rewards provided by each sex to Epicephala moths.

  7. Influence of pollination specialization and breeding system on floral integration and phenotypic variation in Ipomoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor; Quesada, Mauricio; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Smith, Stacey DeWitt

    2011-02-01

    Natural selection should reduce phenotypic variation and increase integration of floral traits involved in placement of pollen grains on stigmas. In this study, we examine the role of pollinators and breeding system on the evolution of floral traits by comparing the patterns of floral phenotypic variances and covariances in 20 Ipomoea species that differ in their level of pollination specialization and pollinator dependence incorporating phylogenetic relatedness. Plants with specialized pollination (i.e., those pollinated by one functional group or by few morphospecies) displayed less phenotypic variation and greater floral integration than generalist plants. Self-compatible species also displayed greater floral integration than self-incompatible species. Floral traits involved in pollen placement and pick up showed less variation and greater integration than floral traits involved in pollinator attraction. Analytical models indicate that both breeding system and the number of morphospecies had significant effects on floral integration patterns although only differences in the former were significant after accounting for phylogeny. These results suggest that specialist/self-compatible plants experience more consistent selection on floral traits than generalist/self-incompatible plants. Furthermore, pollinators and breeding system promote integration of floral traits involved in pollen placement and pick up rather than integration of the whole flower. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  9. Floral Mass per Area and Water Maintenance Traits Are Correlated with Floral Longevity in Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Ying-Jie; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Brodribb, Tim J; Hao, Guang-You; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Floral longevity (FL) determines the balance between pollination success and flower maintenance. While a longer floral duration enhances the ability of plants to attract pollinators, it can be detrimental if it negatively affects overall plant fitness. Longer-lived leaves display a positive correlation with their dry mass per unit area, which influences leaf construction costs and physiological functions. However, little is known about the association among FL and floral dry mass per unit area (FMA) and water maintenance traits. We investigated whether increased FL might incur similar costs. Our assessment of 11 species of Paphiopedilum (slipper orchids) considered the impact of FMA and flower water-maintenance characteristics on FL. We found a positive relationship between FL and FMA. Floral longevity showed significant correlations with osmotic potential at the turgor loss and bulk modulus of elasticity but not with FA. Neither the size nor the mass per area was correlated between leaves and flowers, indicating that flower and leaf economic traits evolved independently. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between FL and the capacity to maintain water status in the flower. These economic constraints also indicate that extending the flower life span can have a high physiological cost in Paphiopedilum.

  10. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Bożena Denisow; Monika Strzałkowska-Abramek; Anna Jeżak

    2016-01-01

    Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollinati...

  11. Identification of host fruit volatiles from three mayhaw species (Crataegus series Aestivales) attractive to mayhaw-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic apple (Malus domestica) in the northern USA. Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays were used to identify the behaviorally active natal fruit volatile blends for three of the five major southern hawthorns: C. opaca (western mayhaw), C. aestivalis (eastern mayhaw), and C. rufula (a possible hybrid between C. opaca and C. aestivalis). A 6-component blend was developed for C. opaca (3-methylbutan-1-ol [44%], pentyl acetate [6%], butyl butanoate [6%], propyl hexanoate [6%], butyl hexanoate [26%], and hexyl butanoate [12%]); an 8-component blend for C. aestivalis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [2%], butyl acetate [47%], pentyl acetate [2%], butyl butanoate [12%], propyl hexanoate [1%], butyl hexanoate [25%], hexyl butanoate [9%], and pentyl hexanoate [2%]); and a 9-component blend for C. rufula (3-methylbutan-1-ol [1%], butyl acetate [57%], 3-methylbutyl acetate [3%], butyl butanoate [5%], propyl hexanoate [1%], hexyl propionate [1%], butyl hexanoate [23%], hexyl butanoate [6%], and pentyl hexanoate [3%]). Crataegus aestivalis and C. opaca-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind directed flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the non-natal blend and previously developed apple, northern downy hawthorn, and flowering dogwood blends. Eastern and western mayhaw flies also were tested to the C. rufula blend, with eastern flies displaying higher levels of upwind flight compared with the western flies, likely due to the presence of butyl acetate in the C. aestivalis and C. rufula

  12. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  13. The function of the floral corona in the pollination of a Mediterranean style dimorphic daffodil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barrales, R; Abarca, C A; Santos-Gally, R; Schiestl, F P; Arroyo, J

    2018-01-01

    Narcissus papyraceus is a style dimorphic species with two floral forms, with anthers at similar height and stigmas above (long-styled L) and below (short-styled S) the anther level. The species is self-incompatible, but intra- and inter-morph compatible. Populations are either dimorphic (including both morphs) in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar, or L-monomorphic (with only L plants) in the inland of the Iberian Peninsula. This variation correlates with the most common floral visitors, being primarily long-tongued and short-tongued pollinators, respectively, a rare condition in Mediterranean plants. The maintenance of S-flowers relies on long-tongued insects, as only those deliver pollen to short-styled stigmas. Narcissus flowers present a long and narrow tube, at the bottom of which nectar accumulates, and a floral corona, which has been proposed as an important trait for the attraction of pollinators. Here we tested the importance of the corona on pollination of L and S flowers. We described UV reflectance patterns of the corona and tepals, and characterised VOCs in intact flowers and flowers with trimmed coronas. We also conducted a field experiment in the dimorphic and monomorphic region to estimate the importance of corona removal on seed production in stands with solitary plants and in groups to control for compatible pollen limitation. Reflectance was higher in the tepals than the corona, although both traits presented a reflectance peak around 450 nm wavelength. L- and S-flowers produced similar volatiles, regardless of the manipulation of the corona. Across dimorphic and monomorphic regions, S-flowers with the corona removed suffered a reduction in seed production of ca. 50%, while seed production remained similar in L flowers both with the corona intact and removed. Plants in solitary stands suffered a strong reduction in seed production, which was more pronounced in the monomorphic region. Our results suggest that the corona in Narcissus is more

  14. Bark beetle pheromones and pine volatiles: attractant kairomone lure blend for longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) in pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Asaro, Chris; Crowe, Christopher M; Duerr, Donald A

    2011-08-01

    In 2006, we examined the flight responses of 43 species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with binary lure blends of (1) ipsenol + ipsdienol, (2) ethanol + alpha-pinene, and a quaternary lure blend of (3) ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene in the southeastern United States. In addition, we monitored responses of Buprestidae, Elateridae, and Curculionidae commonly associated with pine longhorn beetles. Field trials were conducted in mature pine (Pinus pp.) stands in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia. The following species preferred traps baited with the quaternary blend over those baited with ethanol + alpha-pinene: Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Astylopsis arcuata (LeConte), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Monochamus scutellatus (Say), Monochamus titillator (F.) complex, Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), Buprestis consularis Gory, Buprestis lineata F. (Buprestidae), Ips avulsus (Eichhoff), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), Orthotomicus caelatus (Eichhoff), and Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) (Curculionidae). The addition ofipsenol and ipsdienol had no effect on catches of 17 other species of bark and wood boring beetles in traps baited with ethanol and a-pinene. Ethanol + alpha-pinene interrupted the attraction of Ips avulsus, I. grandicollis, and Pityophthorus Eichhoff spp. (but not I. calligraphus) (Curculionidae) to traps baited with ipsenol + ipsdienol. Our results support the use of traps baited with a quaternary blend of ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene for common saproxylic beetles in pine forests of the southeastern United States.

  15. Facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Functionality of Selected Aromatic Lamiaceae in Attracting Pollinators in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbir, Jelena; Azpiazu, Celeste; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2016-04-01

    Planting floral margins in agricultural landscapes has been shown to increase the abundance of pollinators in agro-ecosystems. However, to create efficient margins, it is necessary to use attractive, not weedy native plants with different blooming periods to prolong the availability of floral resources. Six native perennial plants of the Lamiaceae with different blooming periods were studied in a randomized block design, with the final aim to select the most efficient plants in floral mixtures by studying relationships between their floral phenology, floral density, and attractiveness to pollinators in Central Spain. In addition, their spatial expansion, i.e., potential weediness, was estimated under the field conditions, as the final purpose of the plants is to be implemented within the agro-ecosystems. The results showed that plant species with higher floral density (Nepeta tuberosa L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.) showed significantly higher attractiveness to pollinators and enhanced the attractiveness of floral mixtures. Species that bloomed in early spring (Salvia verbenaca L.) and in summer (Melissa officinalis L. and Thymbra capitata L.) did not efficiently contribute to the attractiveness of the mixtures to pollinators. In addition, besides high floral density of Salvia officinalis L. and N. tuberosa in the spring, warm and dry weather in spring 2012 enhanced the activity of bees, while cold and rainy weather in spring 2013 enhanced the activity of hoverflies. None of the plants showed weedy growth and so posed no danger of invading adjacent crops.

  17. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Powell, Martyn P; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H; Whitten, W Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M; Chase, Mark W; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-08-22

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry--a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model-one mimic system--operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant-animal interactions.

  18. Floral Scent Chemistry of Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, a Species Endemic to China with Sweetly Fragrant Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamentals with sweetly fragrant flowers. Luculia yunnanensis Hu is an endemic plant from Yunnan Province, China. Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs of the different flower development stages of L. yunnanensis for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. The results showed that a total of 40 compounds were identified at four different stages. The main aroma-active compounds were 3-carene, α-cubebene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and isoledene. Floral scent emission had the tendency to ascend first and descend in succession, reaching its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatiles was detected at the full-flowering stage. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed at the whole flower development stage. In comparison with the other two species of Luculia (L. pinceana and L. gratissima, the composition and its relative content of floral scent were also different among the tree species.

  19. Floral Scent Chemistry of Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae), a Species Endemic to China with Sweetly Fragrant Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuying; Wan, Youming; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiongfang; Ma, Hong; Liu, Xiuxian; He, Rui; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-05-25

    Luculia plants are famed ornamentals with sweetly fragrant flowers. Luculia yunnanensis Hu is an endemic plant from Yunnan Province, China. Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of L. yunnanensis for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. The results showed that a total of 40 compounds were identified at four different stages. The main aroma-active compounds were 3-carene, α-cubebene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and isoledene. Floral scent emission had the tendency to ascend first and descend in succession, reaching its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatiles was detected at the full-flowering stage. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed at the whole flower development stage. In comparison with the other two species of Luculia (L. pinceana and L. gratissima), the composition and its relative content of floral scent were also different among the tree species.

  20. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-08-05

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes--bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  1. Changes in floral bouquets from compound-specific responses to increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-12-01

    We addressed the potential effects of changes in ambient temperature on the profiles of volatile emissions from flowers and tested whether warming could induce significant quantitative and qualitative changes in floral emissions, which would potentially interfere with plant-pollinator chemical communication. We measured the temperature responses of floral emissions of various common species of Mediterranean plants using dynamic headspace sampling and used GC-MS to identify and quantify the emitted terpenes. Floral emissions increased with temperature to an optimum and thereafter decreased. The responses to temperature modeled here predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emission of 0.03-1.4-fold, depending on the species, in response to an increase of 1 °C in the mean global ambient temperature. Under the warmest projections that predict a maximum increase of 5 °C in the mean temperature of Mediterranean climates in the Northern Hemisphere by the end of the century, our models predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emissions of 0.34-9.1-fold, depending on the species. The species with the lowest emission rates had the highest relative increases in floral terpene emissions with temperature increases of 1-5 °C. The response of floral emissions to temperature differed among species and among different compounds within the species. Warming not only increased the rates of total emissions, but also changed the ratios among compounds that constituted the floral scents, i.e. increased the signal for pollinators, but also importantly altered the signal fidelity and probability of identification by pollinators, especially for specialists with a strong reliance on species-specific floral blends. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Altruists Attract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Explaining human cooperation continues to present a challenge because it goes beyond what is predicted by established theories of kinship and reciprocal altruism. Little attention has been paid to the sexual selection hypothesis that proposes that cooperation can act as a display that attracts mates. The costs of cooperating are then offset not by kinship or reciprocation but by increased mating success. Here we present results from a series of experiments which show that, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, people preferentially direct cooperative behavior towards more attractive members of the opposite sex. Furthermore, cooperative behavior increases the perceived attractiveness of the cooperator. Economically costly behaviors can therefore bring benefits through mate choice and sexual selection should be regarded as an evolutionary mechanism capable of promoting cooperation.

  3. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K; Armstrong, Joseph E

    2011-10-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and microtome section series were studied with light microscopy. In addition, herbarium material of two other Anaxagorea species was cursorily studied with the dissecting microscope. Key Results Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea is regularly whorled (with complex whorls) as in all other Annonaceae with a low or medium number of floral organs studied so far (in those with numerous stamens and carpels, phyllotaxis becoming irregular in the androecium and gynoecium). The carpels are completely plicate as in almost all other Annonaceae. In these features Anaxagorea differs sharply from the sister family Eupomatiaceae, which has spiral floral phyllotaxis and ascidiate carpels. Flat stamens and the presence of inner staminodes differ from most other Annonaceae and may be plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea. However, the inner staminodes appear to be non-secretory in most Anaxagorea species, which differs from inner staminodes in other families of Magnoliales (Eupomatiaceae, Degeneriacae, Himantandraceae), which are secretory. Conclusions Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea shows that there is no signature of a basal spiral pattern in Annonaceae and that complex whorls are an apomorphy not just for a part of the family but for the family in its entirety, and irregular phyllotaxis is derived. This and the presence of completely plicate carpels in Anaxagorea makes the family homogeneous and distinguishes it from the closest relatives in Magnoliales.

  4. Plasticity of floral longevity and floral display in the self-compatible biennial Sabatia angularis (Gentianaceae): untangling the role of multiple components of pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigler, Rachel B

    2017-01-01

    larger, more attractive floral displays. Under high pollinator availability, shortened longevities lead to smaller displays that should lower the risk of geitonogamy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Floral therapy: Floral essences kinde-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta M., Emma M.; Salud Pública. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Villarán, Jhon Eddowes; Facultad de Psicología. Universidad Garcilaso de la Vega.

    2014-01-01

    The work is a style of research: "Research in Action," which is the small-scale intervention in the functioning of the real world and a clase examination of the effects of such intervention, the ultimate goal being to improve practice. How to improve the practice af floral therapy in our country? Have the input for the preparation of flower remedies and therefore at this stage I had to get 21 flower essences Peruvian natural resources, in order to access and availability of floral therapy. Wh...

  6. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  7. Characterization of novel varietal floral hop aromas by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstaele, Filip; De Causmaecker, Brecht; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

    2012-12-19

    In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were optimized and implemented to investigate the volatile composition of novel floral hop essences prepared from four German aroma hop varieties. In total, 91 different constituents were assigned, which were further grouped into monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, aldehydes, furans, and oxygenated and nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most volatiles belong to the ester group, whereas the monoterpene hydrocarbon β-myrcene appears to be the predominant compound in all hop oil preparations investigated. Furthermore, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, varietal floral hop essences are clearly discriminated on the basis of their characteristic volatile composition. Via GC-olfactometry on the floral essence variety Spalter Select, β-myrcene and 2-undecanone were identified as the most potent odorants. Several hop oil constituents were reported for the first time as impact odorants of hop aroma.

  8. Receiver bias for exaggerated signals in honeybees and its implications for the evolution of floral displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naug, Dhruba; Arathi, H S

    2007-12-22

    Mechanistic models of animal signals posit the occurrence of biases on the part of receivers that could be potentially exploited by signallers. Such biases are most obvious when animals are confronted with exaggerated versions of signals they normally encounter. Signalling systems operating in plant-pollinator interactions are among the most highly coevolved, with plants using a variety of floral signals to attract pollinators. A number of observations suggest that pollinators preferentially visit larger floral displays although the benefit of this to either the plant or the pollinator is not always clear. We use a standard dual-choice experimental protocol to show that honeybees display a receiver bias for exaggerated size and colour contrast--two important components of floral signals--even when such signals do not indicate quality. We discuss the implications of this receiver bias for the evolution of floral displays and its possible exploitation by invading alien plants.

  9. Strong phylogenetic effects on floral scent variation of oil-secreting orchids in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kim E; Kaiser, Roman; Dötterl, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    Evolution involves the interplay between natural selection and phylogenetic constraint. This is particularly evident among the flowering plants where form and diversity of flowers attest to the importance of both pollinator-mediated selection and phylogenetic constraint. Although this has been studied mostly using visible floral characters, invisible volatile chemicals emitted by the flowers should be subject to these same evolutionary forces. Unfortunately, most analyses of floral volatiles have over-emphasized the importance of natural selection and underplayed phylogenetic constraint without quantifying their respective roles in the evolution and composition of floral scents. We used multivariate analyses to test the relative importance of pollinators vs. phylogeny in determining the composition of floral scents among oil-secreting orchids in southern Africa. Floral scents of 42 oil-secreting taxa/ecotypes distributed among 12 subclades in the tribe Diseae were sampled using headspace adsorption and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We identified 257 scent compounds distributed over nine different compound classes, with the majority of scents dominated by aliphatic or benzenoid compounds. The only significant predictor of floral scent among these orchids above the species level was phylogeny. Nevertheless, in two of the clades there were differences in scent profiles at the species and ecotype level that corresponded to different pollinators and were thus suggestive of pollinator-mediated selection. Scent variation was greater than expected and phylogeny was more important than pollinator-mediated selection in predicting the composition of floral scents of oil-secreting orchids, despite the specialized nature of the pollinator reward system.

  10. Competition with wind-pollinated plant species alters floral traits of insect-pollinated plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacher, Floriane; Raynaud, Xavier; Hansart, Amandine; Motard, Eric; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2015-09-03

    Plant traits related to attractiveness to pollinators (e.g. flowers and nectar) can be sensitive to abiotic or biotic conditions. Soil nutrient availability, as well as interactions among insect-pollinated plants species, can induce changes in flower and nectar production. However, further investigations are needed to determine the impact of interactions between insect-pollinated species and abiotically pollinated species on such floral traits, especially floral rewards. We carried out a pot experiment in which three insect-pollinated plant species were grown in binary mixtures with four wind-pollinated plant species, differing in their competitive ability. Along the flowering period, we measured floral traits of the insect-pollinated species involved in attractiveness to pollinators (i.e. floral display size, flower size, daily and total 1) flower production, 2) nectar volume, 3) amount of sucrose allocated to nectar). Final plant biomass was measured to quantify competitive interactions. For two out of three insect-pollinated species, we found that the presence of a wind-pollinated species can negatively impact floral traits involved in attractiveness to pollinators. This effect was stronger with wind-pollinated species that induced stronger competitive interactions. These results stress the importance of studying the whole plant community (and not just the insect-pollinated plant community) when working on plant-pollinator interactions.

  11. Acoustic Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Eric; Patsiaouris, Konstantinos; Denardo, Bruce

    2009-11-01

    A sound source of finite size produces a diverging traveling wave in an unbounded fluid. A rigid body that is small compared to the wavelength experiences an attractive radiation force (toward the source). An attractive force is also exerted on the fluid itself. The effect can be demonstrated with a styrofoam ball suspended near a loudspeaker that is producing sound of high amplitude and low frequency (for example, 100 Hz). The behavior can be understood and roughly calculated as a time-averaged Bernoulli effect. A rigorous scattering calculation yields a radiation force that is within a factor of two of the Bernoulli result. For a spherical wave, the force decreases as the inverse fifth power of the distance from the source. Applications of the phenomenon include ultrasonic filtration of liquids and the growth of supermassive black holes that emit sound waves in a surrounding plasma. An experiment is being conducted in an anechoic chamber with a 1-inch diameter aluminum ball that is suspended from an analytical balance. Directly below the ball is a baffled loudspeaker that exerts an attractive force that is measured by the balance.

  12. [Floral essences, a fascinating world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, María

    2005-05-01

    Floral essences were discovered in the decade of the thirties by the English doctor, bacteriologist and homeopath Dr. Edward Bach. He described 38 remedies elaborated with flowers and shoots; each one correspondeds to an emotional pattern or a typical personality. Furthermore, he describes a remedy developed for emergency situations.

  13. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2 from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition

  14. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...

  15. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant

  16. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  17. Identification of floral scent in chrysanthemum cultivars and wild relatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hainan; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Qingqing; Qi, Xiangyu; Zhang, Fei; Fang, Weimin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2015-03-25

    The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%-99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  18. International Symposium on tospoviruses and thrips of floral and vegetable crops. Introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbach, R.; Kuo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The International Symposium on Tospoviruses and Thrips of Floral and Vegetable Crops, held 7–10 November 1995 in Taiwan, attracted scientists active in virology, entomology, and resistance breeding. This blend of expertise provided much new information. The last international meeting on tospoviruses

  19. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  20. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  1. Floral morphometrics and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Lycium (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jill S; Venable, D Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Plants of Lycium californicum, L. exsertum, and L. fremontii produce flowers that are either male-sterile (female) or hermaphroditic, and populations are morphologically gynodioecious. As is commonly found in gynodioecious species, flowers on female plants are smaller than those on hermaphrodites for a number of floral traits. Floral size dimorphism has often been hypothesized to be the result of either a reduction in female flower size that allows reallocation to greater fruit and seed production, or an increase in hermaphroditic flower size due to the increased importance of pollinator attraction and pollen export for hermaphroditic flowers. We provide a test of these two alternatives by measuring 11 floral characters in eight species of Lycium and using a phylogeny to reconstruct the floral size shifts associated with the evolution of gender dimorphism. Our analyses suggest that female flowers are reduced in size relative to the ancestral condition, whereas flowers on hermaphrodites have changed only slightly in size. Female and hermaphroditic flowers have also diverged both from one another and from ancestral cosexual species in several shape characteristics. We expected sexual dimorphism to be similar among the three dimorphic taxa, as gender dimorphism evolved only a single time in the ancestor of the American dimorphic lineage. While the floral sexual dimorphism is broadly similar among the three dimorphic species, there are some species-specific differences. For example, L. exsertum has the greatest floral size dimorphism, whereas L. fremontii had the greatest size-independent dimorphism in pistil characters. To determine the degree to which phylogenetic uncertainty affected reconstruction of ancestral character states, we performed a sensitivity analysis by reconstructing ancestral character states on alternative topologies. We argue that investigations such as this one, that examine floral evolution from an explicitly phylogenetic perspective, provide new

  2. Floral scent composition predicts bee pollination system in five butterfly bush (Buddleja, Scrophulariaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W-C; Chen, G; Vereecken, N J; Dunn, B L; Ma, Y-P; Sun, W-B

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, plant-pollinator interactions have been interpreted as pollination syndrome. However, the validity of pollination syndrome has been widely doubted in modern studies of pollination ecology. The pollination ecology of five Asian Buddleja species, B. asiatica, B. crispa, B. forrestii, B. macrostachya and B. myriantha, in the Sino-Himalayan region in Asia, flowering in different local seasons, with scented inflorescences were investigated during 2011 and 2012. These five species exhibited diverse floral traits, with narrow and long corolla tubes and concealed nectar. According to their floral morphology, larger bees and Lepidoptera were expected to be the major pollinators. However, field observations showed that only larger bees (honeybee/bumblebee) were the primary pollinators, ranging from 77.95% to 97.90% of total visits. In this study, floral scents of each species were also analysed using coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the five Buddleja species emitted differentiated floral scent compositions, our results showed that floral scents of the five species are dominated by substances that can serve as attractive signals to bees, including species-specific scent compounds and principal compounds with larger relative amounts. This suggests that floral scent compositions are closely associated with the principal pollinator assemblages in these five species. Therefore, we conclude that floral scent compositions rather than floral morphology traits should be used to interpret plant-pollinator interactions in these Asian Buddleja species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Aharoni, A.; Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Luckerhoff, L.L.P.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Herbivore-damaged plants release complex mixtures of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. To study the relevance of individual components of these mixtures for predator attraction, we manipulated herbivory-induced volatiles through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering of

  4. Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Grandon, G Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A; Armour, John A L; Pickett, John A; Logan, James G

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.

  5. Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mandela Fernández-Grandon

    Full Text Available Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124 for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354 for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.

  6. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Hybrid floral scent novelty drives pollinator shift in sexually deceptive orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozzolino Salvatore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys attract their pollinators, male insects, on a highly specific basis through the emission of odour blends that mimic the female sex pheromone of the targeted species. In this study, we have investigated a contact site between Ophrys arachnitiformis and O. lupercalis, two sympatric orchid species that are usually reproductively isolated via the exploitation of different pollinator "niches", but occasionally hybridise despite their apparent combination of ethological and mechanical isolation barriers. In particular, we have investigated the extent to which these Ophrys hybrids generate "emergent" combinations (i.e. novel and unpredictable from the parents' phenotypes of floral traits, and how these phenotypic novelties, particularly the odour blends emitted by the flower, could facilitate the invasion of a novel pollinator "niche" and induce the rapid formation of reproductive isolation, a prerequisite for adaptive evolutionary divergence. Results Our chemical analyses of floral scents show that the Ophrys F1 hybrids investigated here produce more compounds, significantly different ratios (% of odour compounds in the total blend, as well as new compounds in their floral odour compared to their progenitors. When tested for their attractiveness to the pollinator of each parent orchid species, we found that floral scent extracts of the hybrids triggered less inspecting flights and contacts by the male bees with the scented dummy than those of the parental orchid species. However, a series of additional behavioural bioassays revealed that the novel floral scent of the hybrids was significantly more attractive than either of the two parents to a pollinator species not initially involved in the pollination of any of the parent Ophrys species. Conclusions Collectively, our results illustrate that the process of hybridisation can lead to the generation of evolutionary novelties, and that

  8. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Tóth, Miklós; Meagher, Robert L; Szarukán, István

    2013-02-01

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more powerful insect lures. Acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde presented together in traps made a stronger lure than either chemical alone for moths of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) and the armyworm Spodoptera albula (Walker). However, this combination of chemicals reduced captures of the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), the silver Y moth Autographa gamma (L.), MacDunnoughia confusa (Stephens) and the soybean looper moth Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) by comparison with phenylacetaldehyde alone. These results indicate both positive and negative interactions of acetic acid, a sugar fermentation odor cue, and phenylacetaldehyde, a floral scent cue, in eliciting orientation responses of moths. This research provides a new two-component lure for the alfalfa looper A. californica and for the armyworm S. albula for potential use in pest management. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  10. Headspace volatile composition of the flowers of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Della Porta, Giovanna; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2009-11-11

    The volatile constituents of the flowers of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island were analyzed by a headspace GC method. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 41 compounds. The main components were, among the monoterpenoids, terpinolene (23.3%), alpha-terpinene (19.1%) and linalool (18.4%), whereas, among the carbonylic compounds the major constituents were heptanal (2.0%), octanoic acid (2.4%) and hexanoic acid (1.7%). The presence of a nitrogen containing compound, indole (0.8%) and of a sulphur containing compound, dimethylsulphide (t), noteworthy. The compounds found in the flowers of C. europaea have been compared with data available in the literature as regard to their odor, presence in other sapromyiophilous taxa, possible role as semiochemicals, and presence in decaying organic matter. 89.3% of total constituents have been described in other sapromyiophilous taxa. Some of the compounds are present in several types of decaying organic matter (excrements, decomposing bodies, and spoiled fish, etc). Several volatiles found in C. europaea flowers are used as semiochemicals by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and other insects. Sixteen volatiles, accounting for 32.4% of the total constituents, are described as attractants of some Diptera families, with a biology linked to decaying organic matter. Our data thus confirm that C. europaea floral bouquet falls within the sapromyiophilous pollination syndrome.

  11. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Wellmer, Frank; Muiño, Jose M; Ferrier, Thilia; Wuest, Samuel E; Kumar, Vijaya; Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Madueño, Francisco; Krajewski, Pawel; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Angenent, Gerco C; Riechmann, José Luis

    2010-04-02

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding studies. Many of its targets encode transcriptional regulators, including known floral repressors. The latter genes are down-regulated by AP1, suggesting that it initiates floral development by abrogating the inhibitory effects of these genes. Although AP1 acts predominantly as a transcriptional repressor during the earliest stages of flower development, at more advanced stages it also activates regulatory genes required for floral organ formation, indicating a dynamic mode of action. Our results further imply that AP1 orchestrates floral initiation by integrating growth, patterning, and hormonal pathways.

  12. The evolution of floral gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Endress, Peter K; Baum, David A

    2008-02-01

    Flowers exhibit tremendous variation in size (>1000-fold), ranging from less than a millimeter to nearly a meter in diameter. Numerous studies have established the importance of increased floral size in species that exhibit relatively normal-sized flowers, but few studies have examined the evolution of floral size increase in species with extremely large flowers or flower-like inflorescences (collectively termed blossoms). Our review of these record-breakers indicates that blossom gigantism has evolved multiple times, and suggests that the evolutionary forces operating in these species may differ from their ordinary-sized counterparts. Surprisingly, rather than being associated with large-bodied pollinators, gigantism appears to be most common in species with small-bodied beetle or carrion-fly pollinators. Such large blossoms may be adapted to these pollinators because they help to temporarily trap animals, better facilitate thermal regulation, and allow for the mimicry of large animal carcasses. Future phylogenetic tests of these hypotheses should be conducted to determine if the transition to such pollination systems correlates with significant changes in the mode and tempo of blossom size evolution.

  13. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These odorants are associated with “fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors. Wine from flat land with higher OAVs of ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate seems to have more intense fruity aromas (pineapple, pear and banana), with floral notes. Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon wines, volatiles, terrains, Loess Plateau region, ...

  14. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... from flat land with higher OAVs of ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate seems to have more intense fruity aromas (pineapple, pear and banana), with floral notes. Key words: Cabernet Sauvignon wines, volatiles, terrains, Loess Plateau region, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas ...

  15. Ceropegia sandersonii Mimics Attacked Honeybees to Attract Kleptoparasitic Flies for Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiduk, Annemarie; Brake, Irina; von Tschirnhaus, Michael; Göhl, Matthias; Jürgens, Andreas; Johnson, Steven D; Meve, Ulrich; Dötterl, Stefan

    2016-10-24

    Four to six percent of plants, distributed over different angiosperm families, entice pollinators by deception [1]. In these systems, chemical mimicry is often used as an efficient way to exploit the olfactory preferences of animals for the purpose of attracting them as pollinators [2,3]. Here, we report a very specific type of chemical mimicry of a food source. Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae), a deceptive South African plant with pitfall flowers, mimics attacked honeybees. We identified kleptoparasitic Desmometopa flies (Milichiidae) as the main pollinators of C. sandersonii. These flies are well known to feed on honeybees that are eaten by spiders, which we thus predicted as the model chemically mimicked by the plant. Indeed, we found that the floral scent of C. sandersonii is comparable to volatiles released from honeybees when under simulated attack. Moreover, many of these shared compounds elicited physiological responses in antennae of pollinating Desmometopa flies. A mixture of four compounds-geraniol, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanol, and (E)-2-octen-1-yl acetate-was highly attractive to the flies. We conclude that C. sandersonii is specialized on kleptoparasitic fly pollinators by deploying volatiles linked to the flies' food source, i.e., attacked and/or freshly killed honeybees. The blend of compounds emitted by C. sandersonii is unusual among flowering plants and lures kleptoparasitic flies into the trap flowers. This study describes a new example of how a plant can achieve pollination through chemical mimicry of the food sources of adult carnivorous animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  17. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  18. Attraction of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to eugenol-baited traps in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (the northern corn rootworm) is a native North American leaf beetle and a major pest of corn. However, adult D. barberi forage in various habitats outside of corn, including soybean, roadside vegetation, and prairie. Eugenol is a common floral volatile that ha...

  19. Floral traits influence pollen vectors' choices in higher elevation communities in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Hui; Ren, Zong-Xin; Lázaro, Amparo; Wang, Hong; Bernhardt, Peter; Li, Hai-Dong; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-05-24

    How floral traits and community composition influence plant specialization is poorly understood and the existing evidence is restricted to regions where plant diversity is low. Here, we assessed whether plant specialization varied among four species-rich subalpine/alpine communities on the Yulong Mountain, SW China (elevation from 2725 to 3910 m). We analyzed two factors (floral traits and pollen vector community composition: richness and density) to determine the degree of plant specialization across 101 plant species in all four communities. Floral visitors were collected and pollen load analyses were conducted to identify and define pollen vectors. Plant specialization of each species was described by using both pollen vector diversity (Shannon's diversity index) and plant selectiveness (d' index), which reflected how selective a given species was relative to available pollen vectors. Pollen vector diversity tended to be higher in communities at lower elevations, while plant selectiveness was significantly lower in a community with the highest proportion of unspecialized flowers (open flowers and clusters of flowers in open inflorescences). In particular, we found that plant species with large and unspecialized flowers attracted a greater diversity of pollen vectors and showed higher selectiveness in their use of pollen vectors. Plant species with large floral displays and high flower abundance were more selective in their exploitation of pollen vectors. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between plant selectiveness and pollen vector density. These findings suggest that flower shape and flower size can increase pollen vector diversity but they also increased plant selectiveness. This indicated that those floral traits that were more attractive to insects increased the diversity of pollen vectors to plants while decreasing overlap among co-blooming plant species for the same pollen vectors. Furthermore, floral traits had a more important impact on the

  20. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuita...

  1. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Beijleveld, Hans; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem; Schraa, Gosse; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Smallegange, Renate C.

    2009-01-01

    Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours.

  2. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  3. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  4. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Beijleveld, Hans; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem; Schraa, Gosse; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Smallegange, Renate C

    2009-12-17

    Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a chi(2)-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the development of odour-baited trapping systems. Additionally

  5. International Symposium on tospoviruses and thrips of floral and vegetable crops. Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, R; Kuo, G

    1996-01-01

    The International Symposium on Tospoviruses and Thrips of Floral and Vegetable Crops, held 7–10 November 1995 in Taiwan, attracted scientists active in virology, entomology, and resistance breeding. This blend of expertise provided much new information. The last international meeting on tospoviruses and their interactions with thrips and plants took place 5 years ago in Beltsville, Maryland, USA. During the past 5 years, tospovirus research has greatly expanded, particularly in the area of mo...

  6. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  7. Floral scent and species divergence in a pair of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Daniel D L; Selosse, Marc-Andre; Sauve, Mathieu; Francke, Wittko; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P

    2017-08-01

    Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets. Additionally, we investigated differences in mycorrhizal fungi as a potential extrinsic factor of post-zygotic isolation. Our results show that floral isolation mediated by the attraction of different pollinators acts apparently as the sole reproductive barrier between the two orchid species, with later-acting intrinsic barriers seemingly absent. Also, the two orchids share most of their fungal mycorrhizal partners in sympatry, suggesting little or no importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in reproductive isolation. Key traits underlying floral isolation were two alkenes and wax ester, present predominantly in the floral scent of O. aymoninii . These compounds, when applied to flowers of O. insectifera , triggered attraction and a copulation attempt of the bee pollinator of O. aymoninii and thus led to the (partial) breakdown of floral isolation. Based on our results, we suggest that adaptation to different pollinators, mediated by floral scent, underlies species isolation in this plant group. Pollinator switches may be promoted by low pollination success of individuals in dense patches of plants, an assumption that we also confirmed in our study.

  8. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  9. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  10. Floral advertisement and the competition for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Hadany, Lilach

    2015-06-01

    Flowering plants are a major component of terrestrial ecosystems, and most of them depend on animal pollinators for reproduction. Thus, the mutualism between flowering plants and their pollinators is a keystone ecological relationship in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Though plant-pollinator interactions have received considerable amount of attention, there are still many unanswered questions. In this paper, we use methods of evolutionary game theory to investigate the co-evolution of floral advertisement and pollinator preferences Our results indicate that competition for pollination services among plant species can in some cases lead to specialization of the pollinator population to a single plant species (oligolecty). However, collecting pollen from multiple plants - at least at the population level - is evolutionarily stable under a wider parameter range. Finally, we show that, in the presence of pollinators, plants that optimize their investment in attracting vs. rewarding visiting pollinators outcompete plants that do not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. More than euglossines: the diverse pollinators and floral scents of Zygopetalinae orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Carlos E P; Wolowski, Marina; Pansarin, Emerson Ricardo; Gerlach, Günter; Aximoff, Izar; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Salvador, Marcos José; Sazima, Marlies

    2017-10-13

    Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant. Dichaea cogniauxiana was pollinated by weevils which use their developing ovules, while D. pendula was pollinated by the same weevils and perfume-collecting male euglossine bees. The other species were deceit-pollinated by bees. Zygopetalum crinitum was pollinated by carpenter bees, while W. warreana, Z. mackayi and Z. maxillare were bumblebee-pollinated. The latter was also pollinated by Centris confusa. Breeding system varied widely with no association to any pollinator group. Most VOCs are common to other floral scents. Zygopetalum crinitum presented an exclusive blend of VOCs, mainly composed of benzenoids. The scents of Pabstia jugosa, Promenaea xanthina and the Zygopetalum spp. were similar. The bumblebee-pollinated species have flowering periods partially overlapped, thus neither phenology nor pollinators constitute hybridization barriers among these species. Euglossines are not the only pollinators of Zygopetalinae. Different VOCs, size and lifespan of flowers are associated with distinct pollinators. A distinctive VOC bouquet may determine specialisation in carpenter bees or male euglossines within bee-pollinated flowers. Finally, visitation of deceit-pollinated flowers by perfume-collecting euglossines allows us to hypothesise how pollination by this group of bees had evolved.

  12. Comparative micromorphology and anatomy of flowers and floral secretory structures in two Viburnum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarska, Agata

    2017-01-01

    In entomogamous plants, the presence and function of floral secretory structures, whose main role is to attract pollinators, is strictly associated with the pollination ecology and hence the reproductive success of the plant. The aims of the present paper were to analyse the micromorphology and anatomy of flower nectaries and stigmas in Viburnum opulus and V. lantana and to determine the function and microstructure of inflorescence trichomes in both taxa using light and scanning electron microscopy as well as histochemical assays. It was found that stigmas were formed by papillae, which contained lipids, polysaccharides, tannins, and pigments. Stigmatic secretion proceeded via cuticular pores. Floral nectaries formed a thick layer around the styles, and nectar was secreted through numerous nectarostomata. There were no traces of vascular bundles penetrating the nectary tissue. In turn, numerous tannin deposits were observed in the cells of the glandular parenchyma. Pedicels, hypanthia, and bracts had mainly peltate and capitate glandular trichomes as well as stellate non-glandular trichomes (in V. lantana). The trichomes were shown to contain lipids, mucilage, and tannins. Many similarities in the flower and nectaries microstructure and considerable heterogeneity were observed in the examined Viburnum species. Knowledge of the microstructural characteristics of flowers, nectaries, and trichomes may be important for the phylogenesis and taxonomy of the genus Viburnum and the family Adoxaceae. Additionally, floral and nectaries features are helpful in assessment of the relatedness between taxa and provide better understanding of the floral biology and pollination ecology.

  13. Effects of floral display size on male and female reproductive success in Mimulus ringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karron, Jeffrey D; Mitchell, Randall J

    2012-02-01

    The number of flowers blooming simultaneously on a plant may have profound consequences for reproductive success. Large floral displays often attract more pollinator visits, increasing outcross pollen receipt. However, pollinators frequently probe more flowers in sequence on large displays, potentially increasing self-pollination and reducing pollen export per flower. To better understand how floral display size influences male and female fitness, we manipulated display phenotypes and then used paternity analysis to quantify siring success and selfing rates. To facilitate unambiguous assignment of paternity, we established four replicate (cloned) arrays of Mimulus ringens, each consisting of genets with unique combinations of homozygous marker genotypes. In each array, we trimmed displays to two, four, eight or 16 flowers. When fruits ripened, we counted the number of seeds per fruit and assigned paternity to 1935 progeny. Siring success per flower declined sharply with increasing display size, while female success per flower did not vary with display. The rate of self-fertilization increased for large floral displays, but siring losses due to geitonogamous pollen discounting were much greater than siring gains through increased self-fertilization. As display size increased, each additional seed sired through geitonogamous self-pollination was associated with a loss of 9·7 seeds sired through outcrossing. Although total fitness increased with floral display size, the marginal return on each additional flower declined steadily as display size increased. Therefore, a plant could maximize fitness by producing small displays over a long flowering period, rather than large displays over a brief flowering period.

  14. Abiotic conditions affect floral antagonists and mutualists of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper Gorden, Nicole L; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-04-01

    While the effect of abiotic factors on leaf herbivory is well known, the relative importance of abiotic conditions influencing both mutualists and antagonists is less well understood. Species interactions could enhance or reduce the direct effects of abiotic factors, depending on how mutualists and antagonists respond to abiotic conditions. We manipulated soil nutrients and shade in a factorial design and measured soil moisture in the annual Impatiens capensis. We then measured interactions with mutualists (two pollinating species) and antagonists (herbivores, florivores, nectar thieves, and flower bud gallers), as well as plant growth, floral rewards, and plant reproduction. Fertilizer increased plant growth, floral attractiveness, mutualist and antagonist interactions, and plant reproduction. Shade had no effects, and soil moisture was negatively associated with plant growth and reproduction. All effects were additive. Mutualist and antagonist floral interactions both increased on fertilized plants, but antagonists increased at a greater rate, leading to a larger ratio of antagonist to mutualist interactions on fertilized plants. Despite having more antagonists, fertilized plants still had significantly higher reproduction, suggesting higher tolerance to antagonists. Abiotic effects can have consistent effects on antagonists and mutualists, and on both floral and leaf antagonists. However, tolerance to antagonisms increased in favorable conditions. Thus, the direct positive effects of favorable abiotic conditions on plants outweighed negative indirect effects via increased antagonisms, which may lead to selection to grow in high-nutrient microsites in spite of increased herbivory.

  15. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  16. The floral scents of Nymphaea subg. Hydrocallis (Nymphaeaceae), the New World night-blooming water lilies, and their relation with putative pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Artur Campos Dália; de Lima, Carla Teixeira; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Chartier, Marion; Giulietti, Ana Maria; Machado, Isabel Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Night-blooming water lilies are characterized by intense emission of floral VOCs. Their unique scent-oriented pollinators, cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephalini), are attracted to flowers that they use as reliable sources of food and as mating aggregation sites. Chemical analysis of floral scent samples of seven species of Nymphaea subg. Hydrocallis established remarkably simple fragrant blends, each of which was dominated by one or two prominent compounds that alone accounted for over 95% of total scent emission. A total of 22 VOCs were identified: aliphatics (9), C5-branched chain compounds (5) and aromatics (8). Anisole was the dominant constituent in the floral scents of Nymphaea amazonum subsp. amazonum, N. amazonum subsp. pedersenii and N. tenerinervia, whereas (methoxymethyl)benzene was the most abundant VOC in samples of N. lasiophylla and N. lingulata. Flowers of N. rudgeana and N. gardneriana emitted high amounts of methyl hexanoate and methyl 2-methylbutanoate. Comparisons of floral VOC composition including other day- and night-blooming species of Nymphaea and Victoria obtained from the literature evidenced disparities related to habitus. While flowers of day-blooming species mostly emit aromatic alcohols and ethers, nocturnal species are particularly rich in aromatic ethers, aliphatic esters and C5-branched chain esters. These findings strongly suggest that the floral scent composition within closely related Nymphaea and Victoria is linked to pollinator selection, and the putative role of floral VOCs in pollinator attractiveness is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synomone or kairomone?--Bulbophyllum apertum flower releases raspberry ketone to attract Bactrocera fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng-Hong, Tan; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2005-03-01

    Bulbophyllum apertum flower (Orchidaceae) releases raspberry ketone (RK) in its fragrance, which attracts males of several fruit fly species belonging to the genus Bactrocera. Besides RK as a major component, the flower contains smaller amounts of 4-(4-hydroxylphenyl)-2-butanol, plus two minor volatile components, veratryl alcohol and vanillyl alcohol. Within the flower, the lip (labellum) had the highest concentration of RK with much smaller quantities present in petals; other flower parts had no detectable RK. Male fruit flies attracted to the flower belong to RK-sensitive species--such as Bactrocera albistragata, B. caudatus, B. cucurbitae (melon fly), and B. tau. Removal and attachment of the pollinarium to a fly's thoracic dorsum occurred when a male of B. albistragata was toppled into the floral column cavity, due to an imbalance caused by it shifting its body weight while feeding on the see-saw lip, and then freeing itself after being momentarily trapped between the lip and column. During this process, the stiff hamulus (the pollinia stalk protruding prominently towards the lip) acted as a crowbar when it was brushed downwards by the toppled fly and lifted the pollinia out of the anther. If the fly was big or long for the small triangular lip, it would not be toppled into the column cavity and would just walk across the column, during which time the pollinarium could be accidentally removed by the fly's leg, resulting in a failed transport of the pollinarium. This suggests an unstable situation, where the orchid relies only on a particular pollinator species in the complex ecosystem where many RK-sensitive species inhabit. Wild males of B. caudatus (most common visitors) captured on Bulbophyllum apertum flowers were found to sequester RK in their bodies as a potential pheromonal and allomonal ingredient. Thus, RK can act either as a floral synomone (pollinarium transported) or kairomone (accidental removal of pollinarium leading to total pollen wastage

  18. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  19. The co-optimization of floral display and nectar reward

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, there has been no attempt to optimize the investment in nectar production along with that in floral display. One of the key questions that arises is whether the floral display will evolve to be an honest indicator of nectar reward. We use a mathematical model to cooptimize the investments in nectar and floral display ...

  20. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar...

  1. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... establish an orchid floral ontogenic model. Key words: Dendrobium crumenatum, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs), floral organs. INTRODUCTION. The floral developments of orchids are unique and more complicated than the understanding of conventional monocotyledonous flowers. Orchid flowers ...

  2. Floral synomone of a wild orchid, Bulbophyllum cheiri, lures Bactrocera fruit flies for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Keng-Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo; Toong, Yock-Chai

    2002-06-01

    The major fruit fly attractant component in the floral fragrance of Bulbophyllum cheiri (fruit fly orchid) is methyl eugenol (ME). In the lowland rain forest of Malaysia, the solitary and nonresupinate flowers of the fruit fly orchid attract only males of the ME-sensitive fruit fly species (Bactrocera carambolae, B. papayae. and B. umbrosa. During the morning, the fruit fly orchid flower is visited by many fruit flies, which can sometimes cover the whole flower. The number of visitors dwindles in the afternoon. Headspace analysis of the flower shows a high ME peak in the morning, a small one between 12:00 and 14:00 hr, and no detectable ME peak after 14:00 hr. The process of pollination in the wild is initiated by attraction of fruit flies to floral ME. The flower, with the aid of its specialized hinged see-saw lip (labellum), temporarily traps (feed on the floral attractant found on surfaces of petals, sepals, and lip. The pollinaria borne by two wild B. papayae males (caught on and near the fruit fly orchid flower) are identical in morphology and structure with those obtained from the flower. Many of the B. papayae males (17 of 22 analyzed) attracted to the fruit fly orchid already possessed both ME metabolites, trans-coniferyl alcohol and 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol, in their rectal glands. indicating that they had previously consumed ME. In this orchid-fruit fly association, both organisms gain direct reproductive benefits: the orchid flower gets pollinated without having to offer nectar, while the fruit fly boosts its pheromone and defense system, as well as its sexual competitiveness by feeding on the ME produced by the flower.

  3. Emerald ash borer responses to induced plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James Miller; Lukasz Stelinski; Linda Buchan; Gary Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Herbivore feeding and methyl jasmonate, a volatile derivative of the stress-eliciting plant hormone, jasmonic acid, induce responses in plants which include the synthesis and emission of volatiles. These induced volatiles can serve to attract or repel herbivores; therefore, they may have potential use in pest management programs. The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB),...

  4. The Jocs Florals in Contemporary Catalan Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1859, the very same stimulus that drove the ambition to create Barcelona’s Eixample (“enlargement”) design by urban planner Cerdà served to “restore” the Jocs Florals in Barcelona, a symbolic complement which quite calculatedly evoked powerful arguments of historical legitimacy which the Catalans of the mid-19th century would harness for their latter-day aims. Under the authority of the Romantic gothic revival, in 1859 the Jocs Florals, were, in fact, a meteoric, sumptuous chapter...

  5. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  6. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekka S Brodie

    Full Text Available The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1 young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red except for ultraviolet (UV; (2 the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3 moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  7. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S.; Smith, Maia A.; Lawrence, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0–35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study. PMID:26717311

  8. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Smith, Maia A; Lawrence, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  9. Specification of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Floral organs are specified by the activities of a small group of transcriptional regulators, the floral organ identity factors. Extensive genetic and molecular analyses have shown that these proteins act as master regulators of flower development, and function not only in organ identity determination but also during organ morphogenesis. Although it is now well established that these transcription factors act in higher order protein complexes in the regulation of transcription, the gene expression programmes controlled by them have remained largely elusive. Only recently, detailed insights into their functions have been obtained through the combination of a wide range of experimental methods, including transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Here, we review the progress that has been made in the characterization of the floral organ identity factors from the main model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and we discuss what is known about the processes acting downstream of these regulators. We further outline open questions, which we believe need to be addressed to obtain a more complete view of the molecular processes that govern floral organ development and specification.

  10. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Wellmer, F.; Muino, J.M.; Ferrier, T.; Wuest, S.E.; Kumar, V.; Serrano-Mislata, A.; Madueno, F.; Krajweski, P.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Riechmann, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding

  11. POTENTIAL POLLINATORS AND FLORAL VISITORS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2013-05-06

    May 6, 2013 ... the visitor foraging for pollen, nectar, both or other floral parts. For the observations in Zambia, we determined the visiting time per inflorescence for the 2 most abundant visitors. Each time when the most abundant visitor came; we timed how long it stayed on an inflorescence and on a tree, for. 104 random ...

  12. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non

  13. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  14. Transcriptome and proteome data reveal candidate genes for pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A; Gupta, Alok K; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, and the development of

  15. Determination of Plant Volatiles Using Solid Phase Microextraction GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bramer, Scott; Goodrich, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment combines analytical techniques of solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with easily relatable and accessible plant volatile chemistry (floral and vegetative scents of local/available plants). The biosynthesis and structure of these chemicals are of interest in the areas of organic chemistry,…

  16. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Katherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9.5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12.5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a 6 órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  17. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2.850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  18. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  19. OrchidBase 2.0: comprehensive collection of Orchidaceae floral transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Fu, Chih-Hsiung; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Meina; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-02-01

    Both floral development and evolutionary trends of orchid flowers have long attracted the interest of biologists. However, expressed sequences derived from the flowers of other orchid subfamilies are still scarce except for a few species in Epidendroideae. In order to broadly increase our scope of Orchidaceae genetic information, we updated the OrchidBase to version 2.0 which has 1,562,071 newly added floral non-redundant transcribed sequences (unigenes) collected comprehensively from 10 orchid species across five subfamilies of Orchidaceae. A total of 662,671,362 reads were obtained by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) Solexa Illumina sequencers. After assembly, on average 156,207 unigenes were generated for each species. The average length of a unigene is 347 bp. We made a detailed annotation including general information, relative expression level, gene ontology (GO), KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway mapping and gene network prediction. The online resources for putative annotation can be searched either by text or by using BLAST, and the results can be explored on the website and downloaded. We have re-designed the user interface in the new version. Users can enter the Phalaenopsis transcriptome or Orchidaceae floral transcriptome to browse or search the unigenes. OrchidBase 2.0 is freely available at http://orchidbase.itps.ncku.edu.tw/.

  20. Effects of floral display size on male and female reproductive success in Mimulus ringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karron, Jeffrey D.; Mitchell, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The number of flowers blooming simultaneously on a plant may have profound consequences for reproductive success. Large floral displays often attract more pollinator visits, increasing outcross pollen receipt. However, pollinators frequently probe more flowers in sequence on large displays, potentially increasing self-pollination and reducing pollen export per flower. To better understand how floral display size influences male and female fitness, we manipulated display phenotypes and then used paternity analysis to quantify siring success and selfing rates. Methods To facilitate unambiguous assignment of paternity, we established four replicate (cloned) arrays of Mimulus ringens, each consisting of genets with unique combinations of homozygous marker genotypes. In each array, we trimmed displays to two, four, eight or 16 flowers. When fruits ripened, we counted the number of seeds per fruit and assigned paternity to 1935 progeny. Key Results Siring success per flower declined sharply with increasing display size, while female success per flower did not vary with display. The rate of self-fertilization increased for large floral displays, but siring losses due to geitonogamous pollen discounting were much greater than siring gains through increased self-fertilization. As display size increased, each additional seed sired through geitonogamous self-pollination was associated with a loss of 9·7 seeds sired through outcrossing. Conclusions Although total fitness increased with floral display size, the marginal return on each additional flower declined steadily as display size increased. Therefore, a plant could maximize fitness by producing small displays over a long flowering period, rather than large displays over a brief flowering period. PMID:21880660

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-04-22

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  3. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  4. Does Background Odor in Tea Gardens Mask Attractants? Screening and Application of Attractants for Empoasca onukii Matsuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuxiu; Cai, Xiaoming; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zongxiu; Li, Zhaoqun; Chen, Zongmao

    2017-10-11

    Plant volatiles help herbivores to locate their hosts, and therefore, they could be used to help develop pesticide-free pest management strategies. To develop an attractant for tea leafhopper (Empoasca onukii), we screened nine tea plant volatile compounds for their attractiveness using Y-tube olfactometer assays. Results indicated that tea leafhoppers significantly preferred ocimene, limonene, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate over clean air. These compounds were combined in a blend which lost its attractiveness at concentrations below 10-2 g/ml in liquid paraffin. In field tests, the blend was attractive to leafhoppers only in autumn, but not in summer. Analyses of the tea field background odor showed that all four components of the blend were present at much higher concentrations in summer (0.05-0.001 ng/liter) than in autumn (~10- to 25-fold lower). In field Y-tube bioassays, compared with the tea field background odor, the blend was attractive at a concentration of 10-1 g/ml in liquid paraffin, but not at 10-2 g/ml. These results suggest that field background odor can disrupt the attractiveness of an attractant based on plant volatiles to herbivores. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownii in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownii (Paeoniaceae, is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We also examined pollen/carpel interactions through experimental pollinations aided by fluorescence microscopy. Paeonia brownii appears to be self compatible and mostly protogynous with floral traits of a generalist pollination system. The flowers appear to attract insects by producing abundant floral nectar secreted from lobes of a perigynous disc throughout their 9-15-days of anthesis. The most common pollen vectors were wasp queens (Vespidae, the large flower fly Criorhina caudata (Syrphidae, and females of Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae, all of which foraged exclusively for nectar. Whether collected from foraging wasps and flies, anthers, or stigmas, about half the pollen grains appeared fertile. The number of ovules per carpel was about 19. Seed set (seeds/ovule of naturally pollinated flowers was about 20% with about 4 viable seeds per follicle. The number of fertile pollen grains transferred to the stigma under natural conditions was highly variable but generally low, which may have contributed in part to the low rate of seed set. This study raises further questions about the role of pollen sterility, floral nectar and vespid wasps in shaping a pollinator system that is unusual in Paeonia.

  6. Pollinators' mating rendezvous and the evolution of floral advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Hadany, Lilach

    2013-01-07

    Successful cross-fertilization in plant species that rely on animal pollinators depends not just on the number of pollinator visits, but also on these visits' duration. Furthermore, in non-deceptive pollination, a visit's duration depends on the magnitude of the reward provided to the pollinator. Accordingly, plants that rely on biotic pollination have to partition their investment in cross-fertilization assurance between attracting pollinator visits - advertisement, and rewarding visitors to assure that the visit is of productive duration. Here we analyze these processes by a combination of optimality methods and game theoretical modeling. Our results indicate that the optimality in such allocation of resources depends on the types of reward offered to the pollinators. More precisely, we show that plants that offer both food reward and mating rendezvous to pollinators will evolve to allocate a higher proportion of their cross-fertilization assurance budget to advertisement than plants that offer only food reward. That is, our results indicate that pollinators' mating habits may play a role in floral evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  8. Floral ontogeny in legume genera Petalostylis, Labichea, and Dialium (Caesalpinioideae: Cassieae), a series in floral reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S

    1998-02-01

    Floral ontogeny of taxa of two subtribes (Labicheinae, Dialiinae) of caesalpinioid tribe Cassieae, characterized by reduced number of floral organs, was compared. All three taxa studied are distichous; Petalostylis labicheoides flowers are solitary in leaf axils, Labichea lanceolata has few-flowered racemes, and Dialium guineense has numerous-flowered cymes. The first sepal primordium in each is initiated abaxially and nonmedianly. Order of organogenesis in Petalostylis is: five sepals bidirectionally, five petals and carpel simultaneously, then five stamens bidirectionally, starting abaxially. The order in Labichea is: five sepals helically (one lagging in time), five petals unidirectionally starting abaxially, the carpel and petals concurrently, then two stamens successively, starting laterally. Order in Dialium is: five sepals bidirectionally, the single petal adaxially, and lastly the carpel and two stamens concurrently. Specializations include (1) reduction of the five sepals to four by fusion in Petalostylis and Labichea; (2) reduction of petal number to one in Dialium; (3) reduction of stamen number to two in Labichea and Dialium, and reduction of functional stamens to three in Petalostylis; and (4) an elaborate, late-developing style in Petalostylis. Floral asymmetry, another specialization, characterizes Labichea, expressed by dissimilar stamens, while the other genera have zygomorphic flowers. Floral ontogenies are compared with other taxa of Cassieae.

  9. Psychobiology of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellerino, A

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an upsurge of interest in the research on facial attractiveness. The development of computer graphics has allowed to objectively investigate the conserved features of attractive faces. Averageness, symmetry and sex-specific traits have been associated with attractiveness. The effect of averageness is exemplified by blending a set of real faces into a chimeric face. This composite is more attractive than most of the faces used to create it. Beautiful faces are not simply average faces, however. If the female-specific features of a female composite face are enhanced, the resulting face is perceived as more attractive than the composite. In particular, smaller than average chin, smaller than average nose and higher than average forehead, all are traits associated with female's attractiveness. These traits have been interpreted as signs of high estrogen/testosterone ratio and therefore cues of high fertility. However, these same traits are also a species-specific characteristic of Homo sapiens that differentiates it from other hominid species. Preference for caricature of human features could represent a relic of species recognition mechanisms. Female preferences for male faces proved to be more variable than male preferences for female faces. Different facial traits are preferred in the choice of short-term and long-term partners. Preference for short term depend on the hormonal status and changes across the menstrual cycle and is influenced by contraceptive hormonal treatment. Psychological factors are also important sources of variance: female preferences correlate with self-perceived attractiveness, status in a relationship and degree of gender-conformity.

  10. Floral biology of cacauhy (Theobroma speciosum - Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Silva de Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cacauhy's (Theobroma speciosum floral biology was studied. Flower buds split their sepals at 14h reaching its maximum at 22h, but all flowers were fully opened at 6:00 h of the following morning. Stigmatic branches showed exudates, reaching maximum between 6:00 h and 10:00 h at the same day. Ligules and petal hoods were the floral parts with highest intensity of odour. Flowers were receptive along all the morning and noon of the anthesis day. Approximately 65% of the flowers were naturally pollinated, but only 0.85% of them set a fruit. Abscission occurred on its higher frequency at 6:00 h of the second day after anthesis. Controlled pollinations showed that cacauhy was self-incompatible species.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biologia floral do cacaui (Theobroma speciosum. Os botões florais romperam a suas sépalas às 14h com a maior freqüência às 22h, estando completamente abertas às 6 h da manhã seguinte. Os braços estigmáticos apresentaram exsudato, com o nível máximo entre 06 e 10 horas da manhã do mesmo dia. As lígulas mais as cógulas foram as partes florais com odor mais intenso. As flores estavam receptivas durante toda a manhã e à tarde do dia da antese. Aproximadamente 65% das flores foram naturalmente polinizadas, mas somente 0,85% formou fruto. A abscisão ocorreu com maior frequência às 6 h do segundo dia após a antese. Polinizações controladas mostraram que o cacauí é uma espécie auto-incompatível.

  11. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An attempt was made to understand the 'floral bud distortion' (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cyto- logical behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried ...

  12. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  13. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Floral morphology. The data of floral morphology traits were from three study populations on October 2009, from which 30 flowers were taken from different individuals at random. .... structure or size of pollen grains from AM, AL and MI. ..... based on three chloroplast dna regions: patterns in the evolution of.

  14. Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India. V Jadhav Pravin, SS Mane, RS Nandanwar, PB Kale, MS Dudhare, MP Moharil, RG Dani. Abstract. We describe a peculiar and often harmful budding disorder in soybean, leading to huge yield loss in India. To determine the prevalence of floral distortion in ...

  15. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  16. Is floral morphology a good predictor of floral visitors to Antirrhineae (snapdragons and relatives)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, B; Gómez, J M; Vargas, P

    2017-07-01

    The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches. The degree of adjustment between eight key floral traits and actual visitors was explored by testing the predictive value of inferred pollinator syndromes (i.e. suites of floral traits that characterise groups of plant species related to pollination). Actual visitors and inferred pollinator niches (categorisation of visitors' association using a modularity algorithm) were also explored using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The bee pollinator niche is correctly classified for flowers with dull corolla colour, without nectar guides, as the most important predictor. Both predictive value and statistical classification prove useful in classifying Antirrhineae taxa and the bee pollinator niche, mostly as a consequence of the high proportion of genera and taxa with occluded corollas primarily visited by bees. Our predictive approach rendered a high Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of floral traits in the diagnosis of visitors/pollinator niches. In particular, a high PPV was found for bees as both visitors and forming pollinator niches. In addition, LDA showed that four pollinator niches are well defined based on floral traits. The large number of species visited by bees irrespective of pollinator syndromes leads us to hypothesise their generalist pollinator role, despite the phenotypically specialised flowers of Antirrhineae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Pseudomembraneous enterocolitis: mechanism for restoring floral homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T A; Mansberger, A R; Lykins, L E

    1981-04-01

    Over an 18-year period 16 patients with pseudomembraneous enterocolitis were treated by restoration of floral homeostasis by administration of fecal enemas when standard accepted forms of therapy had failed to resolve the disease. Thirteen of the patients responded dramatically, with decreases in diarrhea, temperature, white blood cell counts, and a rapid convalesence. Of the three patients who died, two did not have the pseudomembrane at death, and one had involvement of the small bowel. No ill effects from the fecal enemas were noted. The observation of the pseudomembrane involving only the right half of the colon in a patient with a diverting transverse colostomy indicates that the disease is a contact mucositis.

  18. Gene regulatory network models for floral organ determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpeitia, Eugenio; Davila-Velderrain, José; Villarreal, Carlos; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how genotypes map unto phenotypes implies an integrative understanding of the processes regulating cell differentiation and morphogenesis, which comprise development. Such a task requires the use of theoretical and computational approaches to integrate and follow the concerted action of multiple genetic and nongenetic components that hold highly nonlinear interactions. Gene regulatory network (GRN) models have been proposed to approach such task. GRN models have become very useful to understand how such types of interactions restrict the multi-gene expression patterns that characterize different cell-fates. More recently, such temporal single-cell models have been extended to recover the temporal and spatial components of morphogenesis. Since the complete genomic GRN is still unknown and intractable for any organism, and some clear developmental modules have been identified, we focus here on the analysis of well-curated and experimentally grounded small GRN modules. One of the first experimentally grounded GRN that was proposed and validated corresponds to the regulatory module involved in floral organ determination. In this chapter we use this GRN as an example of the methodologies involved in: (1) formalizing and integrating molecular genetic data into the logical functions (Boolean functions) that rule gene interactions and dynamics in a Boolean GRN; (2) the algorithms and computational approaches used to recover the steady-states that correspond to each cell type, as well as the set of initial GRN configurations that lead to each one of such states (i.e., basins of attraction); (3) the approaches used to validate a GRN model using wild type and mutant or overexpression data, or to test the robustness of the GRN being proposed; (4) some of the methods that have been used to incorporate random fluctuations in the GRN Boolean functions and enable stochastic GRN models to address the temporal sequence with which gene configurations and cell fates are

  19. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  20. Attracting girls to physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  1. Floral herbivory increases with inflorescence size and local plant density in Digitalis purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John M.

    2008-07-01

    Insect herbivores search for their host plants in heterogeneous environments, and the efficiency of host location may be influenced by plant architecture and abundance. In this study, we ask how plant and habitat characteristics traditionally thought to attract pollinators are related to attack rates by floral herbivores. Patterns of floral herbivory by the moth larva Eupithecia pulchellata were studied in relation to inflorescence size and local plant density in two years in a natural population of the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea. Overall levels of herbivory were low, 84% of the infested plants lost less than 10% of their flowers. Only 9% of the plants lost more than 20% of their flowers. Probability of herbivory at the plant level increased strongly with inflorescence height, and it was considerably higher in dense patches compared to sparse ones. There was no effect of local plant density on the functional relationship between inflorescence size and probability of herbivory. Both number and proportion of damaged flowers per plant increased with inflorescence height. The results suggest that E. pulchellata is attracted to dense patches and large individuals of D. purpurea, and that negative effects of herbivory increase with plant size. This implies diminishing returns for investment in more flowers in D. purpurea, and indicates that herbivory may select for smaller flowering size and flower number in this monocarpic species.

  2. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation.

  3. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Meloncelli,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown in New Zealand. The Tasmanian honeys can be distinguished by the higher concentration of 3-phenyllactic acid in Manuka compared to Leatherwood floral sources.

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yuying Li; Hong Ma; Youming Wan; Taiqiang Li; Xiuxian Liu; Zhenghai Sun; Zhenghong Li

    2016-01-01

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine t...

  5. Floral colleters in Pleurothallidinae (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Campbell, Lisa M; Mazzoni-Viveiros, Solange C; de Barros, Fábio

    2014-04-01

    The term colleter is applied to trichomes or emergences positioned close to developing vegetative and floral meristems that secrete a sticky, mucilaginous, and/or lipophilic exudate. Several ecological functions are attributed to these glands, but none are exclusive to colleters. Patterns of morphology and distribution of colleters may be valuable for systematics and phylogeny, especially concerning problematic and large groups such as the subtribe Pleurothallidinae, and are also essential to understand the evolution of these glands in Orchidaceae as a whole. We used scanning electron and light microscopy to examine the structure and occurrence of trichomes on bracts and sepals and in the invaginations of the external ovary wall (IEOW) in flowers in several developmental stages from species in seven genera. The exudate was composed of polysaccharides, lipophilic, and phenolic compounds. Colleters were secretory only during the development of floral organs, except for the glands in the IEOW that were also active in flowers at anthesis. After the secretory phase, fungal hyphae were found penetrating senescent trichomes. Trichome-like colleters seem to be a widespread character in Epidendroideae, and digitiform colleters are possibly the common type in this subfamily. Mucilage from IEOW colleters may aid in the establishment of symbiotic fungi necessary for seed germination. The presence of colleters in the IEOW may be a case of homeoheterotopy, in which extrafloral nectaries that produce simple sugar-based secretions (as in other orchid species) have changed to glands that produce secretions with complex polysaccharides, as in Pleurothallidinae.

  6. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.

  7. Biotechnological Advancements for Improving Floral Attributes in Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Ali; Aqeel, Muhammad; Deng, Jianming; Khalid, Noreen; Sanaullah, Tayyaba; Shuilin, He

    2017-01-01

    Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation. Therefore, we witness transgenic plant varieties of high aesthetic and commercial value. This review focuses on biotechnological advancements in manipulating key floral traits that contribute in development of diverse ornamental plant lines. Data clearly reveals that regulation of biosynthetic pathways related to characteristics like pigment production, flower morphology and fragrance is both possible and predictable. In spite of their great significance, small number of genetically engineered varieties of ornamental plants has been field tested. Today, novel flower colors production is regarded as chief commercial benefit obtained from transgenic plants. But certain other floral traits are much more important and have high commercial potential. Other than achievements such as novel architecture, modified flower color, etc., very few reports are available regarding successful transformation of other valuable horticultural characteristics. Our review also summarized biotechnological efforts related to enhancement of fragrance and induction of early flowering along with changes in floral anatomy and morphology.

  8. Biotechnological Advancements for Improving Floral Attributes in Ornamental Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqeel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation. Therefore, we witness transgenic plant varieties of high aesthetic and commercial value. This review focuses on biotechnological advancements in manipulating key floral traits that contribute in development of diverse ornamental plant lines. Data clearly reveals that regulation of biosynthetic pathways related to characteristics like pigment production, flower morphology and fragrance is both possible and predictable. In spite of their great significance, small number of genetically engineered varieties of ornamental plants has been field tested. Today, novel flower colors production is regarded as chief commercial benefit obtained from transgenic plants. But certain other floral traits are much more important and have high commercial potential. Other than achievements such as novel architecture, modified flower color, etc., very few reports are available regarding successful transformation of other valuable horticultural characteristics. Our review also summarized biotechnological efforts related to enhancement of fragrance and induction of early flowering along with changes in floral anatomy and morphology.

  9. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  10. Effects of floral metal accumulation on floral visitor communities: introducing the elemental filter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-03-01

    • For plant species that occur in heavy-metal-rich soil, floral metal accumulation may produce an "elemental filter" that reduces pollinator visitation rate and species richness and changes pollinator species composition relative to closely related species growing on normal soils. Consequently, metal hyperaccumulation may contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation between closely related plant species that differ in metal accumulation.• To test these ideas, we characterized plant-pollinator interactions in a sympatric pair of species that differ in metal accumulation (Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, and S. tortuosus, a nonaccumulator). To test the elemental filter hypothesis, we presented arrays of S. polygaloides that were grown in either Ni-treated or control soils to insects at both S. polygaloides and S. tortuosus sites and recorded visitation.• Naturally occurring S. polygaloides hyperaccumulated Ni in anthers and accumulated Ni in nectar, while S. tortuosus did not. Floral visitation rates in natural populations were higher to S. tortuosus than S. polygaloides. In addition, while floral visitor richness was similar, few pollinator taxa were shared between the two plant species. Nickel-treatment of S. polygaloides reduced visits by bees, but only for arrays presented at S. tortuosus sites.• We show that the Ni hyperaccumulator S. polygaloides hosts a distinct floral visitor community, indicating that metal accumulation creates a filter for pollinators, similar to that documented for herbivores. Our study highlights a novel mechanism by which the abiotic environment can alter plant-pollinator interactions, and consequently plant reproduction and speciation. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  12. Induced parasitoid attraction by Arabidopsis thaliana : involvement of the octadecanoid and the salicylic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poecke, van M.P.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants can use indirect defence mechanisms to protect themselves against herbivorous insects. An example of such an indirect defence mechanism is the emission of volatiles by plants induced by herbivore feeding. These volatiles can attract the natural enemies of these herbivores, for example,

  13. Variation in natural plant products and the attraction of bodyguards involved in indirect plant defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plants can respond to feeding or egg deposition by herbivorous arthropods by changing the volatile blend that they emit. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores, such as parasitoids and predators, a phenomenon that is called indirect

  14. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  15. Photoperiodic Effects on the Emanation of Volatiles from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Florets 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, G. M.; Lapioli, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants acclimated to photoperiods of 18 hours light, 6 hour dark in plant growth chambers exhibited a daily cyclic pattern of floret volatile emanation with a maximum emanation of about 6.5 nanograms of hydrocarbons/floret·30 minutes. This maximum was reached about 6 to 8 hours into the light period. After 8 hours of light, emanation of volatiles decreased rapidly to less than 0.1 ng/floret·30 min even though light and temperature remained constant. Under continuous illumination, only a small increase of volatile emanation occurred during the following 24 hours. It appeared that a dark period was necessary to promote floret volatile emanation. Floret volatile emanation was drastically affected for at least 7 days following a photoperiod change. A photoperiod change caused 6-fold concentration oscillations every 2 hours. The results are interpreted on the basis of a very active floral metabolism controlled by photoperiodically induced rhythms. PMID:16658038

  16. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in male mice. Bioassay revealed that compounds (II), (III) and (IV) were responsible for attracting females and in inducing aggression towards males, as compared to the other compounds, i.e. (I) and (V). The results indicate that these three volatiles (II, III and IV) of male mice appear to act as attractants of the opposite sex.

  17. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  18. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  19. The role of local species abundance in the evolution of pollinator attraction in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Risa D; Otto, Sarah P

    2006-01-01

    We present a population genetic model that incorporates aspects of pollinator efficiency and abundance to examine the effect of the local plant community on the evolution of floral trait specialization. Our model predicts that plant species evolve to be pollinator specialists on the most effective and common pollinators when their abundance is low relative to other plant species in the community (i.e., conspecific pollen is relatively rare) and evolve to be pollinator generalists when they are numerically dominant (i.e., conspecific pollen is abundant). Strong flower constancy also favors generalist floral traits. Furthermore, generalist species are predicted to differentiate when there is a concave trade-off in attracting pollinator species with different floral trait preferences. This result implies that populations that evolve toward a generalist strategy may be more prone to speciation. Ours is the first theoretical model to include local species abundance explicitly, despite the fact that it has been previously identified as an important factor in the evolution of plant specialization. Our results add a layer of ecological complexity to previous models of floral evolution and therefore have the potential to improve our power to predict circumstances under which specialized and generalized plant-pollinator interactions should evolve.

  20. Massive floral display affects insect visits but not pollinator-mediated pollen transfer in Rhododendron ferrugineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, C E L; Escaravage, N; Pornon, A

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of natural vegetation creates one of the largest threats to plant-pollinator interactions. Although fragmentation impacts on plant populations have been explored in many, mainly herbaceous, species, the response of wild mass-flowering species is poorly known. Here, we studied 28 heathland patches dominated by the mass-flowering shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum, each presenting different R. ferrugineum floral display sizes (total inflorescence number per patch) and patch isolation (median distance to the three nearest patches). We assessed the impacts of these two factors on (i) heathland patch visitor assemblage (considering R. ferrugineum versus surrounding community) and (ii) R. ferrugineum flower visitation rate and pollen transfer limitation (comparing seed set from emasculated to pollen-supplemented flowers). We found that diversity and abundance of bees visiting R. ferrugineum in heathland patches significantly decreased with decreasing R. ferrugineum floral display, while overall visitor density per patch and flower visitation rate increased. Moreover, a decrease in massive floral display and increase in patch isolation resulted in reduced visitor density in the surrounding community. Even in patches with few individuals, we found disproportionate visitor abundance in R. ferrugineum compared to the surrounding community. Finally, pollen transfer limitation in R. ferrugineum was neither affected by visitation rate nor by patch attributes. By disproportionally attracting pollinators from co-flowering species, and probably promoting geitonogamous pollen transfer, the mass-flowering trait appears adequate to compensate, in terms of conspecific pollen transfer, for the decrease in visitor diversity and abundance and in mate availability, which usually result from population fragmentation. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Attracting attention. Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Posters are useful in health education campaigns for announcing events, reinforcing messages communicated through other media, and providing a starting point for discussion. Posters should be clear enough to be understood on their own, sufficiently striking to attract attention, and displayed in places where they will be seen by the target population. The posters should be changed regularly or people will stop noticing them. All posters should be carefully planned and pretested with the intended target group. Use of color can help ensure that figures and symbols stand out from the background and lower case letters are easier to read than all capital letters. Finally, the lettering should be neat and even.

  2. [Synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones and related mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Hui; Li, Jin-fu; Zeng, Xian-dong; Chen, Jian-jun; Feng, Han-li; Xu, Jia-wen

    2008-11-01

    Host plant volatiles and insect pheromones are the most important semiochemicals for insects, and their synergism can modulate insect behaviors. The attraction to sex- and aggregation pheromones of insects can be greatly enhanced by specific plant volatiles through the increased electroantennogram, pheromone incepting neuron action potential, and pulse-frequency. When the specific plant volatiles are bound with octopamine receptors, the threshold of sex pheromone incepting neuron to sex pheromones is decreased, while the sensibility of sex pheromone incepting neuron is increased, which may be the main mechanism for the synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones.

  3. Bloomin' jewels: the blossoming of the floral in contemporary jewellery

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Since the first human tucked a flower in their hair, blooms have been a part of human adornment. Each epoch saw new interpretations of the floral in jewellery. The Romans had their ivy circlets, the Tudors long necklaces of clusters of tiny blossoms, the Victorians their detailed panoply of symbolic blooms, Art Nouveau its sinuous floral forms and twentieth-century costume pieces sprays of foliage and flowers. Despite this, the contemporary studio jewellery movement for many years rejected t...

  4. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  5. Direct selection at the blossom level on floral reward by pollinators in a natural population of Dalechampia schottii: full-disclosure honesty?

    OpenAIRE

    Bolstad, G.; Armbruster, Scott; Pelabon, C.; Barrales, Rocio; Hansen, T

    2010-01-01

    Both floral rewards and advertisements can be important in the attraction of pollinators, but few studies have separated the individual contributions of rewards and advertisements to fitness. • Here, we investigated selection by pollinators on individual blossoms in Dalechampia schottii. This Neotropical vine, endemic to the Yucatán Peninsula, rewards bees by secreting fully visible, deep-blue resin from a gland subtended by two conspicuous petaloid bracts that may play the role of advertisem...

  6. Behavioral foraging responses by the butterfly Heliconius melpomene to Lantana camara floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Susanna; Dobson, Heidi E M

    2003-10-01

    Floral color has been shown to influence flower selection by butterflies, but few studies have investigated the role of floral scent. In this study, adults of Heliconius melpomene L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) were tested in two-choice bioassays to investigate their ability to distinguish floral scent of the butterfly pollinated plant Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) from other plant scents. The relative importance of floral scent vs. color was also studied. Butterfly foraging behavior was measured as probing with proboscis. This probing, on floral models varying in scent and color, was timed. When given a choice of floral and vegetative scents of L. camara, newly emerged butterflies preferred floral scent, indicating an innate response to floral scents. When butterflies were conditioned to L. camara floral scent by offering the scent with yellow color and sugar water, yellow color elicited stronger feeding responses than did the floral scent. However, the floral scent of L. camara was preferred to that of the novel species Philadelphus coronarius L. (Hydrangiaceae). The floral scent of L. camara was dominated by tepenoid compounds, while that of P. coronarius by fatty acid derivatives, thus demonstrating totally different compositions. It is concluded that, while H. melpomene butterflies often use visual floral traits when selecting which flowers to visit, floral scents elicit behavioral responses that initiate and maintain foraging on flowers.

  7. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2011-12-18

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  8. Helping in food-deceptive orchids? A possible new mechanism maintaining polymorphism of floral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Key, Martine Hossaert-Mc; Schatz, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Why different colour morphs have evolved in flowering plants, and how they are maintained in populations, have long intrigued ecologists. The impact of variation in floral colour and odour (the two are frequently associated) on reproductive success remains poorly understood. In European rewardless orchids, many species occasionally show rare white-flowered individuals within populations of the common-coloured morph. In a recent study, we found that in Orchis mascula the presence of rare white-flowered morphs significantly increased the reproductive success (from 6% to 27%) of purple-flowered plants, while success of the white morph remained low. This surprising result appears due solely to floral color polymorphism, which in this species is not associated with odour polymorphism. We hypothesize that colour variation plays the key role in pollinator attraction, and that white-flowered individuals may be regarded to function as "sensory traps". We also propose that the maintenance of white-flowered mutants in O. mascula may result through kin selection, in which they act as helpers increasing the reproductive success of related purple individuals.

  9. Management of Overwintering Cover Crops Influences Floral Resources and Visitation by Native Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katherine E; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    The incorporation of cover crops into annual crop rotations is one practice that is used in the Mid-Atlantic United States to manage soil fertility, suppress weeds, and control erosion. Additionally, flowering cover crops have the potential to support beneficial insect communities, such as native bees. Because of the current declines in managed honey bee colonies, the conservation of native bee communities is critical to maintaining "free" pollination services. However, native bees are negatively affected by agricultural intensification and are also in decline across North America. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of flowering cover crops to act as a conservation resource for native bees. We evaluated the effects of cover crop diversity and fall planting date on floral resource availability and visitation by native bees for overwintering flowering cover crop species commonly used in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cover crop species, crop rotation schedule, and plant diversity significantly influenced floral resource availability. Different cover crop species not only had different blooming phenologies and winter survival responses to planting date, but attracted unique bee communities. Flower density was the primary factor influencing frequency of bee visitation across cover crop diversity and fall planting date treatments. The results from these experiments will be useful for informing recommendations on the applied use of flowering cover crops for pollinator conservation purposes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Judging attractiveness: Biases due to raters’ own attractiveness and intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy Yen-Lin Sim; Jenna Saperia; Jill Anne Brown; Frank John Bernieri

    2015-01-01

    Tennis and Dabbs (1975) reported that physically attractive males showed a positivity bias when rating the attractiveness of others. The opposite pattern was observed for females. We attempted to replicate and extend these findings by: (1) using self-assessed attractiveness rather than the experimentally derived attractiveness measure used in previous research, (2) using face-to-face interactions with targets as opposed to using photographs, and (3) examining the effect of another ego-involvi...

  11. Biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae floral biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Gonçalves Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentadas informações sobre a biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, espécie florestal dióica de relevante importância econômica na região amazônica. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de várzea próximo à bacia do igarapé Murutucum, lado direito do rio Guamá, localizada no Campus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias do Pará, na cidade de Belém, Estado do Pará, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Avaliou-se a biologia floral desde o aparecimento dos botões florais até a senescência das flores estaminadas, bem como a formação de frutos nas flores pistiladas. Testes bioquímicos foram aplicados para verificação de odor, pigmentos, osmóforos e receptividade do estigma. A observação no comportamento dos visitantes florais foi realizada durante o período diurno, registrando-se os horários de visitas, tempo de permanência na flor e freqüência; alguns indivíduos foram coletados com rede entomológica e identificados no Departamento de Zoologia do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. A antese ocorreu entre 6 e 16 h nas flores estaminadas e entre 8 e 16 h nas flores pistiladas; a presença de odor foi constatada apenas nas flores estaminadas, enquanto os pigmentos e osmóforos foram encontrados em ambas as flores; o estigma mostrou-se receptivo no período entre 12 e 14 h. Os insetos da ordem diptera foram os visitantes mais freqüentes nas flores estaminadas e pistiladas e as espécies Copestylum sp. e Erystalys sp., as responsáveis pela polinização.Information was obtained on the floral biology of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, a dioecious arboreal species of great importance for the Amazon region economy. The study was carried out in the floodplain area near the Murucutu stream, on the right side of the Guamá River, at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém-Pará , from January to December 2001. Floral biology was assessed from

  12. Trichogramma pretiosum attraction due to the Elasmopalpus lignosellus damage in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Modenez Saldivar Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate if corn plants damaged by the lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus larvae release volatile organic compounds capable of attracting the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. The treatments consisted of plants subjected to harm caused by E. lignosellus larvae, plants subjected to mechanical damage, and undamaged plants. The parasitoid was more attracted by the volatiles released by the insect damaged plants than to those released by undamaged corn plants, after 24 and 72 hours. The volatiles (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, β-pinene, β-myrcene, (E-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene, and benzothiazole were released in significantly larger quantities by damaged plants. Volatiles released by corn plants damaged by E. lignosellus larvae may act as an indirect defense, attracting by T. pretiosum.

  13. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  14. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA MÁRQUEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede ser m

  15. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  16. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  17. Anti-cancer volatile constituents from the flowers of lonicera japonica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floral absolute showed a notable cytotoxic activity on the brain cancer cell line U251 (IC50 value of 7.92 μg/ml (and was found to be more potent than cisplatin reference drug (IC50 =8.66 μg/ml). Meanwhile, the volatiles prepared by hydrodistillation/hexane extraction showed a considerable cytotoxic activity on the liver ...

  18. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  19. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Leon Nidia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, apetala3, agamous, a superman/apetala1 double mutant, and differentiated ovules dissected from the gynoecia of wild-type inflorescences. Comparing and contrasting these MPSS floral expression libraries enabled demarcation of transcripts enriched in the petals, stamens, stigma-style, gynoecia, and those with predicted enrichment within the sepal/sepal-petals, petal-stamens, or gynoecia-stamens. Results By comparison of expression libraries, a total of 572 genes were found to have organ-enriched expression within the inflorescence. The bulk of characterized organ-enriched transcript diversity was noted in the gynoecia and stamens, whereas fewer genes demonstrated sepal or petal-localized expression. Validation of the computational analyses was performed by comparison with previously published expression data, in situ hybridizations, promoter-reporter fusions, and reverse transcription PCR. A number of well-characterized genes were accurately delineated within our system of transcript filtration. Moreover, empirical validations confirm MPSS predictions for several genes with previously uncharacterized expression patterns. Conclusion This extensive MPSS analysis confirms and supplements prior microarray floral expression studies and illustrates the utility of sequence survey-based expression analysis in functional genomics. Spatial floral expression data accrued by MPSS and similar methods will be advantageous in the elucidation of more comprehensive genetic

  20. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  1. Natural sparkling guava wine: volatile and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although different tropical fruit species have been used in the development of fermented beverages, there are only few references in the literature to the production of natural sparkling wines from fruits other than grapes. In this sense, the objective of the present research was the development and physicochemical and volatile characterization of a natural sparkling guava wine produced by the champenoise method. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique on samples. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which 51 were identified. Esters were the predominant class of volatile compounds (a total of 26, followed by alcohols (10, terpenes (9, ketones (3, and acids (3. Volatile compounds with possible odoriferous activity were reported in the beverage, including ethyl octanoate, ethyl 5-hexenoate, phenethyl acetate, (E-β-damascenone, (E-ethyl cinnamate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl 3-(E-hexenoate, and methyl 5-hexenoate. Natural sparkling guava wine produced showed a complex composition of fruity and floral aromas. Furthermore, the use of the champenoise method, traditionally applied to grapes, enabled the manufacture of a natural sparkling guava wine with physicochemical characteristics equivalent to those of sparkling wines made from grapes.

  2. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  3. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA MARISOL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas

  4. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede

  5. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  6. Novel Chemo-Attractants for Trapping Tomato Leafminer Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M; Movahedi, M F; Askari, O; Higbee, B S

    2016-10-01

    The tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest for tomatoes in Iran and throughout the world. This pest reduces tomato yields in farms and greenhouses. It appears some floral odors are significant attractants for tomato leafminer moth. In this study, the effects of three floral compounds, phenylacetaldehyde (PAA), acetic acid (AA), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (MB), were evaluated as trap attractants for tomato leafminer moth. The attractants were tested separately, combined, and blended in binary and tertiary. Lures were tested in delta and water pan traps under field conditions and compared with unbaited traps as controls. Results indicated that water pan traps caught more moths than delta traps. Also treatments with PAA + AA combined and the AA + MB blend were strongly attractive to tomato leafminer moth males compared with other treatments in this study. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  8. Plant regeneration and floral bud formation from intact floral parts of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, N; Taha, R M

    2008-04-01

    Intact immature flower buds of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) were used as explant sources for in vitro studies. The effect of exogenous hormones, NAA and BAP on the indirect organogenesis of this species was observed. Callus was formed on the cut end (base) of pedicels of floral buds where they were in contact with the medium. When maintained on the same medium, callus was differentiated into adventitious shoots after 10 weeks in culture. MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA and 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP gave the highest number of sterile or vegetative floral buds from the surface of callus of the explants, but these buds failed to develop further. The floral buds were expanded as abnormal flowers. The floral structures were smaller in size compared to intact flowers. Petals (corolla) were white to purple in colour but did not form any reproductive organs, i.e., stamens or pistils. All sterile or vegetative floral buds and abnormal flowers survived for 3 months in culture but failed to reach anthesis.

  9. Floral ontogeny of Annonaceae: evidence for high variability in floral form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fengxia; Ronse De Craene, Louis

    2010-10-01

    Annonaceae are one of the largest families of Magnoliales. This study investigates the comparative floral development of 15 species to understand the basis for evolutionary changes in the perianth, androecium and carpels and to provide additional characters for phylogenetic investigation. Floral ontogeny of 15 species from 12 genera is examined and described using scanning electron microscopy. Initiation of the three perianth whorls is either helical or unidirectional. Merism is mostly trimerous, occasionally tetramerous and the members of the inner perianth whorl may be missing or are in double position. The androecium and the gynoecium were found to be variable in organ numbers (from highly polymerous to a fixed number, six in the androecium and one or two in the gynoecium). Initiation of the androecium starts invariably with three pairs of stamen primordia along the sides of the hexagonal floral apex. Although inner staminodes were not observed, they were reported in other genera and other families of Magnoliales, except Magnoliaceae and Myristicaceae. Initiation of further organs is centripetal. Androecia with relatively low stamen numbers have a whorled phyllotaxis throughout, while phyllotaxis becomes irregular with higher stamen numbers. The limits between stamens and carpels are unstable and carpels continue the sequence of stamens with a similar variability. It was found that merism of flowers is often variable in some species with fluctuations between trimery and tetramery. Doubling of inner perianth parts is caused by (unequal) splitting of primordia, contrary to the androecium, and is independent of changes of merism. Derived features, such as a variable merism, absence of the inner perianth and inner staminodes, fixed numbers of stamen and carpels, and capitate or elongate styles are distributed in different clades and evolved independently. The evolution of the androecium is discussed in the context of basal angiosperms: paired outer stamens are the

  10. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus to host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W; Hansson, B S

    1993-02-01

    Male and femaleCosmopolites sordidus were attracted to freshly cut banana rhizome and pseudostem in a still-air olfactometer. Females responded similarly to odors from a comparatively resistant and from a susceptible cultivar of banana, when presented as either freshly cut tissue or as Porapak-trapped volatiles. Females were also attracted to rotting banana pseudostem and to volatiles collected from it. Males and females gave similar responses to host tissue in both the behavioral bioassay and to collected volatiles in EAG recordings. Weevils did not respond, either behaviorally or electrophysiologically, to a synthetic mixture of mono- and sesqiterpenes, which made up over 9% of the volatiles collected from pseudostem.

  11. Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre. Stingless bees have an important role as pollinators of many wild and cultivated plant species in tropical regions. Little is known, however, about the interaction between floral fragrances and the foraging behavior of meliponine species. Thus we investigated the chemical composition of the extracts of citric (lemon and orange flowers and their effects on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We found that each type of flower has its own specific blend of major compounds: limonene (62.9% for lemon flowers, and farnesol (26.5%, (E-nerolidol (20.8%, and linalool (12.7% for orange flowers. In the foraging experiments the S. pectoralis workers were able to use the flower extracts to orient to the food source, overlooking plates baited with hexane only. However, orange flower extracts were seemingly more attractive to these worker bees, maybe because of the particular blend present in it. Our results reveal that these fragrances are very attractive to S. pectoralis, so we can infer that within citric orchards they could be important visitors in the study area; however habitat destruction, overuse of pesticides and the competitive override by managed honeybees might have put at risk their populations and thus the ecological services they provide to us.

  12. FON2 SPARE1 Redundantly Regulates Floral Meristem Maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Takuya; Ohneda, Masako; Toriba, Taiyo; Yoshida, Akiko; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2009-01-01

    CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2), closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM). Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1) gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems. PMID:19834537

  13. FON2 SPARE1 redundantly regulates floral meristem maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Suzaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa, FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2, closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM. Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1 gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems.

  14. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE Floral Phenology And Flower Visitors In Drimys granadensis L.f. (Winteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena ( 2.850 m , cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.The purpose of this research was to characterize the flowering phenological phases and to determine the flower visitors in a natural population of Drimys granadensis (common name: canelo; Winteraceae in Altos de Yerbabuena, eastern mountains of Sabana de Bogotá ( Colombia . Floral phenology development lasted 9.5 days when flowering occurred under sunny conditions, 12.5 days under rainy conditions and 16 days when flower visitors were excluded using cloth bags. It was done observations related with the resources used, the phenological phases of visited flowers and the pollen load on the flower visitors. Visitors corresponded with 29 morphospecies, 6 orders y 21 families of insects. Four species of coleoptera and two species of diptera were considered as possible pollinators taking in account abundance and pollen load. The results are analyzed in relation with those reported for other species in the genus Drimys and in the family Winteraceae.

  15. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa; Virginia Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo Cruz-López

    2011-01-01

    Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para...

  16. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS Memory And Learning In Bees' Floral Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA MÁRQUEZ

    Full Text Available Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede ser m

  17. Koinophilia and Human Facial Attractiveness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 4. Koinophilia and Human Facial Attractiveness. Aishwawriya Iyengar Rutvij Kulkarni T N C Vidya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 4 April 2015 pp 311-319 ... Keywords. Koinophilia; attractiveness; averaged faces; recognition; mate choice.

  18. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  19. The Measurement of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McCain, Thomas A.

    This paper reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two hundred-fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert-type, 7-step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled "task,""social," and "physical." Obtained internal…

  20. Investigation of genetic variability related to the in vitro floral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a molecular analysis study conducted on Date palm flowers from the Deglet Nour cultivar to investigate putative genetic variability related to the in vitro floral hermaphrodism induction. Natural male and female as well as hermaphrodite ones that were produced in vitro through the hormonal treatment of ...

  1. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... 4Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Sciences, University Putra. Malaysia. 5Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI). Accepted 18 May, 2009. Nine Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) were detected in the five floral organs ...

  2. Diallel analysis of floral longevity in Impatiens walleriana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impatiens walleriana is currently among the most valuable and widely cultivated floriculture crops in the world. Highly floriferous cultivars are a primary goal for breeders of I. walleriana. Although breeders have selected for floriferousness, little consideration has been given to floral longevity...

  3. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained from the Musa field ... Three different types of pollen were encountered viz, big, moderate and small pollens with corresponding big, moderate and small apertures and pores.

  4. Genomic approach to study floral development genes in Rosa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Annick; Remay, Arnaud; Raymond, Olivier; Balzergue, Sandrine; Chauvet, Aurélie; Maene, Marion; Pécrix, Yann; Yang, Shu-Hua; Jeauffre, Julien; Thouroude, Tatiana; Boltz, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Janczarski, Stéphane; Legeai, Fabrice; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Le Bris, Manuel; Foucher, Fabrice; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated for centuries, the varieties of rose have been selected based on a number of flower traits. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits will impact on future improvements for this economically important ornamental plant. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy and sections of meristems and flowers to establish a precise morphological calendar from early rose flower development stages to senescing flowers. Global gene expression was investigated from floral meristem initiation up to flower senescence in three rose genotypes exhibiting contrasted floral traits including continuous versus once flowering and simple versus double flower architecture, using a newly developed Affymetrix microarray (Rosa1_Affyarray) tool containing sequences representing 4765 unigenes expressed during flower development. Data analyses permitted the identification of genes associated with floral transition, floral organs initiation up to flower senescence. Quantitative real time PCR analyses validated the mRNA accumulation changes observed in microarray hybridizations for a selection of 24 genes expressed at either high or low levels. Our data describe the early flower development stages in Rosa sp, the production of a rose microarray and demonstrate its usefulness and reliability to study gene expression during extensive development phases, from the vegetative meristem to the senescent flower.

  5. Floral morphology of the Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the floral morphology of the 32 Polystachya Hook. species in Nigeria, all occurring in the wild, was undertaken in search of simple, non-technical characters for their identification. The study has revealed that each lip is distinctive and can be recognized on the basis of their macroscopical and microscopical ...

  6. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  7. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok K; Schauvinhold, Ines; Pichersky, Eran; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-12-01

    Floral signaling, especially through floral scent, is often highly complex, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary causes of this complexity. In this study, we focused on the evolution of "floral scent genes" and the associated changes in their functions in three closely related orchid species of the genus Gymnadenia. We developed a benchmark repertoire of 2,571 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gymnadenia odoratissima. For the functional characterization and evolutionary analysis, we focused on eugenol synthase, as eugenol is a widespread and important scent compound. We obtained complete coding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two copies of putative eugenol synthase genes in each of the three species. The proteins encoded by these cDNAs were characterized by expression and testing for activity in Escherichia coli. While G. odoratissima and Gymnadenia conopsea enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of eugenol only, the Gymnadenia densiflora proteins synthesize eugenol, as well as a smaller amount of isoeugenol. Finally, we showed that the eugenol and isoeugenol producing gene copies of G. densiflora are evolutionarily derived from the ancestral genes of the other species producing only eugenol. The evolutionary switch from production of one to two compounds evolved under relaxed purifying selection. In conclusion, our study shows the molecular bases of eugenol and isoeugenol production and suggests that an evolutionary transition in a single gene can lead to an increased complexity in floral scent emitted by plants.

  8. Kyllinga mbitheana (Cyperaceae)—description, floral ontogeny and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spikelet has an indeterminate rachilla with distichously arranged glumes, and the floral ontogenetic pattern is similar to that of other Cyperoideae. The diagnostic laterally compressed nutlets can be observed in the ontogenetic phase, where the dorsiventrally orientated stigma primordia give rise to a laterally flattened ...

  9. Lilium longiflorum and molecular floral development: the ABCDE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.; Angenent, G.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Krens, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is an important cut-flower crop, molecular characterisation of genes that are involved in flower morphology could help breeders to develop novel floral architectures in this species. The early ABC model for flower development emerged more than 10 years ago

  10. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Senna (Cassia) corymbosa is an ornamental plant with asymmetric flower in which petals and stamens are also involved in floral asymmetry. The pollen number of abaxial lateral stamen (AL), abaxial median stamen (AM) and middle stamen (MI) are descended in sequence. In field, the insects of visiting flowers are ...

  11. Polimorfismo floral em Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae Floral polymorphism in Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Duarte-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontrados três morfos florais em Valeriana scandens L.: flor perfeita, flor pistilada 1 e flor pistilada 2. A perfeita possui corola maior que a dos demais morfos, com lobos reflexos na antese, giba proeminente e localizada na porção proximal do tubo floral; anteras maiores que as dos demais morfos, com pólen viável; estilete curto e estigma incluso, o menor ovário e saco embrionário estruturalmente normal, semelhante ao dos demais morfos. A pistilada 1 possui a giba menos proeminente, corola de tamanho intermediário em relação aos demais morfos, lobos radiais na antese; anteras pequenas, sem pólen e estilete longo e estigma exserto. A pistilada 2 possui lobos radiais na antese, anteras de comprimento semelhante às da perfeita, mas de menor largura, com pólen inviável; estilete mais curto, tal como o da flor perfeita, e estigma exserto, tal como o da flor pistilada 1. Nos três morfos, o nectário é formado por tricomas secretores unicelulares situados na epiderme da face interna da giba, e suas sementes são viáveis. As flores pistilada 2 e perfeita apresentam um septo que isola a giba do restante do tubo floral, formando uma câmara nectarífera. V. scandens L. é ginomonóica-ginodióica, expressão sexual inédita em Valerianaceae.Three floral morphs were found in Valeriana scandens L.: perfect, pistillate 1, and pistillate 2. In perfect flowers, the corolla is longer than in the other morphs, with reflexed lobes at anthesis and a prominent gibbus at the tube base; anthers are longer and contain viable pollen grains; the pistil has a short included style/stigma and the smallest ovary, but a structurally normal embryo sac similar to that of the other morphs. In pistillate 1 flowers, the corolla is intermediate in size, and has radially displayed lobes at anthesis, and a softly prominent gibbus; anthers are small and devoid of pollen; the pistil shows a long exerted style/stigma. In pistillate 2 flowers, the corolla

  12. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about another person along a relatively great number of dimensions. Experimental paradigm, introduced in the sphere of interpersonal perception around the mid-20th century, led to a relatively great number of studies on stereotype based on physical attractiveness. One of the most often quoted conclusions of studies on physical attractiveness is summarized by the idiom "what is beautiful is good". For example, socially desirable personality traits (responsibility kindness, energy quality, modesty, more successful private and professional life, are all attributed to physically attractive persons. In addition physical attractiveness is coupled with positive expectations, peer acceptance, academic achievement etc. On the basis of studies on the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, we have situated our analysis within the domain of roles regulating social interaction between teachers and students i.e. effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations, peer acceptance and academic achievement.

  13. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  14. Floral elaiophores in Lockhartia Hook. (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae): their distribution, diversity and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mario A; Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczynska, Malgorzata; Carlsward, Barbara S; Ionta, Gretchen M; Gerlach, Günter

    2013-12-01

    A significant proportion of orchid species assigned to subtribe Oncidiinae produce floral oil as a food reward that attracts specialized bee pollinators. This oil is produced either by glabrous glands (epithelial elaiophores) or by tufts of secretory hairs (trichomal elaiophores). Although the structure of epithelial elaiophores in the Oncidiinae has been well documented, trichomal elaiophores are less common and have not received as much attention. Only trichomal elaiophores occur in the genus Lockhartia, and their distribution and structure are surveyed here for the first time. Flowers of 16 species of Lockhartia were studied. The location of floral elaiophores was determined histochemically and their anatomical organization and mode of oil secretion was investigated by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. All species of Lockhartia investigated have trichomal elaiophores on the adaxial surface of the labellum. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of lipoidal substances within the labellar trichomes. However, the degree of oil production and the distribution of trichomes differed between the three major groups of species found within the genus. All trichomes were unicellular and, in some species, of two distinct sizes, the larger being either capitate or apically branched. The trichomal cuticle was lamellate, and often appeared distended due to the subcuticular accumulation of oil. The labellar trichomes of the three species examined using transmission electron microscopy contained dense, intensely staining cytoplasm with apically located vacuoles. Oil-laden secretory vesicles fused with the plasmalemma and discharged their contents. Oil eventually accumulated between the cell wall and cuticle of the trichome and contained electron-transparent profiles or droplets. This condition is considered unique to Lockhartia among those species of elaiophore-bearing Oncidiinae studied to date.

  15. The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Zong-Xin; Xu, Song-Zhi; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Zheng-Yu

    2014-03-12

    It is estimated that floral deception has evolved in at least 7500 species of angiosperms, of which two thirds are orchids. Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae) is a model system of aphid mimicry as aphidophagous hoverflies lay eggs on false brood sites on their flowers. To understand the evolutionary ecology of floral deception, we investigated the pollination biology of E. veratrifolia across 10 populations in the Eastern Himalayas. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Epipactis and mapped the known pollination systems of previously studied species onto the tree. Some inflorescences of E. veratrifolia were so infested with aphids while they were still in bud that the some larvae of hoverflies developed to the third instar while flower buds opened. This indicated that adult female hoverflies were partly rewarded for oviposition. Although flowers failed to secrete nectar, they mimicked both alarm pheromones and aphid coloring of to attract female hoverflies as their exclusive pollinators. Phylogenetic mapping indicate that pollination by aphidophagous hoverflies is likely an ancestral condition in the genus Epipactis. We suggest that the biological interaction of aphid (prey), orchid (primary producer) and hoverfly (predator) may represent an intermediate stage between mutualism and deception in the evolution of pollination-by-deceit in E. veratrifolia. Our analyses indicate that this intermediate stage may be used as a model system to interpret the origin of oviposition (brood site) mimicry in Epipactis. We propose the hypothesis that some deceptive pollination systems evolved directly from earlier (partly) mutualistic systems that maintained the fidelity of the original pollinator(s) even though rewards (nectar/ brood site) were lost.

  16. Effects of agricultural fungicides on microorganisms associated with floral nectar: susceptibility assays and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Pozo, María I; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides have become an inseparable element of agricultural intensification. While the direct impact of pesticides on non-target organisms, such as pollinators, has recently received much attention, less consideration has been given to the microorganisms that are associated with them. Specialist yeasts and bacteria are known to commonly inhabit floral nectar and change its chemical characteristics in numerous ways, possibly influencing pollinator attraction. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessi, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Candida bombi to six widely used agricultural fungicides (prothioconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram). Next, a commercial antifungal mixture containing tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin was applied to natural populations of the plant Linaria vulgaris and the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of nectar-inhabiting yeasts and bacteria was compared between treated and untreated plants. The results showed that prothioconazole and tebuconazole were highly toxic to nectar yeasts, inhibiting their growth at concentrations varying between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. Azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram on the other hand exhibited considerably lower toxicity, inhibiting yeast growth at concentrations between 1 and 32 mg/L or in many cases not inhibiting microbial growth at all. The application of the antifungal mixture in natural plant populations resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence and abundance of yeasts in individual flowers, but this did not translate into noticeable changes in bacterial incidence and abundance. Yeast and bacterial species richness and distribution did not also differ between treated and untreated plants. We conclude that the application of fungicides may have negative effects on the abundance of nectar yeasts in floral nectar. The consequences of these effects on plant pollination processes in agricultural

  17. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  18. Do Fruit Ripening Volatiles Enable Resource Specialism in Polyphagous Fruit Flies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John Paul; Carlsson, Mikael A; Villa, Tommaso F; Dekker, Teun; Clarke, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management.

  19. Physical and Physiological Factors Influence Behavioral Responses of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Synthetic Attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2017-08-01

    Volatile chemicals from waste artificial larval media as well as from bovine blood inoculated with bacteria isolated from screwworm-infested wounds attract gravid females of Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel and Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). Chemicals identified from volatiles are dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole; a blend of these attracted females to oviposit. Present studies investigated the effectiveness of these compounds, either in a blend or individually as potential oviposition attractants. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of gender, ovarian age, and the color and type of substrates on attraction response and oviposition of C. macellaria adults. Results showed that substrates treated with dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) alone or the five-compound blend alone attracted significantly more gravid females than other chemicals. Black substrates treated with DMTS attracted more gravid flies than did the yellow substrates. Yellow substrates treated with indole attracted more males and nongravid females. In oviposition tests, females deposited significantly more eggs on meat-based substrates than those without meat. These findings suggest that several factors have to be considered for developing an effective oviposition attractant that should include effectiveness of individual chemicals used, the ratio of the chemicals in a blend, and their concentrations. Also, an effective trap design will need to consider using suitable color which will selectively attract gravid females. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about anothe...

  1. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  2. Comparison of volatile components of flower, leaf, peel and juice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Volatile oil crops; their biology, biochemistry, and production. Kharebava LG, Tsertsvadze VV (1986). Volatile compounds of flower of. Citrus unshiu Marc. Subtrop. Kult., (1): 119-121. Kite G, Reynolds T, Prance T (1991). Potential pollinator –attracting chemicals from Victoria (Nymphaeaceae) .Biochem.

  3. An ecogenomic analysis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, V.; Tytgat, T.O.G.; Hordijk, C.A.; Harhangi, H.R.; Jansen, J.J.; Reddy, A.S.; Harvey, J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Upon herbivore feeding, plants emit complex bouquets of induced volatiles that may repel insect herbivores as well as attract parasitoids or predators. Due to differences in the temporal dynamics of individual components, the composition of the herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blend changes

  4. Attractants fromStaphylococcus aureus cultures for Mexican fruit fly,Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, D C; Flath, R A

    1995-11-01

    Volatile chemicals from tryptic soy broth cultures ofStaphylococcus aureus that attract sugar-fed, protein-hungry adult Mexican fruit flies were identified. Chemicals identified from the headspace above the filtrate of the bacterial cultures were ammonia, trimethylamine, isoamylamine, 2-methylbutylamine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and acetic acid. Each chemical attracted flies. A mixture of the chemicals in the same concentrations as were found in the bacterial filtrate was 89% as effective in attracting flies as the bacterial filtrate in laboratory bioassays. Additional chemicals were identified from various concentrated or pH altered preparations made from the filtrate. Many of these chemicals also attracted flies. One of these chemicals, dimethylamine, was the most effective chemical identified. The use of solid-phase microextraction for volatile collection and of thick-film (5-µm) capillary GC columns was essential to the success of this work.

  5. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...... from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  6. Asteroid volatiles inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Jones, T. D.; Herbert, F.

    1989-01-01

    Asteroids appear in light of telescopic and meteority studies to be the most accessible repositories of early solar system history available. In the cooler regions of the outer asteroid belt, apparently unaffected by severe heating, the C, P, and D populations appear to harbor significant inventories of volatiles; the larger primordial belt population may have had an even greater percentage of volatile-rich, low-albedo asteroids, constituting a potent asteroid for veneering early terrestrial planet atmospheres. The volatile-rich asteroids contain carbon, structurally bound and adsorbed water, as well as remnants of interstellar material predating the solar system.

  7. Identification of volatile potato sesquiterpenoids and their olfactory detection by the two-spotted stinkbug Perillus bioculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weissbecker, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Dicke, M.

    2000-01-01

    The predaceous stinkbug Perillus bioculatus is attracted towards volatiles emitted by damaged potato plants. Whereas mechanically damaged plants lost attractiveness 1 h after damage was inflicted, attraction was long-lasting when the plants were damaged by Colorado potato beetles Leptinotarsa

  8. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  9. Biomedical Activity and Related Volatile Compounds of Thai Honeys from 3 Different Honeybee Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of 3 factors (floral source, honeybee species, and postcollection processing) that influence the antibacterial activity, free radical reduction, and other biochemical compositions of different honey types typical of Thailand. Honey samples from 3 honeybee species (Apis mellifera, Apis cerana, and Apis dorsata) were obtained from 9 floral sources (longan, wild flower, lychee, coffee, sunflower, sesame, bitter bush, para-rubber, and manuka as a control) in different regions of Thailand. These samples were evaluated for both their total and nonperoxide antibacterial activity against 10 human pathogens by agar incorporation technique. Honey samples were further analyzed to evaluate the capacity for free radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and the total flavonoid contents by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. Furthermore, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Thai honey samples were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Findings of this study suggest a strong correlation between floral origin and honeybee species on one hand, and differences in %Brix, total acidity, protein content, antimicrobial activities, free radical reduction, phenolic, and flavonoid contents on the other hand. Moreover, VOCs of wild and coffee honey types were remarkably different, depending on the floral source. Both honeys contained characteristics of VOCs, some of which are involved in antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Different origins and processing (floral source, honeybee species, and postcollection processing) of Thai honeys result in different antibacterial activities, physico-chemical properties, and aroma. Based on these findings, consumers of honey could select the type of honey based on their needs and preferred aroma. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Molecular and regulatory mechanisms controlling floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Darragh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of angiosperm flowers have been studied extensively for nearly three decades. This work has led to detailed insights into the gene regulatory networks that control this vital developmental process in plants. Here, we review some of the key findings in the field of flower development and discuss open questions that must be addressed in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of flower formation. In particular, we focus on the specification of the different types of floral organs and on how the morphogenesis of these organs is controlled to give rise to mature flowers. Central to this process are the floral organ identity genes, which encode members of the family of MADS-domain transcription factors. We summarize what is currently known about the functions of these master regulators and discuss a working model for the molecular mechanism that may underlie their activities. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Floral glands in asclepiads: structure, diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Demarco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Apocynaceae stand out among angiosperms in having very complex flowers, especially those of asclepiads, which belong to the most derived subfamily (Asclepiadoideae. These flowers are known to represent the highest degree of floral synorganization of the eudicots, and are comparable only to orchids. This morphological complexity may also be understood by observing their glands. Asclepiads have several protective and nuptial secretory structures. Their highly specific and specialized pollination systems are associated with the great diversity of glands found in their flowers. This review gathers data regarding all types of floral glands described for asclepiads and adds three new types (glandular trichome, secretory idioblast and obturator, for a total of 13 types of glands. Some of the species reported here may have dozens of glands of up to 11 types on a single flower, corresponding to the largest diversity of glands recorded to date for a single structure.

  12. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  13. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  14. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, John L.; Sakai, Hajime; Jack, Thomas; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Ulrike; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially a...

  15. Variasi Morfologi Floral Anggota Suku Leguminosae Subsuku Lotoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchrotus Salamah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menarik untuk dilakukan karena sangat bervariasinya suku Leguminosae dimana salah satu subsukunya adalah Lotoideae. Struktur morfologi bunga dari anggota subsuku digunakan sebagai karakter state dalam membedakan anggota-anggotanya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi floral vegetatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae serta untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi floral generatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksplorasi ke Yogjakarta dan sekitarnya untuk mencari bunga tanaman anggota subsuku Lotoideae, kemudian dilakukan pengamatan terhadap struktur morfologi floralnya, baik vegetatif maupun generatif. Selain itu juga dilakukan pengamatan terhadap morfologi serbuk sari yang sebelumnya telah dibuat preparat dengan menggunaan metode asetolisis. Data yang diperoleh berupa hasil pengukuran berbagai parameter bunga seperti petala, sepala, benangsari, serbuk sari, androecium, gynaecium, dan data hasil pengukuran serbuk sari dianalisis secara deskriptif.Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Variasi morfologi floral vegetatif anggota sub-suku Lotoideae yaitu memiliki kelopak yang berbeda pada ukurannya sedangkan persamaannya berjumlah 5, aestivationya berlekatan. Perbedaan mahkotanya adalah pada warna dan ukuran dari masing-masing bagian bunga,sedangkan persamaannya terdiri atas 5 petala, bentuknya menyerupai kupu-kupu, Bentuk mahkotanya terbagi 3 yaitu, bendera di bagian terluar merupakan bagian yang terlebar, sayap dengan ujung runcing dan lunas yang saling berlekatan berbentuk seperti sekoci. Variasi morfologi floral generatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae yaitu memiliki perbedaan pada jumlah berkas. Persamaan benangsarinya berjumlah 10, dan tersusun dalam berkas. Gynaecium perbedaannya adalah pada ukuran dan warna, sedangkan persamaannya adalah posisi ovarium menumpang, jumlah carpel 1, plasentasi marginal, Aestivatio bebas. Ciri pada serbuksarinya berbeda dalam ukuran, aperture

  16. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  17. Modularity and intra-floral integration in metameric organisms: plants are more than the sum of their parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Pamela K

    2014-08-19

    Within-individual variation in virtually every conceivable morphological and functional feature of reiterated structures is a pervasive feature of plant phenotypes. In particular, architectural effects, regular, repeatable patterns of intra-individual variation in form and function that are associated with position are nearly ubiquitous. Yet, flowers also are predicted to be highly integrated. For animal-pollinated plants, the coordination of multiple organs within each flower is required to achieve the complex functions of pollinator attraction and orientation, pollen donation and pollen receipt. To the extent that pollinators may select for multiple independent functions, phenotypic integration within flowers may also be modular. That is, subsets of floral structures may be integrated but vary independently of other subsets of structures that are themselves integrated. How can phenotypic integration and modularity be understood within the context of architectural effects? This essay reviews recent research on patterns of floral integration and modularity and explores the potential for spatial and temporal changes in the selective environment of individual flowers to result in positional variation in patterns of morphological integration. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  19. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  20. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; van Ruth, Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-11-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in transmittance mode in the visible/near infrared (VIS-NIR) range (400-1000 nm). Three different machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict honey floral origin using honey spectral images. These methods, included radial basis function (RBF) network, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also exploited for dimensionality reduction. According to the obtained results, the best classifier (RBF) achieved a precision of 94% in a fivefold cross validation experiment using only the first two PCs. Mapping of the classifier results to the test set images showed 90% accuracy for honey images. Three types of honey including buckwheat, rapeseed and heather were classified with 100% accuracy. The proposed approach has great potential for honey floral origin detection. As some other honey properties can also be predicted using image features, in addition to floral origin detection, this method may be applied to predict other honey characteristics.

  1. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  2. Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density O sucesso reprodutivo de Heliconia acuminata é independente da densidade floral local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M. Bruna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive plants in tropical forests are patchily distributed, with some in large aggregations of reproductive consepecifics while others are relatively isolated. This variation in floral density is hypothesized to have a major effect on plant reproductive success, since individuals in higher density neighborhoods can attract more or higher quality pollinators. We experimentally tested this hypothesis with populations of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata in central Amazonia. We created replicated plots in which reproductive plant density spanned the range of naturally occurring floral neighborhood size, then measured three surrogates of plant fitness in focal plants in each array. There was no significant difference between any of the three floral neighborhood treatments in total seed production, fruit set, or the number of seeds produced per fruit. Pollinator visitation rates to plants in all treatments were extremely low, with many plants not visited at all during the observation period. This could be because H. acuminata's hummingbird pollinators are unable to find the widely scattered reproductive plants, however this hypothesis appears unlikely. Instead, natural flowering plant densities may simply be below the threshold value at which neighborhood effects become important, even in "high-density" aggregations. Nutrient limitation, selective fruit abortion, and reproduction via male rather than female function may also be playing a role. We argue the absence of neighborhood effects may be a general phenomenon in central Amazonian forests, though additional experiments with other plant-pollinator systems are needed to determine the extent to which this hypothesis is supported.Plantas reprodutivas em florestas tropicas são distribuidas em manchas, com algumas em grandes agregações coespecíficas e outras relativamente isoladas. A hipótese é que esta variação na densidade de flores em um local tem um grande efeito no sucesso

  3. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  4. Assessment of synthetic floral-based attractants and sugar baits to capture male and female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fikrig, Kara; Johnson, Brian J.; Fish, Durland; Scott A. Ritchie

    2017-01-01

    Background The viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, including dengue and Zika viruses, are rapidly expanding in geographic range and as a threat to public health. In response, control programs are increasingly turning to the use of sterile insect techniques resulting in a need to trap male Ae. aegypti to monitor the efficacy of the intervention. However, there is a lack of effective and cheap methods for trapping males. Thus, we attempted to exploit the physiological need to obtain energy fr...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Headspace Volatiles of Chinese Rosa rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Yong Zhao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The floral headspace compounds of Chinese Rosa rugosa germplasms that were isolated by an automated headspace sampler with built-in trap, and followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and quantification. Up to 33 volatile compounds were identified from the 23 rose germplasms, including nine alcohols, five esters, three alkanes, 10 terpenes, three aldehydes, two ketones, and one ether. The main floral components identified were 2-phenylethanol, β-citronellol, ethanol, and n-hexane. ‘xizi’, ‘miaofengshan’, ‘xiangciguo’, and ‘tangbai’ contained the highest amounts of 2-phenylethanol  at 84.66 μg·g-1, β-citronellol at 70.98 μg·g-1, ethanol at 83.87 μg·g-1, and n-hexane at 18.23 μg·g-1, respectively. ‘Rongchengyesheng’, ‘tanghong’, ‘xizi’, ‘miaofengshan’, and ‘baizizhi’ could be considered good materials for extracting rose oil and breeding new cultivars.

  6. Volatile composition and sensory characters of commercial Galician orujo spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Sandra C; de la Peña, M Luisa G; Gómez, Esperanza F

    2005-08-24

    Nineteen samples of commercial Galician orujo spirits were analyzed by gas chromatography and distinguished from one another on the basis of the concentrations of major volatile compounds (methanol, higher alcohols, esters, acetates, and aldehydes). The spirits were also sensorily analyzed to emphasize this differentiation and to establish a sensory profile as a function of the attributes defined by the tasters. The results show that the Galician orujo spirits present notably significant differences in the concentrations of 2-butanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl lactate, whereas their ethylic esters contents are similar. Sensorily, the orujo spirits can be differentiated by taste but have similar characteristics of bouquet, the best of which are from the Godello variety. The descriptions employed to define the orujo spirits were herbaceous, floral, fruity, vegetal, alcohol, toasted, and "others". Floral and fruity were predominant in the Albariño orujo spirits; herbaceous was predominant in the plurivarietal orujo spirits, vegetal in the Godello spirits, and dried fruit or toasted in the Mencia spirits. The orujo spirits from Treixadura have the most diverse profile, with the participation of most of the attributes.

  7. Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Bohman, B; Anthony, J M; Krauss, S L; Dixon, K W; Peakall, R

    2015-03-01

    Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes, rather than the more typical formation of ecotypes in allopatry, illustrates that in sexually deceptive orchids, pollinator switching could occur throughout a species' range, resulting from multiple potentially suitable but unexploited pollinators occurring in sympatry. This unusual case of sympatric pollinators highlights D. concolor as a promising study system for further understanding the process of pollinator switching from ecological, chemical and genetic perspectives. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Floral convergence in Oncidiinae (Cymbidieae; Orchidaceae): an expanded concept of Gomesa and a new genus Nohawilliamsia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark W. Chase; Norris H. Williams; Aparacida Donisete de Faria; Kurt M. Neubig; Maria do Carmo E. Amaral; W. Mark Whitten

    2009-01-01

    • Background Floral morphology, particularly the angle of lip attachment to the column, has historically been the fundamental character used in establishing generic limits in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae...

  9. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  10. Orchestration of the Floral Transition and Floral Development in Arabidopsis by the Bifunctional Transcription Factor APETALA2[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yant, Levi; Mathieu, Johannes; Dinh, Thanh Theresa; Ott, Felix; Lanz, Christa; Wollmann, Heike; Chen, Xuemei; Schmid, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor APETALA2 (AP2) has numerous functions, including roles in seed development, stem cell maintenance, and specification of floral organ identity. To understand the relationship between these different roles, we mapped direct targets of AP2 on a genome-wide scale in two tissue types. We find that AP2 binds to thousands of loci in the developing flower, many of which exhibit AP2-dependent transcription. Opposing, logical effects are evident in AP2 binding to two microRNA genes that influence AP2 expression, with AP2 positively regulating miR156 and negatively regulating miR172, forming a complex direct feedback loop, which also included all but one of the AP2-like miR172 target clade members. We compare the genome-wide direct target repertoire of AP2 with that of SCHLAFMÜTZE, a closely related transcription factor that also represses the transition to flowering. We detect clear similarities and important differences in the direct target repertoires that are also tissue specific. Finally, using an inducible expression system, we demonstrate that AP2 has dual molecular roles. It functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, directly inducing the expression of the floral repressor AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and directly repressing the transcription of floral activators like SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1. PMID:20675573

  11. EPN Chemical ecology and new techniques for below ground sampling and analyses of volatile semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that herbivory induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Utilizing this plant response has become a fundamental part of above ground IPM programs. We now know that also roots can release HIPVs and that these compounds attract beneficial organis...

  12. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb.

  13. Morphological, Physiological and Ultrastructural Changes in Flowers Explain the Spatio-Temporal Emission of Scent Volatiles in Polianthes tuberosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saborni; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2017-12-01

    Tuberose or Polianthes tuberosa L. is a horticultural crop of tropical origin, widely cultivated for its pleasant and intense floral fragrance in the evening. Here an investigation was made into the physiological and cell biological aspects of floral scent biosynthesis, tissue localization and emission that have not previously been examined. Volatiles collected from floral headspace were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification of individual compounds and elucidation of emission patterns. Transcript accumulation and the amount of active enzyme were measured to understand the enzymatic route of scent volatile biosynthesis. Localization of scent volatiles was investigated by histochemical and ultrastructural studies. Scent emission was found to be rhythmic and nocturnal under normal day-night influence, peaking at night. Enhanced enzyme activities and transcript accumulation were recorded just prior to maximum emission. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, the presence of a large number of floral stomata on the adaxial surface of the tepal was revealed which might have bearing on tissue-specific emission. Guard cells of stomata responded significantly to histochemical tests, which also indicated that epidermal tissues are mostly involved in scent emission. High metabolic activity was found in epidermal layers during anthesis as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Further, new insight into the localization of scent compounds, the plausible tissue involved in their release along with the preceding ultrastructural changes at the cellular levels is presented. Finally, ultrastructural analysis of the tepal surface has been able to fill a major gap in knowledge of stomatal involvement during scent emission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A L; Kramer, R.S.S.; Ward, R

    2014-01-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown - how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned - often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer g...

  15. Induced plant volatiles allow sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Roel M C; Hofstee, Jan W; Wildt, Jürgen; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; van Henten, Eldert J

    2009-09-01

    A novel approach to support the inspection of greenhouse crops is based on the measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted by unhealthy plants. This approach has attracted some serious interest over the last decade. In pursuit of this interest, we performed several experiments at the laboratory-scale to pinpoint marker volatiles that can be used to indicate certain health problems. In addition to these laboratory experiments, pilot and model studies were performed in order to verify the validity of these marker volatiles under real-world conditions. This paper provides an overview of results and gives an outlook on the use of plant volatiles for plant health monitoring.

  16. Chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, ...

  17. Virgin queen attraction toward males in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Florian; Cholé, Hanna; Lafon, Grégory; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-24

    Although the honeybee is a crucial agricultural agent and a prominent scientific model organism, crucial aspects of its reproductive behaviour are still unknown. During the mating season, honeybee males, the drones, gather in congregations 10-40 m above ground. Converging evidence suggests that drones emit a pheromone that can attract other drones, thereby increasing the size of the congregation. Virgin queens join the vicinity of the congregation after it has formed, and mate with as many as 20 males in mid-air. It is still unclear which sensory cues help virgin queens find drone congregations in the first place. Beside visual cues for long-range orientation, queens may use olfactory cues. We thus tested virgin queens' olfactory orientation on a walking simulator in which they have full control over odour stimulation. We show that sexually-mature virgin queens are attracted to the odour bouquet from a group of living drones. They are not attracted to the bouquet from a group of workers. In addition, non-sexually receptive females (workers) of the same age are not attracted to the drone odour bouquet. Interpreted in the context of mating, these results may suggest that virgin queens use volatile olfactory cues from the drones to find the congregations.

  18. Genes, geology and biodiversity: faunal and floral diversity on the island of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson, B. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of floral and faunal diversity in the Canary Islands have attracted much attention to the archipelago for both evolutionary and ecological study. Among the processes that have influenced the development of this diversity, the volcanic history of each individual island must have played a pivotal role. The central island of Gran Canaria has a long geological history of approximately 15 million years that was interrupted by violent volcanism between 5.5 and 3 million years ago. Volcanic activity is thought to have been so great as to have made all plant and animal life virtually extinct, with survival being limited to some coastal species. The implication from this is that the higher altitude laurel forest and pine woods environments must have been re-established following the dramatic volcanic period. This paper reviews the evidence for this using recent molecular phylogenetic data for a number of plant and animal groups on the island of Gran Canaria, and concludes that there is general support for the hypotheses that the forest environments of Gran Canaria post-date the Roque Nublo eruptive period.

  19. Intraspecific variability of floral nectar volume and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBertazzini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous angiosperms rely on pollinators to ensure efficient flower fertilization, offering a reward consisting of nourishing nectars produced by specialized floral cells, known as nectaries. Nectar components are believed to derive from phloem sap that is enzymatically processed and transformed within nectaries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that nectar composition, mainly amino acids, may influence pollinator attraction and fidelity. This notwithstanding, little is known about the range of natural variability in nectar content for crop species. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar harvested from field-grown plants at the 63 to 65 phenological stage was determined for a set of 44 winter genotypes of rapeseed, a bee-pollinated crop. Significant differences were found for solute concentrations, and an even higher variability was evident for nectar volumes, resulting in striking differences when results were expressed on a single flower basis. The comparison of nectar and phloem sap from a subset of 8 varieties pointed out qualitative and quantitative diversities with respect to both sugars and amino acids. Notably, amino acid concentration in phloem sap was up to one hundred times higher than in nectar. Phloem sap showed a much more uniform composition, suggesting that nectar variability depends mainly on nectary metabolism. A better understanding of the basis of nectar production would allow an improvement of seed set efficiency, as well as hive management and honey production.

  20. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  1. Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) released from rotten chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Chaudhury, Muhammad F; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Skoda, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), is an important blowfly species affecting both livestock and humans. It can transmit pathogenic disease agents mechanically and is an agent of facultative myiasis, which leads to economic losses. The adult flies are attracted to decomposing carcasses, carrion, or rotten meat in order to deposit their eggs, and the hatched larvae develop on these decaying organic materials. This research was aimed to identify volatiles emitted from rotten chicken livers that were reported previously to attract gravid females. In laboratory oviposition assays, gravid females laid significantly more eggs on rotten livers than on fresh livers, and rotten chicken liver was more attractive than rotten beef liver. Volatiles from the two livers were collected using solid phase microextraction. Significantly different volatile profiles were detected from the rotten livers of beef and chicken. Electroantennography (EAG) was performed to determine antennal responses to chemicals released from the most attractive chicken liver that are candidate oviposition attractants. Seven compounds from rotten chicken liver elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of gravid females. Oviposition assays showed that the 7-component blend stimulated gravid females to lay significantly more eggs than the other combinations tested. This 7-component blend may have potential for use in monitoring and sampling populations of secondary screwworm and their associated disease epidemiology.

  2. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  3. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  4. Studying Ancient Anthropogenic Impacts on Current Floral Biodiversity in the Southern Levant as reflected by the Philistine Migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frumin, Suembikya; Maeir, Aren M; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Weiss, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    ... of local Near Eastern haplotypes. Building on this, and combining biogeographical methods of Floral List comparisons with archaeological data, we have elucidated the Philistine impact on Southern Levantine floral ecosystem...

  5. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  6. Signal transduction downstream of salicylic and jasmonic acid in herbivory-induced parasitoid attraction by Arabidopsis is independent of JAR1 and NPR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poecke, van R.M.P.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Plants can defend themselves indirectly against herbivores by emitting a volatile blend upon herbivory that attracts the natural enemies of these herbivores, either predators or parasitoids. Although signal transduction in plants from herbivory to induced volatile production depends on jasmonic acid

  7. Collective motion from local attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Strömbom, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Many animal groups, for example schools of fish or flocks of birds, exhibit complex dynamic patterns while moving cohesively in the same direction. These flocking patterns have been studied using self-propelled particle models, most of which assume that collective motion arises from individuals aligning with their neighbours. Here, we propose a self-propelled particle model in which the only social force between individuals is attraction. We show that this model generates ...

  8. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  9. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  10. Identification and Optimization of Microbial Attractants for Philornis downsi, an Invasive Fly Parasitic on Galapagos Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Mieles, Alejandro E; Lahuatte, Paola F; Cahuana, Andrea; Lincango, Marie Piedad; Causton, Charlotte E; Tebbich, Sabine; Cimadom, Arno; Teale, Stephen A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution. EAD responses were consistently elicited by 14 yeast volatiles. In a series of field trapping experiments, a mixture of the 14 EAD-active compounds was similarly attractive to P. downsi when compared to the yeast-sugar solution, and we found that acetic acid and ethanol were essential for attraction. A mixture of 0.03 % acetic acid and 3 % ethanol was as attractive as the 14-component blend, but was not as attractive as the yeast-sugar solution. Philornis downsi showed positive and negative dose-responses to acetic acid in the ranges of 0.01 ~ 0.3 % and 0.3 ~ 9 %, respectively. Further optimization showed that the mixture of 1 % acetic acid and 3 % ethanol was as attractive as the yeast-sugar solution. Both mixtures of acetic acid and ethanol were more selective than the yeast-sugar solution in terms of non-target moths and Polistes versicolor wasps captured. These results indicate that acetic acid and ethanol produced by yeasts are crucial for P. downsi attraction to fermented materials on which they feed as adults and can be used to manage this invasive fly in Galapagos.

  11. Biología floral de Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Amela García

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento reproductivo muestra que Passiflora foetida es autocompatible. Observaciones de las características florales y de los visitantes durante la antesis, más el análisis del polen transportado, permitieron identificar el síndrome floral (melitofilia y las funciones de cada visitante. La antesis ocurre desde las 6 hasta las 11 hs. Se identificaron 3 fases florales: 1 estigmas por encima de las anteras, 2 estigmas a la altura de las anteras, 3 estigmas por encima de las anteras; los radii, los pétalos y los sépalos se incurvan. Los estigmas están receptivos durante toda la antesis. La concentración de azúcares del néctar es 34 %. El color predominante en el espectro visible es el blanco. En el espectro UV, los estambres y el gineceo contrastan con el limen y el androginóforo; pueden ser una guía de néctar. Tres especies de himenópteros fueron los visitantes más frecuentes y constantes: Ptiloglossa tarsata (Colletidae siempre contactan las anteras y los estigmas cuando liban, transportan un alto porcentaje de polen de P. foetida y visitan flores en fase 1 y 2; pueden ser considerados los principales polinizadores. Pseudaugochloropsis sp. (Halictidae raramente contactan las anteras o los estigmas cuando perforan el limen para acceder al néctar y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son ladrones de néctar que raramente polinizan. Augochlorella sp. (Halictidae recolectan polen sin tocar los estigmas y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son hurtadores de polen.A reproductive experiment shows that Passiflora foetida is autocompatible. Observations of floral characteristics and visitors during anthesis, plus the analysis of pollen allowed identification of floral syndrome (melittophily and functions for each visitor. Anthesis occurs from 6 to 11 AM. Three floral phases were identified: 1 stigmas above anthers, 2 stigmas at anther level, 3 stigmas above anthers; radii, petals and sepals become incurved. The stigmas are receptive during the

  12. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J L; Sakai, H; Jack, T; Weigel, D; Mayer, U; Meyerowitz, E M

    1992-03-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially additive phenotypes are observed in superman agamous and superman apetala2 double mutants. The epistatic relationships observed between either apetala3 or pistillata and superman alleles suggest that the SUPERMAN gene product could be a regulator of these floral homeotic genes. To test this, the expression patterns of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 were examined in superman flowers. In wild-type flowers, APETALA3 expression is restricted to the second and third whorls where it is required for the specification of petals and stamens. In contrast, in superman flowers, APETALA3 expression expands to include most of the cells that would normally constitute the fourth whorl. This ectopic APETALA3 expression is proposed to be one of the causes of the development of the extra stamens in superman flowers. The spatial pattern of AGAMOUS expression remains unaltered in superman flowers as compared to wild-type flowers. Taken together these data indicate that one of the functions of the wild-type SUPERMAN gene product is to negatively regulate APETALA3 in the fourth whorl of the flower. In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products.

  13. In vitro direct organogenesis in response to floral reversion in lily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study indicated that the tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium var. Flore Pleno) has a great ability to produce inflorescence bulbils in nature as a form of natural phenomenon of floral reversion in plants. This present research was carried out to investigate the artificial floral reversion in in vitro culture of two lilies (Asiatic ...

  14. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2009-06-02

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.

  15. In vitro direct organogenesis in response to floral reversion in lily

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Our previous study indicated that the tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium var. Flore Pleno) has a great ability to produce inflorescence bulbils in nature as a form of natural phenomenon of floral reversion in plants. This present research was carried out to investigate the artificial floral reversion in in vitro culture of.

  16. Contribution to the floral anatomy of leptospermum laevigatum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joshnson, CT

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available floral ontogeny also given. Air. J. 801. 1983,2:202?208 I Beskrywing van die blomdele word gegee. Die helrnknop ord gekenmerk deur die prominente olieklier op die punt van ie helmbindsel. Die saadhuid van die vrugbare en steriele aadknop verskil.... Slegs die epidermis van die buitenste en bin este integumente bly in die saadhuid behoue. ?n Kort eskrywing van die bearing van die blom en sy ontogenie word ok gegee. -Air. Tydskr. Pianik. 1983,2:202?208 eywords: Leptospermum Iaevigatum, flower...

  17. Pollinator-induced twisting of flowers sidesteps floral architecture constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, Michael; Janeček, Stěpán

    2014-09-08

    Specific pollen placement by zygomorphic flowers on pollinators is one of the key innovations of angiosperm evolution [1]. In most phylogenetic lineages that have evolved zygomorphic flowers, reproductive organs are positioned either in the lower or upper part of the flower. Although these specific positions largely enhance pollen economy, they also represent architectural constraints such that flowers are able to place pollen only on the dorsal or ventral part of pollinators' bodies [2]. Such constraints can lead to interspecific pollen placement in situations where phylogenetically related species with the same floral architecture share pollinators [3]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  19. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  20. Morphology and Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns during Floral Induction and Early Flower Development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae) is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning...

  1. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  2. Terapia floral: una alternativa de tratamiento para la mujer de edad mediana Floral therapy: an alternative treatment for the middle-age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margeris Yanes Calderón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo dirigido a los Médicos de Familia sobre la aplicación de los remedios (esencias, elíxires florales de Bach durante la etapa climatérica. Se describen los 5 elíxires florales que han tenido mayor indicación en la consulta de climaterio del Policlínico Docente "Ana Betancourt," en el municipio Playa de la Ciudad de La Habana, así como su forma de preparación y administración. Se citan algunas esencias florales de nueva generación, que por su vibración y calidad podrían indicarse en esta etapa de la vida femenina. En aquellas mujeres de edad mediana (climatéricas, donde predominen los síntomas psicológicos sobre los circulatorios, genitourinarios y generales, la terapia floral se impone como una alternativa de tratamiento para mejorar su calidad de vida.A paper directed to the family physicians on the application of Bach's floral remedies (essence oils and elixirs during the climateric period was made. The 5 floral elixirs that have been prescribed the most at the climacteric office of "Ana Betancourt" Teaching Polyclinic, in Playa municipality, Havana City, as well as their mode of preparation and administration are described. Some new generation floral essences that due to their vibration and quality may be indicated at this stage of females' life, are mentioned. In those middle-aged women (climacteric among whom the psychological symptoms prevailed over the circulatory, genitourinary and general symptoms, the floral therapy constitutes an alternative treatment to improve their quality of life.

  3. Molecular interactions of orthologues of floral homeotic proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of 'floral quartets'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter

    2010-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the identity of floral organs in angiosperms is specified by multimeric transcription factor complexes composed of MADS-domain proteins. These bind to specific cis-regulatory elements ('CArG-boxes') of their target genes involving DNA-loop formation, thus constituting 'floral quartets'. Gymnosperms, angiosperms' closest relatives, contain orthologues of floral homeotic genes, but when and how the interactions constituting floral quartets were established during evolution has remained unknown. We have comprehensively studied the dimerization and DNA-binding of several classes of MADS-domain proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon. Determination of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions by yeast two-hybrid, in vitro pull-down and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed complex patterns of homo- and heterodimerization among orthologues of floral homeotic class B, class C and class E proteins and B(sister) proteins. Using DNase I footprint assays we demonstrate that both orthologues of class B with C proteins, and orthologues of class C proteins alone, but not orthologues of class B proteins alone can loop DNA in floral quartet-like complexes. This is in contrast to class B and class C proteins from angiosperms, which require other factors such as class E floral homeotic proteins to 'glue' them together in multimeric complexes. Our findings suggest that the evolutionary origin of floral quartet formation is based on the interaction of different DNA-bound homodimers, does not depend on class E proteins, and predates the origin of angiosperms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A floral induction system for the study of early Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Wellmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the molecular changes that occur over the course of flower development is hampered by difficulties in isolating sufficient amounts of floral tissue at specific developmental stages. This is especially problematic when investigating molecular events at very early stages of Arabidopsis flower development, as the floral buds are minute and are initiated sequentially such that a single flower on an inflorescence is at a given developmental stage. Moreover, young floral buds are hidden by older buds, which present an additional challenge for dissection. To circumvent these issues, a floral induction system that allows the simultaneous induction of a large number of flowers on the inflorescence of a single plant was generated. To allow the plant community to avail of the full benefits of this system, we address some common problems that can be encountered when growing these plants and collecting floral buds for analysis.

  5. Floral stem cell termination involves the direct regulation of AGAMOUS by PERIANTHIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Ito, Toshiro; Wellmer, Frank; Vernoux, Teva; Dedieu, Annick; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2009-05-01

    In Arabidopsis, the population of stem cells present in young flower buds is lost after the production of a fixed number of floral organs. The precisely timed repression of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL (WUS) by the floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS (AG) is a key part of this process. In this study, we report on the identification of a novel input into the process of floral stem cell regulation. We use genetics and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN) plays a role in regulating stem cell fate by directly controlling AG expression and suggest that this activity is spatially restricted to the centermost region of the AG expression domain. These results suggest that the termination of floral stem cell fate is a multiply redundant process involving loci with unrelated floral patterning functions.

  6. Floral Reversion in Arabidopsis suecica Is Correlated with the Onset of Flowering and Meristem Transitioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Asbe

    Full Text Available Angiosperm flowers are usually determinate structures that may produce seeds. In some species, flowers can revert from committed flower development back to an earlier developmental phase in a process called floral reversion. The allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica displays photoperiod-dependent floral reversion in a subset of its flowers, yet little is known about the environmental conditions enhancing this phenotype, or the morphological processes leading to reversion. We have used light and electron microscopy to further describe this phenomenon. Additionally, we have further studied the phenology of flowering and floral reversion in A. suecica. In this study we confirm and expand upon our previous findings that floral reversion in the allopolyploid A. suecica is photoperiod-dependent, and show that its frequency is correlated with the timing for the onset of flowering. Our results also suggest that floral reversion in A. suecica displays natural variation in its penetrance between geographic populations of A. suecica.

  7. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  8. Deciphering the chemical origin of the semen-like floral scents in three angiosperm plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhong, Dacai; Luo, Liping; Frankevich, Vladimir; Chen, Huanwen

    2018-01-01

    The chemical origin and biological role of distinct semen-like odor occasionally found in some flowers are very curious but remain scarcely studied. Here, we used direct ambient corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to study the volatile chemical composition behind the semen-like odor emitted by the fresh flowers of Photinia serrulata, Castanopsis sclerophylla and Stemona japonica without any chemical pretreatment. Chemical identification was performed using high-resolution MS analysis in combination with tandem MS analysis and whenever possible was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference compounds. A total of 19 compounds, mostly belonging to nitrogenous volatiles, were identified in P. serrulata, C. sclerophylla, and S. japonica flowers, 1-pyrroline, 1-piperideine, 2-pyrrolidone, and phenethylamine being common in all the three studied species. Several lines of evidence indicate that the major component responsible for the semen-like odor is most likely 1-pyrroline. 1-Pyrroline is most probably formed via the oxidative deamination of putrescine, as indicated by the observation of signal from 4-amino-butanal intermediate. Flower visitation observations suggest that the released volatiles serve to attract dipterans, including Syrphidae, Calliphoridae, and Muscidae. On the analytical side, the comparison of our results to earlier studies also indicate that compared to the traditional GC-MS approach the direct corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry provides more sensitive detection of VOCs with high proton affinity, in particular volatile amines, and therefore can be used to complement traditional GC-MS approach for the highest chemical coverage of VOC analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. POWERDRESS and diversified expression of the MIR172 gene family bolster the floral stem cell network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Eden Yumul

    Full Text Available Termination of the stem cells in the floral meristem (also known as floral determinacy is critical for the reproductive success of plants, and the molecular activities regulating floral determinacy are precisely orchestrated during the course of floral development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, regulators of floral determinacy include several transcription factor genes, such as APETALA2 (AP2, AGAMOUS (AG, SUPERMAN (SUP, and CRABSCLAW (CRC, as well as a microRNA (miRNA, miR172, which targets AP2. How the transcription factor and miRNA genes are coordinately regulated to achieve floral determinacy is unknown. A mutation in POWERDRESS (PWR, a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a SANT-domain-containing protein, was isolated in this study as an enhancer of the weakly indeterminate ag-10 allele. PWR was found to promote the transcription of CRC, MIR172a, b, and c and/or enhance Pol II occupancy at their promoters, without affecting MIR172d or e. A mutation in mature miR172d was additionally found to enhance the determinacy defects of ag-10 in an AP2-dependent manner, providing direct evidence that miR172d is functional in repressing AP2 and thereby contributes to floral determinacy. Thus, while PWR promotes floral determinacy by enhancing the expression of three of the five MIR172 members as well as CRC, MIR172d, whose expression is PWR-independent, also functions in floral stem cell termination. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how transcriptional diversification and functional redundancy of a miRNA family along with PWR-mediated co-regulation of miRNA and transcription factor genes contribute to the robustness of the floral determinacy network.

  10. The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars; Le Comber, Steven C; Verity, Robert; Dodsworth, Steven; Knapp, Sandra; Kelly, Laura J; Chase, Mark W; Baldwin, Ian T; Kovařík, Aleš; Mhiri, Corinne; Taylor, Lin; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. Spectral reflectance of corolla tissue was examined for 60 Nicotiana (Solanaceae) accessions (41 taxa) based on spectral shape (corresponding to pigmentation) as well as bee and hummingbird colour perception in order to assess patterns of floral colour evolution. Polyploid and homoploid hybrid spectra were compared with those of their progenitors to evaluate whether hybridization has resulted in floral colour shifts. Floral colour categories in Nicotiana seem to have arisen multiple times independently during the evolution of the genus. Most younger polyploids displayed an unexpected floral colour, considering those of their progenitors, in the colour perception of at least one pollinator type, whereas older polyploids tended to resemble one or both of their progenitors. Floral colour evolution in Nicotiana is weakly constrained by phylogeny, and colour shifts do occur in association with both polyploid and homoploid hybrid divergence. Transgressive floral colour in N. tabacum has arisen by inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation from its paternal progenitor while having a plastid phenotype like its maternal progenitor. Potentially, floral colour evolution has been driven by, or resulted in, pollinator shifts. However, those polyploids that are not sympatric (on a regional scale) with their progenitor lineages are typically not divergent in floral colour from them, perhaps because of a lack of competition for pollinators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-07

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Medrano, L J; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-11-09

    The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues. Recessive mutations cause extra stamens to form interior to the normal third whorl stamens, at the expense of fourth whorl carpel development. The mutant phenotype is associated with the ectopic expression of the B function genes, AP3 and PI, in the altered floral region, closer to the centre of the flower than in the wild type, and ap3 sup and pi sup double mutants exhibit a phenotype similar to ap3 and pi single mutants. These findings led to SUP being interpreted as an upstream negative regulator of the B function organ-identity genes, acting in the fourth whorl, to establish a boundary between stamen and carpel whorls. Here we show, using molecular cloning and analysis, that it is expressed in the third whorl and acts to maintain this boundary in developing flowers. The putative SUPERMAN protein contains one zinc-finger and a region resembling a basic leucine zipper motif, suggesting a function in transcriptional regulation.

  13. Modulation of volatile sulfur compounds by wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiegers, J H; Pretorius, I S

    2007-04-01

    Sulfur compounds in wine can be a 'double-edged sword'. On the one hand, certain sulfur-containing volatile compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, imparting a rotten egg-like aroma, can have a negative impact on the perceived quality of the wine, and on the other hand, some sulfur compounds such as 3-mercaptohexanol, imparting fruitiness, can have a positive impact on wine flavor and aroma. Furthermore, these compounds can become less or more attractive or repulsive depending on their absolute and relative concentrations. This presents an interesting challenge to the winemaker to modulate the concentrations of these quality-determining compounds in wine in accordance with consumer preferences. The wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a central role in the production of volatile sulfur compounds. Through the sulfate reduction sequence pathway, the HS(-) is formed, which can lead to the formation of hydrogen sulfide and various mercaptan compounds. Therefore, limiting the formation of the HS(-) ion is an important target in metabolic engineering of wine yeast. The wine yeast is also responsible for the transformation of non-volatile sulfur precursors, present in the grape, to volatile, flavor-active thiol compounds. In particular, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate are the most important volatile thiols adding fruitiness to wine. This paper briefly reviews the metabolic processes involved in the production of important volatile sulfur compounds and the latest strategies in the pursuit of developing wine yeast strains as tools to adjust wine aroma to market specifications.

  14. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  15. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvez Serra, N S; Goulart, H F; Triana, M F; Dos Santos Tavares, S; Almeida, C I M; DA Costa, J G; Santana, A E G; Zhu, J J

    2017-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields. Adult stable flies are attracted to vinasse, which appears to present an ideal larval development site. The primary goal of the present study is to demonstrate the role of vinasse in influencing the sensory physiological and behavioural responses of stable flies, and to identify its associated volatile attractant compounds. Both laboratory and field studies showed that vinasse is extremely attractive to adult stable flies. Chemical analyses of volatiles collected revealed a wide range of carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes as potential attractant compounds. These newly identified attractants could be used to develop a tool for the attractant-baited mass trapping of stable flies in order to reduce infestations. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Field Attraction of Carob Moth to Host Plants and Conspecific Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Menken, Steph B J; van Wijk, Michiel; Roessingh, Peter; Groot, Astrid T

    2017-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract herbivore insects and have shown to have good potential to be exploited as alternatives or supplements to sex pheromones. To explore this possibility in carob moth, we assessed the attraction of moths to the volatiles of mature pistachio and different fruit stages of pomegranate, alone and in combination with virgin females, using sticky delta traps in pomegranate orchards of Iran. Traps baited with mature pomegranates, whether uncracked or cracked, infested or uninfested, caught significantly larger numbers of male and both mated and virgin female carob moths than unbaited traps. Traps baited with headspace extract of cracked pomegranate only caught mated females, while mature pistachio only attracted males. Pomegranate flowers, unripe pomegranate, and headspace extract of pistachio did not attract moths. Traps baited with cracked fruit caught more mated females than traps baited with uncracked fruit. Males were attracted similarly to traps baited with cracked-infested pomegranate as to traps baited with virgin females alone. Interestingly, the combination of cracked pomegranate and virgin female enhanced the attraction of virgin females. Together, our results show that volatiles from cracked pomegranates alone or in combination with female sex pheromone have great potential for application in pest management programs of carob moth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Lunar Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69

  18. Floração e morfologia floral de variedades de melancieira em Juazeiro-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Duarte

    2015-12-01

    consequent production of fruits. The attractiveness to pollinators is dependent on the floral resources offered as a reward during visits and as a result the plant benefits from pollination. The objective of this study was to record important aspects of flowering including sex ratio and the description of floral morphology of varieties of watermelon. The varieties of watermelon were used, Congo, Elisa, super super Crimson and Charleston in organic farming, drip irrigation. Four treatments and four repetitions were performed using a completely randomized design. For all varieties analyzed, it was registered the initial issue of male flowers. It did not record significant difference in the issue of female flowers between varieties, but the male flowers to the Congo variety presented more. There was recorded differences in the characteristics of morphology flower varieties and types in relation to the height and flower diameter. The presence of hermaphrodite flowers was recorded with an average of 1.45 (Crimson 0.15 flowers per plant (Congo. The Charleston variety had the lowest average number of days to issue the first female flower compared to males (4.6 ± 2.81 since the Congo had the highest average (9.05 ± 3.28. The lowest sex ratio was recorded for the variety Elisa (1: 13.32 and the highest for the Congo (1: 24.05. The smallest flowering periods were recorded for the Crimson and Elisa varieties. 

  19. Overexpression of Medicago SVP genes causes floral defects and delayed flowering in Arabidopsis but only affects floral development in Medicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudal, Mauren; Monash, Jacob; Zhang, Lulu; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Macknight, Richard; Putterill, Joanna

    2014-02-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE plays a key role as a repressor of the transition to flowering and as a regulator of early floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, no flowering-time repressors have been functionally identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula (Medicago). In this study, phylogenetic analysis of two closely-related MtSVP-like sequences, MtSVP1 and MtSVP2, showed that their predicted proteins clustered together within the eudicot SVP clade. To determine if the MtSVP-like genes have a role in flowering, they were functionally characterized in Medicago and Arabidopsis. Transcripts of both MtSVP genes were abundant and broadly expressed in vegetative tissues but were detected at much lower levels in flowers in Medicago. Over-expression of the MtSVP genes in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering and flowers with many abnormal phenotypes such as leafy sepals, changes to floral organ number and longer pedicels than the wild type. By contrast, in transgenic Medicago, over-expression of MtSVP1 resulted in alterations to flower development, but did not alter flowering time, suggesting that MtSVP1 may not function to repress the transition to flowering in Medicago.

  20. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......This article aims to shed a light on innovative fund management concepts which emerged after the crisis. Two main strategies seem to dominate the financial turmoil: Absolute return concepts and long/short trading techniques. While there already exists exhaustive literature on absolute return......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  1. A factor linking floral organ identity and growth revealed by characterization of the tomato mutant unfinished flower development (ufd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e. floral organ identity and growth in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd. Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signalling pathways.

  2. Sterility Caused by Floral Organ Degeneration and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Rae Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops.

  3. Regulation of floral meristem activity through the interaction of AGAMOUS, SUPERMAN, and CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Xu, Yifeng; Wee, WanYi; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Shibata, Arisa; Shirasu, Ken; Ito, Toshiro

    2017-12-07

    Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity. Previous research has not addressed the genetic interactions among these three genes. Here, we quantified the floral developmental stage-specific phenotypic consequences of combining mutations of AG, SUP, and CLV3. Our detailed phenotypic and genetic analyses revealed that these three genes act in partially redundant pathways to coordinately modulate floral meristem sizes in a spatial and temporal manner. Analyses of the ag sup clv3 triple mutant, which developed a mass of undifferentiated cells in its flowers, allowed us to identify downstream targets of AG with roles in reproductive development and in the termination of floral meristem activity. Our study highlights the role of AG in repressing genes that are expressed in organ initial cells to control floral meristem activity.

  4. Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Tyteca, Daniel; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Floral nectar of animal-pollinated plants is commonly infested with microorganisms, yet little is known about the microorganisms inhabiting the floral nectar of orchids. In this study, we investigated microbial communities occurring in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species. Culturable bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, respectively. Using three different culture media, we found that bacteria were common inhabitants of the floral nectar of Epipactis. The most widely distributed bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in nectar of Epipactis were representatives of the family of Enterobacteriaceae, with an unspecified Enterobacteriaceae bacterium as the most common. In contrast to previous studies investigating microbial communities in floral nectar, very few yeast species (mainly of the genus Cryptococcus) were observed, and most of them occurred in very low densities. Total OTU richness (i.e., the number of bacterial and yeast OTUs per orchid species) varied between 4 and 20. Cluster analysis revealed that microbial communities of allogamous species differed from those of autogamous and facultatively autogamous species. This study extends previous efforts to identify microbial communities in floral nectar and indicates that the floral nectar of the orchids investigated mainly contained bacterial communities with moderate phylogenetic diversity. PMID:23836678

  5. Differences in the fragrances of pollen, leaves, and floral parts of garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium) and composition of the essential oils from flowerheads and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2003-04-09

    Headspace analyses of pollen, whole flowerheads, ligulate and tubular florets, flower buds, involucral bracts, and leaves have been performed on the food plant Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae). The analyses permitted differences in the pattern of volatiles emitted by the different floral parts to be observed and the site and phenological stage of emission of these chemicals to be verified. Camphor and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate were emitted mainly by ligulate and tubular florets; the production of myrcene and (Z)-ocimene was higher in the flower buds, whereas beta-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-farnesene seemed attributable mainly to the involucral bracts. The leaves showed a quite different volatile profile, with (Z)-ocimene as the main constituent. Pollen showed a completely different composition of its volatiles, with perilla aldehyde, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, and camphor among the principal compounds; many carbonylic compounds and linear hydrocarbons have been detected exclusively in pollen. Furthermore, the essential oils obtained from flowerheads and leaves have been studied. These samples showed mainly quantitative differences. Camphor (22.1%) and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (19.9%) were the main constituents of the oil from flowers, whereas the oil from the leaves contained mainly (Z)-ocimene (45.4%) and myrcene (28.2%).

  6. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  7. Molecular attraction of condensed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Abrikosova, I. I.; Lifshitz, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    From the Editorial Board. As a contribution to commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, it was found appropriate by the Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal that the materials of the jubilee-associated Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences published in this issue (pp. 877-905) be augmented by the review paper "Molecular attraction of condensed bodies" reproduced from a 1958 UFN issue. Included in this review, in addition to an account by Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz of his theory of molecular attractive forces between condensed bodies (first published in Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (ZhETF) in 1955 and in its English translation Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP) in 1956), is a summary of a series of experimental studies beginning in 1949 by Irina Igorevna Abrikosova at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in a laboratory led by Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin (1902-1994), a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1958, however, UFN was not yet available in English translation, so the material of the review is insufficiently accessible to the present-day English-speaking reader. This is the reason why the UFN Editorial Board decided to contribute to celebrating the 100th anniversary of E M Lifshitz's birthday by reproducing on the journal's pages a 1958 review paper which contains both E M Lifshitz's theory itself and the experimental data that underpinned it (for an account of how Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz was enlisted to explain the experimental results of I I Abrikosova and B V Derjaguin, see the letter to the editors N P Danilova on page 925 of this jubilee collection of publications).

  8. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on plant–pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue—transient humidity gradients—using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12–24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator. PMID:22645365

  9. Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Timetable Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The article describes how the attractiveness of timetables can be evaluated quantitatively to ensure a consistent evaluation of timetables. Since the different key stakeholders (infrastructure manager, train operating company, customers, and society) have different opinions on what an attractive...... timetable is, the article categorizes the different interests for each key stakeholder. Based on this categorization, the most important timetable attractiveness parameters are described (timetable structure, timetable complexity, travel time, transfers, punctuality and reliability). The descriptions...... of the timetable attractiveness parameters form the basis for proposing preliminary attractiveness indexes that are assigned an index value. In the end all the attractiveness indexes are collected and one overall preliminary attractiveness index is proposed. Although one (preliminary) attractiveness index...

  10. Pollinator specificity, floral odour chemistry and the phylogeny of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids: implications for pollinator-driven speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakall, Rod; Ebert, Daniel; Poldy, Jacqueline; Barrow, Russell A; Francke, Wittko; Bower, Colin C; Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-10-01

    • Sexually deceptive orchids are predicted to represent a special case of plant speciation where strong reproductive isolation may be achieved by differences in floral scent. • In this study of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids, we performed choice experiments to test for wasp pollinator specificity in the field; identified the compounds involved in pollinator attraction by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and behavioural bioassays; and mapped our chemical findings on to a phylogeny of the orchids. • Field experiments confirmed pollination is a highly specific interaction, but also revealed a pool of nonpollinating 'minor responder' wasps. Six novel compounds, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexan-1,3-diones, called 'chiloglottones', were discovered to be involved in pollinator attraction. Bioassays confirmed that pollinator specificity has a strong chemical basis, with specificity among sympatric orchids maintained by either different single compounds or a variation in a blend of two compounds. The phylogenetic overlay confirmed that speciation is always associated with pollinator switching and usually underpinned by chemical change. • If the chemical differences that control reproductive isolation in Chiloglottis have a strong genetic basis, and given the confirmed pool of potential pollinators, we conclude that pollinator-driven speciation appears highly plausible in this system. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  11. Birds exploit herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate herbivorous prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Luisa; Jansen, Jeroen J; van Dam, Nicole M; Dicke, Marcel; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-11-01

    Arthropod herbivory induces plant volatiles that can be used by natural enemies of the herbivores to find their prey. This has been studied mainly for arthropods that prey upon or parasitise herbivorous arthropods but rarely for insectivorous birds, one of the main groups of predators of herbivorous insects such as lepidopteran larvae. Here, we show that great tits (Parus major) discriminate between caterpillar-infested and uninfested trees. Birds were attracted to infested trees, even when they could not see the larvae or their feeding damage. We furthermore show that infested and uninfested trees differ in volatile emissions and visual characteristics. Finally, we show, for the first time, that birds smell which tree is infested with their prey based on differences in volatile profiles emitted by infested and uninfested trees. Volatiles emitted by plants in response to herbivory by lepidopteran larvae thus not only attract predatory insects but also vertebrate predators. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Morfología floral del achiote, Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Dora I.; Flores, Eugenia M.

    2016-01-01

    Esta es una reinvestigación de la morfología floral de Bixa orellana. Se encontró que varios órganos como androceo y gineceo requerían una descripción nueva. Los estambres tienen anteras dobladas; la dehiscencia es lateral. El ovario es inferior y durante el desarrollo es elevado por un ginoforo. La flor tiene una complicada red de laticíferos y canales gomíferos, en todas las piezas florales. In a reinvestigation of the floral morphology of Bixa orellana, it was found that several organs ...

  13. New trends in Ukraine investment attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Салабай, Владиcлав Олександрович; Манаєнко, Ірина Миколаївна

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the current state of the investment attractiveness of Ukraine. The structure of foreign investments in the national economy. Identified the main problem of attracting foreign investments into national economic, a state of the investment climate in Ukraine by international rating. Analyzed the investment index of the attractiveness by methodic of EBA. The effect of significant global investors on the investment attractiveness of the country, including George Soros. Proved ...

  14. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test.

  15. Improvements for observing Anthurium (Araceae) floral structures by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T K; Kuehnle, A R; Webb, D T

    1995-07-01

    Three major obstacles must be overcome in the anatomical study of Anthurium floral structure and embryo development including presence of mucilage, hardened carpel walls, and hardened seed coat in the developing fruit and seed. Fixation in 6% glutaraldehyde and 1% cetylpyridinium chloride in 0.05 M sodium cacodylate, pH 6.8, effectively fixed or removed mucilage from the locules of Anthurium andraeanum Hort. in spadices. This treatment enhanced infiltration of the embedding medium through the hardened carpel wall into the locule space and decreased the quantity and size of holes in the embedding block during sectioning. Specimens 16 weeks after pollination could be fixed, infiltrated, and observed without physical removal of the seed coat. Embryos may be excised from the seed at later stages without compromising embryo structure.

  16. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y; Porter, Justin A; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F S

    2014-05-01

    • Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can help meet worldwide demand for artemisinin and its derivatives. However, fundamental reproductive processes, such as the sequence of flowering and fertility, are not well understood and impair breeding and seed propagation programs.• Capitulum structure and floral sequence were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy to describe inflorescence architecture, floret opening, and seed set.• Florets are minute and born in capitula containing pistillate ray florets and hermaphroditic disk florets. Ray florets have elongated stigmatic arms that extend prior to disk floret opening. Disk florets exhibit protandry. During the staminate phase, pollen is released within a staminate tube and actively presented with projections at the tip of stigmas as the pistil elongates. During the pistillate phase, stigmatic arms bifurcate and reflex. Stigmas are of the dry type and stain positively for polysaccharides, lipids, and an intact cuticle. Floret numbers vary with genotype, and capitula are predominantly composed of disk florets. Both ray and disk florets produce filled seed.• Gynomonoecy, early opening of ray florets, and dichogamy of disk florets promote outcrossing in A. annua For breeding and seed development, flowering in genotypes can be synchronized under short days according to the floral developmental stages defined. Floret number and percentage seed fill vary with genotype and may be a beneficial selection criterion. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell L

    2014-07-01

    Aroma volatiles from three cooked fragrant rice types (Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati) were characterised and identified using SPME GC-O, GC-PFPD and confirmed using GC-MS. A total of 26, 23, and 22 aroma active volatiles were observed in Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati cooked rice samples. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline was aroma active in all three rice types, but the sulphur-based, cooked rice character impact volatile, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline was aroma active only in Jasmine rice. Five additional sulphur volatiles were found to have aroma activity: dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, dimethyl trisulphide, and methional. Other newly-reported aroma active rice volatiles were geranyl acetate, β-damascone, β-damascenone, and ɑ-ionone, contributing nutty, sweet floral attributes to the aroma of cooked aromatic rice. The first two principal components from the principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles explained 60% of the variance. PC1 separated Basmati from the other two cultivars and PC2 completely separated Jasmine from Jasmati cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  20. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  1. Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2017-05-02

    In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.

  2. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids.The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers.Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.

  3. Sex attractant pheromone of damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Homoptera, aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A; Dawson, G W; Griffiths, D C; Pettersson, J; Pickett, J A; Wadhams, L J; Woodcock, C M

    1990-12-01

    Behavioral studies using an olfactometer demonstrated that sexual females (oviparae) of the damson-hop aphid,Phorodon humuli, release a pheromone to which males respond. Volatiles produced by the oviparae were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-single cell recording from the secondary rhinaria on the male antenna and showed the presence of one peak with major activity. Coupled gas chrornatography-mass spectrometry suggested a nepetalactol, which was shown to have the 4aR, 7S, 7aS stereochemistry by synthesis from the corresponding nepetalactone isolated from the labiate plantNepeta mussinii. Although the stereochemistry at carbon-1 is not yet established, a synthetic sample comprising ca. 70% 1S and 30% 1R attracted highly significant numbers of males to water traps placed within and adjacent to a hop garden. Initial studies also indicated attraction of males in both the olfactometer and in the field by volatiles from the primary host.

  4. Reduced Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Ardia, P.; Stanley, B. D.; Foley, N.

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles in Earth's upper mantle are dominated by H2O and CO2, but under more reduced conditions likely deeper in the mantle, other volatile species may be important or dominant. However, the speciation, solubilities, and effect on physical properties of reduced magmatic volatiles are poorly constrained. Here we summarize results from an experimental campaign to better understand reduced volatiles in magmas. Experiments emphasize spectroscopic and SIMS characterization of dissolved species in experiments for which fluid fugacities are known, thereby facilitating thermodynamic parameterization. Experimental determinations of molecular H2 solubility in basaltic and andesitic liquids show concentrations that are proportional to H2 fugacity. Because H2 increases with fH2 whereas dissolved H2O increases with fH2O1/2, the relative importance of H2 increases with pressure and for more hydrous magmas. At 1 GPa and IW-1, solubility in basalt reaches 0.3 wt.% (equivalent to 2.7 wt.% H2O). Solubilities at pressures of the deep upper mantle have not been explored experimentally (as is also true for H2O and CO2), but H2 could become the dominant hydrous species at 400 km and deeper, and so deep hydrous melts may have chiefly H2 rather than H2O or OH. Experiments suggest an extremely low partial specific density (0.18 kg/m3) for dissolved H2 at low pressure, and so appreciable dissolved H2 in melt atop the 410 km discontinuity or in the lower mantle may promote positive buoyancy. Solubilities of reduced C-species remain poorly known. In contrast to results in Na2O-SiO2 liquids (Mysen et al., 2009), experiments with a haplobasaltic liquid at controlled CH4 fugacities indicated very small (<0.05 wt.%) CH4 solubilities even at very reduced conditions (

  5. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  6. Classification of Chinese Honeys According to Their Floral Origins Using Elemental and Stable Isotopic Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaobin; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Ye, Zhihua; Lin, Guanghui

    2015-06-10

    The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of multi-isotopic and elemental analyses combined with chemometric techniques for differentiating the botanical origins of major honey products in China. The stable isotope and elemental compositions of 57 honey samples from four major floral origins in China (i.e., rape honey, acacia honey, vitex honey, and jujube honey) were analyzed using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that hydrogen and oxygen isotopes could be more suitable than the carbon isotope for discriminating the floral origins of major honeys in China. There were significant differences in the contents of most elements between or among different floral origins. The combination of IRMS and ICP-MS methods provides the most effective and accurate approach (in most cases close to 100% accuracy) for classifying Chinese honeys according to their floral origins.

  7. Functional differentiation in pollination processes among floral traits in Serapias species (Orchidaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Bellusci, Francesca; Palermo, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    ... . We estimated male and female reproductive success of three treatment groups, disassembly of floral tube, cutting of lip, and painting of the callus surface, in terms of pollinaria removed/deposited and fruit production...

  8. Geographic variation in floral morphology and style-morph ratios in a sexually polymorphic daffodil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Barrett, Spencer C. H

    2008-01-01

    ...., Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 Canada Narcissus triandrus is a tristylous daffodil from the Iberian Peninsula that has striking geographical variation in floral morphology and style-morph ratios...

  9. Attraction modulated by spacing of pheromone components and anti-attractants in a bark beetle and a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Binyameen, Muhammad; Sadek, Medhat M; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2011-08-01

    Orientation for insects in olfactory landscapes with high semiochemical diversity may be a challenging task. The partitioning of odor plumes into filaments that are interspersed with pockets of 'clean air' may help filament discrimination and upwind flight to attractive sources in the face of inhibitory signals. We studied the effect of distance between odor sources on trap catches of the beetle, Ips typographus, and the moth, Spodoptera littoralis. Insects were tested both to spatially separated pheromone components [cis-verbenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol for Ips; (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate for Spodoptera], and to separated pheromone and anti-attractant sources [non-host volatile (NHV) blend for Ips; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate for Spodoptera]. Trap catch data were complemented with simulations of plume structure and plume overlap from two separated sources using a photo ionization detector and soap bubble generators. Trap catches of the beetle and the moth were both affected when odor sources in the respective traps were increasingly separated. However, this effect on trap catch occurred at smaller (roughly by an order of magnitude) odor source separation distances for the moth than for the beetle. This may reflect differences between the respective olfactory systems and central processing. For both species, the changes in trap catches in response to separation of pheromone components occurred at similar spacing distances as for separation of pheromone and anti-attractant sources. Overlap between two simulated plumes depended on distance between the two sources. In addition, the number of detected filaments and their concentration decreased with downwind distance. This implies that the response to separated odor sources in the two species might take place under different olfactory conditions. Deploying multiple sources of anti-attractant around a pheromone trap indicated long-distance (meter scale) effects of NHV on

  10. Subterranean, herbivore-induced plant volatile increases biological control activity of multiple beneficial nematode species in distinct habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared G Ali

    Full Text Available While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs. However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene from citrus roots 9-12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests.

  11. Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2012-01-01

    While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

  12. Floral heterochrony promotes flexibility of reproductive strategies in the morphologically homogeneous genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Lucas, Eve J; Faria, Jair E Q; Prenner, Gerhard

    2018-01-25

    Comparative floral ontogeny represents a valuable tool to understand angiosperm evolution. Such an approach may elucidate subtle changes in development that discretely modify floral architecture and underlie reproductive lability in groups with superficial homogeneous morphology. This study presents a comparative survey of floral development in Eugenia (Myrtaceae), one of the largest genera of angiosperms, and shows how previously undocumented ontogenetic trends help to explain the evolution of its megadiversity in contrast to its apparent flower uniformity. Using scanning electron microscopy, selected steps of the floral ontogeny of a model species (Eugenia punicifolia) are described and compared with 20 further species representing all ten major clades in the Eugenia phylogenetic tree. Additional floral trait data are contrasted for correlation analysis and character reconstructions performed against the Myrtaceae phylogenetic tree. Eugenia flowers show similar organ arrangement patterns: radially symmetrical, (most commonly) tetramerous flowers with variable numbers of stamens and ovules. Despite a similar general organization, heterochrony is evident from size differences between tissues and structures at similar developmental stages. These differences underlie variable levels of investment in protection, subtle modifications to symmetry, herkogamic effects and independent androecium and gynoecium variation, producing a wide spectrum of floral display and contributing to fluctuations in fitness. During Eugenia's bud development, the hypanthium (as defined here) is completely covered by stamen primordia, unusual in other Myrtaceae. This is the likely plesiomorphic state for Myrteae and may have represented a key evolutionary novelty in the tribe. Floral evolution in Eugenia depends on heterochronic patterns rather than changes in complexity to promote flexibility in floral strategies. The successful early establishment of Myrteae, previously mainly linked to the

  13. The relationship between nectaries and floral architecture: a case study in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeiter, Julius; Hilger, Hartmut H; Smets, Erik F; Weigend, Maximilian

    2017-11-10

    Flowers of Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae are generally considered as morphologically simple. However, previous studies indicated complex diversity in floral architecture including tendencies towards synorganization. Most of the species have nectar-rewarding flowers which makes the nectaries a key component of floral organization and architecture. Here, the development of the floral nectaries is studied and placed into the context of floral architecture. Seven species from Geraniaceae and one from Hypseocharitaceae were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Samples were prepared and processed using standard protocols. The development of the nectary glands follows the same trajectory in all species studied. Minor differences occur in the onset of nectarostomata development. The most striking finding is the discovery that a short anthophore develops via intercalary growth at the level of the nectary glands. This anthophore lifts up the entire flower apart from the nectary gland itself and thus plays an important role in floral architecture, especially in the flowers of Pelargonium. Here, the zygomorphic flowers show a particularly extensive receptacular growth, resulting in the formation of a spur-like receptacular cavity ('inner spur'). The nectary gland is hidden at the base of the cavity. Various forms of compartmentalization, culminating in the 'revolver flower' of Geranium maderense, are described. Despite the superficial similarity of the flowers in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae, there is broad diversity in floral organization and floral architecture. While the receptacular origin of the spur-like cavity in Pelargonium had already been described, anthophore formation via intercalary growth of the receptacle in the other genera had not been previously documented. In the context of the most recent phylogenies of the families, an evolutionary series for the floral architecture is proposed, underscoring the importance of

  14. Floral initiation in Rudbeckia hirta: limited inductive photoperiod, polyamines and cytokinins

    OpenAIRE

    Harkess, Richard Lee

    1993-01-01

    This study examined floral initiation in Rudbeckia hirta at the biochemical, cellular, and whole plant levels. Histological and histochemical examination of floral initiation revealed that the pattern of initiation followed closely that described in other species. The primary difference was in the length of time over which initiation and differentiation occurred. When subjected to limited inductive photoperiods, R. hirta responded with a delay in flowering if the plants were re...

  15. Floral traits influence pollen vectors? choices in higher elevation communities in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. H.; Z.X. Ren; Lázaro, Amparo; Wang, H.; Bernhardt, P; H. D. Li; Li, D. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background How floral traits and community composition influence plant specialization is poorly understood and the existing evidence is restricted to regions where plant diversity is low. Here, we assessed whether plant specialization varied among four species-rich subalpine/alpine communities on the Yulong Mountain, SW China (elevation from 2725 to 3910?m). We analyzed two factors (floral traits and pollen vector community composition: richness and density) to determine the degree of plant s...

  16. Floral evolution in the Annonaceae: hypotheses of homeotic mutations and functional convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard M K

    2010-08-01

    The recent publication of hypotheses explaining the homeotic control of floral organ identity together with the availability of increasingly comprehensive and well-resolved molecular phylogenies presents an ideal opportunity for reassessing current knowledge of floral diversity and evolution in the Annonaceae. This review summarizes currently available information on selected aspects of floral structure and function, including: changes in the number of perianth whorls and the number of perianth parts per whorl; the evolution of sympetaly; the diversity and evolution of pollination chambers (with a novel classification of seven main structural forms of floral chamber based on the different arrangement, size and shape of petals); the evolution of perianth glands; floral unisexuality and hypotheses explaining the unexpectedly high frequency of occurrence of androdioecy; the origin and possible function of inner and outer staminodes; the evolution of stamen connective diversity and theca septation; and the origin of 'true' syncarpy and functionally equivalent extragynoecial compita. In each case, current ideas on the origin, evolution and function are discussed. The information presented in this review enables two main conclusions to be drawn. The first is that changes in the homeotic control of floral organ identity may have had a profound impact on floral structure in several disparate lineages in the family. This is most obvious in Fenerivia, in which a centrifugal shift of floral organ identity has occurred, and in Dasymaschalon, in which a reverse (centripetal) shift has occurred. Other genera that have gained or lost entire perianth whorls are likely to have undergone similar homeotic changes. Attention is also drawn to the extensive functional convergence in Annonaceae flowers, with widespread homoplasy in many characters that have previously been emphasized in higher-level classifications.

  17. A Hybrid Fuzzy GJR-GARCH Modeling Approach for Stock Market Volatility Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Maciel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting stock market returns volatility is a challenging task that has attracted the attention of market practitioners, regulators and academics in recent years. This paper proposes a Fuzzy GJR-GARCH model to forecast the volatility of S&P 500 and Ibovespa indexes. The model comprises both the concept of fuzzy inference systems and GJR-GARCH modeling approach in order to consider the principles of time-varying volatility, leverage effects and volatility clustering, in which changes are cataloged by similarity. Moreover, a differential evolution (DE algorithm is suggested to solve the problem of Fuzzy GJR-GARCH parameters estimation. The results indicate that the proposed method offers significant improvements in volatility forecasting performance in comparison with GARCH-type models and with a current Fuzzy-GARCH model reported in the literature. Furthermore, the DE-based algorithm aims to achieve an optimal solution with a rapid convergence rate.

  18. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Mutyambai

    Full Text Available Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore's parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L. volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in 'Nyamula', a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used for volatile analysis. For the 'Nyamula' landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri and

  19. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-04-22

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated.

  20. Effect of chemical ratios of a microbial-based feeding attractant on trap catch of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (SWD) can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin and methionol. Using that 4-component blend, we found that the catch of SWD increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0...

  1. ß-Glucosidase: an elicitor of herbivore-induced plant odor that attracts host-searching parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiacci, L.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cabbage plants respond to caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) herbivory by releasing a mixture of volatiles that makes them highly attractive to parasitic wasps (Cotesia glomerata) that attack the herbivores. Cabbage leaves that are artificially damaged and subsequently treated with gut regurgitant of P.

  2. Floral homeotic proteins modulate the genetic program for leaf development to suppress trichome formation in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Stewart, Darragh; Zheng, Beibei; Coupland, George; Wellmer, Frank

    2018-02-13

    As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organ is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which, as described by the ABCE model of flower development, act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) and the related SHATTERPROOF1 / 2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner. We show that AG regulates cytokinin responses and genetically interacts with the organ polarity gene KANADI1 to suppress trichome initiation on gynoecia. Thus, our results show that parts of the genetic program for leaf development remain active during flower formation but have been partially rewired through the activities of the floral homeotic proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Timing is everything in plant development. The central role of floral repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Progress in understanding the molecular basis of flowering time control has revealed that floral repressors play a central role in modulating the floral transition and are essential to prevent the precocious onset of flowering. A number of cellular processes including chromatin remodeling, selective protein degradation, and transcriptional regulation mediated by transcription factors are involved in repressing the initiation of flowering. Floral repressors interact at different levels with floral inductive pathways and prevent the premature onset of flowering that could impact negatively on the reproductive success of plants. Despite recent advances, further studies will be needed to understand how the interactions between floral repressors and the regulatory networks involved in the control of flowering time have evolved in different species. Recent data suggest that a diversity of regulatory proteins act as central floral repressors in different plants, and even in those species where regulatory modules are conserved new elements that modulate the function of these pathways have been recruited to mediate specific adaptive responses. The development of genomic tools and predictive models that can integrate large datasets related to the flowering behavior of plant species will facilitate the characterization of the repressor mechanisms underlying flowering responses, a trait with implications in the yield of crop species. In a scenario of global climate change, an in depth understanding of these gene circuits will be essential for the development of crop varieties with improved yield. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple strong postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers isolate florally diverse species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Jamie L; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of nine postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits. To evaluate the relative importance of floral trait diversification for the strength of these postmating barriers, we assessed their relationship to floral divergence, genetic distance, geographical context, and ecological differences, using conventional tests and a new linear-mixed modeling approach. Despite close evolutionary relationships, all species pairs showed moderate to strong isolation. Nonetheless, floral trait divergence was not a consistent predictor of the strength of isolation; instead this was best explained by genetic distance, although we found evidence for mechanical isolation in one species, and a positive relationship between floral trait divergence and fruit set isolation across species pairs. Overall, our data indicate that intrinsic postzygotic isolation is more strongly associated with genome-wide genetic differentiation, rather than floral divergence. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. PROLIFERATING INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM, a MADS-Box Gene That Regulates Floral Meristem Identity in Pea1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Scott A.; Hofer, Julie M.I.; Murfet, Ian C.; Sollinger, John D.; Singer, Susan R.; Knox, Maggie R.; Ellis, T.H. Noel

    2002-01-01

    SQUAMOSA and APETALA1 are floral meristem identity genes from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and Arabidopsis, respectively. Here, we characterize the floral meristem identity mutation proliferating inflorescence meristem (pim) from pea (Pisum sativum) and show that it corresponds to a defect in the PEAM4 gene, a homolog of SQUAMOSA and APETALA1. The PEAM4 coding region was deleted in the pim-1 allele, and this deletion cosegregated with the pim-1 mutant phenotype. The pim-2 allele carried a nucleotide substitution at a predicted 5′ splice site that resulted in mis-splicing of pim-2 mRNA. PCR products corresponding to unspliced and exon-skipped mRNA species were observed. The pim-1 and pim-2 mutations delayed floral meristem specification and altered floral morphology significantly but had no observable effect on vegetative development. These floral-specific mutant phenotypes and the restriction of PIM gene expression to flowers contrast with other known floral meristem genes in pea that additionally affect vegetative development. The identification of PIM provides an opportunity to compare pathways to flowering in species with different inflorescence architectures. PMID:12114569

  6. Cytokinin pathway mediates APETALA1 function in the establishment of determinate floral meristems in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Cui; Yang, Haibian; Jiao, Yuling

    2014-05-06

    In angiosperms, after the floral transition, the inflorescence meristem produces floral meristems (FMs). Determinate growth of FMs produces flowers of a particular size and form. This determinate growth requires specification of floral organs and termination of stem-cell divisions. Establishment of the FM and specification of outer whorl organs (sepals and petals) requires the floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1). To determine FM identity, AP1 also prevents the formation of flowers in the axils of sepals. The mechanisms underlying AP1 function in the floral transition and in floral organ patterning have been studied extensively, but how AP1 terminates sepal axil stem-cell activities to suppress axillary secondary flower formation remains unclear. Here we show that AP1 regulates cytokinin levels by directly suppressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene LONELY GUY1 and activating the cytokinin degradation gene CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3. Restoring the expression of these genes to wild-type levels in AP1-expressing cells or suppressing cytokinin signaling inhibits indeterminate inflorescence meristem activity caused by ap1 mutation. We conclude that suppression of cytokinin biosynthesis and activation of cytokinin degradation mediates AP1 function in establishing determinate FM. A deeper understanding of axil-lateral meristem activity provides crucial information for enhancing yield by engineering crops that produce more elaborated racemes.

  7. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  8. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  9. Responses of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to cadaveric volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Flies of the Calliphoridae Family are the most forensically important insects because of their abundance on the decedent during the first minutes following death. Necrophagous insects are attracted at a distance by a decomposing body, through the use of volatile chemical cues. We tested the possible attractive role of some volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by decaying cadavers, on male and female of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Two complementary approaches were used. Electroantennography (EAG) allowed identifying the semiochemicals that are detected by the olfactory system of L. sericata. Dose-response tests with EAG showed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and butan-1-ol elicited the highest responses. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, DMDS and butan-1-ol are attractive for L. sericata, while the other VOCs are repulsive or do not cause any behavior. Our results may have potential implications in a better understanding of attractiveness of blowflies toward a corpse. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Sterile flowers increase pollinator attraction and promote female success in the Mediterranean herb Leopoldia comosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carolina L; Traveset, Anna; Harder, Lawrence D

    2013-01-01

    Large floral displays have opposing consequences for animal-pollinated angiosperms: they attract more pollinators but also enable elevated among-flower self-pollination (geitonogamy). The presence of sterile flowers as pollinator signals may enhance attraction while allowing displays of fewer open fertile flowers, limiting geitonogamy. The simultaneous contributions of fertile and non-fertile display components to pollinator attraction and reproductive output remain undetermined. The simultaneous effects of the presence of sterile flowers and fertile-flower display size in two populations of Leopoldia comosa were experimentally assessed. Pollinator behaviour, pollen removal and deposition, and fruit and seed production were compared between intact plants and plants with sterile flowers removed. The presence of sterile flowers almost tripled pollinator attraction, supplementing the positive effect of the number of fertile flowers on the number of bees approaching inflorescences. Although attracted bees visited more flowers on larger inflorescences, the number visited did not additionally depend on the presence of sterile flowers. The presence of sterile flowers improved all aspects of plant performance, the magnitude of plant benefit being context dependent. During weather favourable to pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased pollen deposition on stigmas of young flowers, but this difference was not evident in older flowers, probably because of autonomous self-pollination in poorly visited flowers. Total pollen receipt per stigma decreased with increasing fertile display size. In the population with more pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased fruit number but not seed set or mass, whereas in the other population sterile flowers enhanced seeds per fruit, but not fruit production. These contrasts are consistent with dissimilar cross-pollination and autonomous self-pollination, coupled with the strong predispersal inbreeding depression

  11. Floral biology of Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae and its relation with Astylus variegatus activity (Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Melyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia P.F. Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium is a culture popularly known by its medicinal, ornamental and culinary utility. This work aimed to evaluate the interaction between Astylus variegatus (Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Melyridae and the nasturtium flowers associated to the weeks of flourishing, in order to conceive the floral mechanims used by the species to attract A. variegatus. The insects collection was achieved with an entomologic net by the sweeping method, during the weekly flowering, at two hours, from 7am to 5pm. The studies of floral biology were carried out in twenty flowers by the analysis of measures and the arrangement of the floral parts. The nasturtium flower offers pollen and nectar to the insect as a compensation. However, it was observed that A. variegatus only collects pollen as a nutritious resource. Tropaeolum majus presents several flowers for each individual and, during the visits, A. variegatus walked throughout the interior of the flower, among the stamens and contacting the ventral region of its body, and while passing through the stigma it lodged the pollen. Sometimes, it uses the internal cavity for sheltering and mating. The visits occurred preferably on the second and fifth weeks of flourishing, with a populational fluctuation between 9am and 11am.Tropaeolum majus L. (capuchinha é uma cultura muito conhecida pelo seu valor medicinal, ornamental e culinário. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a interação entre Astylus variegatus (Germar 1824 (Melyridae com as flores de capuchinha, associado às semanas de florescimento, visando entender os mecanismos florais utilizados pela espécie na atração de A. variegatus. A coleta dos insetos foi realizada com rede entomológica pelo método varredura durante a floração, semanalmente, a cada duas horas, no período de 7 às 17 horas. Os estudos da biologia floral foram realizados em vinte flores, analisando as medidas e disposição das peças florais. A flor de capuchinha

  12. Cultivar preferences of ovipositing wheat stem sawflies as influenced by the amount of volatile attractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Micaela Buteler; Megan L. Hofland; Justin B. Runyon; Christian Nansen; Luther E. Talbert; Peggy Lamb; Gregg R. Carlson

    2009-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, causes severe losses in wheat grown in the northern Great Plains. Much of the affected area is planted in monoculture with wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grown in large fields alternating yearly between crop and no-till fallow. The crop and fallow fields are adjacent. This cropping landscape creates pronounced edge effects of...

  13. Nectar-inhabiting microorganisms influence nectar volatile composition and attractiveness to a generalist pollinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbiome of the phyllosphere and anthosphere plays an important role in many plant-plant, plant-insect, and plant-microbe interactions. A particularly essential interaction is that of the plant pollinator, which is important for ensuring high crop yields, pollinator health and successful plant...

  14. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  15. Synthetic Co-Attractants of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasni, Narjes; Pinier, Centina; Imed, Cheraief; Ouhichi, Monêem; Couzi, Philippe; Chermiti, Brahim; Frérot, Brigitte; Saïd, Imen; Rochat, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon are reported. Volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. A collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic pheromone in an olfactometer similar to that to a collection of palm odor emitted with feeding males and containing natural pheromone. Behavioral responses to collections of palm volatiles were correlated to the amount of volatiles material in them. Enhancement of the attractiveness of the pheromone was not correlated to chemicals specific to beetle feeding. The chemicals common to the active collections extracts were benzoate esters, mostly ethyl benzoate, anisole derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Blends of the most abundant components of the extracts were evaluated for enhancement of the attractiveness of pheromone (1 μg) in olfactometers at 1 or 10 μg doses. The mixtures were further evaluated by field trapping in Tunisia at 3-10 mg/day using reference (6 mg/day) or experimental pheromone formulations. A mixture of ethyl benzoate, 4-methylanisole and farnesol (1:1:1 w/w at 6.5 mg/day) enhanced captures in pheromone baited traps in 2014 and 2015 and this mixture was as active as the natural palm bait. The practical prospect of the result for the management for O. agamemnon, and other palm beetles is discussed.

  16. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  17. A novel attractant for Mexican fruit fly,Anastrepha ludens, from fermented host fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, D C; Moreno, A M; Garcia, J A; Flath, R A

    1990-10-01

    Chemicals from fermented chapote fruit were identified and evaluated as attractants for hungry adult Mexican fruit flies in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Twenty-eight chemicals identified from an attractive gas-chromatography fraction were as attractive as a chapote volatiles extract (CV) when mixed in the same amounts found in CV. Sixteen of the chemicals were slightly attractive to flies when tested individually. A mixture containing 15 of the chemicals by design and the 16th as an impurity, in arbitrary concentrations, was at least as attractive as the original CV. In a series of experiments, the number of chemicals was reduced to three by elimination of unnecessary components. The three-component mixture retained the attractiveness of the 15-component mixture. The three chemicals were 1,8-cineole, ethyl hexanoate, and hexanol (CEH). Attractiveness of the three-chemical mixture was equal to the sum of the attractiveness of the three individual components, suggesting that each chemical binds to a different receptor type that independently elicits partial attraction behavior. Optimal ratios were 10∶1∶1 of the three chemicals, respectively. Optimal test quantities ranged between 0.4-4Μg of 1,8-cineole and 40-400 ng each of ethyl hexanoate and hexanol applied to filter paper in the laboratory bioassays. A neat 10∶1∶1 mixture of the chemicals was 1.8 times more attractive than aqueous solutions ofTorula dried yeast and borax to starved 2-day-old flies when the lures were tested in competing McPhail traps in a large greenhouse cage.

  18. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...... future research efforts on interpersonal attraction in the buyer– supplier context. Finally, the managerial value and challenges of applying attraction to buyer–supplier exchange relationships are discussed....

  19. Company, its performance and perceived employer attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Musilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses influencers of employer attractiveness with high focus on company performance and other elements concerning company as such. Theoretical part of this thesis aims to bring relevant background for the practical analysis. In particular, it examines areas such as talent management, employee value proposition and employer branding and their connection to employer attractiveness. Practical part identifies objective and subjective drivers of employer attractiveness. This part co...

  20. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van, A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to...

  1. Identification of Pheromone Synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Trapping Systems from Phoenix canariensis Palm Volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    VACAS GONZÁLEZ, Sandra; Abad Payá, María Del Carmen; Primo Millo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile...

  2. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (-)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  3. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérénice Fassotte

    Full Text Available To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analyses revealed that (--β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%, with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  4. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  5. DIVERSIDAD FLORAL DE MADIA CHILENSIS: IMPORTANCIA DE LA PEQUEÑA ESCALA ESPACIAL EN LOS PROCESOS EVOLUTIVOS

    OpenAIRE

    SUAREZ HERNANDEZ; LORENA ALEJANDRA; SUAREZ HERNANDEZ; LORENA ALEJANDRA

    2011-01-01

    La evolución por selección natural es el principal mecanismo gobernando la diversidad floral entre especies y poblaciones naturales de plantas con flor. La heterogeneidad ambiental afecta fenotipos florales, identidad y conducta de polinizadores y fenología floral, configurando escenarios selectivos diferenciales y permitiendo la diferenciación de procesos evolutivos entre poblaciones. Posibles diferencias en procesos evolutivos a pequeña escala espacial han sido escasamente estudiad...

  6. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems, such as ......We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  7. Nasal tip projection and facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devcic, Zlatko; Rayikanti, Benjamin A; Hevia, Jesse P; Popenko, Natalie A; Karimi, Koohyar; Wong, Brian J F

    2011-07-01

    Six nasal tip projection (NTP) ratios from Goode, Simons, Baum, Powell, and Crumley guide clinical and academic practice on quantifying NTP, but none have been empirically correlated with facial attractiveness. This study's objectives were to determine: 1) if there is a correlation between these ratios and facial attractiveness; and 2) which of the six ratios has the greatest linkage to overall facial attractiveness. Basic research study. There were 300 digital portraits of women (ages 18-25 years) randomly paired and morphed to create 300 synthetic lateral facial images rated by 78 raters in the community. NTP ratios were measured in each portrait. None of the ratios correlated with facial attractiveness. For the Baum, Powell, and Simons ratio, facial attractiveness increased as NTP deviated 1 and 2 standard deviations from the ideal, whereas facial attractiveness decreased as NTP deviated from the Goode and Crumley ideal ratios. The most attractive faces had NTP ratios consistent with previous expert opinion findings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically correlate these six landmark NTP ratios with facial attractiveness. Although there was no correlation with any of the six ratios, the ideal ratios proposed by Goode and Crumley impacted facial aesthetics the most. Although the ideal ratios are useful in establishing rhinoplasty guidelines, they should only be used as a part of the management in achieving an aesthetic face on the whole, as they may not be robust enough to correlate with overall facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. A Review of Volatility and Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Sovan Mitra

    2009-01-01

    The literature on volatility modelling and option pricing is a large and diverse area due to its importance and applications. This paper provides a review of the most significant volatility models and option pricing methods, beginning with constant volatility models up to stochastic volatility. We also survey less commonly known models e.g. hybrid models. We explain various volatility types (e.g. realised and implied volatility) and discuss the empirical properties.

  9. Morphology and Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns during Floral Induction and Early Flower Development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The 3 mm floral buds commence the development of stamen primordia and pistil primordium. Furthermore, homologs of floral transition-related genes, including AP1, TFL1, RFL, PpMADS1, PpMADS2, SPL9, FT, ID1, FCA, and EMF2, were detected and quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR in vegetative and floral buds, respectively. Distinct expression profiles of ten putative floral initiation homologues that corresponded to the developmental stages defined by bud length were obtained and genes were characterized. Six of the genes (including DlTFL1, DlRFL, DlMADS2, DlID1, DlFCA, DlEMF2 showed statistically significant changes in expression during floral transition. DlAP1 demonstrated a sustained downward trend and could serve as a good molecular marker during floral transition in D. latiflorus. The combined analysis provided key candidate markers to track the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase.

  10. Morphology and quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns during floral induction and early flower development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhenhua

    2014-07-07

    The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae) is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The 3 mm floral buds commence the development of stamen primordia and pistil primordium. Furthermore, homologs of floral transition-related genes, including AP1, TFL1, RFL, PpMADS1, PpMADS2, SPL9, FT, ID1, FCA, and EMF2, were detected and quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR in vegetative and floral buds, respectively. Distinct expression profiles of ten putative floral initiation homologues that corresponded to the developmental stages defined by bud length were obtained and genes were characterized. Six of the genes (including DlTFL1, DlRFL, DlMADS2, DlID1, DlFCA, DlEMF2) showed statistically significant changes in expression during floral transition. DlAP1 demonstrated a sustained downward trend and could serve as a good molecular marker during floral transition in D. latiflorus. The combined analysis provided key candidate markers to track the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase.

  11. Pollinator behaviour and plant speciation: can assortative mating and disruptive selection maintain distinct floral morphs in sympatry?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul D. Rymer; Steven D. Johnson; Vincent Savolainen

    2010-01-01

    .... Mating patterns and phenotypic selection on floral traits were characterized over two flowering seasons for sympatric corolla tube length morphs of the hawkmothpollinated iris Gladiolus longicollis...

  12. Floral ecology and insect visitation in riparian Tamarix sp. (saltcedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Nelson, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change projections for semiarid and arid North America include reductions in stream discharge that could adversely affect riparian plant species dependent on stream-derived ground water. In order to better understand this potential impact, we used a space-for-time substitution to test the hypotheses that increasing depth-to-groundwater (DGW) is inversely related to Tamarix sp. (saltcedar) flower abundance (F) and nectar production per flower (N). We also assessed whether DGW affected the richness or abundance of insects visiting flowers. We examined Tamarix floral attributes and insect visitation patterns during 2010 and 2011 at three locations along a deep DWG gradient (3.2–4.1 m) on a floodplain terrace adjacent to Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated Mojave Desert stream. Flower abundance and insect visitation patterns differed between years, but no effect from DGW on either F or N was detected. An eruption of a novel non-native herbivore, the splendid tamarisk weevil (Coniatus splendidulus), likely reduced flower production in 2011.

  13. Secondary metabolites in floral nectar reduce parasite infections in bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leif L; Adler, Lynn S; Leonard, Anne S; Andicoechea, Jonathan; Regan, Karly H; Anthony, Winston E; Manson, Jessamyn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2015-03-22

    The synthesis of secondary metabolites is a hallmark of plant defence against herbivores. These compounds may be detrimental to consumers, but can also protect herbivores against parasites. Floral nectar commonly contains secondary metabolites, but little is known about the impacts of nectar chemistry on pollinators, including bees. We hypothesized that nectar secondary metabolites could reduce bee parasite infection. We inoculated individual bumblebees with Crithidia bombi, an intestinal parasite, and tested effects of eight naturally occurring nectar chemicals on parasite population growth. Secondary metabolites strongly reduced parasite load, with significant effects of alkaloids, terpenoids and iridoid glycosides ranging from 61 to 81%. Using microcolonies, we also investigated costs and benefits of consuming anabasine, the compound with the strongest effect on parasites, in infected and uninfected bees. Anabasine increased time to egg laying, and Crithidia reduced bee survival. However, anabasine consumption did not mitigate the negative effects of Crithidia, and Crithidia infection did not alter anabasine consumption. Our novel results highlight that although secondary metabolites may not rescue survival in infected bees, they may play a vital role in mediating Crithidia transmission within and between colonies by reducing Crithidia infection intensities. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Larue, Clayton T; Chevalier, David; Wang, Huachun; Jinn, Tsung-Luo; Zhang, Shuqun; Walker, John C

    2008-10-07

    Abscission is a developmental program that results in the active shedding of infected or nonfunctional organs from a plant body. Here, we establish a signaling pathway that controls abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana from ligand, to receptors, to downstream effectors. Loss of function mutations in Inflorescence Deficient in Abscission (IDA), which encodes a predicted secreted small protein, the receptor-like protein kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-like 2 (HSL2), the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK5, and a dominant-negative form of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6) in a mpk3 mutant background all have abscission-defective phenotypes. Conversely, expression of constitutively active MKKs rescues the abscission-defective phenotype of hae hsl2 and ida plants. Additionally, in hae hsl2 and ida plants, MAP kinase activity is reduced in the receptacle, the part of the stem that holds the floral organs. Plants overexpressing IDA in a hae hsl2 background have abscission defects, indicating HAE and HSL2 are epistatic to IDA. Taken together, these results suggest that the sequential action of IDA, HAE and HSL2, and a MAP kinase cascade regulates the programmed separation of cells in the abscission zone.

  15. Secondary metabolites in floral nectar reduce parasite infections in bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leif L.; Adler, Lynn S.; Leonard, Anne S.; Andicoechea, Jonathan; Regan, Karly H.; Anthony, Winston E.; Manson, Jessamyn S.; Irwin, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of secondary metabolites is a hallmark of plant defence against herbivores. These compounds may be detrimental to consumers, but can also protect herbivores against parasites. Floral nectar commonly contains secondary metabolites, but little is known about the impacts of nectar chemistry on pollinators, including bees. We hypothesized that nectar secondary metabolites could reduce bee parasite infection. We inoculated individual bumblebees with Crithidia bombi, an intestinal parasite, and tested effects of eight naturally occurring nectar chemicals on parasite population growth. Secondary metabolites strongly reduced parasite load, with significant effects of alkaloids, terpenoids and iridoid glycosides ranging from 61 to 81%. Using microcolonies, we also investigated costs and benefits of consuming anabasine, the compound with the strongest effect on parasites, in infected and uninfected bees. Anabasine increased time to egg laying, and Crithidia reduced bee survival. However, anabasine consumption did not mitigate the negative effects of Crithidia, and Crithidia infection did not alter anabasine consumption. Our novel results highlight that although secondary metabolites may not rescue survival in infected bees, they may play a vital role in mediating Crithidia transmission within and between colonies by reducing Crithidia infection intensities. PMID:25694627

  16. Disorder in convergent floral nanostructures enhances signalling to bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Edwige; Wenzel, Tobias; Middleton, Rox; Rudall, Paula J.; Banks, Hannah; Reed, Alison; Mellers, Greg; Killoran, Patrick; Westwood, M. Murphy; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia; Glover, Beverley J.

    2017-10-01

    Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees. These disordered nanostructures (identified in most major lineages of angiosperms) have distinct anatomies but convergent optical properties; they all produce angle-dependent scattered light, predominantly at short wavelengths (ultraviolet and blue). We manufactured artificial flowers with nanoscale structures that possessed tailored levels of disorder in order to investigate how foraging bumblebees respond to this optical effect. We conclude that floral nanostructures have evolved, on multiple independent occasions, an effective degree of relative spatial disorder that generates a photonic signature that is highly salient to insect pollinators.

  17. Regulation of floral patterning and organ identity by Arabidopsis ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Shannon M; Lee, Jin Suk; Shpak, Elena D; Torii, Keiko U

    2013-12-01

    Due to the lack of cell migration, plant organogenesis relies on coordinated cell proliferation, cell growth, and differentiation. A flower possesses a complex structure, with sepals and petals constituting the perianth, and stamens and pistils where male and female gametophytes differentiate. While advances have been made in our understanding of gene regulatory networks controlling flower development, relatively little is known of how cell-cell coordination influences floral organ specification. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERL2, regulate inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and epidermal stomatal patterning. Here it is reported that ER-family genes together regulate floral meristem organization and floral organ identity. The stem cell marker CLAVATA3 exhibits misplaced expression in the floral meristems of the er erl1 erl2 mutant. Strikingly, homeotic conversion of sepals to carpels was observed in er erl1 erl2 flowers. Consistently, ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, which determines carpel identity, was detected in er erl1 erl2 flower primordia. Among the known downstream components of ER-family receptor kinases in stomatal patterning, YODA (YDA) is also required for proper floral patterning. YDA and the ER-family show complex, synergistic genetic interactions: er erl1 erl2 yda quadruple mutant plants become extremely small, callus-like masses. While a constitutively active YDA fully rescues stomatal clustering in er erl1 erl2, it only partially rescues er erl1 erl2 flower defects. The study suggests that ER-family signalling is crucial for ensuring proper expression domains of floral meristem and floral organ identity determinants, and further implies the existence of a non-canonical downstream pathway.

  18. Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Steven W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between body image, global self-concept, and depression. Men and women (N=224) completed questionnaires and were videotaped and objectively rated on attractiveness. Results indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by…

  19. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  20. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. О.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate. Basically, food industries in Ukraine are attractive for investment, which is demonstrated by assessment of the financial indicators. The investment attractiveness worsened slightly in 2015 compared with 2014. The essential problems faced by food industries are shortage of internal funds and negative profit rate of all the activities, assets and own capital. Official statistical data and software package SPSS are used to build the dendrogram, allowing for dividing food industries by level of investment attractiveness into three groups: industries with high, medium and low level of investment attractiveness. It is found that meat industry is the one with the highest level of investment attractiveness. Also, investors should look positively at food-canning industry, oil and animal fat industry, flour-milling industry, starch and starch products industry, and other foods industry.

  1. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  2. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  3. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  4. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  5. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  6. The influence of facial attractiveness on imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Veling, H.P.; Baaren, R.B. van; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    People judge, evaluate, and treat attractive people better than moderately attractive or unattractive people [Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126,

  7. Perceptual adaptation affects attractiveness of female bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Christopher; Rhodes, Gillian

    2005-05-01

    We investigated whether short durations (5 minutes) of exposure to distorted bodies can change subsequent perceptions of attractiveness and normality. Participants rated 110 female bodies, varying in width, on either their attractiveness or normality before and after exposure to either extremely narrow (-50% of original width in Experiments 1 and 2) or extremely wide bodies (+50% of original width in Experiment 1, and +70% of original width in Experiment 2). In both experiments, the most attractive and most normal looking bodies became significantly and substantially narrower after exposure to narrow bodies. The most normal looking body changed significantly after exposure to wide bodies, but the most attractive body did not. These results show that perceptions of body attractiveness can be influenced by experience, but that there is an asymmetry between the effects of exposure to narrow and wide bodies. We consider a possible mechanism for this unexpected asymmetry, as well as possible implications for the effects of media exposure on body-image. The most attractive body shape was consistently narrower than the most normal looking body shape. Substantial changes in what looked normal were accompanied by congruent changes in what looked attractive, suggesting that a normal or average body shape may function as a reference point against which body attractiveness is judged.

  8. Expression of Power and Heterosexual Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Cynthia L.; Ellyson, Steve L.

    Facial attractiveness has been the focus of considerable research in social psychology. Nonverbal behaviors emitted by the face may affect the perceived attractiveness of males and females differently. Visual behavior has particularly important functions in regulating social interaction and in establishing and conveying social power. Power and…

  9. Facial attractiveness, weight status, and personality trait attribution: The role of attractiveness in weight stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nicole; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Rossi, James; Borushok, Jessica; Hinman, Nova; Burmeister, Jacob; Carels, Robert A

    The current study examined the influence of facial attractiveness and weight status on personality trait attributions (e.g., honest, friendly) among more and less facially attractive as well as thin and overweight models. Participants viewed pictures of one of four types of models (overweight/less attractive, overweight/more attractive, thin/less attractive, thin/more attractive) and rated their attractiveness (facial, body, overall) and personality on 15 traits. Facial attractiveness and weight status additively impacted personality trait ratings. In mediation analyses, the facial attractiveness condition was no longer associated with personality traits after controlling for perceived facial attractiveness in 12 personality traits. Conversely, the thin and overweight condition was no longer associated with personality traits after controlling for perceived body attractiveness in only 2 personality traits. Post hoc moderation analysis indicated that weight status differently influenced the association between body attractiveness and personality trait attribution. Findings bear implications for attractiveness bias, weight bias, and discrimination research. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The puzzling attractiveness of male shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Alec; Tracy, Jessica L

    2015-01-12

    Two studies examined the mechanisms underlying North American women's previously documented attraction to men displaying the nonverbal expression of shame (Tracy and Beall, 2011). In Study 1, American women at high-conception risk were found to be less attracted to men displaying shame compared to women at low-conception risk, suggesting that male shame displays indicate poor genetic fitness. In Study 2, Indian women were found to be less attracted to men displaying shame than American women, suggesting that American women's tendency to find shame-displaying men attractive is likely due to local socio-cultural factors rather than to universal genetically encoded predispositions. Together, findings suggest that the attractiveness of male shame displays, previously documented in several North American samples, is best explained by cultural rather than biological factors.

  11. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts.

  12. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-β-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the

  13. Factors related to the attraction of flies at a biosolids composting facility (Bariloche, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laos, F; Semenas, L; Labud, V

    2004-07-26

    The composting process is used to treat biosolids from the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bariloche (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Since 1998, an odourless, innocuous and stable organic amendment has been produced at the Biosolids Composting Plant of Bariloche. However, volatile compounds produced during this process, attract different vectors, mainly insects belonging to the Order Diptera, particularly in summer. To evaluate factors associated with the attraction of Diptera to composting windrows, volatile compounds, wind velocity, ambient and windrow temperatures were measured and their relationships with the taxa of flies found were determined. Sampling was conducted several months on newly formed windrows during 3 weeks of the thermophilic composting period. Composite samples from each windrow were taken on the first day of each sampling week, from November 1999 to March 2000 to analyze volatile compounds using an 'electronic nose'. Windrow and ambient temperatures and wind velocity were recorded on three consecutive days of each week, from January to March 2000; also the capture of flies was performed in this period. A weekly mean value was calculated for each environmental variable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was employed to determine relationships between taxa of flies and the studied factors. The electronic nose discriminated among odours emitted, differentiating windrows by the bulking agent employed and by week of the thermophilic composting period. Ambient temperatures increased slightly during the sampling weeks; the highest values of wind velocity were registered during the second sampling week while windrow temperatures were sustained approximately 60 degrees C. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that attraction of flies to composting windrows was related to minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and volatile compounds for Muscina stabulans, Fannia sp. and Acaliptratae and to wind velocity for Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga sp., Cochliomyia

  14. Factors related to the attraction of flies at a biosolids composting facility (Bariloche, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laos, F.; Semenas, L.; Labud, V

    2004-07-26

    The composting process is used to treat biosolids from the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bariloche (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Since 1998, an odourless, innocuous and stable organic amendment has been produced at the Biosolids Composting Plant of Bariloche. However, volatile compounds produced during this process, attract different vectors, mainly insects belonging to the Order Diptera, particularly in summer. To evaluate factors associated with the attraction of Diptera to composting windrows, volatile compounds, wind velocity, ambient and windrow temperatures were measured and their relationships with the taxa of flies found were determined. Sampling was conducted several months on newly formed windrows during 3 weeks of the thermophilic composting period. Composite samples from each windrow were taken on the first day of each sampling week, from November 1999 to March 2000 to analyze volatile compounds using an 'electronic nose'. Windrow and ambient temperatures and wind velocity were recorded on three consecutive days of each week, from January to March 2000; also the capture of flies was performed in this period. A weekly mean value was calculated for each environmental variable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was employed to determine relationships between taxa of flies and the studied factors. The electronic nose discriminated among odours emitted, differentiating windrows by the bulking agent employed and by week of the thermophilic composting period. Ambient temperatures increased slightly during the sampling weeks; the highest values of wind velocity were registered during the second sampling week while windrow temperatures were sustained approximately 60 degree sign C. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that attraction of flies to composting windrows was related to minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and volatile compounds for Muscina stabulans, Fannia sp. and Acaliptratae and to wind velocity for Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga sp

  15. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    Inverse Gaussian distributed innovations is the corresponding benchmark model when only daily data is used. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis using stock options for three large American companies, and we show that in all cases our model performs significantly better than the corresponding......In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...

  16. Locating attractiveness in the face space: Faces are more attractive when closer to their group prototype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, Timothy; Corneille, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Face attractiveness relates positively to the mathematical averageness of a face, but how close attractive faces of varying groups are to their own and to other-group prototypes in the face space remains unclear...

  17. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  18. The composition of carcass volatile profiles in relation to storage time and climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, J.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2012-01-01

    After death organisms are decomposed by a variety of enzymes and microorganisms. The decay is typically accompanied by the emission of a plethora of volatile organic compounds responsible for the unpleasant odour of a carcass and thus, for the attraction of necrophagous insects. The composition of

  19. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae