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Sample records for volatile flavour components

  1. Effects of Rootstock on the Volatile flavour Components of Page ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Fruit flavor compounds were extracted by using ultrasound. (US) water bath ... treatments, processing and storage conditions (Oliveira et al., 2010b). ..... Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography / mass ...

  2. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  3. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro and in vivo volatile flavour analysis of red kidney beans by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Dings, L.; Buhr, K.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The volatile flavour released from red kidney beans was evaluated in vitro (in a model mouth system) and in vivo (in-nose). The dynamic release of the volatile flavour compounds was analysed by proton transfer reaction¿mass spectrometry. The flavour compounds were identified by gas

  5. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  6. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Flavour components of some processed. fish and fishery products of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, M.A.; Hossain, M.I.; Takamuro, H.; Matoba, T.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the flavour components of some processed fish and fishery products of Japan by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In brief the method was to absorb the headspace volatiles at 70°C into the fused silica fibre of needle of the solid phase micro extraction fibre. The absorbed components were injected to the GC-MS. The components were identified by computer matching with library database as well as by authentic standard components. In gen...

  8. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  9. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  10. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  11. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  12. Production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution and pyrolysis characteristics of flavour nanocapsule

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Feng, Nienie

    2014-01-01

    Flavour plays an important role and has been widely used in many products. Usually, the components of flavour are volatile and the sensory perception can be changed as a result of volatilization, heating, oxidation and chemical interactions. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the core materials. This work concentrated on production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution. The results showe...

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  14. [Chemical components of Vetiveria zizanioides volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghua; Li, Huashou; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yufen; Liu, Yinghu; Li, Ning; Nie, Chengrong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical components of the volatiles from Vetiveria zizanioides were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS. In the roots, the main component was valencene (30.36%), while in the shoots and leaves, they were 9-octadecenamide (33.50%), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (27.46%), and 1,2-benzendicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester(18.29%). The results showed that there were many terpenoids in the volatils. In shoot volatiles, there existed 3 monoterpenes, 2 sequiterpenes and 1 triterpene. Most of the volatiles in roots were sesquiterpenes.

  15. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  16. Amino Acid Profile and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Raw and Steamed Patin Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and Narrow-barred Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Rusky I.; Rostini, I.; Rochima, E.

    2018-02-01

    Fish species and processing methods could affect the volatile flavour composition and amino acid profile of fishery commodity. The objectives of this study were to identify volatile components and amino acid profile of two considered predominant fish species in Indonesia which are freshwater Patin catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and marine water fish, Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). The methods used in this study were to detect volatile compounds using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) on fresh and steamed of both species samples (100°C for 30 minutes) and amino acid profile were also analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The volatile components analysis successfully detects as much as 29 and 59 volatiles compounds in fresh and steamed Patin catfish respectively, while 37 and 102 compounds were detected in fresh and steamed Spanish mackerel samples. Most of detected components derives from hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols and ketone groups which could affected by their chemical composition and resulted from various thermal involved reaction. The amino acids profile identification results showed that glutamic acid was found higher compared to other amino acids standards in both samples. Glutamic acid is non-essential amino acid which is important in umami taste substances.

  17. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated,

  18. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  19. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, ...

  20. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  1. Production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution and pyrolysis characteristics of flavour nanocapsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Feng, Nienie

    2015-07-01

    Flavour plays an important role and has been widely used in many products. Usually, the components of flavour are volatile and the sensory perception can be changed as a result of volatilization, heating, oxidation and chemical interactions. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the core materials. This work concentrated on production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution. The results showed that a transparent lavender flavour microcapsule aqueous solution can be produced using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as wall material. The combination and interaction of flavour and wall materials were investigated by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of the flavour nanocapsule were determined. During thermal degradation of blank HP-β-CD and flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. Due to the vaporization of lavender flavour encapsulated in HP-β-CD, the thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank HP-β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 269 °C, while the TG curve of flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. The kinetic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests.

  2. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Probing the molecular forces involved in binding of selected volatile flavour compounds to salt-extracted pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2016-11-15

    Molecular interactions between heterologous classes of flavour compounds with salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs) were determined using various bond disrupting agents followed by GC/MS analysis. Flavour bound by proteins decreased in the order: dibutyl disulfide>octanal>hexyl acetate>2-octanone=benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde, 2-octanone and hexyl acetate interacted non-covalently with PPIs, whereas octanal bound PPIs via covalent and non-covalent forces. Dibutyl disulfide reacted with PPIs covalently, as its retention was not diminished by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Using propylene glycol, H-bonding and ionic interactions were implicated for hexyl acetate, benzaldehyde, and 2-octanone. A protein-destabilising salt (Cl3CCOONa) reduced bindings for 2-octanone, hexyl acetate, and benzaldehyde; however, retention for octanal and dibutyl disulfide increased. Conversely, a protein-stabilising salt (Na2SO4) enhanced retention for benzaldehyde, 2-octanone, hexyl acetate and octanal. Formation of a volatile flavour by-product, 1-butanethiol, from dibutyl disulfide when PPIs were treated with dithiothreitol indicated occurrence of sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile Components from Old Plum Brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Nikićević

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography and GC/MS methods were used to detect volatile components of three home-made natural old plum brandy samples and one sample of industrially-produced plum brandy. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of this extracts led to the identification of 99 components, including 46 esters, 7 hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, 3 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 1 lactone, 1 ketone, 8 acetals, 14 terpenes, 8 acids and 2 phenols. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. In addition, the content of methanol, ethanol and higher alcohols C3–C5 was determined.

  5. Volatile flavour retention in food technology and during comsumption: Juice and custard examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Frasnelli, J.; Carbonell, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study two aspects of the influence of water on flavour retention were evaluated. The first part of the study was focused on the influence of dehydration and subsequent reconstitution of mandarin juices, which was examined by headspace Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry. The different

  6. Volatile flavour profile of reduced alcohol wines fermented with the non-conventional yeast species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, C; Sengler, F; Solomon, M; Curtin, C

    2016-10-15

    Production of quality wines with decreased alcohol concentration continues to be one of the major challenges facing wine producers. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the isolation or generation of wine yeasts less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 and Saccharomyces uvarum AWRI2846 were both able to produce reduced alcohol wine when used in sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This effect is additive when both strains are co-inoculated in grape must. Here we describe the volatile flavour profile of Chardonnay and Shiraz wines produced with these two strains. Wines fermented with M. pulcherrima showed concentrations of ethyl acetate likely to affect negatively wine aroma. Wines fermented with S. uvarum and with a combination of M. pulcherrima and S. uvarum were characterised by increased concentrations of 2-phenyl ethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, both associated with positive sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of irradiated components in flavour blends composed of non-irradiated species herbs and vegetable seasonings by thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The results of experiments on the detection of irradiated component in commercial flavour blends composed of a mixture of non-irradiated spices, herbs and seasonings are presented. A method based on the thermoluminescence measurements on silicate materials isolated from blends has been adapted. It has been proved that by applying of this technique it is possible to detect 0.95% by weight of paprika, irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy, which was a minor component of non-irradiated flavour blends. (author)

  9. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Principal volatil components of Txakoli of Bizkaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Escobal

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the Txakoli of Bizkaia, a wine produced in the Basque Country. This note gives account of the volatile content of the wine which has been awarded by the Denominacíon de Origen Bizkaiko Txakolina quality label (BOPV, 1994.

  11. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  12. Volatile components of fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. stimulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... investigate the effects of volatile components of FLL on the proliferation and differentiation of rat calvarial ... Yang of the Department of Pharmacy, Fujian University of. Traditional Chinese .... the automated integrator. Statistical ...

  13. Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid and flavour active components of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zzaman, Wahidu; Bhat, Rajeev; Yang, Tajul Aris; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2017-10-01

    Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated. The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg -1 ) at 200°C for 10 min. The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatile aromatic components of two varieties of parboiled Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compounds were extracted using the solvent extraction method and the concentrated extract was analysed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Some of the volatile compounds varied with the varieties. The classification of components in Caroline rice are organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, alkenes, ...

  16. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  17. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  18. [Analysis of chemical constituents of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.

  19. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...... pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl...

  20. Volatile organic components in the Skylab 4 spacecraft atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebich, H. M.; Bertsch, W.; Zlatkis, A.; Schneider, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The volatile organic components in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere of Skylab 4 were trapped on a solid adsorbent at various times during the mission. In post-flight analyses, more than 300 compounds in concentrations from less than 1 ppb up to 8000 ppb could be detected by high-resolution gas chromatography. In the samples of the 11th, 47th, and 77th day of the mission, approximately 100 components in the molecular weight range from 58 to 592 were identified by mass spectrometry. Besides components known from other environments, such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, components typical of the human metabolism, such as ketones and alcohols, were found. Other typical components in the spacecraft atmosphere included fluorocarbons and various silicone compounds, mostly normal and cyclic methylsiloxanes.

  1. Determination of volatile, phenolic, organic acid and sugar components in a Turkish cv. Dortyol (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2011-08-15

    Orange flavour is the results of a natural combination of volatile compounds in a well-balanced system including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds. This paper reports the results of the first determination of aroma, organic acids, sugars, and phenolic components in Dortyol yerli orange juices. A total of 58 volatile components, including esters (nine), terpenes (19), terpenols (13), aldehydes (two), ketones (three), alcohols (four) and acids (eight) were identified and quantified in Dortyol yerli orange juice by GC-FID and GC-MS. Organic acids, sugars and phenolic compositions were also determined by HPLC methods. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and sucrose, respectively. With regard to phenolics, 14 compounds were identified and quantified in the orange juice. Terpenes and terpenols were found as the main types of volatile components in Dortyol yerli orange juice. In terms of aroma contribution to orange juice, 12 compounds were prominent based on the odour activity values (OAVs). The highest OAV values were recorded for ethyl butanoate, nootkatone, linalool and DL-limonene. When we compare the obtained results of cv. Dortyol orange juice with the other orange juice varieties, the composition of Dortyol orange juice was similar to Valencia and Navel orange juices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Volatile compounds and changes in flavour-related enzymes during cold storage of high-intensity pulsed electric field- and heat-processed tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-08-15

    The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) processing (35 kV cm(-1) for 1500 micros, using 4 micros bipolar pulses at 100 Hz) on the production of volatile compounds and flavour-related enzymes in tomato juice were investigated and compared with those of thermal processing (90 degrees C for 30 or 60 s). Tomato juice treated by HIPEF showed lower residual lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (70.2%) than juice heated at 90 degrees C for 60 s (80.1%) or 30 s (93.2%). In contrast, hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) was almost completely inactivated when the juice was subjected to 90 degrees C for 60 s, whereas roughly 50% of the control tomato juice was depleted after HIPEF treatment or thermal processing at 90 degrees C for 30 s. A slight decrease was observed in the initial LOX activity of treated and untreated samples during storage, whereas initial HPL activity was strongly affected over time. HIPEF-treated juice exhibited higher levels of compounds contributing to tomato aroma than untreated and heat-treated juices throughout storage. Thus HIPEF processing can preserve flavour quality and stability of tomato juice compared with conventional thermal treatments. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Long- and Short-Term Cryptocurrency Volatility Components: A GARCH-MIDAS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Conrad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the GARCH-MIDAS model to extract the long- and short-term volatility components of cryptocurrencies. As potential drivers of Bitcoin volatility, we consider measures of volatility and risk in the US stock market as well as a measure of global economic activity. We find that S&P 500 realized volatility has a negative and highly significant effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. The finding is atypical for volatility co-movements across financial markets. Moreover, we find that the S&P 500 volatility risk premium has a significantly positive effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. Finally, we find a strong positive association between the Baltic dry index and long-term Bitcoin volatility. This result shows that Bitcoin volatility is closely linked to global economic activity. Overall, our findings can be used to construct improved forecasts of long-term Bitcoin volatility.

  4. Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna JZ; Visser, Wouter F; Cremers, Johannes WJM; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This study combines chemical analysis and flavour descriptions of flavour additives used in tobacco products, and provides a starting point to build an extensive library of flavour components, useful for product surveillance. Methods Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare 22 commercially available tobacco products (cigarettes and roll-your-own) expected to have a characterising flavour and 6 commercially available products not expected to have a characterising flavour with 5 reference products (natural tobacco leaves and research cigarettes containing no flavour additives). The flavour components naturally present in the reference products were excluded from components present in commercially available products containing flavour additives. A description of the remaining flavour additives was used for categorisation. Results GC-MS measurements of the 33 tobacco products resulted in an overview of 186 chemical compounds. Of these, 144 were solely present in commercially available products. These 144 flavour additives were described using 62 different flavour descriptors extracted from flavour databases, which were categorised into eight groups largely based on the definition of characterising flavours from the European Tobacco Product Directive: fruit, spice, herb, alcohol, menthol, sweet, floral and miscellaneous. Conclusions We developed a method to identify and describe flavour additives in tobacco products. Flavour additives consist of single flavour compounds or mixtures of multiple flavour compounds, and different combinations of flavour compounds can cause a certain flavour. A flavour library helps to detect flavour additives that are characteristic for a certain flavour, and thus can be useful for regulation of flavours in tobacco and related products. PMID:28190004

  5. Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna Jz; Visser, Wouter F; Cremers, Johannes Wjm; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    This study combines chemical analysis and flavour descriptions of flavour additives used in tobacco products, and provides a starting point to build an extensive library of flavour components, useful for product surveillance. Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare 22 commercially available tobacco products (cigarettes and roll-your-own) expected to have a characterising flavour and 6 commercially available products not expected to have a characterising flavour with 5 reference products (natural tobacco leaves and research cigarettes containing no flavour additives). The flavour components naturally present in the reference products were excluded from components present in commercially available products containing flavour additives. A description of the remaining flavour additives was used for categorisation. GC-MS measurements of the 33 tobacco products resulted in an overview of 186 chemical compounds. Of these, 144 were solely present in commercially available products. These 144 flavour additives were described using 62 different flavour descriptors extracted from flavour databases, which were categorised into eight groups largely based on the definition of characterising flavours from the European Tobacco Product Directive: fruit, spice, herb, alcohol, menthol, sweet, floral and miscellaneous. We developed a method to identify and describe flavour additives in tobacco products. Flavour additives consist of single flavour compounds or mixtures of multiple flavour compounds, and different combinations of flavour compounds can cause a certain flavour. A flavour library helps to detect flavour additives that are characteristic for a certain flavour, and thus can be useful for regulation of flavours in tobacco and related products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    . This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  7. Effect of radiation on volatile component in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnayake, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This research project deals with the determination of chemical changes of some spices such as Cardamon, Nutmeg, Clove and Pepper, when subjected to gamma irradiation. The spices were irradiated in a CO 6 0 gamma source with 5 kGy, 7kGy and 10 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/hr. Radiation dose less than 10 kGy can be used for processing of spices, without producing any changes in volatile components. The disadvantages in using the traditional methods of fumigation, use of chemicals or heat treatment as a measure of reducing contamination are discussed. It is shown that irradiation is the best method of decontamination of spices without making changes in oil percentage or chemical composition. Finally the study discusses the economic aspects and authorization from the point of view of consumer acceptance and the use of irradiation of spices

  8. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  9. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment. (paper)

  10. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  11. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; van der Heijden, A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water

  12. Volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinivasagam, H.N.; Bremner, Allan; Wood, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from king (Penaeus plebejus), banana (P. merguiensis), tiger (P. esculentus/semisulcatus) and greasy (Metapenaeus bennettae) prawns stored in ice or ice slurry, which is effectively an environment of low oxygen tension...... inoculated with a total of 15 cultures of Ps. fragi and S. putrefaciens and incubated for two weeks at 5°C, showed the presence of 17 major compounds in the headspace volatiles analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These were mainly amines, sulphides, ketones and esters. Principal...

  13. The Role of Permanent and Transitory Components in Business Cycle Volatility Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Korenok, Oleg; Radchenko, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the processes underlying economic fluctuations by investigating the volatility moderation of U.S. economy in the early 1980's. We decompose the volatility decline using a dynamic factor framework into a common stochastic trend, common transitory component and idiosyncratic components. We find that the moderation of business cycle was a result of the moderation in transitory and idiosyncratic components. Our results suggest that important part of stochastic process that driv...

  14. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  15. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Nonlinear Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaoglu, Kadir Gokhan; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A second volatility factor is economically most i...

  16. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage.

  17. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  18. Heavy flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    1998-01-01

    This volume is a collection of review articles on the most outstanding topics in heavy flavour physics. All the authors have made significant contributions to this field. The book reviews in detail the theoretical structure of heavy flavour physics and confronts the Standard Model and some of its extensions with existing experimental data.This new edition covers new trends and ideas and includes the latest experimental information. Compared to the previous edition interesting new activities are included and some of the key contributions are updated. Particular attention is paid to the discover

  19. Flavour Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奎斯特国际有限公司

    2004-01-01

    @@ A good flavour must taste realistic and natural as well as performing under tough conditions, says Mairi Coia. In conjunction with texture or mouthfeel, flavour is the most important aspect of food. It is the one thing can bring consumers back to a product again and again - or not, as the case may be. In short, taste is the number one attribute in food and that is why the global fiavour business is worth A5 billion every year as manufacturers strive to make food taste better and fresher for longer.

  20. Option Valuation with Long-run and Short-run Volatility Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    This paper presents a new model for the valuation of European options, in which the volatility of returns consists of two components. One of these components is a long-run component, and it can be modeled as fully persistent. The other component is short-run and has a zero mean. Our model can...... be viewed as an affine version of Engle and Lee (1999), allowing for easy valuation of European options. The model substantially outperforms a benchmark single-component volatility model that is well-established in the literature, and it fits options better than a model that combines conditional...... model long-maturity and short-maturity options....

  1. [Influence of liquid or solid culture conditions on the volatile components of mycelia of Isariacateinannulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ruili; Li, Kangle; Hu, Fenglin

    2011-12-01

    To determine the volatile components of mycelia of Isaria cateinannulata cultured under different culture conditions, and to analyze the relationships between the culture conditions and volatile metabolites. Mycelia were cultured in solid plates with SDAY medium and liquid shake flasks with SDY medium. The culture conditions were at 25 degrees C and 8 days. Volatile components in the mycelia of I. cateinannulata were extracted with simultaneous distillation extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alkenes, alkanes, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were existed abundantly both in the mycelia of liquid and solid cultures, but the kinds and relative concentrations of the volatile components in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were very different. Forty-one compounds were identified from the mycelia of solid culture and 32 compounds were identified from the mycelia of liquid culture. Esters, quinones and oximes were only found in solid cultured mycelia whereas carboxylic acids were only discovered in the mycelia of liquid culture. At the same time, mycelia of liquid culture contained much more phenols. The most abundant compounds in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were hydrocarbons. The volatile extracts of solid cultured mycelia contained 57.6% alkenes and 9.19% alkanes. The volatile extracts of liquid cultured mycelia contained 7.85% alkenes and 22.4% alkanes. Liquid or solid culture conditions influenced the volatile components of mycelia of I. cateinannulata.

  2. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  3. Studies on mushroom flavours 2. Flavour compounds in coprinus comatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, F Y; Wikén, T O

    1976-01-01

    In an aqueous extract of fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide, 1-dodecanol and caprylic acid were identified conclusively and n-butyric and isobutyric acids preliminarily. Amino-acids, nucleotides and sugars were also determined. A mixture of 37 compounds found in the extract had a stronger flavour than the natural extract. 3-Octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol and 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide were the volatiles with the strongest flavour. Mass and IR spectra of 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide are presented.

  4. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  5. Volatility Components, Affine Restrictions and Non-Normal Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Dorian, Christian

    Recent work by Engle and Lee (1999) shows that allowing for long-run and short-run components greatly enhances a GARCH model's ability fit daily equity return dynamics. Using the risk-neutralization in Duan (1995), we assess the option valuation performance of the Engle-Lee model and compare...... models to four conditionally non-normal versions. As in Hsieh and Ritchken (2005), we find that non-affine models dominate affine models both in terms of fitting return and in terms of option valuation. For the affine models we find strong evidence in favor of the component structure for both returns...

  6. Quantitative analysis of some volatile components in Mimusops elengi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantana Aromdee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried pikul flower (Mimusops elengi L., Sapotaceae is used in many recipes of Thai traditional medicine i.e. cardiotonic and stomachic. In this study, fresh and dried pikul flowers were investigated. The odour of pikul flower, even when it was dried, is very strong and characteristic. The constituents of volatile oils in fresh and dried pikul flowers extracted by ether were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Phenylethanol, 4-hydroxybenzenemethanol and cinnamyl alcohol were mainly found in fresh flower, 10.49, 8.69 and 6.17%, respectively. Whereas those mainly found in dried flowers were long chain carboxylic acid ester and (Z-9-octadecenoic acid, 5.37 and 4.71% of ether extract, respectively.An analytical method simultaneously determining benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben was developed by using the GC-FID method. The percent recoveries were 91.66, 104.59 and 105.28%, respectively. The intraday variations(% RSD were 7.22, 6.67 and 1.86%; and the interday variation were 3.12, 2.52 and 3.55%, respectively. Detection limits were 0.005, 0.014 and 0.001 ppm, and quantitation limits were 0.015, 0.048 and 0.003 ppm, respectively. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben content of dried flowers (9 samples from various drug stores in Thailand and one sample from China were 6.40-13.46, 17.57-196.57 and 27.35-355.53 ppm, respectively.

  7. Volatile components of the enzyme-ripened sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Yin-Soon; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, sufu, a soft cheese-like oriental fermented food, was prepared by ripening the salted-tofu cubes in Aspergillus oryzae-fermented soybean-rice koji at 37°C for 16 days (16-day sufu). Sufu was further held at room temperature for another 30 days (46-day sufu). The volatile components of the non-fermented tofu cubes and the sufu products were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. A total of 70 volatile compounds including 20 aldehydes, 18 alcohols, 16 esters, 5 ketones, 5 acids and 6 other compounds were identified. Sufu products contained more volatile compounds than non-fermented tofu cubes qualitatively and quantitatively. After 16-days of ripening, fatty acid, aldehyde and ester were noted to be the dominant volatile fractions. In contrast, the 46-day sufu contained ester, and alcohol as the major volatile fractions. They comprise approximately 63.9% of the total volatile components. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Flavouring estimation of quality of grape wines with use of methods of mathematical statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakuba, Yu F; Khalaphyan, A A; Temerdashev, Z A; Bessonov, V V; Malinkin, A D

    2016-01-01

    The questions of forming of wine's flavour integral estimation during the tasting are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of the procedures are declared. As investigating materials we used the natural white and red wines of Russian manufactures, which were made with the traditional technologies from Vitis Vinifera, straight hybrids, blending and experimental wines (more than 300 different samples). The aim of the research was to set the correlation between the content of wine's nonvolatile matter and wine's tasting quality rating by mathematical statistics methods. The content of organic acids, amino acids and cations in wines were considered as the main factors influencing on the flavor. Basically, they define the beverage's quality. The determination of those components in wine's samples was done by the electrophoretic method «CAPEL». Together with the analytical checking of wine's samples quality the representative group of specialists simultaneously carried out wine's tasting estimation using 100 scores system. The possibility of statistical modelling of correlation of wine's tasting estimation based on analytical data of amino acids and cations determination reasonably describing the wine's flavour was examined. The statistical modelling of correlation between the wine's tasting estimation and the content of major cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium), free amino acids (proline, threonine, arginine) and the taking into account the level of influence on flavour and analytical valuation within fixed limits of quality accordance were done with Statistica. Adequate statistical models which are able to predict tasting estimation that is to determine the wine's quality using the content of components forming the flavour properties have been constructed. It is emphasized that along with aromatic (volatile) substances the nonvolatile matter - mineral substances and organic substances - amino acids such as proline, threonine, arginine

  9. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  10. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Non-Monotonic Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaoglu, Kadir; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven L.

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A U-shaped pricing kernel is economically most im...

  11. Choice of volatile component of fluoroplastics containing varnishes for the equipment of radiation protection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigorina, I.I.; Egorov, B.N.; Timofeeva, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of choosing the volatile part (v.p.) for varnishes on the basis of different flourocopolymers are considered. Ketones, esters, freons, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons have been used as solvents. The volatile component has been estimated by the quality of the varnish film obtained (transparency, bubbles), viscosity of the varnishes, completeness of solvent volatility, porosity degree. Besides, analyzed are such factors as kinetics of solvent evaporation, working life time of varnishes, and the degree of their inflammability. Optimum solvents and their mixtures have been found for different grades of fluorolones. The possibility of producing fluorolone lackuers with a reduced degree of inflammability and of incombustible fluorolone varnishes is shown. Fluorolone varnishes find ever increasing application for radiation-protective coating of the equipment

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  13. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  14. Effects of irradiation and drying on volatile components of fresh shiitake (Lentinus edodes Sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Sheng; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Horng, Deng-Tsen; Yang, Jui-Sen

    1998-01-01

    Fresh shiitake (Lentinus edodes Sing) was irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 kGy using 60 Co. Effects of γ-irradiation and drying on the volatile composition of shiitake were studied by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Irradiation above 1.0 kGy could inhibit the growth and mould decay of fresh shiitakes after harvesting. Irradiation with 2 kGy increased the eight-carbon volatile components of fresh shiitake. Treatment at 1 kGy irradiation of fresh shiitake produced some new volatile compounds in the dry product, such as methylethyl disulphide, sulphinylbis methane, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulphide and N-(3-methylbutyl) acetamide. The eight-carbon compounds mostly disappeared after drying. The amount of sulphur-containing volatile compounds in dried shiitake became lower during irradiation. Irradiation with doses of 1 or 2 kGy of fresh shiitake did not increase the volatile content of shiitake after drying

  15. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium from North Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BENYELLES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %, benzene acetonitrile (3.9 % and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate (2.9 %. Higher content in nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds accounting to 86.4 % of the volatile fraction composition of T. majus were quantified.

  16. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  17. Analysis of Volatile Components of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. by Steam Distillation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. plays an important role in its antibacterial and antiphlogistic activities. In this work, the volatile components were extracted by steam distillation (SD and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, and the major volatile components were α-limonene (20.59–35.07%, fenchone (15.79–31.81%, α-caryophyllene (6.98–10.32%, β-caryophyllene (6.98–10.19%, and piperitenone oxide (1.96–11.63%. The comparison of the volatile components from A. indianum (Lour. Merr. grown in two regions of China was reported. Also, the comparison of the volatile components by SD and HS-SPME was discussed. The results showed that the major volatile components of A. indianum (Lour. Merr. from two regions of China were similar but varied with different extraction methods. These results were indicative of the suitability of HS-SPME method for simple, rapid, and solvent-free analysis of the volatile components of the medicinal plants.

  18. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOTAL VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM LEAVES OF CITRUS LIMON LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steamdistillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by meansof Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatilecomponents were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing theirretention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification wasdone by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RIvalues and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standardavailable literature.

  19. Heavy flavours: theory summary

    OpenAIRE

    Corcella, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    I summarize the theory talks given in the Heavy Flavours Working Group. In particular, I discuss heavy-flavour parton distribution functions, threshold resummation for heavy-quark production, progress in fragmentation functions, quarkonium production, heavy-meson hadroproduction.

  20. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species.

  1. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite-size effect and the components of multifractality in financial volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weixing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The apparent multifractality can be decomposed quantitatively. ► There is a marked finite-size effect in the detection of multifractality. ► The effective multifractality can be further decomposed into two components. ► A time series exhibits effective multifractality only if it possesses nonlinearity. ► The daily DJIA volatility is analyzed as an example. - Abstract: Many financial variables are found to exhibit multifractal nature, which is usually attributed to the influence of temporal correlations and fat-tailedness in the probability distribution (PDF). Based on the partition function approach of multifractal analysis, we show that there is a marked finite-size effect in the detection of multifractality, and the effective multifractality is the apparent multifractality after removing the finite-size effect. We find that the effective multifractality can be further decomposed into two components, the PDF component and the nonlinearity component. Referring to the normal distribution, we can determine the PDF component by comparing the effective multifractality of the original time series and the surrogate data that have a normal distribution and keep the same linear and nonlinear correlations as the original data. We demonstrate our method by taking the daily volatility data of Dow Jones Industrial Average from 26 May 1896 to 27 April 2007 as an example. Extensive numerical experiments show that a time series exhibits effective multifractality only if it possesses nonlinearity and the PDF has an impact on the effective multifractality only when the time series possesses nonlinearity. Our method can also be applied to judge the presence of multifractality and determine its components of multifractal time series in other complex systems.

  3. The effects of methanol on the trapping of volatile ice components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J.; Brown, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    The evaporation of icy mantles, which have been formed on the surface of dust grains, is acknowledged to give rise to the rich chemistry that has been observed in the vicinity of hot cores and corinos. It has long been established that water ice is the dominant species within many astrophysical ices. However, other molecules found within astrophysical ices, particularly methanol, can influence the desorption of volatile species from the ice. Here we present a detailed investigation of the adsorption and desorption of methanol-containing ices, showing the effect that methanol has on the trapping and release of volatiles from model interstellar ices. OCS and CO2 have been used as probe molecules since they have been suggested to reside in water-rich and methanol-rich environments. Experiments show that methanol fundamentally changes the desorption characteristics of both OCS and CO2, leading to the observation of mainly codesorption of both species with bulk water ice for the tertiary ices and causing a lowering of the temperature of the volcano component of the desorption. In contrast, binary ices are dominated by standard volcano desorption. This observation clearly shows that codepositing astrophysically relevant impurities with water ice, such as methanol, can alter the desorption dynamics of volatiles that become trapped in the pores of the amorphous water ice during the sublimation process. Incorporating experimental data into a simple model to simulate these processes on astrophysical timescales shows that the additional methanol component releases larger amounts of OCS from the ice mantle at lower temperatures and earlier times. These results are of interest to astronomers as they can be used to model the star formation process, hence giving information about the evolution of our Universe.

  4. Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Due, Anne; Gjerstad, Karl Olav; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2003-04-01

    High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168(R). In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes. Water in contact with HDPE pipes was assessed with respect to TON, and values > or =4 were determined for five out of seven brands of HDPE pipes. The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. Corresponding migration tests carried out for PEX pipes showed that VOC migrated in significant amounts into the test water, and TON >/=5 of the test water were observed in all tests. Several of the migrated VOC were not identified. Oxygenates predominated the identified VOC in the test water from PEX pipes. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.

  5. Volatile Components of the Essential Oil of Artemisia montana and Their Sedative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Kento; Myoda, Takao; Tajima, Noriaki; Gotoh, Kotaro; Kaneshima, Tai; Someya, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    The sedative effects of volatile components in the essential oil of Artemisia montana ("Yomogi") were investigated and measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components identified included 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-piperitone, and caryophyllene oxide. Among them, 1,8-cineol exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) value in an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by borneol, o-cymene, β-thujone, and bornyl acetate. The sedative effects of yomogi oil aroma were evaluated by sensory testing, analysis of salivary α-amylase activity, and measurement of relative fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the brain using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). All results indicated the stress-reducing effects of the essential oil following nasal exposure, and according to the NIRS analysis, 1,8-cineol is likely responsible for the sedative effects of yomogi oil.

  6. Profiling of volatile fragrant components in a mini-core collection of mango germplasms from seven countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Aroma is important in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and their processed products, and could provide good indicators for the development of local cultivars in the mango industry. In this study, the volatile diversity of 25 mango cultivars from China, America, Thailand, India, Cuba, Indonesia, and the Philippines was investigated. The volatile compositions, their relative contents, and the intervarietal differences were detected with headspace solid phase microextraction tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. The similarities were also evaluated with a cluster analysis and correlation analysis of the volatiles. The differences in mango volatiles in different districts are also discussed. Our results show significant differences in the volatile compositions and their relative contents among the individual cultivars and regions. In total, 127 volatiles were found in all the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. The highest and lowest qualitative abundances of volatiles were detected in 'Zihua' and 'Mallika' cultivars, respectively. Based on the cumulative occurrence of members of the classes of volatiles, the cultivars were grouped into monoterpenes (16 cultivars, proportion and balanced (eight cultivars, and nonterpene groups (one cultivars. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles in these cultivars, with terpinolene, 3-carene, caryophyllene and α-Pinene the dominant components depending on the cultivars. Monoterpenes, some of the primary volatile components, were the most abundant aroma compounds, whereas aldehydes were the least abundant in the mango pulp. β-Myrcene, a major terpene, accounted for 58.93% of the total flavor volatile compounds in 'Xiaofei' (Philippens. γ-Octanoic lactone was the only ester in the total flavor volatile compounds, with its highest concentration in 'Guiya' (China. Hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane was the most abundant volatile compound in 'Magovar' (India, accounting for 46.66% of

  7. Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohakunjit, Natta; Selamassakul, Orrapun; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic bromelain seaweed protein hydrolysate (eb-SWPH) was characterised as the precursor for thermally processed seafood flavour. Seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) protein after agar extraction was hydrolysed using bromelain (enzyme activity=119,325 U/g) at 0-20% (w/w) for 0.5-24 h. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The proposed model took into account the interaction effect of the enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the physicochemical properties and volatile components of eb-SWPH. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for the production of eb-SWPH were 10% bromelain for 3h, which resulted in a 38.15% yield and a 62.91% degree of hydrolysis value. Three free amino acids, arginine, lysine, and leucine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Ten volatile flavours of the best eb-SWPH were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The predominant odourants were hexanal, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and dihydroactinidiolide. The thermally processed seafood flavour produced from eb-SWPH exhibited a roasted seafood-like flavouring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  9. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  10. Dynamical generation of flavour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction of family symmetry and generation of flavour structure by Yukawa couplings arising as vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of 'spurion' fields offers an attractive alternative prospect for understanding flavour structure [1]. Model builders have considered various. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 86, No. 2, February 2016.

  11. Study of volatile oil component of petal and herbal and extraction of seed oil in Borage by Cold Press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esfandiar Hassani Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a few reported about the volatile oil component of petal, herbal and component of seed oil of borage. This research worked carried out for analysis and identification the volatile oil in herbals, petals, and seed oil compositions of Borago officinalis L. in Lorestan province. Material and methods: Extraction of essential oil from petals carried out using steam distillation by Clevenger apparatus. The new SPME-GC/MS method is used for extraction and identification of volatile oil compounds in the herbal of borage. The oil of the seeds was extracted using a Cold-press method. The identification of chemical composition of extracted oil was carried out by GC/MS apparatus. Results: In petals of Borage only Carvacerol component, and in the herbal of Borage three components Carvacrol, Bisabolone oxide and 2-Phenylethyl benzoate, extracted and identified respectively. In the seed oil of borage 16 different components were separated and identified. The following components had the highest amount in seed oil: Hexadecane, N, N-dimethylethanolamine, Beta-d-glycoside, 3, 6-glucurono-methyl, Benzaldehde, 4-methyl 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran, Hexadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Gamma butyrolactone and Ethyl octadec-9-enoate are the major components respectively. These components contain 63.4% of all components in borage seed oil and the 7 residual components only 9.5% all of the components in borage seed oil. Also one unknown (27.1% component identified. Conclusion: Using result obtained from this research the volatile oil a few amounts of the borage chemical composition. The results show that the seed oil of this species can be used for medicinal preparation. Cold Press method was found to be rapid and simple for identification of seeds oil components.

  12. Effect of the environment microbiota on the flavour of light-flavour Baijiu during spontaneous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Han, Bei-Zhong; Huang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Xin; Hou, Lin-Feng; Cao, Ming; Gao, Li-Juan; Hu, Guang-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yu

    2018-02-21

    Light-flavour Baijiu is a type of Chinese liquor with a pure and mild flavour produced by traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation. The flavour of this liquor has been found to vary in the different periods of annual production. To explore the factors affecting flavour, the microbiota of the surrounding environment, starter and fermentation process in different periods were investigated. Results showed that the ester content and acidity of light-flavour Baijiu were significantly lower when annual production was resumed after a summer break. HCA plot of volatile flavour profile and bacterial PCoA results indicated that the differences occurred at later stages, mainly due to different structures of Lactobacillus. Correlation analysis by O2PLS indicated that Lactobacillus positively correlated with esters. Species-level analysis showed that the lack of L. acetotolerans on the surface of the jar might cause a lag in fermentation and lower ester content. Thereafter, L. acetotolerans was revived during fermentation and enriched on the surface of the jar, which promoted ester formation. As important sources of L. acetotolerans, the air and fermentation jars played a critical role during fermentation. Therefore, this systematic study on environmental microbial ecology is valuable for quality control and to explore environmental microbiota functions during spontaneous fermentation.

  13. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  14. Flavour Tagging at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Grabalosa Gandara, M

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Volatile Components in Tempe by Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Method by Modified Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Syahrial

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An isolation and identification of volatile components in temps for 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation by simultaneous distillation-extraction method was carried out. Simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus was modified by Muchalal from the basic Likens-Nickerson's design. Steam distillation and benzena as an extraction solvent was used in this system. The isolation was continuously carried out for 3 hours which maximum water temperature In the Liebig condenser was 8 °C. The extract was concentrated by freeze concentration method, and the volatile components were analyzed and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. The Muchalal's simultaneous distillation extraction apparatus have some disadvantage in cold finger condenser, and it's extractor did not have condenser. At least 47, 13 and 5 volatile components were found in 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation, respectively. The volatile components in the 2 days fermentation were nonalal, ɑ-pinene, 2,4-decadienal, 5-phenyldecane, 5-phenylundecane, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane, 5-phenyltridecane, and caryophyllene; in the 5 days fermentation were nonalal, caryophyllene, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane; and in the 8 days fermentation were ethenyl butanoic, 2-methy1-3-(methylethenylciclohexyl etanoic and 3,7-dimethyl-5-octenyl etanoic.

  16. Volatile aroma components and MS-based electronic nose profiles of dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan Asikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa are two typical smelly legumes from Southeast Asia that are widely used in the cuisines of this region. Headspace/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection analysis and mass spectrometry (MS-based electronic nose techniques were applied to monitor ripening changes in the volatile flavor profiles of dogfruit and stink bean. Compositional analysis showed that the ripening process greatly influenced the composition and content of the volatile aroma profiles of these two smelly food materials, particularly their alcohol, aldehyde, and sulfur components. The quantity of predominant hexanal in stink bean significantly declined (P < 0.05 during the ripening process, whereas the major volatile components of dogfruit changed from 3-methylbutanal and methanol in the unripe state to acetaldehyde and ethanol in the ripe bean. Moreover, the amount of the typical volatile flavor compound 1,2,4-trithiolane significantly increased (P < 0.05 in both ripened dogfruit and stink bean from 1.70 and 0.93%, to relative amounts of 19.97 and 13.66%, respectively. MS-based nose profiling gave further detailed differentiation of the volatile profiles of dogfruit and stink bean of various ripening stages through multivariate statistical analysis, and provided discriminant ion masses, such as m/z 41, 43, 58, 78, and 124, as valuable “digital fingerprint” dataset that can be used for fast flavor monitoring of smelly food resources.

  17. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  18. Gauged Lepton Flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.

    2016-12-22

    The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.

  19. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  20. Analysis of volatile components from Melipona beecheii geopropolis from Southeast Mexico by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Ahira; López-Rivera, Paulina; Duarte-Lisci, Georgina; López-Ramírez, Ángel; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2016-01-01

    A head space solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimised to extract and analyse volatile compounds of Melipona beecheii geopropolis. Seventy-three constituents were identified using this technique in the sample of geopropolis collected. The main compounds detected include β-fenchene (14.53-15.45%), styrene (8.72-9.98%), benzaldehyde (7.44-7.82%) and the most relevant volatile components presents at high level in the geopropolis were terpenoids (58.17%).

  1. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  2. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Qin; Yin, Hong-Xu; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Dong, Chun-Wang; Deng, Yu-Liang

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP) values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA) allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  3. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Yang

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  4. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, T.P.; Azanza, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  5. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  6. Comparison of volatile components of flower, leaf, peel and juice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flower components were extracted by using ultrasound (US) water bath apparatus and then eluted by n-pentane : diethylether (1:2) solvent. ... 37 flower components, 53 leaf components, 54 peel components and 47 juice components including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other ...

  7. Understanding flavour at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Huge progress in flavour physics has been achieved by the two B-factories and the Tevatron experiments. This progress has, however, deepened the new physics flavour puzzle: If there is new physics at the TeV scale, why aren't flavour changing neutral current processes enhanced by orders of magnitude compared to the standard model predictions? The forthcoming ATLAS and CMS experiments can potentially solve this puzzle. Perhaps even more surprisingly, these experiments can potentially lead to progress in understanding the standard model flavour puzzle: Why is there smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters? Thus, a rich and informative flavour program is awaiting us not only in the flavour-dedicated LHCb experiment, but also in the high-pT ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  8. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The effects of methanol on the trapping of volatile ice components

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Daren J; Brown, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    The evaporation of icy mantles, which have been formed on the surface of dust grains, is acknowledged to give rise to the rich chemistry that has been observed in the vicinity of hot cores and corinos. It has long been established that water ice is the dominant species within many astrophysical ices. However, other molecules found within astrophysical ices, particularly methanol, can influence the desorption of volatile species from the ice. Here we present a detailed investigation of the ads...

  10. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  11. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  12. A new methodology capable of characterizing most volatile and less volatile minor edible oils components in a single chromatographic run without solvents or reagents. Detection of new components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L; Cristillo, Giovanna; Sopelana, Patricia; Guillén, María D

    2017-04-15

    The possibilities offered by a new methodology to determine minor components in edible oils are described. This is based on immersion of a solid-phase microextraction fiber of PDMS/DVB into the oil matrix, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It enables characterization and differentiation of edible oils in a simple way, without either solvents or sample modification. This methodology allows simultaneous identification and quantification of sterols, tocols, hydrocarbons of different natures, fatty acids, esters, monoglycerides, fatty amides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, epoxides, furans, pyrans and terpenic oxygenated derivatives. The broad information provided by this methodology is useful for different areas of interest such as nutritional value, oxidative stability, technological performance, quality, processing, safety and even the prevention of fraudulent practices. Furthermore, for the first time, certain fatty amides, gamma- and delta-lactones of high molecular weight, and other aromatic compounds such as some esters derived from cinnamic acid have been detected in edible oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  14. The Flavour of Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, I.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry is proposed. The Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, the flavons, are natural inflaton candidates or waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possible inflation models, all linked to the physics of flavour, with several interesting cosmological implications.

  15. Flavoured co-annihilation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... (2) one can see that increasing δRR will decrease the stau mass or in other words the co-annihilation will occur at a lower neutralino mass for the fixed universal scalar mass parameter (m0). But having large flavour violating entry in the ˜μR–˜τR sectors of the sleptonic mass matrix will also give rise to rare ...

  16. 'Onium' new flavour identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    There are possibly new flavours appearing in the future LEP energy range. These new quarks might be observed as 'onium' (bump in the cross-section, observation of a sudden change of sphericity of the events...) or associated with old quarks in meson-like states qQ (mass peak observed in the Z decay, semi-leptonic cascade decay, sphericity change associated with semi-leptonic decay) or finally by an increase of R(sigmasub(hadronic)/sigmasub(μμ)). (Auth.)

  17. Flavour tagging performance in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabalosa Gandara, Marc

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the best possible determination of the flavour of the B-meson is necessary. This report summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. The flavour tagging is obtained through a combination of several methods, based on different signatures. The use of control channels, which are decays to flavour-specific final states, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction ω (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as an input for the determination of CKM unitarity triangle angles.

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Components of Zhengtian Pills Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Ting; Zhang, Min; Yan, Ping; Liu, Hai-Chan; Liu, Xing-Yun; Zhan, Ruo-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Zhengtian pills (ZTPs) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which have been commonly used to treat headaches. Volatile components of ZTPs extracted by ethyl acetate with an ultrasonic method were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two components were identified, accounting for 78.884% of the total components of volatile oil. The three main volatile components including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). Baseline separation was achieved on an XB-C18 column with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution. The UHPLC-DAD method provided good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.9992), precision (RSD components, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide, in 13 batches of ZTPs, which is suitable for discrimination and quality assessment of ZTPs.

  19. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  20. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K.; Davenport, Russell J.; Head, Ian M.; Werner, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition. Highlights: ► The effect of 10% ethanol or 20% biodiesel on the biodegradability of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was investigated. ► Competition for scarce inorganic nutrients between biofuel and VPH degraders slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. ► Biofuel effects were transitional. ► Each fuel selected for a distinct predominant bacterial community. ► All bacterial communities were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. - Blending of petroleum with ethanol or biodiesel changes the fuel degrading soil bacterial community structure, but the long-term effects on fuel biodegradability are minor.

  1. Flavour Tagging with the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems require knowledge of the b quark production flavour. This identification is performed by the Flavour Tagging.

  2. Single-flavour and two-flavour pairing in three-flavour quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G; Cowan, Greig A

    2006-01-01

    We study single-flavour quark pairing ('self-pairing') in colour-superconducting phases of quark matter, paying particular attention to the difference between scenarios where all three flavours undergo single-flavour pairing, and scenarios where two flavours pair with each other ('2SC' pairing) and the remaining flavour self-pairs. We perform our calculations in the mean-field approximation using a pointlike four-fermion interaction based on single gluon exchange. We confirm the result from previous weakly-coupled-QCD calculations that when all three flavours self-pair the favoured channel for each is colour-spin-locked (CSL) pseudoisotropic pairing. However, we find that when the up and down quarks undergo 2SC pairing, they induce a colour chemical potential that disfavours the CSL phase. The strange quarks then self-pair in a 'polar' channel that breaks rotational invariance, although the CSL phase may survive in a narrow range of densities

  3. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  4. Analysis of Volatile Components of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yilmaztekin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%, eucalyptol (6.66%, ethyl butanoate (6.47%, ethyl octanoate (4.01%, ethyl decanoate (3.39%, 4-terpineol (3.27%, and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10% were the major components in the sample extracts.

  5. Analysis of volatile components of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaztekin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB) were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%), eucalyptol (6.66%), ethyl butanoate (6.47%), ethyl octanoate (4.01%), ethyl decanoate (3.39%), 4-terpineol (3.27%), and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10%) were the major components in the sample extracts.

  6. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  7. DESY: Theory with flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1989-01-01

    Last year, the annual Theory Workshop at the German DESY Laboratory in Hamburg had 'Flavour Physics' as its main theme. The sighting by the UA1 experiment at CERN's proton-antiproton collider and by the ARGUS team at DESY of 'oscillations' in the electrically neutral B mesons carrying the beauty quantum number, and the measurement at CERN of a new parameter in the delicate violation of combined particle-antiparticle and left-right symraetry (CP) in the decays of neutral kaons have made this subject particularly topical

  8. DESY: Theory with flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckl, R.

    1989-03-15

    Last year, the annual Theory Workshop at the German DESY Laboratory in Hamburg had 'Flavour Physics' as its main theme. The sighting by the UA1 experiment at CERN's proton-antiproton collider and by the ARGUS team at DESY of 'oscillations' in the electrically neutral B mesons carrying the beauty quantum number, and the measurement at CERN of a new parameter in the delicate violation of combined particle-antiparticle and left-right symraetry (CP) in the decays of neutral kaons have made this subject particularly topical.

  9. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory analysis of characterising flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüsemann, Erna J.Z.; Lasschuijt, Marlou P.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de René A.; Punter, Pieter H.; Tiel, van Loes; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M.; Nobelen, van de Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Liang; He, Yun-Biao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Lan-Fang; Xie, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria.

  13. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  14. Characterisation of the semi-volatile component of Dissolved Organic Matter by Thermal Desorption - Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materić, Dušan; Peacock, Mike; Kent, Matthew; Cook, Sarah; Gauci, Vincent; Röckmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a sensitive, soft ionisation method suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic vapours. PTR-MS is used for various environmental applications including monitoring of volatile organic compounds

  15. Flavour physics and flavour symmetries after the first LHC phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; Buttazzo, D.; Sala, F.; Straub, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on flavour symmetries only, there are two ways to give rise to an effective description of flavour physics in the quark sector close to the CKM picture: one is based on U(3)_q×U(3)_u×U(3)_d (or equivalent) and the other on U(2)_q×U(2)_u×U(2)_d (or equivalent). In this context we analyze the current status of flavour physics measurements and we compare their impact, in the specific case of supersymmetry, with the direct searches of new particles at the LHC, present or foreseen

  16. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-05-31

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

  17. Volatiles produced by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus during growth in sausage minces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1999-01-01

    Aseptic model minces were inoculated with commercial samples of either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus. Volatiles produced by the cultures were collected during growth by diffusive sampling onto adsorbent traps, identified by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...... and quantified by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation. The data were analysed by principal component analysis. The study showed that both starter cultures produced a large number of volatiles in concentrations of sensory importance. Almost all of the major volatiles resulted from amino acid...... degradation, suggesting that the effect of Staphylococcus starter cultures on flavour quality is much related to their ability of catabolizing amino acids. With the exception of diacetyl, acetoin and 2-methyl-1-butanol, both cultures formed the same volatiles. Diacetyl and acetoin were not produced...

  18. Flavour physics at LHCb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected results of the LHCb experiment, running at the LHC with ppcollisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, are reported here, after operation with a total integratedluminosity of 3.0 fb−1 (Run 1. We focus on the most recent analyses on flavour physics,that include measurements of the CKM invariant phases γ and β, precision determination of the quark coupling strength Vub, observation of the very rare decays B0(s→μ+μ−, search for new physics in the anomalous branching ratio of B→D*τv̄, and precision angular analysis of the rare decays B0→K*0μ+μ− and B0s→ϕμ+μ−. Detailed comparisons are performed in all cases with the predictions of the Standard Model, and a fewinteresting tensions are observed.

  19. Minimal Flavour Violation and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2012-01-01

    We review the formulation of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis in the quark sector, as well as some "variations on a theme" based on smaller flavour symmetry groups and/or less minimal breaking terms. We also review how these hypotheses can be tested in B decays and by means of other flavour-physics observables. The phenomenological consequences of MFV are discussed both in general terms, employing a general effective theory approach, and in the specific context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the SM.

  20. Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: airborne measurements in North-Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study of atmospheric aerosol measurements exploring the impact of the vertical distribution of aerosol chemical composition upon the radiative budget in North-Western Europe is presented. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS on both an airborne platform and a ground-based site at Cabauw in the Netherlands. The examined period in May 2008 was characterised by enhanced pollution loadings in North-Western Europe and was dominated by ammonium nitrate and Organic Matter (OM. Both ammonium nitrate and OM were observed to increase with altitude in the atmospheric boundary layer. This is primarily attributed to partitioning of semi-volatile gas phase species to the particle phase at reduced temperature and enhanced relative humidity. Increased ammonium nitrate concentrations in particular were found to strongly increase the ambient scattering potential of the aerosol burden, which was a consequence of the large amount of associated water as well as the enhanced mass. During particularly polluted conditions, increases in aerosol optical depth of 50–100% were estimated to occur due to the observed increase in secondary aerosol mass and associated water uptake. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo was also shown to increase with height in the boundary layer. These enhancements combined to increase the negative direct aerosol radiative forcing by close to a factor of two at the median percentile level. Such increases have major ramifications for regional climate predictions as semi-volatile components are often not included in aerosol models.

    The results presented here provide an ideal opportunity to test regional and global representations of both the aerosol vertical distribution and subsequent impacts in North-Western Europe. North-Western Europe can be viewed as an analogue for the possible future air quality over other polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where

  1. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Biotechnology of flavours and fragrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocho, Shinobu

    1987-10-20

    This paper presents the research and development of fragrant materials using the technologies of microorganism, enzyme and tissue culture. Flavour of dairy products by diacetyl, flavour and tests of blue cheese by methyl ketones, formation of small of fruit such as banana, grapefruit, lemon and peach, flavour of dairy products by reacting butterfat with lipase, patchoulenol as cosmetic perfume, production of musk perfume from carboxylic acid biologically produced from n-paraffin, cool taste of l-menthol and production of lactones for food flavour are being investigated using microorganisms and enzymes. The production of essential oil is being studied by the tissue culture of fragrant plants. Some of these studies have been commercialized and some of them are being developed. The characteristic biochemical processes such as stereospecific reaction, stereoselective reaction and asymmetric reaction will be applied to the conversion of material using biocatalyst. (5 figs, 43 refs)

  3. Flavour physics: status and prospects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The flavour physics sector provides accurate measurements of Standard Model (SM) parameters and probes the existence of new particles at energy scales well beyond the reach of direct detection. In the light of the Tevatron and B-factories legacy, as well as the LHC run I data, I will review what flavour physics tells us today about the SM and about possible physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). I will then present the progress anticipated from the LHC run II, as well as from NA62 and Belle II, before discussing the experimental challenges that we need to overcome in order to produce precise flavour measurements in high luminosity environments, such as those to be faced at the LHC Run III and at the HL-LHC. I will conclude by discussing how future flavour measurements will guide direct searches for BSM physics, whether deviations from the SM picture are observed or not.

  4. Heavy flavour production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.

  5. Heavy Flavour Production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    2001-01-01

    ZEUS and H1 results on heavy quark production using the HERA data from 1995 to 2000 are summarised with emphasis on unresolved problems. The HERA upgrade and its impact on future heavy flavour measurements is briefly discussed

  6. The Challenges of Flavour Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Isidori, Gino

    2010-01-01

    The open problems and the most recent developments in flavour physics are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the current "anomalies" in the CKM picture and their possible interpretation in beyond-the-Standard-Model frameworks.

  7. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  8. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and .... might reveal something completely unexpected. Standard Model weak ..... Thus, in order to have an observable CP violation effect in the SM, the mixing.

  9. Selective Detection of Target Volatile Organic Compounds in Contaminated Humid Air Using a Sensor Array with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-01-01

    We investigated selective detection of the target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nonanal, n-decane, and acetoin for lung cancer-related VOCs, and acetone and methyl i-butyl ketone for diabetes-related VOCs, in humid air with simulated VOC contamination (total concentration: 300 μg/m3). We used six “grain boundary-response type” sensors, including four commercially available sensors (TGS 2600, 2610, 2610, and 2620) and two Pt, Pd, and Au-loaded SnO2 sensors (Pt, Pd, Au/SnO2), and two “bulk-response type” sensors, including Zr-doped CeO2 (CeZr10), i.e., eight sensors in total. We then analyzed their sensor signals using principal component analysis (PCA). Although the six “grain boundary-response type” sensors were found to be insufficient for selective detection of the target gases in humid air, the addition of two “bulk-response type” sensors improved the selectivity, even with simulated VOC contamination. To further improve the discrimination, we selected appropriate sensors from the eight sensors based on the PCA results. The selectivity to each target gas was maintained and was not affected by contamination. PMID:28753948

  10. Volatility of components of saturated vapours of UCl4-CsCl and UCl4-LiCl molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.V.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Salyulev, A.B.; Komarov, V.E.; Posokhin, Yu.V.; Afonichkin, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The flow method has been used for measuring the volatility of the components from UCl 4 -CsCl and UCl 4 -LiCl melted mixtures containing 2.0, 5.0, 12.0, 25.0, 33.0, 50.0, 67.0, and 83.0 mol.% of UCl 4 within the temperature ranges of 903-1188 K and 740-1200 K, respectively. The chemical composition of saturated vapours above the melted salts has been determined. The melted mixtures in question exhibit negative deviation from ideal behaviour. Made was the conclusion about the presence in a vapour phase, along with monomeric UCl 4 , LiCl, CsCl and Li 2 Cl 2 , Cs 2 Cl 2 dimers of double compounds of the MeUCl 5 most probable composition. Their absolute contribution into a total pressure above the UCl 4 -CsCl melted mixtures is considerably smaller than above the UCl 4 -LiCl mixtures

  11. High hydrostatic pressure treatments enhance volatile components of pre-germinated brown rice revealed by aromatic fingerprinting based on HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Mei, Jun; Yu, Wenjuan; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    Germination favors to significantly enhance functional components and health attributes of whole-grain brown rice (BR), but the production of germinated BR (GBR) compromises the typical rice flavor perception due to soaking process. Simultaneously, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered as an effective processing technique to enhance micronutrients utilization efficiency of GBR and improve products flavor, but no information about the effects of HHP treatments on volatile fingerprinting of GBR has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this work was to apply HHP to improve the flavor and odor of GBR grains by exploring HHP-induced changes in aroma compounds. GBR grains were obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h, and subsequently subjected to HHP treatments at pressures 100, 300 and 500MPa for 15min, using 0.1MPa as control. Headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize process-induced shifts of volatile organic compounds fingerprinting, followed by multivariate analysis. Our results confirmed the significant reduction of total volatile fractions derived from germination process. Contrarily, the following HHP treatments greatly enhanced the flavor components of GBR, particularly characteristic odorants including aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Principal component analysis further indicated the different influence of germination and high pressure on the changes in volatile components. Partial least square-discrimination analysis suggested that 4-vinylguaiacol was closely linked to germination, whereas E,E-2,4-decadienal, E-2-hexenal, E,E-2,4-heptadienal and benzyl alcohol could be considered as volatile biomarkers of high pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavour mixings in flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero-modes in flux compactifications. The flavour structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero-modes. We consider a supersymmetric SO(10) x U(1) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T 2 =Z 2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16-plet charged under the U(1) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10-plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16- and 10-plets. The corresponding zero-modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavour phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavour mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  14. Heavy Higgs searches. Flavour matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Stefania; Paul, Ayan

    2017-10-01

    We point out that the stringent lower bounds on the masses of additional electrically neutral and charged Higgs bosons crucially depend on the flavour structure of their Yukawa interactions. We show that these bounds can easily be evaded by the introduction of flavour-changing neutral currents in the Higgs sector. As an illustration, we study the phenomenology of a two Higgs doublet model with a Yukawa texture singling out the third family of quarks and leptons. We combine constraints from low-energy flavour physics measurements, LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson rates, and LHC searches for new heavy Higgs bosons. We propose novel LHC searches that could be performed in the coming years to unravel the existence of these new Higgs bosons.

  15. Heavy Higgs searches. Flavour matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, Stefania [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Juste, Aurelio [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalanade Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Paul, Ayan [INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    We point out that the stringent lower bounds on the masses of additional electrically neutral and charged Higgs bosons crucially depend on the flavour structure of their Yukawa interactions. We show that these bounds can easily be evaded by the introduction of flavour-changing neutral currents in the Higgs sector. As an illustration, we study the phenomenology of a two Higgs doublet model with a Yukawa texture singling out the third family of quarks and leptons. We combine constraints from low-energy flavour physics measurements, LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson rates, and LHC searches for new heavy Higgs bosons. We propose novel LHC searches that could be performed in the coming years to unravel the existence of these new Higgs bosons.

  16. Flavour physics from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, G; Scrucca, C A; Silvestrini, L

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of introducing an SU(2) global flavour symmetry in the context of flat extra dimensions. In particular we concentrate on the 5-dimensional case and we study how to obtain the flavour structure of the Standard Model quark sector compacti(ying the fifth dimension on the orbifold St/Z2 a la Scberk-Scbwarz (SS). We show that in this case it is possible to justify the five orders of magnitude among the values of the quark masses with only one parameter: the SS flavour parameter. The non-local nature of the SS symmetry breaking mechanism allows to realize this without introducing new instabilities in the theory.

  17. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  18. Organic aerosol in the summertime southeastern United States: components and their link to volatility distribution, oxidation state and hygroscopicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatility distribution of the organic aerosol (OA and its sources during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS; Centreville, Alabama was constrained using measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a thermodenuder (TD. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis was applied on both the ambient and thermodenuded high-resolution mass spectra, leading to four factors: more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA, an isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX-related factor (isoprene-OA and biomass burning OA (BBOA. BBOA had the highest mass fraction remaining (MFR at 100 °C, followed by the isoprene-OA, and the LO-OOA. Surprisingly the MO-OOA evaporated the most in the TD. The estimated effective vaporization enthalpies assuming an evaporation coefficient equal to unity were 58 ± 13 kJ mol−1 for the LO-OOA, 89 ± 10 kJ mol−1 for the MO-OOA, 55 ± 11 kJ mol−1 for the BBOA, and 63 ± 15 kJ mol−1 for the isoprene-OA. The estimated volatility distribution of all factors covered a wide range including both semi-volatile and low-volatility components. BBOA had the lowest average volatility of all factors, even though it had the lowest O  :  C ratio among all factors. LO-OOA was the more volatile factor and its high MFR was due to its low enthalpy of vaporization according to the model. The isoprene-OA factor had intermediate volatility, quite higher than suggested by a few other studies. The analysis suggests that deducing the volatility of a factor only from its MFR could lead to erroneous conclusions. The oxygen content of the factors can be combined with their estimated volatility and hygroscopicity to provide a better view of their physical properties.

  19. Melt inclusion evidence for a volatile-enriched (H2O, Cl, B) component in parental magmas of Gorgona Island komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, V.; Sobolev, A.; McDonough, W.

    2003-04-01

    Late Cretaceous komatiites of Gorgona Island are unambiguous samples of ultra-mafic melts related to a hot and possibly 'wet' mantle plume. Despite significant efforts in studying komatiites, their volatile abundances remain largely unknown because of significant alteration of rocks and lack of fresh glasses. This work presents major, trace and volatile element data for 22 partially homogenised (at 1275oC and 1 bar pressure) melt inclusions in olivine (Fo 90.5-91.5) from a Gorgona Isl. komatiite (# Gor 94-3). Major element compositions (except FeO which is notably lower by up to 5 wt% as a result of post-entrapment re-equilibration) and most lithophile trace elements of melt inclusions are indistinguishable from the whole rock komatiites. With the exception of three inclusions that have low Na, H2O, Cl, F and S (likely compromised and degassed during heating) most compositions are characterised by relatively constant and high volatile abundances (H2O 0.4-0.8 wt%, Cl 0.02-0.03 wt%, B 0.8-1.4 ppm). These are interpreted as representative of original volatiles in parental melts because they correspond to the internal volatile pressure in the closed inclusions significantly exceeding 1 bar pressure of heating experiment. Although H2O is strongly enriched (PM-normalised H2O/Ce 10-17) its concentrations correlate well with many elements (e.g. Yb, Er, Y, Ti, Sr, Be). Other positive anomalies on the overall depleted (La/Sm 0.26-0.33) PM normalized compositional spectra of melt inclusions are shown by B (B/K 2.4-5.4) and Cl (Cl/K 11-16). Compositions of melt inclusions, when corrected for Fe loss and recalculated in equilibrium with host olivine, have high MgO (15.4-16.4 wt%; Mg# of 74) and substantial H2O (0.4-0.6 wt%) contents. This together with the data on other 'enriched' elements argues for the presence of previously unknown volatile-enriched component in the parental melts of Gorgona Isl. komatiites. We discuss contamination of magmas by altered oceanic crust in the

  20. Top-flavoured dark matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-05-31

    We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to right-handed up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral D meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consider all of these constraints in turn, studying their implications for the allowed parameter space. Imposing the mass limits and coupling benchmarks from collider searches, we then conduct a combined analysis of all the other constraints, revealing their non-trivial interplay. Especially interesting is the combination of direct detection and relic abundance constraints, having a severe impact on the structure of the dark matter coupling matrix. We point out that future bounds from upcoming direct detection experiments, such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LUX-ZEPLIN, and DARWIN, will exclude a large part of the parameter space and push the DM mass to higher values.

  1. Improvement in shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves through integration of kinetin pretreatment and packaging interventions: Studies on microbial population dynamics, biochemical characteristics and flavour retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, K; Shivashankara, K S; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Roy, T K; Bharathamma, H

    2017-04-15

    Effect of integrating optimized combination of pretreatment with packaging on shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves (MPCL) was appraised through analysis of their sensory attributes, biochemical characteristics, microbial population and flavour profile during storage. Minimally pretreated cilantro leaves pretreated with 50ppm kinetin and packed in 25μ polypropylene bags showed a shelf life of 21days. Optimized combination helped in efficiently maintaining sensory parameters, flavour profile, and retention of antioxidants in MPCL until 21days. Studies conducted on the effect of optimized combination on microbial population and flavour profile revealed that among different microorganisms, pectinolysers had a significant effect on spoilage of MPCL and their population of ⩽3.59logcfu/g was found to be acceptable. Principal component analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-hexadecenal, (E)-2-tetradecenal & (E)-2-tetradecen-1-ol in stored samples clustered with fresh samples and therefore, could be considered as freshness indicators for MPCL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Challenges of Flavour Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidori, Gino [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study - IAS-TUM, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation deals with the 'big' challenges of flavour physics. To a large extent, the origin of 'flavour' is still a mystery... Our 'ignorance' can be summarized by the following two open questions: What determines the observed pattern of masses and mixing angles of quarks and leptons? Which are the sources of flavour symmetry breaking accessible at low energies? Some 'popular' answers to the first question are obtained by means of Abelian or non-Abelian continuous flavour symmetries, Discrete flavour symmetries, Fermion profiles in extra dimensions, but other options are also possible. In all cases it is quite easy to reproduce the observed mass matrices in terms of a reduced number of free parameters, while it is difficult to avoid problems with FCNCs (without some amount of fine-tuning). Hard to make progress without knowing the ultraviolet completion of the SM. Answering the second question is more easy: It can be formulated independently of the UV completion of the theory. It is mainly a question of precision (both on the theory and on the experimental side). The good overall consistency of the experimental constraints appearing in the so-called CKM fits seems to indicate there is not much room for new sources of flavour symmetry breaking. Despite the overall success of the 'standard picture' looking more closely there a few 'anomalies' that is worth to investigate in more detail. Three particularly interesting cases are: The sin(2{beta}) tension in the CKM fit, the CP violation in B{sub s} mixing and B(B {yields} {tau}{nu}). Several attempts to explain these effects have appeared in the recent literature. In particular there is three classes of models where there has been considerable activity in the last few months, and which are quite interesting because of clear correlations among various observables: Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with MFV, large tan{beta} and flavour-blind phases, Right

  3. Lifetime of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1985-10-01

    Recent measurements of the lifetime of the tau leptons and charm and beauty hadrons are reviewed and their significance for the couplings of the charged weak current, flavour mixing, and models relating quarks to hadron decay are discussed. 70 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Yeast genomics on food flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung Ah

    2005-01-01

    The appearance and concentration of the fusel alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol is important for the flavour of fermented foods. 3-Methyl-1-butanol is formed by yeast during the conversion of L-leucine. Identification of the enzymes and genes involved in the formation of 3-methyl-1-butanol is a major

  5. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...

  6. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  7. The Flavour Portal to Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    We present a class of models in which dark matter (DM) is a fermionic singlet under the Standard Model (SM) gauge group but is charged under a symmetry of flavour that acts as well on the SM fermions. Interactions between DM and SM particles are mediated by the scalar fields that spontaneously break the flavour symmetry, the so-called flavons. In the case of gauged flavour symmetries, the interactions are also mediated by the flavour gauge bosons. We first discuss the construction and the generic features of this class of models. Then a concrete example with an abelian flavour symmetry is considered. We compute the complementary constraints from the relic abundance, direct detection experiments and flavour observables, showing that wide portions of the parameter space are still viable. Other possibilities like non-abelian flavour symmetries can be analysed within the same framework.

  8. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO x generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented

  9. Comparative study of volatile components from male and female flower buds of Populus × tomentosa by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Liu, Haiping; Ma, Yucui; Wu, Cui; Li, Ruiqi; Chao, Zhimao

    2018-06-13

    The differences of volatile components in male (MFB) and female flower buds (FFB) of Populus × tomentosa were analysed and compared by HS-SPME with GC-MS for the first time. A total of 34 compounds were identified. Two clusters were clearly divided into male and female by hierarchical clustering analysis. Both the male and female flower buds showed methyl salicylate (22.83 and 24.09%, respectively) and 2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (10.05 and 12.41%, respectively) as the main volatile constituents. The content of 2-cyclohexen-1-one, benzyl benzoate, and methyl benzoate in FFB was remarkably higher than in MFB. In contrast, the content of ethyl benzoate in MFB was greater than that in FFB. The phenomena showed the characteristic differences between MFB and FFB of P. × tomentosa, which enriched the basic studies on dioecious plant.

  10. Two-component mantle melting-mixing model for the generation of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Implications for the volatile content of the Pacific upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-03-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in

  11. A novel hybrid tobacco product that delivers a tobacco flavour note with vapour aerosol (Part 1): Product operation and preliminary aerosol chemistry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Simon; Sutton, Joseph; Goodall, Sharon; Margham, Jennifer; Forster, Mark; Scott, Ken; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Murphy, James; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Vapour products have demonstrated potential to be a lower-risk alternative to cigarettes. The present study describes a novel hybrid tobacco product that combines a warm aerosol stream generated by an electronic vaporisation mechanism with tobacco top flavour from cut tobacco. During operation, the aerosol stream released from the vapour cartomiser is passed through a bed of blended cut tobacco by the puffing flow, elevating the tobacco temperature and eluting volatile tobacco flavour components. A preliminary but comprehensive analysis of the aerosol composition of the hybrid tobacco product found that emissions were dominated by the control vapour formulation. In non-targeted chemical screening, no detectable difference in GC scans was observed between the hybrid tobacco product and the control vapour product. However, a sensorially elevated tobacco flavour was confirmed by a consumer sensory panel (P products, only 26 were quantified. The novel action of tobacco heating and liquid aerosolisation produced classes and levels of toxicants that were similar to those of the control vapour product, but much lower than those of a Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette. For nine toxicants mandated by the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation for reduction in cigarette emissions, the levels were 91%-99% lower per puff in the hybrid tobacco product aerosol than in 3R4F smoke. Overall, the novel hybrid tobacco product provides a sensorially enhanced tobacco flavour, but maintains a toxicant profile similar to its parent vapour product with relatively low levels of known cigarette smoke toxicants. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillinger, K.H.

    2000-03-01

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the

  13. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  14. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid determination of the volatile components in tobacco by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Chu, Guohai; Zhou, Guojun; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Kailong; Pan, Yuanjiang; Song, Zhiyu; Li, Zuguang; Xia, Qian; Lu, Xinbo; Xiao, Weiqiang

    2016-03-01

    An ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction was first employed to determine the volatile components in tobacco samples. The method combined the advantages of ultrasound, microwave, and headspace solid-phase microextraction. The extraction, separation, and enrichment were performed in a single step, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. In the developed method, several experimental parameters, such as fiber type, ultrasound power, and irradiation time, were optimized to improve sampling efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, there were 37, 36, 34, and 36 components identified in tobacco from Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, and Zimbabwe, respectively, including esters, heterocycles, alkanes, ketones, terpenoids, acids, phenols, and alcohols. The compound types were roughly the same while the contents were varied from different origins due to the disparity of their growing conditions, such as soil, water, and climate. In addition, the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method was compared with the microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction methods. More types of volatile components were obtained by using the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method, moreover, the contents were high. The results indicated that the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique was a simple, time-saving and highly efficient approach, which was especially suitable for analysis of the volatile components in tobacco. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analysis of Volatile Components of Varietal English Wines Using Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Caven-Quantrill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS, to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel tank-fermented/matured Huxelrebe, Ortega, Schönburger and Siegerrebe varietal wines from a commercial English vineyard, with corresponding wines produced by oak cask (‘barrel’ fermentation/maturation. Aroma profiles of tank and barrel wines were different, with more volatiles detected and net concentrations being higher in barrel wines. Long chain ethyl carboxylate esters were generally more abundant in barrel wines, whereas acetate esters were generally more prominent in tank wines. By conducting a short (~7 month maturation period in secondhand (third or fourth fill casks, it was possible to make wines with more complex aromas, but without obvious oak aroma.

  17. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. DeepFlavour in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.

  20. The flavour of natural SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [SISSA/ISAS, Trieste (Italy); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita; Smith, Christopher [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    An inverted mass hierarchy in the squark sector, as in so-called ''natural supersymmetry'', requires non-universal boundary conditions at the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. We propose a formalism to define such boundary conditions in a basis-independent manner and apply it to generic scenarios where the third-generation squarks are light, while the first two-generation squarks are heavy and near-degenerate. We show that not only is our formalism particularly well suited to study such hierarchical squark mass patterns, but in addition the resulting soft terms at the TeV scale are manifestly compatible with the principle of minimal flavour violation, and thus automatically obey constraints from flavour physics. (orig.)

  1. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key-components

  2. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  3. Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  4. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt......-% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  5. Flavour tagging at the future linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    High performance flavour tagging of jets containing heavy flavours is crucial for the studies planned for the future high energy e + e - Linear Collider (LC). Pixel detectors have proven to provide very powerful flavour identification, for this reason the Linear Collider Flavour Identification collaboration has decided to concentrate its R and D work for the future LC on a Charged Coupled Device pixel vertex detector, and study the flavour tagging performance of the design to optimize it. In this work we first evaluate the basic tracking performance. We then estimate the flavour tagging performance of the present detector layout, using a neural network approach. We conclude by studying the energy dependence of the performance

  6. Heavy flavour production in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The status of heavy flavour production in QCD is reviewed. Recent results on the doubly-differential cross section are discussed for the photoproduction of heavy flavours. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical calculation is discussed both for b production at hadron colliders and c production in fixed-target hadroproduction and photoproduction. The possibility of using photoproduction of heavy flavour in order to determine the gluon density in the proton is also discussed. (author). 38 refs., 8 figs

  7. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  8. Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukeatirote, E.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented soybeans are traditional foods widely consumed in many countries (i.e., Natto in Japan, Jang in Korea, Kinema in India, Douichi in China, and Thua Nao in Thailand. In this study, an attempt was made with an expectation to improve the fermentation process using a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Initially, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with two inocula; for this, three different ratios between B. subtilis and R. oligosporus used were 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100. The fermentation was then carried out at 30°C for 3 days. The volatile compounds in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products were determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS and extracted using a solid phase microextraction (SPME technique. In total, 165 compounds were identified in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products. For the non-fermented products, the predominant volatile compounds were alcohols (25.81%, aldehydes (13.64%, acids and esters (7.57%, furans (6.13% and ketones (0.88%. In contrast, the major volatiles compounds presented in the fermented soybeans were as follows: i The treatment of 100:0 consisted of acids and esters (35.89%, alcohols (14.55%, aldehydes (8.72%, ketones (4.97%, pyrazines (4.87%, and furans (4.22%; ii 50:50 comprised of acids and esters (55.62%, alcohols (16.22%, aldehydes (7.80%, pyrazine (3.65%, ketones (2.55%, furans (1.67%, and aromatic compounds (1.46%; and iii 0:100 included acids and esters (66.50%, alcohols (15.44%, aldehydes (2.59%, ketones (2.72%, furans (1.89%, aromatic compounds (1.80%, pyrazines (1.35%, and sulphur containing compounds (0.24% respectively.

  9. Definitions of minimal flavour violation for leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palorini, F.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino masses imply the violation of lepton flavour and new physics beyond the Standard Model. However, flavour change has only been observed in oscillations. In analogy with the quark sector, we could deduce the existence of a principle of Minimal Flavour Violation also for Leptons (MFVL). Such an extension is not straightforward, since the mechanisms generating neutrino masses are unknown and many scenarios can be envisaged. Thus, we explore some possible definitions of MFVL and propose a notion that can include many models. We show, furthermore, that flavour violating processes are not necessarily controlled by the PMNS mixing matrix. (author)

  10. Heavy flavour production at RHIC and LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenti Gian Michele

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this proceedings, I present selected experimental results on heavy-flavour production at RHIC and at the LHC, which were presented at the Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 conference. I will present a brief introduction to the heavy-flavour physics in heavy ion collisions and I will focus on recents measurements of in-medium energy loss and and collective properties of heavy-flavour particles, which provided important information on the mechanisms of heavy flavour interaction with the hot and dense medium created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  12. Flavour preferences in youth versus adults: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allison C; Salgado, Raydel Valdes; Dresler, Carolyn; Faller, Rachel Williams; Bartlett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the available evidence of how children and adults differ in their preferences for flavours that may be used in tobacco products. Data sources A total of 474 articles published between 1931 and August 2015 were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Study selection and extraction A 2-phase relevancy review process resulted in the identification of 59 articles and information was extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Data synthesis Findings were grouped by taste and smell preferences, which are important components of overall flavour. For taste, evidence is summarised in the following categories: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami and fat; within each of them, findings are organised by age categories. For smell, evidence is summarised as follows: fruit/herbal/spices, tobacco and coffee and other odours. Major findings from this search indicated that sweet preference in children and adolescents was higher than in adults. Examples of preferred food-related tastes and odours for young people included cherry, candy, strawberry, orange, apple and cinnamon. Currently, all these are used to flavour cigars, cartridges for electronic cigarettes, hookah (waterpipe) and smokeless tobacco products. Conclusions Infants and children exhibited elevated sweet and salty preference relative to adults. Age-related changes in bitter, sour, umami and fat taste were not clear and more research would be useful. ‘Sweet’ food odours were highly preferred by children. Tobacco products in flavours preferred by young people may impact tobacco use and initiation, while flavours preferred by adults may impact product switching or dual use. PMID:27633764

  13. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  14. [GC-MS combined with AMDIS and Kováts retention index to investigate dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ping; Pan, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Mei-Jun; Luo, Guan-Hua; Liu, You-Ping

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees (from slight stir-baking, stir-baking to yellow, stir-baking to brown, to stir-baking to scorch). In the present experiment, the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples with different stir-baking degrees were collected at different processing time points. The contents of volatile oil in various samples were determined by steam distillation method, and the volatile compounds were extracted by using static headspace sampling method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS) and automated mass spectral deconrolution and identification system (AMDIS) were combined with Kováts retention index to analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile compounds. The results showed that with the deepening of the stir-baking degree, the content of volatile oil was decreased step by step in 4 phases, and both the compositions and contents of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma showed significant changes. The results showed that the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in the process of stir-baking were closely related to the processing degree; in addition, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and honey bran had adsorption on each other. These results can provide a scientific basis for elucidating the stir-baking (with bran) mechanism of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Changes in physico-chemical characteristics and volatile flavour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut and soy based products have been considered to have poor sensory ... of these products have been significantly lower than the traditional dairy products. ... contain significant amounts of these oilseed proteins for their health benefits.

  16. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  17. Heavy flavour decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, D H

    2001-01-01

    Recent heavy flavour results from LEP experiments are presented. Special emphasis is put on complex inclusive B reconstruction methods with high potentialities for lifetime, mixing, CP violation studies and new measurements of IVubl· The new world average of r8-f'r8o is 1.08 ± 0.03. The new world average of Re parameter measured in inclusive B0 decay is 0.001 ± 0.009. The new LEP average of JV ub I measured from inclusive b->ulv branching fraction is 4.

  18. Lifetimes of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, R.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetimes of heavy-flavour hadrons are reviewed. After a brief discussion of the theoretical predictions, the problem of averaging lifetime measurements is discussed. The various experimental measurements are then presented and suitable averages performed. Charmed meson lifetimes are now measured to the few percent level, better that theory can predict, whilst for charmed baryons the lifetime hierarchy has been established for the first time. For beauty hadrons the lifetimes are measured at the 6-10 % level, and are in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations. Beauty baryon studies ar just beginning. (author)

  19. Flavour generation during commercial barley and malt roasting operations: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Hafiza; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2014-02-15

    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoparticle-Incorporated PDMS Film as an Improved Performance SPME Fiber for Analysis of Volatile Components of Eucalyptus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Aberoomand Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fabrication strategy was proposed to prepare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS- coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME on inexpensive and unbreakable Cu fiber. PDMS was covalently bonded to the Cu substrate using self-assembled monolayer (SAM of (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3MPTS as binder. To increase the performance of the fiber, the incorporation effect of some nanomaterials including silica nanoparticles (NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH to PDMS coating was compared. The surface morphology of the prepared fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their applicability was evaluated through the extraction of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs of Eucalyptus leaf in headspace mode, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized. Extracted compounds were analyzed by GC-MS instrument. The results obtained indicated that prepared fibers have some advantages relative to previously prepared SPME fibers, such as higher thermal stability and improved performance of the fiber. Also, results showed that SPME is a fast, simple, quick, and sensitive technique for sampling and sample introduction of Eucalyptus VOCs.

  1. Activated Carbon Adsorption Characteristics of Multi-component Volatile Organic compounds in a Fixed Bed Adsorption Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jong Hoon; Rhee, Young Woo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sihyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to examine absorption characteristics of toluene, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethyl acetate (EA), and ternary-compounds, all of which are widely used in industrial processes, by means of four types of commercial activated carbon substances. It turned out that among the three types of volatile organic compounds, the breakthrough point of activated carbon and that of IPA, whose affinity was the lowest, were the lowest, and then that of EA and that of toluene in the order. With the breakthrough point of IPA, which was the shortest, as the standard, changes in the breakthrough points of unary-compounds, binary-compounds, and ternary-compounds were examined. As a result, it turned out that the larger the number of elements, the lower the breakthrough point. This resulted from competitive adsorption, that is, substitution of substances with a low level of affinity with those with a high level of affinity. Hence, the adsorption of toluene-IPA-EA and ternary-compounds require a design of the activated carbon bed based on the breakthrough of IPA, and in the design of activated carbon beds in actual industries as well, a substance whose level of affinity is the lowest needs to be the standard.

  2. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemical differences among all cultivars and identify markers characteristic of a particular botanical origin of the coffee. The major fatty acids of coffee were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and arachic acid. Leucine (0.84 g/100 g DW, lysine (0.63 g/100 g DW, and arginine (0.61 g/100 g DW were the predominant essential amino acids (EAAs in the coffee samples. Seventy-nine volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by HS-SPME/GC-MS. PCA of the complete data matrix demonstrated that there were significant differences among all cultivars, HCA supported the results of PCA and achieved a satisfactory classification performance.

  3. Multi-component determination of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds in soils and vegetation from Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Carvalho, Mariana; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José Luis; Ratola, Nuno; Nadal, Martí

    2018-08-01

    Tarragona County (Spain) is home to the most important chemical/petrochemical industrial complex in Southern Europe, which raises concerns about the presence and effects of the numerous environmental contaminants. In order to assess the levels and patterns of five classes of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), synthetic musks (SMs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and one organochlorine pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 27 samples of soil and vegetation (Piptatherum L.) from different areas (petrochemical, chemical, urban/residential, and background) of Tarragona County were analysed. The results show that PAHs levels in soils ranged from 45.12 to 158.00ng/g and the urban areas presented the highest concentrations, mainly associated with the presence of a nearby highway and several roads with heavy traffic. PAHs levels in vegetation samples ranged from 42.13 to 80.08ng/g, where the greatest influence came from the urban and petrochemical areas. In the case of SMs, levels in soils and vegetation samples ranged from 5.42 to 10.04ng/g and from 4.08 to 17.94ng/g, respectively, and in both cases, background areas (at least 30km away from the main SVOCs emission sources) showed the highest levels, suggesting an influence of the personal care products derived from beach-related tourism in the coast. PCBs (from 6.62 to 14.07ng/g in soils; from 0.52 to 4.41ng/g in vegetation) prevailed in the chemical area in both matrices, probably associated with the presence of two sub-electrical stations located in the vicinities. In general terms, BFRs and HCB values recorded in soil and vegetation samples were quite similar between matrices and sampling areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  6. Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Lasschuijt, Marlou P; de Graaf, C; de Wijk, René A; Punter, Pieter H; van Tiel, Loes; Cremers, Johannes W J M; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-23

    Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  7. Finite flavour groups of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, Walter; Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the theory of finite groups, with regard to their application as flavour symmetries in particle physics. In a general part, we discuss useful theorems concerning group structure, conjugacy classes, representations and character tables. In a specialized part, we attempt to give a fairly comprehensive review of finite subgroups of SO(3) and SU(3), in which we apply and illustrate the general theory. Moreover, we also provide a concise description of the symmetric and alternating groups and comment on the relationship between finite subgroups of U(3) and finite subgroups of SU(3). Although in this review we give a detailed description of a wide range of finite groups, the main focus is on the methods which allow the exploration of their different aspects. (topical review)

  8. Massive Neutrinos and Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, A; Vives, O; Masiero, Antonio; Vempati, Sudhir K.; Vives, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the large lepton flavour violation (LFV) observed in neutrino oscillations, within the Standard Model, we do \\textit{not} expect any visible LFV in the charged lepton sector ($\\mu \\to e, \\gamma$, $\\tau \\to \\mu, \\gamma$, etc.). On the contrary, the presence of new physics close to the electroweak scale can enhance the amplitudes of these processes. We discuss this in general and focus on a particularly interesting case: the marriage of low-energy supersymmetry (SUSY) and seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses (SUSY seesaw). Several ideas presented in this context are reviewed both in the bottom-up and top-down approaches. We show that there exist attractive models where the rate for LFV processes can attain values to be probed in pre-LHC experiments.

  9. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism is then applied to discuss the status of important B-factory benchmark modes, where we focus on puzzling patterns in the data that may indicate new-physics effects, as well as the prospects for B-decay studies at the LHC.

  10. Massive neutrinos and flavour violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, via F Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Vempati, Sudhir K [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, via F Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Vives, Oscar [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    In spite of the large lepton flavour violation (LFV) observed in neutrino oscillations, within the Standard Model, we do not expect any visible LFV in the charged lepton sector ({mu} {yields} e, {gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}, {gamma}, etc). On the contrary, the presence of new physics close to the electroweak scale can enhance the amplitudes of these processes. We discuss this in general and focus on a particularly interesting case: the marriage of low-energy supersymmetry (SUSY) and seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses (SUSY seesaw). Several ideas presented in this context are reviewed both in the bottom-up and top-down approaches. We show that there exist attractive models where the rate for LFV processes can attain values to be probed in pre-LHC experiments.

  11. Precision physics with heavy-flavoured hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Koppenburg, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of flavour dynamics is one of the key aims of elementary particle physics. The last 15 years have witnessed the triumph of the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism, which describes all flavour changing transitions of quarks in the Standard Model. This important milestone has been reached owing to a series of experiments, in particular to those operating at the so-called $B$ factories, at the Tevatron, and now at the LHC. We briefly review status and perspectives of flavour physics, highlighting the results where the LHC has given the most significant contributions, notably including the recent observation of the $B_s^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay.

  12. Multivariate analysis of the volatile components in tobacco based on infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Zhou, Guojun; Chu, Guohai; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Kailong; Xia, Qian; Cheng, Changhe

    2016-11-01

    A novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method has been developed for the rapid determination of the volatile components in tobacco. The optimal extraction conditions for maximizing the extraction efficiency were as follows: 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber, extraction time of 20 min, infrared power of 175 W, and distance between the infrared lamp and the headspace vial of 2 cm. Under the optimum conditions, 50 components were found to exist in all ten tobacco samples from different geographical origins. Compared with conventional water-bath heating and nonheating extraction methods, the extraction efficiency of infrared-assisted extraction was greatly improved. Furthermore, multivariate analysis including principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and similarity analysis were performed to evaluate the chemical information of these samples and divided them into three classifications, including rich, moderate, and fresh flavors. The above-mentioned classification results were consistent with the sensory evaluation, which was pivotal and meaningful for tobacco discrimination. As a simple, fast, cost-effective, and highly efficient method, the infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique is powerful and promising for distinguishing the geographical origins of the tobacco samples coupled to suitable chemometrics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers based on their main components: Cellulose, xylan and lignin. TG-FTIR analysis of volatile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica, E-mail: monica_benitez_guerrero@yahoo.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain); López-Beceiro, Jorge [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial II, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade da Coruña, Avda. Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Sánchez-Jiménez, Pedro E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pascual-Cosp, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of sisal fibers has been discussed. • Decompositions of lignocellulosic components and sisal are compared by TXRD and TG-FTIR. • Hot washing reduces the temperature range in which sisal decomposition occurs. • Sisal cellulose decomposition goes by an alternative route to levoglucosan generation. - Abstract: This paper presents in a comprehensive way the thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers, based on the fundamental components of lignocellulosic materials: cellulose, xylan and lignin. The research highlights the influence exerted on the thermal stability of sisal fibers by other constituents such as non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and mineral matter. Thermal changes were investigated by thermal X-ray diffraction (TXRD), analyzing the crystallinity index (%Ic) of cellulosic samples, and by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled with Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (TG/DTA-FTIR), which allowed to examine the evolution of the main volatile compounds evolved during the degradation under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The work demonstrates the potential of this technique to elucidate different steps during the thermal decomposition of sisal, providing extensible results to other lignocellulosic fibers, through the analysis of the evolution of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, formaldehyde and 2-butanone, and comparing it with the volatile products from pyrolysis of the biomass components. The hydroxyacetaldehyde detected during pyrolysis of sisal is indicative of an alternative route to that of levoglucosan, generated during cellulose pyrolysis. Hot-washing at 75 °C mostly extracts non-cellulosic components of low decomposition temperature, and reduces the range of temperature in which sisal decomposition occurs, causing a retard in the pyrolysis stage and increasing Tb{sub NCP} and Tb{sub CEL}, temperatures at the

  14. Flavour symmetries and SUSY soft breaking in the LHC era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, O

    2008-01-01

    The so-called supersymmetric flavour problem does not exist in isolation to the Standard Model flavour problem. We show that a realistic flavour symmetry can simultaneously solve both problems without ad hoc modifications of the SUSY model. Furthermore, departures from the SM expectations in these models can be used to discriminate among different possibilities. In particular we present the expected values for the electron EDM in a flavour model solving the supersymmetric flavour and CP problems

  15. Volatile components of essential oil from cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mayuko; Myoda, Takao; Wakita, Yoichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Ikuko; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic components in the essential oil prepared from the leaves of cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa were compared with those from oil derived wild plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). We found that essential oils from both the wild and cultivated plants contained similar aromatic components such as β-elemenone, selina 3,7(11)-diene, myrcene, limonene, cymene, 1,8-cineole, and β-pinene, but the content ratio of the oil was significantly different, which might yield differences in the aromatic properties. The aroma impact components of the essential oils were also determined using GC/MS-Olfactometry (GC/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis. Eight aromatic compounds, including linalool, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, were shown to contribute to the aromatic properties of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa. The strongest aromatic note was defined as linalool, followed by limonene, 1,8-cineole, and β-elemenone. The essential oil, ethanol (EtOH), 1,3-butylene glycol (BG), and 1,3-propanediol (PD) extracts prepared from the leaves of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa also showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, that is, they demonstrated scavenger activity against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in the aqueous phase, and showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. The essential oil extracts also exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value against Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the essential oil and solvent extracts from cultivated M. gala var. tomentosa have a potential for utilization as food and cosmetic ingredients.

  16. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  17. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  18. Extraction and Identification of Volatile Components of Two Salvia Species Native to Iran (Salvia limbata and S. multicaulis by Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramezani

    2016-02-01

    sage leaves mixed into a 20 ml screw-on cap HS vial to 5 ml of 5% Ethanol and 0.5 mg of Na2SO4. The vials were sealed after stirringwith a Teflon (PTFE septum and an aluminum cap (Chromacol, Hertfordshire, UK for the production of headspace and the successive analysis. The sample vial was put in the instrument dry block-heater and held at 40°C for 20 min to come into equilibrium. The extraction and injection processes were automatically performed using an auto sampler MPS 2 (Gerstel, Mülheim, Germany. The fiber was, then, automatically inserted into the vial’s septum for 10 min, to allow the volatile compounds absorption onto the SPME fiber surface. Each SPME fiber was conditioned before its first use, as recommended by the manufacturer. In order to desorb the volatile metabolites, the SPME fiber was introduced into the injector port of the gas chromatograph device, model GC 7890A, Agilent (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, USA coupled with a mass spectrometer 5975 C (Agilent wherein the metabolites were thermally desorbed and transferred directly to a capillary column HP-Innowax (30m×0.25 mm×0.5µm Agilent J&W and analyzed. The identification of VOMs was accomplished by comparing the retention times of the chromatographic peaks with those, when available, of authentic standards run under the same conditions. For volatiles for which reference substances were not available, the identification was performed by matching their retention indices (RI determined relative to the retention time of a series of n-alkanes (C8–C20 with linear interpolation, with those of authentic compounds or literature data (Van Den Dool&Kratz, 1963. Confirmation of metabolites identification was also conducted by searching mass spectra in the available database (NIST, version 2005; Wiley, version 2007. Results and Discussion: 66 volatile components were identified in Salvia limbata, which Sabinene (19.16%, β-Pinene (19%, α-Pinene (16.3%, α-Terpinolene (14.41%, 1,8-Cineole (10.86% and

  19. b-flavour tagging in pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.

  20. Flavour physics in the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Tim

    2014-01-01

    These lectures give a topical review of heavy flavour physics, in particular \\CP violation and rare decays, from an experimental point of view. They describe the ongoing motivation to study heavy flavour physics in the LHC era, the current status of the field emphasising key results from previous experiments, some selected topics in which new results are expected in the near future, and a brief look at future projects.

  1. Controlled production of Camembert-type cheeses. Part II. Changes in the concentration of the more volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Latrille, Eric; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2004-08-01

    Flavour generation in cheese is a major aspect of ripening. In order to enhance aromatic qualities it is necessary to better understand the chemical and microbiological changes. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two replicates performed under controlled conditions of temperature (12 degrees C), relative humidity (95 +/- 2%), and atmosphere showed similar ripening characteristics. The evolutions of metabolite concentrations were studied during ripening. The volatile components were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction, separated and quantified by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. For each cheese the volatile concentrations varied with the part considered (rind or core). Except for ethyl acetate and 2-pentanone, the volatile quantities observed were higher than their perception thresholds. The flavour component production was best correlated with the starter strains. During the first 10 days the ester formations (ethyl, butyl and isoamyl acetates) were associated with the concentrations of K. lactis and G. candidum. The rind quantity of esters was lower than that observed in core probably due to (1) a diffusion from the core to the surface and (2) evaporation from the surface to the chamber atmosphere. G. candidum and Brev. linens association produced 3 methyl butanol and methyl 3-butanal from leucine, respectively. DMDS came from the methionine catabolism due to Brev. linens. Styrene production was attributed to Pen. camemberti. 2-Pentanone evolution was associated with Pen. camemberti spores and G. candidum. 2-Heptanone changes were not directly related to flora activities while 2-octanone production was essentially due to G. candidum. This study also demonstrates the determining role of volatile component diffusion.

  2. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  3. Flavour-flavour learning occurs automatically and only in hungry participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Fletcher, Hollie Z

    2008-01-28

    A novel flavour may become liked if it is presented repeatedly and in combination with a second flavour that is already liked. Conceptually, this 'flavour-flavour learning' is important, because it can account for many of our everyday food and flavour preferences. However, relatively little is known about the underlying process because learning paradigms have lacked reliability. Based on previous research we explored whether learning is determined by three variables; i) hunger state, ii) demand and contingency awareness, and iii) dietary restraint. Participants (male n=15/female n=15) consumed three different and novel-tasting fruit teas. One of the teas had a non-caloric sweetener added (CS+) and two were unsweetened (CS-). Before and after this training the participants ranked their preference for unsweetened versions of the three teas. We found that the training increased preference for the CS+ relative to the CS- teas. However, this effect was only found in hungry participants. We also found little evidence that learning was related to whether the participants could identify (recognition test) the specific tea that had been sweetened during training, suggesting that the underlying process is automatic and it operates outside conscious awareness. Learning was not predicted by dietary restraint (measured using the DEBQ-R scale). Together, these findings provide further evidence for a linkage between flavour-flavour learning and flavour-nutrient learning.

  4. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the key element is the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be -- after a brief look at the kaon system -- our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, explore the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss B^0_q--B^0_q_bar mixing (q={d,s}). We will then turn to B-factory benchmark modes, discuss the physics potential of B^0_s mesons, which is particularly promising for B-decay experiments at hadron colliders, and emphasize the importance of studies of rare decays, which are absent at the tree level in the Standard Model, complement nicely the studies of CP violation, and provide interesting probes for new physics.

  5. Heavy flavour physics at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this lecture I summarize the LEP results on heavy flavour physics. The topics that are covered are mainly in the field of beauty physics and can be divided in: B physics at the Z resonance (Γsub(b anti b), Asub(b anti b) fb , χ), Beauty signals (B s , Λ b , J/ψ), B lifetime measurements (τ b , τ Bs , τ Λb , τ B+ , and τ B0 ). In the first part I discuss the measurements of the width Γsub(b anti b) and asymmetry Asub(b anti b) fb for the process Z →b anti b, and a determination of the average mixing parameter χ of the b quark. In the second part evidence for B s , Λ b , and J/ψ production in Z decays is shown. In the last part I summarize the measurements of the average b lifetime, and the lifetimes for charged and neutral B hadrons. (orig.)

  6. Lepton-flavour violation in a Pati-Salam model with gauged flavour symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Luhn, Christoph; Moch, Paul [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät,Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2016-11-11

    Combining Pati-Salam (PS) and flavour symmetries in a renormalisable setup, we devise a scenario which produces realistic masses for the charged leptons. Flavour-symmetry breaking scalar fields in the adjoint representations of the PS gauge group are responsible for generating different flavour structures for up- and down-type quarks as well as for leptons. The model is characterised by new heavy fermions which mix with the Standard Model quarks and leptons. In particular, the partners for the third fermion generation induce sizeable sources of flavour violation. Focusing on the charged-lepton sector, we scrutinise the model with respect to its implications for lepton-flavour violating processes such as μ→eγ, μ→3e and muon conversion in nuclei.

  7. The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R.; Pleiter, D.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2012-12-01

    By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.

  8. The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-12-15

    By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.

  9. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-01-01

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the ΔF = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B s mixing and the tension between ε K and S ψKS .

  10. Volatility of components of saturated vapours of UCl/sub 4/-CsCl and UCl/sub 4/-LiCl molten mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, M V; Kudyakov, V Ya; Salyulev, A B; Komarov, V E; Posokhin, Yu V; Afonichkin, V K

    1979-01-01

    The flow method has been used for measuring the volatility of the components from UCl/sub 4/-CsCl and UCl/sub 4/-LiCl melted mixtures containing 2.0, 5.0, 12.0, 25.0, 33.0, 50.0, 67.0, and 83.0 mol.% of UCl/sub 4/ within the temperature ranges of 903-1188 K and 740-1200 K, respectively. The chemical composition of saturated vapours above the melted salts has been determined. The melted mixtures in question exhibit negative deviation from ideal behaviour. Made was the conclusion about the presence in a vapour phase, along with monomeric UCl/sub 4/, LiCl, CsCl and Li/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, Cs/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ dimers of double compounds of the MeUCl/sub 5/ most probable composition. Their absolute contribution into a total pressure above the UCl/sub 4/-CsCl melted mixtures is considerably smaller than above the UCl/sub 4/ -LiCl mixtures.

  11. SUMMER CONFERENCES: Heavy on flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-15

    correlate contributions from the different experiments, LEP Working Groups take results from all four - Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal - to furnish a useful pan-LEP result. Precision information comes from analysing the different decay channels of the Z - giving various kinds of lepton pairs and different patterns of quark flavour. In particular the asymmetries of lepton pairs (electrons, muons or taus) or quarkantiquark pairs reflect the interference of different weak effects. In this precision work, the spin orientation (polarization) of the tau lepton provides a useful additional handle. With the decays of the Z into heavy quarks providing especially useful information, a special working group pulls together results in this sector from the four LEP experiments and from SLD at the SLC. The Standard Model predicts exactly the Z decays into different quark-antiquark pairs. Each of the four LEP experiments has so far seen about half a million examples of Zs decaying into B particles containing the fifth (b) quark. Combining these with results from SLD, the fraction of Z decays into B pairs, compared to decays into all quark flavours, is slightly too high for Standard Model comfort - 22.19% compared with an expected 21.56%. At the current level of LEP/ SLC precision, this disagreement of about half a percent is practically a yawning gap. Already some physicists are talking about a possible breakdown of the Standard Model foundations, which have so far remained firm for more than a decade.

  12. SUMMER CONFERENCES: Heavy on flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    of results has narrowed. To correlate contributions from the different experiments, LEP Working Groups take results from all four - Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal - to furnish a useful pan-LEP result. Precision information comes from analysing the different decay channels of the Z - giving various kinds of lepton pairs and different patterns of quark flavour. In particular the asymmetries of lepton pairs (electrons, muons or taus) or quarkantiquark pairs reflect the interference of different weak effects. In this precision work, the spin orientation (polarization) of the tau lepton provides a useful additional handle. With the decays of the Z into heavy quarks providing especially useful information, a special working group pulls together results in this sector from the four LEP experiments and from SLD at the SLC. The Standard Model predicts exactly the Z decays into different quark-antiquark pairs. Each of the four LEP experiments has so far seen about half a million examples of Zs decaying into B particles containing the fifth (b) quark. Combining these with results from SLD, the fraction of Z decays into B pairs, compared to decays into all quark flavours, is slightly too high for Standard Model comfort - 22.19% compared with an expected 21.56%. At the current level of LEP/ SLC precision, this disagreement of about half a percent is practically a yawning gap. Already some physicists are talking about a possible breakdown of the Standard Model foundations, which have so far remained firm for more than a decade

  13. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC' workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays' and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  14. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC'workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays'and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  15. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  16. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    as cooked wheat grain, flour porridge and for eight of these varieties, baked bread. Descriptors for odours of cocoa, oat porridge and øllebrød1) and flavours of sweet, bitter, oat porridge and øllebrød1) were common to all three wheat products. Wheat porridge shared 6 odour and 10 flavour descriptors...... be connected. This Ph. D. project aims to study sensory attributes and volatile compounds of wheat and its products in order to investigate variations between wheat species, landraces and modern varieties and to reveal their impact on bread odours and flavours. Furthermore to examine whether bread could......) were used to analyse sensory and GC-MS data. Differences in odours and flavours were found in all wheat products. Variation also occurred between volatile peak-areas of wheat grain- and bread samples. Twenty four selected wheat species, landraces and varieties were evaluated by trained sensory panels...

  17. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulation is used to decrease the premature release of volatile flavour ingredients while offering protection against environmental damage such as oxidation, light-induced reactions, etc. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is investigated here as a 'smart,' temperature responsive membrane for flavour encapsulation and delivery. Gel films were synthesized and characterized by diffusion and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Increasing temperature typically increases the diffusion rate across a membrane; HPC, however, can be tailored to give substantially improved elevated temperature properties. Scattering results indicate processing conditions have a significant impact on membrane morphology (micro phase separation). Under certain synthetic conditions, micro phase separation is mitigated and the membranes show temperature-independent diffusivity between 25 C and 60 C.

  18. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  19. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  20. New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, R. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)

  1. New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, R.

    2009-06-01

    Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)

  2. Leading Particle Production in Light Flavour Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The energy distribution and type of the particle with the highest momentum in quark jets are determined for each of the five quark flavours making only minimal model assumptions. The analysis is based on a large statistics sample of hadronic Z0 decays collected with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider. These results provide a basis for future studies of light flavour production at other centre-of-mass energies. We use our results to study the hadronisation mechanism in light flavour jets and compare the data to the QCD models JETSET and HERWIG. Within the JETSET model we also directly determine the suppression of strange quarks to be gamma_s=0.422+-0.049 (stat.)+-0.059 (syst.) by comparing the production of charged and neutral kaons in strange and non-strange light quark events. Finally we study the features of baryon production.

  3. On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such 'indirect' models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) groups, together with other examples such as Z 7 x Z 3 . In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.

  4. Searches for lepton flavour violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Charged lepton flavour is conserved within the Standard Model (SM) up to exceedingly small rates of about $10^{-50}$. This makes charged lepton flavour violation (cLFV) a very interesting place to look for hints of New Physics (NP). In fact, many NP scenarios predict cLFV to occur at rates within the reach of the experiments. Finding these transitions would mean a definite departure from the SM, while not finding them narrows the NP phase space. In this seminar, the latest LHCb results in the cLFV sector will be presented, and their implications for NP scenarios discussed.

  5. Flavour Tagging developments within the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grabalosa, Marc

    Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment is a fundamental tool for the measurement of B oscillations and the study of CP violation. This document explains the development of different tagging techniques and the different strategies used to combine them to determine the flavour of the B meson as precisely as possible. The response of the tagging algorithms also needs to be optimized and calibrated. Both procedures are described using the available LHCb datasets corresponding to various integrated luminosities. First results on the tagging performances are shown for different control channels and physics measurements.

  6. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  7. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Tests of lepton flavour universality at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lupato, Anna

    2018-01-01

    In the Standard Model the electroweak coupling of the gauge bosons to leptons is independent of the lepton flavour. Semileptonic and rare decays of b quarks provide an ideal laboratory to test this property. Any violation of Lepton Flavour Universality would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this work a review of the Lepton Flavour Universality tests performed using data collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012 at a centre of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV is presented.

  9. Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.

  10. LHCb New algorithms for Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The Flavour Tagging technique allows to identify the B initial flavour, required in the measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems. The identification performances at LHCb are further enhanced thanks to the contribution of new algorithms.

  11. An expert system for automated flavour matching - Prioritizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Bárbara Santos; Tøstesen, Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Flavour matching can be viewed as trying to reproduce a specific flavour. This is a time consuming task and may lead to flavour mixtures that are too complex or too expensive to be commercialized. In order to facilitate the matching, we have developed a new mathematical model, called Prioritizer....

  12. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  13. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  15. Multiquark baryons with broken flavour symmetry 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroldsen, J.

    The calculation of the spectrum of 4qq multiquark baryons is carried out, taking into account that SU(3) flavour is broken. To handle this problem, which includes manipulation of giant expressions for the wavefunctions, methods suitable for programming in SCHOONSCHIP are developed and employed. (Auth)

  16. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  17. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the ...

  18. Flavour Tagging Algorithms and Performances in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Musy, M

    2007-01-01

    In this note we describe the general characteristics of the LHCb flavour tagging algorithms and summarize the tagging performances on the Monte Carlo samples generated for the Data Challenge 2004 in different decay channels. We also discuss some systematics effects and possible methods to extract the mistag fraction in real data.

  19. General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    De Causmaecker, Karen; Herrmann, Bjoern; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja

    2015-11-19

    We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  20. A simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, Simon; Blanke, Monika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the phenomenology of a new physics simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter. The dark matter particle is the lightest Dirac fermion of a new flavour-triplet coupling to the SM up-triplet via a new scalar mediator. The coupling is left general, following Dark Minimal Flavour Violation introduced in arXiv:1405.6709, and therefore is a new source of flavour violation. We study the impact of constraints from both flavour experiments, relic abundance and direct detection constraints, as well as collider bounds.

  1. Mere exposure and flavour-flavour learning increase 2-3 year-old children's acceptance of a novel vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable consumption is low among many children. This study compared the efficacy of the exposure learning strategies mere exposure, flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning in changing children's intake of a novel vegetable. An unmodified artichoke purée was served at pre-testing. Hereafter children were exposed 10 times to unmodified purée (mere exposure, n=32), a sweetened purée (flavour-flavour learning, n=33) or an energy dense purée with added fat (flavour-nutrient learning, n=39). Unmodified and sweet purée contained approximately 200 kJ/100g; the energy dense purée 580 kJ/100g. The unmodified purée was served again at post-testing, 3 and 6 months after last exposure to monitor long-term effects of learning. Intake of purée increased in the mere exposure and flavour-flavour condition, and was unchanged in the flavour-nutrient condition. Mere exposure changed children's intake by the 5th exposure, flavour-flavour learning by the 10th. Mere exposure led to the largest increase in intake of unmodified purée at post-test and over 6 months. Children following flavour-flavour learning consumed more of the sweet purée than of unmodified purée. About 30-40% of the children were resistant to acceptance changes. The results of this study imply that mere exposure and flavour-flavour learning are powerful strategies for changing children's acceptance of a novel vegetable, even though a substantial number of children are resistant to these types of exposure learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and flavour profile properties of yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata; Grega, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fibre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, flavour profile etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and flavour profile parameters of yoghurts. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added (10% w/w) to the processed cow's milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profile analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive flavour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper flavours were dominating in the fermented milks fortified with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin flavours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not influenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable flavour.

  3. Flavour physics and extra-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abhishek M.

    2018-05-01

    Randall-Sundrum (RS) model of warped extra-dimensions were originally proposed to explain the Planck-weak scale hierarchy. It was soon realised that modifications of the original setup, by introducing the fields in the bulk, has several interesting features. In particular it imbues a rich flavour structure to the fermionic sector thereby offering an understanding of the Yukawa hierarchy problem. This construction is also useful in explaining the recently observed deviations in the decay of the B mesons. We consider two scenarios to this effect : A) Right handed muon fields coupled more to NP that the corresponding muon doublets (unorthodox case). Non-universality exists in the right handed sector. B) Standard scenario with anomalies explained primarily by non-universal couplings to the lepton doublets. Further, we establish correlation with the parameter space consistent with the flavour anomalies in the neutral current sector and obtain predictions for rare K- decay which are likely to be another candle for NP with increased precision. The prediction for rare K- decays are different according to the scenario, thereby serving as a useful discriminatory tool. We also discussthe large flavour violation in the lepton sector and present an example with the implementation of bulk leptonic MFV which is essential to realize the model with low KK scales. Further we consider a radical solution, called GUT RS models, where the RS geometry can work as theory of flavour in the absence of flavour symmetries. In this case the low energy brane corresponds to the GUT scale as a result of which RS is no longer solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. The Kaluza Klein (KK) modes in this setup are naturally heavy due to which the low energy constraints can be easily avoided. We use this framework to discuss the supersymmetric version of the RS model and provide means to test this scenario by considering rare lepton decays like τ → μγ.

  4. Cern Academic Training programme 2011 - Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES   4, 5, 6 and 7 April 2011 Flavour Physics and CP Violation Dr. Yosef Nir (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 11:00-12:00 - 4, 6 and 7 April - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant 5 April - Bldg. 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor   The B-factories have led to significant progress in our understanding of CP violation and of flavour physics. Yet, two flavour puzzles remain. The standard model flavour puzzle is the question of why there is smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters. The new physics flavour puzzle is the question of why TeV-scale new physics was not signalled in flavour changing neutral current processes. The high pT experiments, ATLAS and CMS, are likely to shed light on these puzzles. As concerns CP violation, the LHC will lead to progress on the puzzle of the baryon asymmetry as well.  

  5. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  6. Preliminary characterization of wild lactic acid bacteria and their abilities to produce flavour compounds in ripened model cheese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; De Luca, S; Todaro, A; Restuccia, C; Lanza, C M; Spagna, G; Caggia, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to preliminary characterize wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated during artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheese-making for technological and flavour formation abilities in a model cheese system. Twelve LAB were studied for the ability to grow at 10 and 45 degrees C, to coagulate and acidify both reconstituted skim milk and ewe's milk. Moreover, the capacity of the strains to generate aroma compounds was evaluated in a model cheese system at 30- and 60-day ripening. Flavour compounds were screened by sensory analysis and throughout gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Most of the strains were able to grow both at 10 and 45 degrees C and exhibited high ability to acidify and coagulate ewes' milk. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wild strains produced more significant flavour attributes than commercial strains in the 60-day-old model cheese system. GC-MS data confirmed the results of sensory evaluations and showed the ability of wild lactobacilli to generate key volatile compounds. Particularly, three wild lactobacilli strains, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum species, generated both in 60- and 30-day-old model cheeses system, the 3-methyl butan(al)(ol) compound, which is associated with fruity taste. The present work preliminarily demonstrated that the technological and flavour formation abilities of the wild strains are strain-specific and that wild lactobacilli, which produced key flavour compounds during ripening, could be used as tailor-made starters. This study reports the technological characterization and flavour formation ability of wild LAB strains isolated from artisanal Pecorino cheese and highlights that the catabolic activities were highly strain dependent. Hence, wild lactobacilli could be selected as tailor-made starter cultures for the PS cheese manufacture.

  7. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Comparative Analyses of the Volatile Components of Citrus Aurantium L. Flowers Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Headspace SPME and Hydrodistillation Combined with GC-MS and Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Rahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of Citrus aurantium L. flowers were characterized by GC-MS with two different extraction techniques, hydrodistillation (HD and ultrasonic-assisted headspace solid phase microextraction (UA-HS-SPME. In the SPME method, the volatile components of the samples, irradiated by ultrasonic radiation, were collected on a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS commercial fiber as well as some manually prepared nanoporous fibers from the samples headspace. To reach the better results, the extraction conditions were carefully optimized for the PDMS fiber. Under the optimized conditions (i.e. sonication time 15 min, extraction time 30 min and extraction temperature 55 ºC, 54 compounds were identified by the UA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The essential oil components of Citrus aurantium L. flower samples from two different regions of Iran and new and old samples from the same region were compared to one another. The major components identified for the samples with both the SPME and HD methods were linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, β-myrcene, geranyl acetate, and neryl acetate, respectively. However, a substantial variation in the percentages of the components was identified for different samples and different extraction methods. The antimicrobial activities of the oil were also examined against six standard bacteria. There was some activity against Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus, indicating important biological activities of the oil.

  9. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  10. Two approaches towards the flavour puzzle. Dynamical minimal flavour violation and warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Michaela E.

    2010-08-16

    The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work

  11. Two approaches towards the flavour puzzle. Dynamical minimal flavour violation and warped extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Michaela E.

    2010-01-01

    The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work

  12. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  13. A comparative study of volatile components in Dianhong teas from fresh leaves of four tea cultivars by using chromatography-mass spectrometry, multivariate data analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Chenxia; Kong, Yawen; Peng, Xiaopei; Li, Changwen; Liu, Shunhang; Du, Liping; Xiao, Dongguang; Xu, Yongquan

    2017-10-01

    Dianhong teas produced from fresh leaves of different tea cultivars (YK is Yunkang No. 10, XY is Xueya 100, CY is Changyebaihao, SS is Shishengmiao), were compared in terms of volatile compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. A total of 73 volatile compounds in 16 tea samples were tentatively identified. YK, XY, CY, and SS contained 55, 53, 49, and 51 volatile compounds, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to classify the samples, and 40 key components were selected based on variable importance in the projection. Moreover, 11 flavor attributes, namely, floral, fruity, grass/green, woody, sweet, roasty, caramel, mellow and thick, bitter, astringent, and sweet aftertaste were identified through descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). In generally, innate differences among the tea varieties significantly affected the intensities of most of the key sensory attributes of Dianhong teas possibly because of the different amounts of aroma-active and taste components in Dianhong teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavour Physics in the LHC Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.

    2011-01-01

    This decade will allow to improve the resolution of the short distance scales by at least an order of magnitude, extending the picture of fundamental physics down to scales 5 x 10 -20 with the help of the LHC. Further resolution down to scales as short as 10 -21 should be possible with the help of high precision experiments in which flavour violating processes will play a prominent role. Will this increase in resolution allow us to see new particles (new animalcula) similarly to what Antoni van Leeuvenhoek saw by discovering bacteria in 1676? The basic question for particle physics is how these new animalcula will look like and which difficulties of the Standard Model (SM) they will help us to solve and which new puzzles and problems they will bring with them. I will describe what role flavour physics will play in these exciting times provided this new world is animalculated. (author)

  15. Flavour democracy calls for the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1992-07-01

    It is argued with the help of an illustrative mode, that the inter species hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with (approximate) flavour democracy provided there are four families of sequential quark-leptons with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed. (author). 15 refs

  16. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258787

    2012-01-01

    At the Moriond QCD conference LHCb has presented results on heavy flavour production and spectroscopy. Here the latest results are discussed, which include the first observation and measurement of the branching fraction of the hadronic decay $B^+_e \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$, the mass measurement of the excited B mesons and the mass measurement of the $\\Xi_b$ and $\\Omega_b$ baryons.

  17. Towards four-flavour dynamical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Inst. de Fiscia Teorica

    2011-03-15

    The inclusion of physical effects from sea quarks has been one of the main advances in lattice QCD simulations over the last few years. We report on recent studies with four flavours of dynamical quarks and address some of the potential issues arising in this new setup. First results for physical observables in the light, strange and charm sectors are presented together with the status of dedicated simulations to perform the non-perturbative renormalisation in mass-independent schemes. (orig.)

  18. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results in heavy flavour production and spectroscopy from the LHCb experiment, obtained using a data-set corresponding to up to 1 fb -1 of pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV. We will discuss the studies of production of B mesons and quarkonium states, and the first observation of excited Λ* b states, as well as the production of double charm and χ c states. (author)

  19. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  20. Adolescents' interest in trying flavoured e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Brewer, N T

    2016-11-01

    More US adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavours. A national sample of adolescents (n=1125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014 to June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavours (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavour on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavoured like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46 to 10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67 to 12.31) or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48 to 17.01) compared with tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavoured e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavoured e-cigarettes (p<0.05). Perceived harm mediated the relationship between some flavours and interest in trying e-cigarettes. A minority of adolescents believed that e-cigarettes did not have nicotine (14.6%) or did not know whether they had nicotine (3.6%); these beliefs did not vary by flavour. Candy-flavoured, fruit-flavoured and menthol-flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to adolescents more than tobacco-flavoured or alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes. This appeal is only partially explained by beliefs about reduced harm. Given adolescents' interest in trying e-cigarettes with certain flavours, policymakers should consider restricting advertisements promoting flavoured products in media that reach large numbers of young people. Future research should examine other reasons for the appeal of individual flavours, such as novelty and perceived luxury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Neutrino-Flavoured Sneutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John; McCullough, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique `smoking gun' signature--sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of nu_mu and nu_tau (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides from broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaddou, H.; Mhaisen, M.T.; Al-Adamy, L.Z.; Naji, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of gamma-irradiation (2.5 to 10 KGy) on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides of broad bean were investigated. The method used for the cooked flavour analysis involved low temperature distillation. Gas-chromatography was used to separate the flavour extracts into their various constituents. The major volatile free fatty acids isolated are C16, C18, C18:1, and C20. Identification of the major peaks from the non-acid fraction were carried out. Identified peaks were hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Most of the compounds found to increase with increase in radiation dose. On the other hand, sensory evaluation tests indicated no changes in broad bean flavour quality after irradiation. Sugars were also analysed by gas chromatographic method after TMS-ether derivatization. Fructose, α and β-glucose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were the major sugars present. The gas-forming oligosaccharides were found to decrease with increase in dose applied. On the other hand, other sugars found to increase with increase in radiation dose. (author)

  3. Power-law correlations in finance-related Google searches, and their cross-correlations with volatility and traded volume: Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 428, č. 1 (2015), s. 194-205 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Online searches * Google Trends * Long-term memory * Cross-correlations * Volatility * Traded volume Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452317.pdf

  4. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of the Volatile Components of Cold Pressed Hamlin and Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Orange Oils Affected by Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from huanglongbing (HLB symptomatic and asymptomatic cold pressed orange oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia fruit were assessed. Qualitative gas-liquid chromatography studies showed the presence of several compounds (β-longifolene, perillene, and 4-decenal which are not commonly identified in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck oils. Oils derived from huanglongbing symptomatic fruit had lower concentrations of linalool, decanal, citronellol, neral, geranial, carvone, dodecanal, and 2-decenal and higher concentrations of citronellal compared to asymptomatic fruit. A comparison to historic literature of orange oil investigations before HLB was of issue in Florida orange crops showed lower levels of linalool, decanal, neral, and geranial in Hamlin peel oil samples, as well as higher levels of dodecanal. Valencia peel oil samples showed lower concentrations of linalool and increased concentration of citronellol and dodecanal. As a result of huanglongbing (HLB phenomena, the concentrations of several important volatiles found in Hamlin and Valencia peel oil profiles have changed compared to historic values. Differences in volatile concentrations of symptomatic and asymptomatic HLB affected peel oil compounds in orange fruit are identified.

  6. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  7. Flavour tagging of $b$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mueller, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed $b$ hadrons, is essential for precision measurements of decay time-dependent $CP$ violation and of mixing parameters in the the neutral $B$ meson systems. LHC's $pp$ collisions with their high track multiplicities constitute a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of $CP$ violation measurements in decays of $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons.

  8. arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.

  9. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  10. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  11. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  12. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  13. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food

  14. Effective theories with broken flavour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.D.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The work of Ovrut and Schnitzer on effective theories derived from a non Abelian Gauge Theory is generalised to include the physically interesting case of broken flavour symmetry. The calculations are performed at the 1-loop level. It is shown that at an intermediate stage in the calculations two distinct renormalised gauge coupling constants appear, one describing gauge field coupling to heavy particles and the other describing coupling to light particles. Appropriately modified Slavnov-Taylor identities are shown to hold. A simple alternative to the Ovrut-Schnitzer rules for calculating with effective theories is also considered

  15. The colour and flavour 1/N expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    General ideas about the colour and flavour 1/N expansions are presented in a non-specialized fashion according to both: a unified approach to meson dynamics (the basic logical scheme, lepton-hadron interactions, hadronic processes in lowest order, higher order effects and the Reggeon calculus); and a possible extension to baryons (difficulties with baryons in dual and gauge theories, possible definition of dual baryons in quantum chromodynamics, lowest order B anti-B and BB scattering: baryonium, Reggeon calculus for processes involving baryons)

  16. Test of lepton flavour universality at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lionetto, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents the $R_D{\\ast}$ and $R_K$ measurements, which are a clean probe of lepton flavour universality, and the angular analyses of the $B^0 \\to K^\\ast {0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to K^\\ast{0} ~e^+ e^-$ decays, which allow to search for New Physics in rare decays proceeding through ${\\text a} ~b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ transition. All measurements have been performed by the LHCb collaboration using the full statistics of LHC Run I. An overview of the ongoing and future measurements is given in the conclusions.

  17. Discrete Symmetries and Models of Flavour Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we shall give an overview of the role of discrete symmetries, including both CP and family symmetry, in constructing unified models of quark and lepton (including especially neutrino) masses and mixing. Various different approaches to model building will be described, denoted as direct, semi-direct and indirect, and the pros and cons of each approach discussed. Particular examples based on Δ(6n 2 ) will be discussed and an A to Z of Flavour with Pati-Salam will be presented. (paper)

  18. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, H.; Muenchen Univ.; Plankl, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.)

  20. Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Braun, Svende Annelies

    2015-01-01

    This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.

  1. Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the Maillard reaction for food quality and focuses on flavour compound formation. The most important classes of Maillard flavour compounds are indicated and it is shown where they are formed in the Maillard reaction. Some emphasis is given on the kinetics of

  2. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavour chemicals in a sample of non-cigarette tobacco products without explicit flavour names sold in New York City in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Shannon M; Schroth, Kevin Rj; Grimshaw, Victoria; Luo, Wentai; DeGagne, Julia L; Tierney, Peyton A; Kim, Kilsun; Pankow, James F

    2018-03-01

    Youth who experiment with tobacco often start with flavoured products. In New York City (NYC), local law restricts sales of all tobacco products with 'characterising flavours' except for 'tobacco, menthol, mint and wintergreen'. Enforcement is based on packaging: explicit use of a flavour name (eg, 'strawberry') or image depicting a flavour (eg, a fruit) is presumptive evidence that a product is flavoured and therefore prohibited. However, a tobacco product may contain significant levels of added flavour chemicals even when the label does not explicitly use a flavour name. Sixteen tobacco products were purchased within NYC in 2015 that did not have explicit flavour names, along with three with flavour names. These were analysed for 92 known flavour chemicals plus triacetin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 14 of the 16 products had total determined flavour chemical levels that were higher (>0.3 mg/g) than in previously studied flavour-labelled products and of a chemical profile indicating added flavour chemicals. The results suggest that the tobacco industry has responded to sales restrictions by renaming flavoured products to avoid explicitly identifying them as flavoured. While chemical analysis is the most precise means of identifying flavours in tobacco products, federal tobacco laws pre-empt localities from basing regulations on that approach, limiting enforcement options. If the Food and Drug Administration would mandate that all tobacco products must indicate when flavourings are present above a specific level, local jurisdictions could enforce their sales restrictions. A level of 0.1 mg/g for total added flavour chemicals is suggested here as a relevant reference value for regulating added flavour chemicals in tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. SUSY in processes with flavour violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, P.

    2009-01-01

    I this work we present our first results of the calculation of the branching ratio for rare B 0 s meson di-muon decay. High energy physicists studied flavour changing processes in past decades very intensively. The reason is large sensitivity of such a processes on the contributions of the beyond Standard Model theories, where the amplitudes of flavour changing processes could be enhanced up to several orders by the new particle content. Most of their contributions come from extended Higgs sector. As an example of such a theory and we could say the most favourite one, is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We choose the B 0 s → μ + μ - decay because of its experimental accessibility at LHC. Observation of this process will probably be one of the first signals of new particle physics. We started in our work with short introduction to the idea of supersymmetry, including its motivation in particle physics. Then, in the second chapter, we present the proper calculation of the decay amplitude and branching ration. In all calculations we used MS-renormalization scheme. (author)

  5. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verret, C; Ballestra, P; Cruz, C; Moueffak, A H E; Pardon, P; Largeteau, A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4 0 C or -18 0 C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4 0 C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18 0 C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4 0 C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18 0 C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction

  6. Volatiles in the Martian regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.C.; Baird, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of released volatiles on Mars has been derived based upon Viking measurements of atmospheric and surface chemical composition, and upon the inferred mineralogy of a ubiquitous regolith, assumed to average 200m in depth. This model is consistent with the relative abundances of volatiles (except for S) on the Earth's surface, but implies one-fifteenth of the volatile release of Earth if starting materials were comparable. All constituents are accommodated as chemical components of, or absorbed phases on, regolith materials--without the necessity of invoking unobservable deposits of carbonates, nitrates, or permafrost ice

  7. Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)

  8. Search for Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Characterizing Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography / Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les regards se sont principalement tournés sur les composants à faible polarité dans la résine de feuilles de tabac en raison de leur lien probable avec le goût et l’arôme des produits du tabac, l’absence d’une méthode praticable et d’un outil analytique a longtemps fait obstacle à l’identification des composants non-volatils à faible polarité. L’auteur a, en l’occurrence, porté son attention sur l’analyse recourant à la chromatographie en phase inverse non aqueuse couplée à un détecteur à barrettes de photodiodes et à un détecteur de spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique à pression atmosphérique. Cette analyse fut considérée applicable à la séparation des composants nonvolatils significatifs mais inconnus. Son application a permis, avec succès, de séparer, détecter et quantifier simultanément plus de 100 composants non-volatils présentant des polarités faibles et différenciées. Ces composantes furent, entre autres, des solanésols, des triacylglycérides, des phytostérols et des chlorophylles. Cependant, les données concernant les différences de composition parmi les diverses feuilles de tabac demeurent encore partielles et basées sur une analyse ciblée plutôt que globales et basées sur une analyse exhaustive. Aucune étude n’a été, à ce jour, accomplie qui recense les composants essentiels permettant de distinguer, parmi les feuilles de tabac, les différents goûts, arômes, variétés, cultivars, processus de séchage et régions de culture. Par conséquent, toutes les données de quantification ont été consolidées dans le but de former une matrice multidimensionnelle complète et ont subi un traitement statistique qui a mis en exergue les catégories et les composants-clés des diverses feuilles de tabac grâce à une analyse en composantes principales et une classification hiérarchique. Les feuilles de tabac ont, dans un premier temps, été ventilées en

  9. Heavy flavour and quarkonia measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gallus, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Charm and bottom quarks provide a powerful tool to study the properties of the hot, dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, and in particular may help differentiate between initial and final state effects in large collision systems. Measurements of open heavy flavour particle and quarkonia production, including their prompt and non-prompt components, and their correlations with light hadrons, build a path to understanding how heavy quarks propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. Additionally, an important component in these studies is the comparison between large and small collision systems. In this talk, ATLAS presents results on measurements of quarkonia production in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, including separated prompt and non-prompt particle yields and a new measurement of the anisotropic flow of the J/Psi. The flow measurement provides information on the stage at which charmonium states are formed during the system evolution, thus giving insights on the effects that modify their production. Add...

  10. Modelling the effect of oil/fat content in food systems on flavour absorption by LLDPE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the phenomena in food packaging interactions is flavour absorption. Absorption of flavour compounds from food products into food-packaging materials can result in loss of flavour compounds or an unbalance in the flavour profile changing a product's quality. The food matrix influences the

  11. Theoretical Results in Heavy Flavour Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We review one-particle inclusive production of heavy-flavoured hadrons in a framework which resums the large collinear logarithms through the evolution of the FFs and PDFs and retains the dependence on the heavy-quark mass. We focus on presenting results for the inclusive cross section for the production of charmed mesons in pp-bar collisions and the comparison with CDF data as well as on inclusive B-meson production and comparison with recent CDF data, for which in both new determined fragmentation functions have been used. We asses the sensitivity of CDF data of D 0 inclusive production to the internal charm parametrization given by Pumplin et al. [J. Pumplin, H. L. Lai and W. K. Tung, Phys. Rev. D75, 054029 (2007)].

  12. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.05.023

    2011-01-01

    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep -> mu X and ep -> tau X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s} = 319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb^-1 of e^+ p and 166 pb^-1 of e^- p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e^+- p collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively.

  13. Flavour and spin structure of linear baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarabayashi, K.; Kitakado, S.; Inami, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the string picture, a phenomenological model for baryons is constructed and their flavour symmetry, exchange degeneracy pattern and spin structure are studied. Baryons on leading trajectories are assumed to have the configuration of two quarks being attached to the ends of a linear string and the third sitting in the middle, called linear baryons. For such linear baryons, a unitarization scheme can be constructed in a manner similar to the dual unitarity scheme for mesons but without recourse to the 1/N expansion. It is found that the interchange interaction of the middle quark with one of the other two quarks at the ends of the string can give rise to a larger exchange degeneracy breaking of the baryon spectrum. With this non-planar correction, the model of linear baryons can account for the observed pattern of leading baryon states. (Auth.)

  14. Analysis of Food Taints and off-flavours - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway , Kathy; Lalljie , Samuel P.D.; Smith , Roger M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Taints and off-flavours in foods are a major concern to the food industry. Identification of the compound(s) causing a taint or off-flavour in food and accurate quantitation is critical in assessing the potential safety risks of a product or ingredient. Even when the tainting compound(s) are not at a level that would cause a safety concern, taints and off-flavours can have a significant impact on the quality and consumers' acceptability of products. The analysis of tai...

  15. Enhanced lepton flavour violation in the supersymmetric inverse seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, C

    2013-01-01

    In minimal supersymmetric seesaw models, the contribution to lepton flavour violation from Z-penguins is usually negligible. In this study, we consider the supersymmetric inverse seesaw and show that, in this case, the Z-penguin contribution dominates in several lepton flavour violating observables due to the low scale of the inverse seesaw mechanism. Among the observables considered, we find that the most constraining one is the μ-e conversion rate which is already restricting the otherwise allowed parameter space of the model. Moreover, in this framework, the Z-penguins exhibit a non-decoupling behaviour, which has previously been noticed in lepton flavour violating Higgs decays

  16. Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.

    2012-01-01

    symmetry breaking all the couplings of the superpotential including the R-parity violating ones. If R-parity violation is responsible for neutrino masses, our setup can be seen as an extension of MFV to the lepton sector. We analyze two patterns based on the non-abelian flavour symmetries SU(3)(4) circle...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...

  17. Flavour breaking effects in the pseudoscalar meson decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations

    2016-12-14

    The SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in up, down and strange quark masses is extended from hadron masses to meson decay constants. This allows a determination of the ratio of kaon to pion decay constants in QCD. Furthermore when using partially quenched valence quarks the expansion is such that SU(2) isospin breaking effects can also be determined. It is found that the lowest order SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion (or Gell-Mann-Okubo expansion) works very well. Simulations are performed for 2+1 flavours of clover fermions at four lattice spacings.

  18. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  19. Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malbe, Marge, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks

  20. Meat flavour in pork and beef - From animal to meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, Margit D; Meinert, Lene

    2017-10-01

    An intense meat flavour is greatly appreciated by consumers. Meat flavour is generated during the cooking process through a complex series of chemical reactions between precursors, intermediate reaction products and degradation products. The content and nature of the precursors present in the meat are affected by several factors including genetics, feed, handling of the live animals and subsequent handling of the meat. The fatty acid composition can easily be altered though feeding, especially in monogastric animals, while the carbohydrate content is more closely related to genetics (pigs), feeding in the last days before slaughter and handling at slaughter (both ante and post mortem). Ageing of the meat is not particularly important for the flavour, unless the meat is dry-aged. In comparison, cooking is crucial for the development of flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavour and collider interplay for SUSY at LHC7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibbi, L.; Hodgkinson, R.N.; Vives, O.; Jones Perez, J.; Masiero, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current 7 TeV run of the LHC experiment shall be able to probe gluino and squark masses up to values larger than 1 TeV. Assuming that hints for SUSY are found in the jets plus missing energy channel by the end of a 5 fb -1 run, we explore the flavour constraints on three models with a CMSSM-like spectrum: the CMSSM itself, a seesaw extension of the CMSSM, and Flavoured CMSSM. In particular, we focus on decays that might have been measured by the time the run is concluded, such as B s →μμ and μ→e γ. We also analyse constraints imposed by neutral meson bounds and electric dipole moments. The interplay between collider and flavour experiments is explored through the use of three benchmark scenarios, finding the flavour feedback useful in order to determine the model parameters and to test the consistency of the different models. (orig.)

  2. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    not to present a safety concern, have been specified. In the project a very comprehensive database (the FLAVIS database) has been developed for the evaluation. It compiles information on the about 2800 flavouring substances used in Europe: specifications, structural class, food categories used in, intake data......The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...

  3. Flavour Geometry and Effective Yukawa Couplings in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Lee, Jae Sik; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    We present a new geometric approach to the flavour decomposition of an arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking sector in the MSSM. Our approach is based on the geometry that results from the quark and lepton Yukawa couplings, and enables us to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for a linearly-independent basis of matrices related to the completeness of the internal [SU(3) x U(1)]^5 flavour space. In a second step, we calculate the effective Yukawa couplings that are enhanced at large values of tan(beta) for general soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters. We highlight the contributions due to non-universal terms in the flavour decompositions of the sfermion mass matrices. We present numerical examples illustrating how such terms are induced by renormalization-group evolution starting from universal input boundary conditions, and demonstrate their importance for the flavour-violating effective Yukawa couplings of quarks.

  4. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  5. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Hope; Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative

  6. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran N. Kilcawley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very

  7. Airborne submicron particulate (PM1) pollution in Shanghai, China: chemical variability, formation/dissociation of associated semi-volatile components and the impacts on visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming

    2014-03-01

    Hourly mass concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM1 and gasses (NH3, HNO3, HCl) were on-line measured with a Monitor for AeRosols and Gases Analyzer (MARGA) in Shanghai from Oct. 1 to Nov. 16, 2012. During the field campaign, 7 haze episodes (total 157 h) were identified. 845 h were identified as non-haze periods, excluding fog events and wet precipitation. The average mass concentration of PM1 and total water-soluble ions (TWSI) in PM1 in haze episodes were 78.9 ± 29.9 μg/m(3) and 47.2 ± 17.2 μg/m(3), 3.11 times (from 1.49 to 4.06 times) and 3.28 times (1.96 to 4.34 times) as those in non-haze periods, respectively. TWSI accounted for 60.4 ± 18.8% of PM1 mass loading in the whole campaign. With the ascending PM1 mass concentration from 2.5 to 125.0 μg/m(3) from non-haze periods to haze episodes, average contribution of TWSI to PM1 mass loading decreased from 86.1% to 54.2%, while different species altered. Contribution of NO3(-) increased from 14.0% to 26.8%, while SO4(2-) decreased from 39.5% to 15.0% and NH4(+) remained around 13.7%. Relationship of visibility with PM1 and TWSI was addressed in specific RH ranges. It was found that hourly TWSI mass concentration showed better correlation with visibility. Formation/dissociation of semi-volatiles (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) was also investigated and demonstrated. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl tended to partition into gas phase in non-haze periods. Particularly, strong dissociation from 11:00 LT to 17:00 LT was observed. In haze episodes, HNO3 and HCl tended to react with NH3 to form particulate matters. Interestingly, we found that formation/dissociation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl exerted great impacts on visibility. Excluding the strong dissociation hours (11:00 LT to 17:00 LT) in correlation analysis of PM1 and visibility, correlation coefficients (R(2)) increased from 0.5762 to 0.7738 at RHPM1 under high RH condition and contributed to visibility degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion – Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulations aimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavour compound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline in alginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethyl vanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about 450 ?m. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the algi...

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  10. Heavy flavours production in DIS events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellan, Paolo

    2008-10-15

    The estimation of the fraction of events in which an heavy quark is produced in the deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions is the measurement performed in the present analysis. The analysed data sample corresponds to about 130 pb{sup -1} collected during the years 2004-2005 by the ZEUS detector, located in one of the interaction points of the HERA collider in Hamburg. The measured percentages are directly related to the proton structure, formally encoded by the contribution of the heavy quarks to the structure functions F{sub 2}. The tagging of the events in which an heavy quark is produced is achieved by means of the Impact Parameter method. The correlation between the lifetime of the hadrons and the geometrical properties of the relative tracks makes possible to pick out the heavy flavours production form the background. This kind of 'topological' method makes an extensive use of the silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD). This essential component of the tracking suite of the ZEUS detector has been the major upgrade realized in the second half of the ZEUS experiment data taking period. The achievement of the physical goal has strongly leaned on its performance and reliability, so a considerable part of the work consisted in feasibility, refinement and optimization studies. (orig.)

  11. Heavy flavours production in DIS events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the fraction of events in which an heavy quark is produced in the deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions is the measurement performed in the present analysis. The analysed data sample corresponds to about 130 pb -1 collected during the years 2004-2005 by the ZEUS detector, located in one of the interaction points of the HERA collider in Hamburg. The measured percentages are directly related to the proton structure, formally encoded by the contribution of the heavy quarks to the structure functions F 2 . The tagging of the events in which an heavy quark is produced is achieved by means of the Impact Parameter method. The correlation between the lifetime of the hadrons and the geometrical properties of the relative tracks makes possible to pick out the heavy flavours production form the background. This kind of 'topological' method makes an extensive use of the silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD). This essential component of the tracking suite of the ZEUS detector has been the major upgrade realized in the second half of the ZEUS experiment data taking period. The achievement of the physical goal has strongly leaned on its performance and reliability, so a considerable part of the work consisted in feasibility, refinement and optimization studies. (orig.)

  12. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...

  13. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A fast and simple method for quantitative determination of fat-derived medium and low-volatile compounds in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cheese flavour is a mixture of many (volatile) compounds, mostly formed during ripening. The current method was developed to qualify and quantify fat-derived compounds in cheese. Cheese samples were extracted with acetonitrile, which led to a concentrated solution of potential favour compounds,

  15. Potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterisation of maple syrup flavours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Clément, Alain; Lagacé, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup has high maket value. It is produced in North East America from the heat-evaporated sap of Acer saccharum Marshall. For marketing purposes, there is interest in defining its flavour profile in a consistent and repeatable manner. An experiment was undertaken to explore the potential of autofluorescence of maple syrup induced at 275 and 360 nm to characterise flavours. A mixed data factor analysis revealed two independent groups of variables. One represents early season woody and late season empyreumatic flavours. The other is related to off-flavour, confectionery and maple flavours. Maple and confectionery flavours are subtle, difficult to distinguish and opposed to off-flavour. There were clear relationships among the two groups and fluorescence profiles. For each of the five basic flavours, discriminant models based on partial least squares regressions were developed. For each sample of syrup, flavours combined to form flavour profiles, and the results from the five discriminant models were aggregated to reproduce these profiles. For excitation at 275 nm, the woody/off-flavour and confectionery/empyreumatic/maple flavour profiles were classified correctly 86 and 78% of the time (cross-validation) respectively. Induced autofluorescence spectra were shown to contain information related to maple syrup flavours. This fluorescence-flavour relationship is not considered quantitative yet, and further research avenues are proposed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Flavour blindness and patterns of flavour symmetry breaking in lattice simulations of up, down and strange quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the up-down quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, first for the general 1+1+1 flavour case and then for the 2+1 flavour case (when two quark flavours are mass degenerate). These enable highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results for the 2+1 flavour case confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. Singlet quantities remain constant which allows the lattice spacing to be determined from hadron masses (without necessarily being at the physical point). Furthermore an extension of this programme to include partially quenched results is also given. (orig.)

  17. Permanent and transitory oil volatility and aggregate investment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mansor H.; Ahmed, Huson Joher Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between aggregate investment and oil volatility and its permanent and transitory components for a developing country, Malaysia. In the paper, the components generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CGARCH) model is utilized to decompose conditional oil volatility into permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility. Respectively reflecting fundamental-driven and random shifts in oil volatility, they are expected to exert differential effects on aggregate investment. Adopting a vector autoregression (VAR) framework to allow feedback effects between aggregate investment and its determinants, the paper documents evidence supporting the adverse effects of conditional oil volatility, permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility on aggregate investment and real output. Interestingly, contrary to the findings for the developed markets (US and OECD), the real effects of permanent oil volatility tend to be stronger. These findings are reasonably robust to variable specification and measurements in the VAR system. Hence, there is an indication that heightened oil volatility accounts for the slumps in Malaysia's aggregate investment after the Asian financial crisis. - Highlights: • Examines the role of oil volatility in Malaysia's aggregate investment. • Makes distinction between permanent and temporary volatility using CGARCH. • Both volatility components depress investment. • Permanent volatility has larger adverse effects. • Results are robust to alternative model specifications

  18. Dark Matter and observable lepton flavour violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtier, Lucien; Univ. Libre de Bruxelles; Teresi, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density via the decays of the latter. The phenomenological implications of the model are discussed, finding that large LFV rates, observable in the near-future μ→e conversion experiments, require the DM mass to be in the keV range. Moreover, the active-neutrino coupling to the Majoron-like scalar field could be probed in future detections of supernova neutrino bursts.

  19. Search for lepton flavour violation at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-03-15

    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep{yields}{mu}X and ep{yields}{tau}X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p and 166 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e{sup {+-}}p collisions with a coupling strength of {lambda}=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  1. Flavour Physics with High-Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the first dedicated B-factory experiments BaBar (USA) and BELLE (Japan) Flavour Physics has entered the phase of precision physics. LHCb (CERN) and the high luminosity extension of KEK-B together with the state of the art BELLE II detector will further push this precision frontier. Progress in this field always relied on close cooperation between experiment and theory, as extraction of fundamental parameters often is very indirect. To extract the full physics information from existing and future data, this cooperation must be further intensified. This MIAPP programme aims in particular to prepare for this task by joining experimentalists and theorists in the various relevant fields, with the goal to build the necessary tools in face of the challenge of new large data sets. The programme will begin with a focus on physics with non-leptonic final states, continued by semileptonic B meson decays and Tau decays, and on various aspects of CP symmetry violation closer to the end. In addition, in the final ...

  2. Stability of encapsulated beef-like flavourings prepared from enzymatically hydrolysed mushroom proteins with other precursors under conventional and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Shereen N; Fadel, Hoda H M; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaheen, Mohamed S

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study was carried out between two beef-like flavourings prepared by conventional and microwave heating (CBF and MBF) of enzymatic hydrolysate of mushroom protein with other flavour precursors. GC-MS analysis of the isolated volatiles revealed that the thiol containing compounds were the predominate in both samples. However, MBF comprised higher concentration of these compounds (13.84 ± 0.06%) than CBF (10.74 ± 0.06%). The effect of microencapsulation with gum Arabic by using spray drying on the odour profile and volatile compounds of the two encapsulated samples (E-CBF and E-MBF) was investigated. The results revealed significant qualitative and quantitative variations in the volatiles of both samples. The highly volatile compounds decreased remarkably in concentration with encapsulation, while the pyrazines, thiazoles and disulphides showed opposite trend. The significant decrease in the thiol containing compounds in E-CBF and E-MBF were attributed to their oxidation to other compounds such as disulphide compounds which showed significant increase in the encapsulated samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuchini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Coutinho, Antonio M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Fedele, Marco [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R{sub K} and R{sub K{sup *}}, the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  4. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Coutinho, Antonio M.; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R K and R K * , the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  5. Direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in foods by headspace extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hurtado, P; Palmer, E; Owen, T; Aldcroft, C; Allen, M H; Jones, J; Creaser, C S; Lindley, M R; Turner, M A; Reynolds, J C

    2017-11-30

    The rapid screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by direct analysis has potential applications in the areas of food and flavour science. Currently, the technique of choice for VOC analysis is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the long chromatographic run times and elaborate sample preparation associated with this technique have led a movement towards direct analysis techniques, such as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and electronic noses. The work presented here describes the design and construction of a Venturi jet-pump-based modification for a compact mass spectrometer which enables the direct introduction of volatiles for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Volatile organic compounds were extracted from the headspace of heated vials into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer using a Venturi pump. Samples were analysed directly with no prior sample preparation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate between different classes of samples. The interface is shown to be able to routinely detect problem analytes such as fatty acids and biogenic amines without the requirement of a derivatisation step, and is shown to be able to discriminate between four different varieties of cheese with good intra and inter-day reproducibility using an unsupervised PCA model. Quantitative analysis is demonstrated using indole standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.395 μg/mL and 1.316 μg/mL, respectively. The described methodology can routinely detect highly reactive analytes such as volatile fatty acids and diamines without the need for a derivatisation step or lengthy chromatographic separations. The capability of the system was demonstrated by discriminating between different varieties of cheese and monitoring the spoilage of meats. © 2017 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass

  6. Characteristic vibration patterns of odor compounds from bread-baking volatiles upon protein binding: density functional and ONIOM study and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesuwan, Witcha; Hirao, Hajime; Morokuma, Keiji; Hannongbua, Supa

    2012-05-01

    As the mechanism underlying the sense of smell is unclear, different models have been used to rationalize structure-odor relationships. To gain insight into odorant molecules from bread baking, binding energies and vibration spectra in the gas phase and in the protein environment [7-transmembrane helices (7TMHs) of rhodopsin] were calculated using density functional theory [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)] and ONIOM [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p):PM3] methods. It was found that acetaldehyde ("acid" category) binds strongly in the large cavity inside the receptor, whereas 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine ("roasted") binds weakly. Lys296, Tyr268, Thr118 and Ala117 were identified as key residues in the binding site. More emphasis was placed on how vibrational frequencies are shifted and intensities modified in the receptor protein environment. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the frequency shifts of C-C stretching, CH(3) umbrella, C = O stretching and CH(3) stretching modes have a significant effect on odor quality. In fact, the frequency shifts of the C-C stretching and C = O stretching modes, as well as CH(3) umbrella and CH(3) symmetric stretching modes, exhibit different behaviors in the PCA loadings plot. A large frequency shift in the CH(3) symmetric stretching mode is associated with the sweet-roasted odor category and separates this from the acid odor category. A large frequency shift of the C-C stretching mode describes the roasted and oily-popcorn odor categories, and separates these from the buttery and acid odor categories.

  7. Effects of Idiosyncratic Volatility in Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the effects of the aggregate market volatility components - average volatility and average correlation - on the pricing of portfolios sorted by idiosyncratic volatility, using Brazilian data. The study investigates whether portfolios with high and low idiosyncratic volatility - in relation to the Fama and French model (1996 - have different exposures to innovations in average market volatility, and consequently, different expectations for return. The results are in line with those found for US data, although they portray the Brazilian reality. Decomposition of volatility allows the average volatility component, without the disturbance generated by the average correlation component, to better price the effects of a worsening or an improvement in the investment environment. This result is also identical to that found for US data. Average variance should thus command a risk premium. For US data, this premium is negative. According to Chen and Petkova (2012, the main reason for this negative sign is the high level of investment in research and development recorded by companies with high idiosyncratic volatility. As in Brazil this type of investment is significantly lower than in the US, it was expected that a result with the opposite sign would be found, which is in fact what occurred.

  8. Chemical analysis of turmeric from Minas Gerais, Brazil and comparison of methods for flavour free oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyleni R. A. Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa L cultivated in eight different cities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil was carried out. The levels of curcuminoid pigments varied from 1.4 to 6.14 g/100 g and of volatile oil from 0.97 to 7.55 mL/100 g (dry basis. Samples from Patrocínio, Arinos and Brasilândia contained higher pigment levels compared to the others. The sample from Patrocínio contained the highest volatile oil content. The mean levels of ethyl ether extract, protein, fiber, ash and starch were 8.51, 7.01, 7.22, 7.81 and 39.87 g/100 g dry basis, respectively. Laboratory extraction of flavour free oleoresin was performed in triplicate. A higher yield of pigment in the oleoresin was obtained when the volatile oil was extracted with water vapor and the oleoresin with ethanol. The oleoresin obtained was free of flavour and could be used in a wider range of food applications.Análise química de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L provenientes de oito municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil foi efetuada. Os teores (base seca de pigmentos curcuminóides variaram de 1,4 a 6,14 g/100 g e os de óleo volátil, de 0,97 a 7,55 mL/100 g. Amostras de Patrocínio, Arinos e Brasilândia continham os maiores teores de pigmentos e as de Patrocínio os maiores teores de óleos voláteis. Os teores médios (base seca de extrato etéreo, proteínas, fibras, cinzas e amido encontrados foram 8,51; 7,01; 7,22; 7,81 e 39,87 g/100 g, respectivamente. Com o objetivo de obter corante amarelo isento de flavor, métodos de extração em laboratório foram comparados em triplicata. Um maior rendimento de pigmento na oleoresina foi obtido extraindo-se o óleo volátil com vapor d'água e a oleoresina com etanol. A oleoresina obtida é isenta de flavor e pode ser utilizada em um número maior de aplicações na indústria alimentícia

  9. On the non-causal link between volatility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf; Wälde, Klaus

    A model highlighting the endogeneity of both volatility and growth is presented. Volatility and growth are therefore correlated but there is no causal link from volatility to growth. This joint endogeneity is illustrated by working out the effects through which economies with different tax levels...... di er both in their volatility and growth. Using a continuous-time DSGE model with plausible parametric restrictions, we obtain closedform measures of macro volatility based on cyclical components and output growth rates. Given our results, empirical volatility-growth analysis should include controls...

  10. The Forecast Performance of Competing Implied Volatility Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiaras, Leonidas

    This study examines the information content of alternative implied volatility measures for the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index from 1996 until 2007. Along with the popular Black-Scholes and "model-free" implied volatility expectations, the recently proposed corridor implie......, volatility definitions, loss functions and forecast evaluation settings....

  11. Electric dipole moments from spontaneous CP violation in SU(3)-flavoured SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones Perez, J

    2009-01-01

    The SUSY flavour problem is deeply related to the origin of flavour and hence to the origin of the SM Yukawa couplings themselves. Since all CP-violation in the SM is restricted to the flavour sector, it is possible that the SUSY CP problem is related to the origin of flavour as well. In this work, we present three variations of an SU(3) flavour model with spontaneous CP violation. Such models explain the hierarchy in the fermion masses and mixings, and predict the structure of the flavoured soft SUSY breaking terms. In such a situation, both SUSY flavour and CP problems do not exist. We use electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation processes to distinguish between these models, and place constraints on the SUSY parameter space.

  12. CP violation, flavour violation and fermion mass relations in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1981-01-01

    Six quark horizontal gauge models incorporating a natural suppression mechanism for diagonal flavour-changing currents are considered. Some interesting possibilities for CP violation, flavour violation, fermion mass and mixing angle relation in these models are studied. (author)

  13. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  14. The root of the problem: increasing root vegetable intake in preschool children by repeated exposure and flavour flavour learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Sara M; Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2014-09-01

    Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote intake. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of flavour-flavour learning as one such strategy for increasing vegetable intake in preschool children. Children (N = 29) aged 15 to 56 months were recruited through participating nurseries. Each received a minimum of six and maximium eight exposures to a root vegetable puree with added apple puree (flavour-flavour learning) alternating with six to eight exposures to another with nothing added (repeated exposure). A third puree acted as a control. Pre- and post-intervention intake measures of the three purees with nothing added were taken to assess change in intake. Follow-up measures took place 1 month (n = 28) and 6 months (n = 10) post-intervention. Intake increased significantly from pre- to post-intervention for all purees (~36 g), with no effect of condition. Magnitude of change was smaller in the control condition. Analysis of follow-up data showed that intake remained significantly higher than baseline 1 month (p exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in young children. Results also suggest that mere exposure (to the food, the experimenters, the procedure) can generalise to other, similar vegetables but the addition of a familiar flavour confers no added advantage above mere exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês M. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data.

  16. Controlled flavour changing neutral couplings in two Higgs Doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joao M.; Branco, Gustavo C.; Nebot, Miguel [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa Univ., Departamento de Fisica e Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Lisboa (Portugal); Botella, Francisco J.; Cornet-Gomez, Fernando [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    We propose a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree level, but under control due to the introduction of a discrete symmetry in the full Lagrangian. It is shown that in this class of models, one can have simultaneously FCNC in the up and down sectors, in contrast to the situation encountered in the renormalisable and minimal flavour violating 2HDM models put forward by Branco et al. (Phys Lett B 380:119, 1996). The intensity of FCNC is analysed and it is shown that in this class of models one can respect all the strong constraints from experiment without unnatural fine-tuning. It is pointed out that the additional sources of flavour and CP violation are such that they can enhance significantly the generation of the Baryon asymmetry of the Universe, with respect to the standard model. (orig.)

  17. Inclusive tagging of B-flavour at LHCb [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important procedure needed for the study of CP violation in Beauty sector is the tagging of the flavour of neutral B-mesons at production. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present a proposal to upgrade current flavour tagging strategy in LHCb experiment. This strategy consists of inclusive tagging ensemble methods (i.e: the use inclusive information about the event without a firm selection rule), which are combined using a probabilistic model for each event. The probabilistic model uses all reconstructed tracks and secondary vertices to obtain well-determined probability of B flavour at production. Such approach reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus has the potential to increase the overall performance.

  18. Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondt, Jorgen d'; Mariotti, Alberto; Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis

    2015-12-01

    We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.

  19. Challenges for New Physics in the Flavour Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In these proceedings I present a personal perspective of the challenges for new physics (NP) searches in the flavour sector. Since the CKM mechanism of flavour violation has been established to a very high precision, we know that physics beyond the Standard Model can only contribute sub-dominantly. Therefore, any realistic model of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) must respect the stringent constrains from flavour observables like $b\\to s \\gamma$, $B_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$, $\\Delta F=2$ processes etc., in a first step. In a second step, it is interesting to ask the question if some deviations from the SM predictions (like the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon or recently observed discrepancies in tauonic $B$ decays or $B\\to K^*\\mu^+\\mu^-$) can be explained by a model of NP without violating bounds from other observables.

  20. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.

  1. Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondt, Jorgen d' ; Mariotti, Alberto; Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis [Vrieje Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM; Mawatari, Kentarou [Vrieje Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM; Grenoble-Alpes Univ., CNRS/IN2P3 (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Onsem, Gerrit van [Vrieje Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.

  2. Challenges for New Physics in the Flavour Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivellin, A.

    2014-09-01

    In these proceedings I present a personal perspective of the challenges for new physics (NP) searches in the flavour sector. Since the CKM mechanism of flavour violation has been established to a very high precision, we know that physics beyond the Standard Model can only contribute sub-dominantly. Therefore, any realistic model of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) must respect the stringent constrains from flavour observables like b → sγ, B S → μ + μ - , ΔF=2 processes etc., in a first step. In a second step, it is interesting to ask the question if some deviations from the SM predictions (like the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon or recently observed discrepancies in tauonic B decays or B → K*μ + μ - ) can be explained by a model of NP without violating bounds from other observables. (author)

  3. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Olive, Keith A. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Velasco-Sevilla, L. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics and Technology, PO Box 7803, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m{sub 0} specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m{sub 1/2} and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m{sub 0} may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity. (orig.)

  4. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterization of C-S lyase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 and its potential role in food flavour applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Alessandra; Astegno, Alessandra; La Verde, Valentina; Dominici, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Volatile thiols have substantial impact on the aroma of many beverages and foods. Thus, the control of their formation, which has been linked to C-S lyase enzymatic activities, is of great significance in industrial applications involving food flavours. Herein, we have carried out a spectroscopic and functional characterization of a putative pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent C-S lyase from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 (LDB C-S lyase). Recombinant LDB C-S lyase exists as a tetramer in solution and shows spectral properties of enzymes containing PLP as cofactor. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity toward sulphur-containing amino acids with aminoethyl-L-cysteine and L-cystine being the most effective substrates over L-cysteine and L-cystathionine. Notably, the protein also reveals cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase activity in vitro, and is able to cleave a cysteinylated substrate precursor into the corresponding flavour-contributing thiol, with a catalytic efficiency higher than L-cystathionine. Contrary to similar enzymes of other lactic acid bacteria however, LDB C-S lyase is not capable of α,γ-elimination activity towards L-methionine to produce methanethiol, which is a significant compound in flavour development. Based on our results, future developments can be expected regarding the flavour-forming potential of Lactobacillus C-S lyase and its use in enhancing food flavours. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, S.L.

    2008-01-07

    We address to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in a framework that generalizes the quark minimal flavour violation hypothesis to the lepton sector. We study the impact of CP violation present at low and high energies and investigate the existence of correlations among leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation. Further we present an approach alternative to minimal flavour violation where the suppression of flavour changing transitions involving quarks and leptons is governed by hierarchical fermion wave functions. (orig.)

  7. Behavioural and brain responses to flavoured-meals paired with visceral stimulations in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values were studied in twelve 30-kg pigs. During four 30-min conditioning sessions per flavour, the animals received a flavoured-meal paired with intraduodenal infusions of 15% glucose (FG), lithium chloride (FL), or saline (FS). Two-choice feeding tests were performed 1 and 5 weeks later, and in between, anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three PET brain imaging with exposure to the flavours. During conditi...

  8. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements of $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production is fundamental. This is known as "flavour tagging" and at LHCb it is performed with several algorithms. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. Also the performances of the flavour tagging algorithms in the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  9. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements in $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production ("Flavour Tagging") is fundamental. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. The performances of the flavour tagging algorithms on the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  10. Jagiellonian University Heavy flavour highlights from the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00640989

    2017-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the flavour anomalies observed by the LHCb experiment. All results are based on the dataset collected during the full LHC Run 1 by the LHCb Collaboration. Measurements of branching fractions of several $b \\rightarrow sll$ decays are presented together with the angular analysis of $B^{0} \\rightarrow K∗ \\mu^{+}\\mu^{−}$ decays and the lepton flavour universality tests R(K) and R(D∗). In addition, a direct search for a new light scalar particle in the $B^{+} \\rightarrow K^{+}\\chi$ decay, with $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$, is presented.

  11. KLOE results in flavour physics and prospects for KLOE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwiński, E.; Babusci, D.; Badoni, D.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dané, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of the most recent results in flavour physics obtained by the KLOE experiment at DAΦNE collider together with prospects for kaon physics at KLOE-2 is presented. A brief description of K S meson lifetime measurement and determination of upper limit for BR(K s →3π 0 ) are discussed. In addition a CPT symmetry test in the Standard Model Extension framework and study of the Dalitz plot of η→π + π − π 0 are reported. Last two sections are devoted to the KLOE-2 project and prospects in flavour physics

  12. A modified multiscale peak alignment method combined with trilinear decomposition to study the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes by HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Tian-Biao; Hong, Liang

    2018-03-15

    Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of drying and irradiation on the composition of volatile compounds of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venskutonis, R.; Poll, L.; Larsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of air-drying, freeze-drying, γ- and β-irradiation and storage for up to 10 months on the composition of volatile compounds in thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.) is presented. Altogether, 70 constituents were identified (53 positively and 17 tentatively), including those considered most important for thyme flavour. Quantitative results did not reveal significant differences in the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the reduction of the amount of some volatile compounds after drying was comparable for air-dried and freeze-dried herb. The largest changes in flavour composition were observed during storage, especially the reduction in the concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons

  14. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  15. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... whether the conclusion for the candidate substance can be applied to the material of commerce, it is necessary to consider the available specifications. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the flavouring substance...

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215): Seven α,β-Unsaturated Cinnamyl Ketones from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215). The Flavour Industry has...

  18. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  19. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-11-21

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple

  20. Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, David Michael

    2010-07-14

    The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)

  1. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  2. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple extension of the Standard

  3. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  4. Complex scaling and residual flavour symmetry in the neutrino mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probir Roy

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Leptonic Dirac CP violation must be maximal while atmospheric neutrino mixing need not be exactly maximal. Each of the two Majorana phases, to be probed by the search for 0νββ decay, has to be zero or π and a normal neutrino mass hierarchy is allowed. Keywords. Neutrinos; residual flavour symmetry; ...

  5. Linear Collider Flavour Identification status report: Sensors for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Linear Collider Flavour Identification (LCFI) collaboration is continuing the work to develop column-parallel CCDs (CPCCD) and CMOS readout chips to be used in the vertex detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The CPCCD achieves several orders of magnitude faster readout than conventional CCDs ...

  6. LHCb : Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Rives Molina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations has re-opened the case for searches of lepton-flavour violating decays. We report on recent results on searches for short or long-lived Majorana heavy neutrinos in B&arr;μμπ and τ→μμμ decays

  7. Use of locally available flavouring materials in suppressing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... effect of blending soymilk with pineapple, banana, lemongrass, honey or sugar on acceptability of the resulting blends. Sensory evaluation ... Banana-flavoured blends resulted in phase separation that accounted for the relatively low acceptance. Soymilk ...

  8. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  9. The role of flavon cross couplings in leptonic flavour mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoli, Silvia [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhou, Ye-Ling [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,No. 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2016-06-13

    In models with discrete flavour symmetries, flavons are critical to realise specific flavour structures. Leptonic flavour mixing originates from the misalignment of flavon vacuum expectation values which respect different residual symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Flavon cross couplings are usually forbidden, in order to protect these symmetries. Contrary to this approach, we show that cross couplings can play a key role and give raise to necessary corrections to flavour-mixing patterns, including a non-zero value for the reactor angle and CP violation. For definiteness, we present two models based on A{sub 4}. In the first model, all flavons are assumed to be real or pseudo-real, with 7 real degrees of freedom in the flavon sector in total. A sizable reactor angle associated with nearly maximal CP violation is achieved, and, as both originate from the same cross coupling, a sum rule results with a precise prediction for the value of the Dirac CP-violating phase. In the second model, the flavons are taken to be complex scalars, which can be connected with supersymmetric models and multi-Higgs models. The complexity properties of flavons provide new sources for generating the reactor angle. Models in this new approach introduce very few degrees of freedom beyond the Standard Model and can be more economical than those in the framework of extra dimension or supersymmetry.

  10. On flavour and naturalness of composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interplay of the constraints imposed on flavour-symmetric Composite Higgs models by Naturalness considerations and the constraints derived from Flavour Physics and Electroweak Precision Tests. Our analysis is based on the Effective Field Theory which describes the Higgs as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson and also includes the composite fermionic resonances. Within this approach one is able to identify the directions in the parameter space where the U(3)-symmetric flavour models can pass the current experimental constraints, without conflicting with the light Higgs mass. We also derive the general features of the U(2)-symmetric models required by the experimental bounds, in case of elementary and totally composite t R . An effect in the Zb-barb coupling, which can potentially allow for sizable deviations in Z→b-barb decay parameters without modifying flavour physics observables, is identified. We also present the analysis of the mixed scenario, where the top quark mass is generated due to Partial Compositeness while the light quark masses are Technicolor-like.

  11. Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a report of the low energy and flavour physics working group at ... that calculates the non-leptonic decay amplitudes including the long-distance con- tributions. There were three lectures that lasted for over seven hours, and were.

  12. Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B → K * l + l - decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b→sνanti ν decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)

  13. Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of

  14. EFSA EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304 (FGE.304): Five carboxamides from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate five flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances...... data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all five candidate substances....

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, the dipeptide L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 305, using the Procedure in Commission...... been provided for the candidate substance. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 candidate substances....

  17. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  18. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  19. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  20. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  2. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  3. Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora beans from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KNYSAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID. With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species.

  4. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  5. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingtian, Yang; Xinhua, Jin; Guoxing, Gu; Guichun, Yun

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both of effects for sterilization and improving flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. All colibacillus in soy sauce were sterilized using 1 kGy radiation dose and total bacteria count in soy sauce can be reduced to below national standard at 5 kGy dose ( 5x10 4count/ml ). But above 10 kGy dose is needed to kill all bacteria in soy sauce. The significant changes on chemical components in soy sauce irradiated at 5-7 kGy dose took place: raduceing-sugar increased by 1-10%, total amount of 18 kinds of free amino acid raised between 3.5-28 %, emerging-sweet smell substances which have low boiling point, such as alchols, aldehydes and esters obviously increased. The taste-specialists from some soy sauce factories concluded that flavour and quality of soy sauce irradiated are better than non-irradiated.

  6. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verret, C; Ballestra, P; Cruz, C; Moueffak, A H E [Equipe de Recherche Agroalimentaire Perigourdine (ERAP) IUT de Perigueux Universite Bordeaux IV site universitaire F24019 Perigueux Cedex France (France); Pardon, P [Laboratoire d' analyses de l' Institut du pin Universite Bordeaux I France (France); Largeteau, A, E-mail: moueffak@u-bordeaux4.fr

    2008-07-15

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4{sup 0}C or -18{sup 0}C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18{sup 0}C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18{sup 0}C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction.

  7. Forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility in the Presence of Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study measures of foreign exchange rate volatility based on high-frequency (5-minute) $/DM exchange rate returns using recent nonparametric statistical techniquesto compute realized return volatility and its separate continuous sample path and jumpcomponents, and measures based on prices...... of exchange rate futures options, allowingcalculation of option implied volatility. We find that implied volatility is an informationallyefficient but biased forecast of future realized exchange rate volatility. Furthermore,we show that log-normality is an even better distributional approximation...... for impliedvolatility than for realized volatility in this market. Finally, we show that the jump componentof future realized exchange rate volatility is to some extent predictable, and thatoption implied volatility is the dominant forecast of the future jump component....

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  9. Heavy flavour production and heavy flavour mixing at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijk, B. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some results of the proton-antiproton-collision experiment UA1 with the CERN Super Proton-Antiproton Synchrotron are presented and interpreted. Ch. 1 contians a general introduction to the physics motivations behind the proton-antiproton-collider project, a brief description of the CERN facilities and a summary of collider and UA1 physics achievements. Furthermore the concept of studying heavy flavours via their weak decays into muons is introduced. Ch. 2 gives a brief overview of the UA1 experimental set-up, while those parts of the detector that are relevant for the analysis, presented in this thesis, is discussed in some more detail. Ch. 3 contains a short introduction to, and motivation for the use of Monte Carlo techniques in event simulations, while Ch. 4 describes the framework of the recently developed 'EUROJET' event generator. In Ch. 5 a treatment is given of the theoretical background and concepts like 'quark-mixing' and 'CP-violation' are explained, also other useful definitions and formulae are introduced on which the later analysis of the same-sign to opposite-sign dimuon ratio is built. Data collection and event reconstruction is the subject of Ch. 6, while a detailed comparison between the theoretical models and experimentally obtained distributions is given in Ch. 7. Finally, in Ch. 8 some concluding remarks are made. 182 refs.; 81 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. In vitro kinetics of soybean lipoxygenase with combinatorial fatty substrates and its functional significance in off flavour development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Somnath; Dahuja, Anil; Kar, Abhijit; Santha, I M

    2014-03-01

    Lipoxygenase (Lox) mediated oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in mature soya seeds results in objectionable flavour. In the present study, Lox isozymes were purified to near homogeneity (107-fold). Lox-2 and 3 displayed remarkable kinetic preference (1.7 and 1.5-fold, respectively) for low PUFA ratios (LA/LeA) (PRs) among the selected PUFA combinations. Lox-1 displayed no specific preference. Pure Lox-1 displayed unbiased response towards substrates with marginal preference (1.2-fold) for linoleic acid at its optimum pH. Volatile compounds profiling showed a direct relationship between PRs and hexanal to trans-2-hexenal (1.47, 2.24 and 18.90 for 2, 7 and 15 PRs, respectively) ratio. The off-flavour determining parameters like TBA value, carbonyl value and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPODs) exhibited significant negative correlation (0.76, 0.74, 0.72; psoya genotypes displaying varied PRs and significant positive correlation (0.89, 0.81. 0.89; p<0.0001) with ratio of PI (polyene index) to PRs - suggesting the plausible significance of PUFA ratios in biological lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental design-based isotope-dilution SPME-GC/MS method development for the analysis of smoke flavouring products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    For the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003 related to smoke flavourings used or intended for use in or on foods a method based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) GC/MS was developed for the characterisation of liquid smoke products. A statistically based experimental design (DoE) was used for method optimisation. The best general conditions to quantitatively analyse the liquid smoke compounds were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre, 60°C extraction temperature, 30 min extraction time, 250°C desorption temperature, 180 s desorption time, 15 s agitation time, and 250 rpm agitation speed. Under the optimised conditions, 119 wood pyrolysis products including furan/pyran derivatives, phenols, guaiacol, syringol, benzenediol, and their derivatives, cyclic ketones, and several other heterocyclic compounds were identified. The proposed method was repeatable (RSD% <5) and the calibration functions were linear for all compounds under study. Nine isotopically labelled internal standards were used for improving quantification of analytes by compensating matrix effects that might affect headspace equilibrium and extractability of compounds. The optimised isotope dilution SPME-GC/MS based analytical method proved to be fit for purpose, allowing the rapid identification and quantification of volatile compounds in liquid smoke flavourings.

  12. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...

  14. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L

    2016-08-01

    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  15. Quasi-relativistic fermions and dynamical flavour oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce new Lorentz-symmetry violating kinematics for a four-fermion interaction model, where dynamical mass generation is allowed, irrespectively of the strength of the coupling. In addition, these kinematics lead to a quasi-relativistic dispersion relation, in the sense that it is relativistic in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but not in an intermediate regime, characterized by the mass $M$. For two fermions, we show that a flavour-mixing mass matrix is generated dynamically, and the Lorentz symmetric limit $M\\to\\infty$ leads to two free relativistic fermions, with flavour oscillations. This model, valid for either Dirac or Majorana fermions, can describe any set of phenomenological values for the eigen masses and the mixing angle.

  16. Can a flavour-conserving treatment improve things?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this work I present some ideas on how to improve on the gauge sector in our lattice simulations at finite baryon density. The long standing problem, that we obtain an onset in thermodynamic quantities at a much smaller chemical potential than expected, could be related to an unphysical proliferation of flavours due to hard gluons close to the Brillouin edges. These hard gluons produce flavour non-conserving vertices to the fermion sector. They also produce excessive number of small instantons due to lattice dislocations. Both unphysical effects could increase the propagation in (di)-quarks to give the early onset in μ. Thus I present here a modified action that avoids large fields close to the lattice cutoff. Some of these ideas have been tested for SU(2) and are being implemented for SU(3). (orig.)

  17. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brümmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking

  18. $B$ flavour tagging using charm decays at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Muller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-10-05

    An algorithm is described for tagging the flavour content at production of neutral $B$ mesons in the LHCb experiment. The algorithm exploits the correlation of the flavour of a $B$ meson with the charge of a reconstructed secondary charm hadron from the decay of the other $b$ hadron produced in the proton-proton collision. Charm hadron candidates are identified in a number of fully or partially reconstructed Cabibbo-favoured decay modes. The algorithm is calibrated on the self-tagged decay modes $B^+ \\to J/\\psi \\, K^+$ and $B^0 \\to J/\\psi \\, K^{*0}$ using $3.0\\mathrm{\\,fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment at $pp$ centre-of-mass energies of $7\\mathrm{\\,TeV}$ and $8\\mathrm{\\,TeV}$. Its tagging power on these samples of $B \\to J/\\psi \\, X$ decays is $(0.30 \\pm 0.01 \\pm 0.01) \\%$.

  19. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Weiler, Andreas; CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    2014-04-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking.

  20. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnet, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further...... by Industry for use as a flavouring substance in Europe and will therefore not be considered any further. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data...... as flavouring substances, as these substances could not be evaluated because of concern with respect to genotoxicity. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 26 substances, the information is adequate....

  2. Heavy-flavour transport: from large to small systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Nardi, M.; Prino, F.

    2016-12-15

    Predictions for heavy-flavour production in relativistic heavy-ion experiments provided by the POWLANG transport setup, including now also an in-medium hadronization model, are displayed, After showing some representative findings for the Au-Au and Pb-Pb cases, a special focus will be devoted to the results obtained in the small systems formed in proton(deuteron)-nucleus collisions, where recent experimental data suggest the possible formation of a medium featuring a collective behaviour.

  3. Test of Lepton Flavour Universality in $K^{+} \\to l^{+}\

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzeroni, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Dyulendarova, M.; Frabetti, P.L.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retiere, F.

    2011-04-04

    A precision test of lepton flavour universality has been performed by measuring the ratio RK of kaon leptonic decay rates K+ --> e+nu and K+ --> mu+nu in a sample of 59813 reconstructed K+ --> e+nu candidates with (8.71 +- 0.24)% background contamination. The result RK = (2.487 +- 0.013) * 10^{-5} is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  4. The pT spectrum in heavy-flavour hadroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.; Nason, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Authors consider the transverse-momentum distribution of heavy flavours in hadronic collisions. The authors present a formalism in which large transverse-momentum logarithms are summed at the next-to-leading level, and mass effects are included exactly up to order α S 3 , so as to retain predictivity at both small and large transverse momenta. As an example, the Authors apply our formalism to b production at the Tevatron

  5. Extended minimal flavour violating MSSM and implications for B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Lunghi, E.

    2001-05-01

    Current world average of the CP asymmetry a ψK , obtained from the rate differences in the decays B 0 →(JψK s ), (J/ψK L ) and their charge conjugates, is barely compatible with the standard model (SM) predictions resulting from the unitarity of the CKM matrix. Indirect estimate of this CP asymmetry in the so-called minimal flavour violating (MFV) supersymmetric extensions of the standard model, in which the CKM matrix remains the only flavour changing structure, is similar to the one in the SM. If the present experimental trend yielding δa ψK ≡a ψK exp -a ψK SM ψK at the cost of introducing an additional flavour changing structure beyond the CKM matrix. We analyze the compatibility of this model with present data and suggest specific tests in forthcoming experiments in B-meson decays. In addition to the CP-asymmetries in B-meson decays, such as a ψK and a ππ , we emphasize measurements of the radiative transition b→dγ as sensitive probes of the postulated flavour changing structure. This is quantified in terms of the ratio R(ργ/K*γ)=2B(B 0 →ρ 0 γ)/B(B 0 →K* 0 γ), the isospin violating ratio Δ ±0 =B(B ± →ρ ± γ)-/2B(B 0 →ρ 0 γ)-1, and the CP-asymmetry in the decay rates for B + →ρ + γ and its charge conjugate. (orig.)

  6. Limitations on tests of quantum flavour dynamics from quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1989-01-01

    Quantum Flavour Dynamics is a theory of electroweak interactions. The Lagrangian is formulated for leptons and quarks. Since quarks are not directly accessible in experiment, predictions are model-dependent and the predictive power of the theory is limited. In view of these limitations QFD theory is formulated and confronted in several instances with experimental results: leptonic- and semi-leptonic processes, non-leptonic decay processes and radiative decay processes. 17 refs. (qui)

  7. Heavy quark condensates from dynamically borken flavour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.; King, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    We study the dynamics of top quark condensation induced by gauge interactions resulting from a broken flavour symmetry. The gap equation in dressed ladder approximation is solved numerically to obtain directly the top quark mass. The new high energy dynamics reduces the prediction of m t somewhat, but the usual problems of m t being too large and fine tuning remain. In order to solve these problems we extend our discussion to include fourth generation quark condensates. (orig.)

  8. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  9. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  10. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  11. Lepton-flavour violating $B$ decays in generic $Z'$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Matias, Joaquim; Nierste, Ulrich; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has reported deviations from the SM expectations in $B\\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$ angular observables, in $B_s\\to\\phi\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and in ratio $R(K)=Br[B\\to K \\mu^+\\mu^-]/Br[B\\to K e^+e^-]$. For all three decays, a heavy neutral gauge boson mediating $b\\to s\\mu^+\\mu^-$ transitions is a prime candidate for an explanation. As $R(K)$ measures violation of lepton-flavour universality, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavour is violated. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavour violating modes $B\\to K^{(*)}\\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$ and $B\\to K^{(*)} \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$. For this purpose we consider a simplified model in which new-physics effects originate from an additional neutral gauge boson ($Z^\\prime$) with generic couplings to quarks and leptons. The constraints from $\\tau\\to3\\mu$, $\\tau\\to\\mu\

  12. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A.Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep->mu X and ep -> tau X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb-1 for e^+ p collisions and 13.7 pb^-1 for e^- p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchm"uller-R"uckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively.

  13. Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using inputs from lower-level taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the training is performed on multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both $light-flavour$-jets and $c$-jets, and also provides a better performing $c$-tagger. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be adjusted after the training according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots presented, obtained from simulated $t\\overline{t}$ events at $\\sqrt(s)$=13 TeV and the Run-2 data taking conditions where t...

  14. Auditory contributions to flavour perception and feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles

    2012-11-05

    This article reviews the research that has looked at the role of audition in both flavour perception and feeding behaviour in humans. The article starts by looking at early research that focused on the effect of background noise on the sensory-discriminative aspects of taste/flavour perception and on people's hedonic responses to food and beverage items. Next, I move on to look at the role of the sound made by the food (or beverage) itself. Additionally, recent studies that have started to assess the impact of food and beverage packaging sounds, not to mention food preparation sounds, on people's sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to a variety of food and beverage products are discussed. Finally, the literature on the effect of background music and/or soundscapes on food and beverage perception/consumption are reviewed briefly. Taken together, this body of research, spanning both highly-controlled laboratory experiments and more ecologically-valid field studies, clearly demonstrates that what the consumer hears, be it the sound of the food, the sound of the packaging, the sound of the machine used to prepare that food or beverage (e.g., as in the case of the sound of a coffee machine), and even the sound of the environment in which the consumer happens to be eating and drinking can all exert a profound, if often unacknowledged, role in our feeding behaviours not to mention on our flavour perception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Search for lepton flavour violation in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)]|[National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep{yields}{mu}X and ep{yields}{tau}X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 13.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of {lambda}=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using higher-level inputs from lower-level physics-motivated taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the jet flavours are treated on an equal footing while training with multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both light-jets and c-jets, and also provides a novel c-tagging possibility. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be fine-tuned after the training by using iso-efficiency lines of constant signal efficiency, according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots pr...

  17. Lepton flavour symmetry and the neutrino magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.

    1990-01-01

    With the standard model gauge group and the three standard left-handed Weyl neutrinos, two minimal scenarios are investigated where an arbitrary non-abelian lepton flavour symmetry group G H is responsible for a light neutrino with a large magnetic moment. In the first case, with scalar fields carrying lepton flavour, some finetuning is necessary to get a small enough neutrino mass for μ ν = O(10 -11 μ B ). In the second scenario, the introduction of heavy charged gauge singlet fermions with lepton flavour allows for a strictly massless neutrino to one-loop order. In both cases, the interference mechanisms for small m ν and large μ ν is unique, independently of G H . In explicit realizations of the two scenarios, the horizontal groups are found to be non-abelian extensions of a Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton number symmetry. Only a discrete part of G H is spontaneously broken leading to a light Dirac neutrino with a large magnetic moment. (Authors) 22 refs., 3 figs

  18. Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...

  19. Search for lepton flavour violation in ep collisions at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-12-01

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep→μX and ep→τX is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb-1 for e+p collisions and 13.7 pb-1 for e-p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchmüller Rückl Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of λ=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon quark pair or a tau quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively.

  20. Rho meson decay width in SU(2) gauge theories with 2 fundamental flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    SU(2) gauge theories with two quark flavours in the fundamental representation are among the most promising theories of composite dynamics describing the electroweak sector. Three out of five Goldstone bosons in these models become the longitudinal components of the W and Z bosons giving them mass. Like in QCD, we expect a spectrum of excitations which appear as resonances in vector boson scattering, in particular the vector resonance corresponding to the rho-meson in QCD. In this talk I will present the preliminary results of the first calculation of the rho-meson decay width in this theory, which is analogous to rho to two pions decay calculation in QCD. The results presented were calculated in a moving frame with total momentum (0,0,1) on two ensembles. Future plans include using 3 moving frames on a larger set of ensembles to extract the resonance parameters more reliably and also take the chiral and continuum limits.

  1. Antioxidant activity and cholinesterase inhibition studies of four flavouring herbs from Alentejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Sílvia; Piçarra, Andreia; Candeias, Fátima; Caldeira, A Teresa; Martins, M Rosário; Teixeira, Dora

    2017-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power. Furthermore, EOs and extracts showed AChE and BChE inhibitory activities higher than rivastigmine, the standard drug. Results suggested the potential use of EOs and aqueous extracts of these flavouring herbs as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical preparations to minimise the oxidative stress and the progression of degenerative diseases.

  2. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  3. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  4. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  5. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs...... the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small....

  6. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagae, J.-F.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase

  7. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  9. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavour tagging of $b$-mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed B hadrons, is essen- tial for precision measurements of decay-time-dependent CP violation and of mixing parameters in the neutral B meson systems. At the LHC hadronic events create a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in terms of the flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of CP violation measurements in neutral B meson decays.

  11. Hammerstein system represention of financial volatility processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, E.

    2002-05-01

    We show new modeling aspects of stock return volatility processes, by first representing them through Hammerstein Systems, and by then approximating the observed and transformed dynamics with wavelet-based atomic dictionaries. We thus propose an hybrid statistical methodology for volatility approximation and non-parametric estimation, and aim to use the information embedded in a bank of volatility sources obtained by decomposing the observed signal with multiresolution techniques. Scale dependent information refers both to market activity inherent to different temporally aggregated trading horizons, and to a variable degree of sparsity in representing the signal. A decomposition of the expansion coefficients in least dependent coordinates is then implemented through Independent Component Analysis. Based on the described steps, the features of volatility can be more effectively detected through global and greedy algorithms.

  12. Relationship between volatile profile and sensory characteristics of Malvasia Fina and Gouveio monovarietal wines from Douro Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Teixeira, Sílvia; Fradique, Sofia; M. Nunes, Fernando; Cosme, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    White wines are, in general, fruitier and fresher than red wines. These descriptors depend on the wine grapes varieties and, with no less importance, on the winemaking technology. Nowadays, the use of wood barrels in the elaboration of quality white wines becomes common in winemaking, and some studies showed the influence of wood compounds on the white wine volatile composition [1, 2]. Flavour notes that are common descriptions of wines exposed to oak include caramel, cream, smoke, spice and ...

  13. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tims, Ben; Mahieu, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are interpreted as the underlying currency specific components. Due to the normality of logarithmic volatilities the model can be estimated conveniently with standard Kalman filter techniques. Our resu...

  14. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  15. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  16. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be str...

  18. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  19. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  1. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  2. Topological susceptibility with a single light quark flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frison Julien

    2018-01-01

    We will present our recent progresses on the empirical check of this property using Nf = 1 + 2 flavours of clover fermions, where the lightest fermion is tuned very close to muPCAC=0 and the mass of the other two is kept of the order of magnitude of the physical ms. This choice is indeed expected to amplify any unknown non-perturbative effect caused by mu ≠ md. The simulation is repeated for several βs and those results, although preliminary, give a hint about what happens in the continuum limit.

  3. Flavour changing decays of Z0 in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamberini, G.; Ridolfi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of detectable flavour-changing branching modes of the Z 0 boson is examined in the context of supersymmetric models of currrent interest. An explicit calculation shows that in the so-called minimal version of the supersymmetric standard model the branching ratios for Z 0 →banti s or tanti c are not larger than in the standard model itself and are as such unobservable. On the contrary, we find that in a recently proposed extension of the supersymmetric standard model the mode Z 0 →tanti c may be at the order of being detectable. (orig.)

  4. Aspects of Flavour and Supersymmetry in F-theory GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph P; 10.1007

    2009-01-01

    We study the constraints of supersymmetry on flavour in recently proposed models of F-theory GUTs. We relate the topologically twisted theory to the canonical presentation of eight-dimensional super Yang-Mills and provide a dictionary between the two. We describe the constraints on Yukawa couplings implied by holomorphy of the superpotential in the effective 4-dimensional supergravity theory, including the scaling with \\alpha_{GUT}. Taking D-terms into account we solve explicitly to second order for wavefunctions and Yukawas due to metric and flux perturbations and find a rank-one Yukawa matrix with no subleading corrections.

  5. Quark flavour conserving violations of the lepton number

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Lavignac, Stephane; Savoy, C A

    1998-01-01

    We study supersymmetric models of lepton and baryon number violation based on an abelian family gauge group. Due to possible lepton-Higgs mixing, the lepton violating couplings are related to the Yukawa couplings and may be generated by them even if they were absent in the original theory. Such terms may be dominant and are not given by the naive family charge counting rules. This enhancement mechanism can provide an alignment between lepton-number violating terms and Yukawa couplings: as a result they conserve quark flavour. A natural way of suppressing baryon number violation in this class of models is also proposed.

  6. SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations

    2013-11-15

    By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.

  7. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  8. Search for lepton flavour violation in Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A.L.; Andreev, V.P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J.A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, G.L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G.M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J.J.; Bloemeke, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocciolini, M.; Bock, R.; Boehm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J.G.; Brock, I.C.; Bruyant, F.; Biusson, C.; Bujak, A.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.; Burq, J.P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carminati, F.; Catraccci, A.M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Chen, M.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C.Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H.O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crijns, F.; Cui, X.Y.; Dai, T.S.; D'Alessandro, R.D.; Asmundis, R. de; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H.R.; Dionisi, C.; Dova, M.T.; Drago, E.; Driever, T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, S.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, Q.; Fan, S.J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P.H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S.S.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Glaubman, M.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Gonzalez, EJ.; Gordeev, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Grinnell, C.; Gruenenwald, M.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H.R.; Gutay, L.J.; Haan, H.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C.F.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Herten, U.; Herve, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hsu, L.S.; Hu, G.; Hu, G.Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M.M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezyequel, S.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, S.W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R.A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Khoze, V.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kinnison, W.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Koenig, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    We have searched for lepton flavour violation in Z 0 boson decays into lepton pairs, Z 0 →μτ, Z 0 →eτ, and Z - →eμ. The data sample is based on an integrated luminosity of 10.4 pb -1 corresponding to 370 000 Z 0 's produced. We obtain upper limits on the branching ratios of 4.8x10 -5 for the μτ, 3.4x10 -5 for the eτ and 2.4x10 -5 for the eμ decay modes at the 95% confidence level. (orig.)

  9. SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite...... (Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the SIMPs. We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the $w_0$ parameter...

  10. Three-Flavoured Non-Resonant Leptogenesis at Intermediate Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, K. [Durham U., IPPP; Pascoli, S. [Durham U., IPPP; Petcov, S. T. [Tokyo U., IPMU; Schulz, H. [Cincinnati U.; Turner, J. [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    Leptogenesis can successfully explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry via out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the early Universe. In this article we focus on non-resonant thermal leptogenesis and we study the possibility of lowering its scale through flavour effects in an exhaustive exploration of the model parameter space. We numerically solve the density matrix equations for one and two decaying heavy Majorana neutrinos and present the level of fine-tuning of the light neutrino masses within these scenarios. We demonstrate that the scale of thermal leptogenesis may be as low as $10^6$ GeV.

  11. The Symmetry behind Extended Flavour Democracy and Large Leptonic Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2002-01-01

    We show that there is a minimal discrete symmetry which leads to the extended flavour democracy scenario constraining the Dirac neutrino, the charged lepton and the Majorana neutrino mass term ($M_R$) to be all proportional to the democratic matrix, with all elements equal. In particular, this discrete symmetry forbids other large contributions to $M_R$, such as a term proportional to the unit matrix, which would normally be allowed by a $S_{3L}\\times S_{3R}$ permutation symmetry. This feature is crucial in order to obtain large leptonic mixing, without violating 't Hooft's, naturalness principle.

  12. Heavy Flavour Production as Probe of Gluon Sivers Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha; Rawoot, Vaibhav; Sonawane, Bipin

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavour production like J/ψ and D-meson production in scattering of electrons/unpolarized protons off polarized proton target offer promising probes to investigate gluon Sivers function. In this talk, I will summarize our recent work on transverse single spin asymmetry in J/ψ-production and D-meson production in pp↑ scattering using a generalized parton model approach. We compare predictions obtained using different models of gluon Sivers function within this approach and then, taking into account the transverse momentum dependent evolution of the unpolarized parton distribution functions and gluon Sivers function, we study the effect of evolution on asymmetry. (author)

  13. Hyperon sigma terms for 2+1 quark flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R.; Winter, F.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanded Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    QCD lattice simulations determine hadron masses as functions of the quark masses. From the gradients of these masses and using the Feynman- Hellmann theorem the hadron sigma terms can then be determined. We use here a novel approach of keeping the singlet quark mass constant in our simulations which upon using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion gives highly constrained (i.e. few parameter) fits for hadron masses in a multiplet. This is a highly advantageous procedure for determining the hadron mass gradient as it avoids the use of delicate chiral perturbation theory. We illustrate the procedure here by estimating the light and strange sigma terms for the baryon octet. (orig.)

  14. Heavy Flavour Production and Properties at CMS and ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavour properties and production are an important part of the physics program of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC. They can potentially expose physics beyond the standard model, constrain supersymmetry and advance hadron spectroscopy and test QCD. In the past years, the two collaborations have published results in several different fields, such as rare decays, searches for new states, CP and P violation and quarkonia polarisation. In this note, some of the most recent results from ATLAS and CMS are summarised.

  15. Heavy Flavour Production and Properties at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavour properties and production are an important part of the physics program of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC. They can potentially expose physics beyond the standard model, constrain supersymmetry and advance hadron spectroscopy and test QCD. In the past years, the two collaborations have published results in several different fields, such as rare decays, searches for new states, CP and P violation and quarkonia polarization. In this note, some of the most recent results from ATLAS and CMS are summarized

  16. Search for Lepton Flavour Number violating $Z^0$-Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chernyaev, E; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    A search for lepton flavour number violating $Z^0$ decays in the channels \\begin{center} $Z^0\\rightarrow \\mu\\tau$,\\\\ $Z^0\\rightarrow e\\tau$, \\\\ $Z^0\\rightarrow e\\mu$, \\\\ \\end{center} using the DELPHI detector with data collected during the 1991--94 LEP runs, is described. No signal was found. Upper limits at 95\\% confidence level for the respective branching fractions of $1.2\\times 10^{-5}$, $2.2\\times 10^{-5}$, and $0.25\\times 10^{-5}$, were obtained.

  17. Low Pt heavy flavour production at CMS and ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefaniuk, Nazar; Geiser, Achim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The beauty and charm quark masses provide perturbative scales which can be exploited for QCD measurements even in the very low P{sub t} range. The techniques which allow us to go to the minimal threshold in P{sub t} are explained. The main goal of the analysis is to measure the inclusive heavy flavour cross sections. The study of charm meson production helps to understand the low P{sub t} behaviour of the charm cross section. The extension to low P{sub t} beauty production is also reported.

  18. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  19. Inferring the origin of rare fruit distillates from compositional data using multivariate statistical analyses and the identification of new flavour constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Denić, Marija S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stankov-Jovanović, Vesna P; Mitić, Violeta D; Stojanović, Gordana S; Radulović, Niko S

    2015-04-01

    In Serbia, delicatessen fruit alcoholic drinks are produced from autochthonous fruit-bearing species such as cornelian cherry, blackberry, elderberry, wild strawberry, European wild apple, European blueberry and blackthorn fruits. There are no chemical data on many of these and herein we analysed volatile minor constituents of these rare fruit distillates. Our second goal was to determine possible chemical markers of these distillates through a statistical/multivariate treatment of the herein obtained and previously reported data. Detailed chemical analyses revealed a complex volatile profile of all studied fruit distillates with 371 identified compounds. A number of constituents were recognised as marker compounds for a particular distillate. Moreover, 33 of them represent newly detected flavour constituents in alcoholic beverages or, in general, in foodstuffs. With the aid of multivariate analyses, these volatile profiles were successfully exploited to infer the origin of raw materials used in the production of these spirits. It was also shown that all fruit distillates possessed weak antimicrobial properties. It seems that the aroma of these highly esteemed wild-fruit spirits depends on the subtle balance of various minor volatile compounds, whereby some of them are specific to a certain type of fruit distillate and enable their mutual distinction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565...... criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all four candidate substances....

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Fo od Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Proce ssing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evalua tion 35, Revision 1 (FGE.35Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate three flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 35, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present ...

  2. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 93, Revision 1 (FGE.93Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The two substances 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.130] and 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2...... and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all five substances...

  3. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and the impact of extra dimensions on flavour changing neutral currents and electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, A.

    2007-01-01

    We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)

  4. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and the impact of extra dimensions on flavour changing neutral currents and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, A.

    2007-01-16

    We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)

  5. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  6. Starter culture development for improving the flavour of Proosdij-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayad, E.H.E.; Verheul, A.; Bruinenberg, P.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the additional mesophilic strain B851, which has specific flavour forming abilities, was tested for improving the flavour development of a Proosdij-type cheese made with a combination of an acidifying mesophilic and an adjunct thermophilic culture. This strain was selected because of its

  7. Production of heavy flavours at the next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The status of next-to-leading calculations of heavy quark production is reviewed. In particular, results on the doubly-differential cross section for the photoproduction of heavy flavours are discussed. The possibility of using heavy flavour production in order to determine the gluon density in the proton at HERA is also discussed. 3 figs., 22 refs

  8. The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, van V.L.; Blok, A.E.; Kooten, van O.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not

  9. Lepton Flavour Universality tests in $B$ decays as a probe for New Physics arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00003200

    In the Standard Model (SM), the coupling of the electroweak gauge bosons to the leptons is lepton flavour universal. Tests of this property constitute sensitive probes for new physics models that violate lepton flavour universality. Recent tests of lepton universality in rare $b\\to s\\ell\\ell$ decays and semileptonic $b\\to c\\tau\\bar{\

  10. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  11. Flavour equilibration studies of quark-gluon plasma with non-zero ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Flavour equilibration for a thermally equilibrated but chemically non- equilibrated quark-gluon plasma is presented. Flavour equilibration is studied enforcing baryon number conservation. In addition to the usual processes like single additional gluon production gg ⇌ ggg and its reverse and quark–antiquark pair ...

  12. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  13. Flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product use among US adults: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Michèle G; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Ambrose, Bridget K; Tworek, Cindy; Feirman, Shari P; King, Brian A; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2016-11-01

    Limited data exist on flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) use among US adults. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=75 233), a landline and cellular telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18, were assessed to estimate past 30-day NCTP use, flavoured NCTP use and flavour types using bivariate analyses. During 2013-2014, 14.4% of US adults were past 30-day NCTP users. Nationally, an estimated 10.2 million e-cigarette users (68.2%), 6.1 million hookah users (82.3%), 4.1 million cigar smokers (36.2%) and 4.0 million smokeless tobacco users (50.6%) used flavoured products in the past 30 days. The most prevalent flavours reported were menthol/mint (76.9%) for smokeless tobacco; fruit (74.0%) for hookah; fruit (52.4%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (22.0%) and alcohol (14.5%) for cigars/cigarillos/filtered little cigars; fruit (44.9%), menthol/mint (43.9%) and candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (25.7%) for e-cigarettes and fruit (56.6%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (26.5%) and menthol/mint (24.8%) for pipes. Except for hookah and pipes, past 30-day flavoured product use was highest among 18-24-year olds. By cigarette smoking, never smoking e-cigarette users (84.8%) were more likely to report flavoured e-cigarette use, followed by recent former smokers (78.1%), long-term former smokers (70.4%) and current smokers (63.2%). Flavoured NCTP use is prominent among US adult tobacco users, particularly among e-cigarette, hookah and cigar users. Flavoured product use, especially fruit and sweet-flavoured products, was higher among younger adults. It is important for tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavoured tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present opinion concerns a group of 26 sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th m...

  15. The Role of Implied Volatility in Forecasting Future Realized Volatility and Jumps in Foreign Exchange, Stock and Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We study the forecasting of future realized volatility in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets, as well as the continuous sample path and jump components of this, from variables in the information set, including implied volatility backed out from option prices. Recent nonparametric...

  16. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    during spring and autumn 2008. Results from the aerosol mass spectrometry indicate that the non-volatile residual consists of nitrate and organic compounds, especially during autumn. These compounds may be low-volatile organic nitrates or salts. During winter and spring the non-volatile core (black carbon removed) correlated markedly with carbon monoxide, which is a tracer of anthropogenic emissions. Due to this, the non-volatile residual may also contain other pollutants in addition to black carbon. Thus, it seems that the amount of different compounds in submicron aerosol particles varies with season and as a result the chemical composition of the non-volatile residual changes within a year. This work was supported by University of Helsinki three-year research grant No 490082 and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation grant No 2010143. Aalto et al., (2001). Physical characterization of aerosol particles during nucleation events. Tellus B, 53, 344-358. Jayne, et al., (2000). Development of an aerosol mass spectrometer for size and composition analysis of submicron particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33(1-2), 49-70. Kalberer et al., (2004). Identification of Polymers as Major Components of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols. Science, 303, 1659-1662. Smith et al., (2010). Observations of aminium salts in atmospheric nanoparticles and possible climatic implications. P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107(15). Vesala et al., (1998). Long-term field measurements of atmosphere-surface interactions in boreal forest combining forest ecology, micrometeorology, aerosol physics and atmospheric chemistry. Trends Heat, Mass Mom. Trans., 4, 17-35. Wehner et al., (2002). Design and calibration of a thermodenuder with an improved heating unit to measure the size-dependent volatile fraction of aerosol particles. J. Aerosol Sci., 33, 1087-1093.

  17. arXiv FlavBit: A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    CERN Document Server

    Bernlochner, Florian U.; Dal, Lars A.; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT.

  18. FlavBit. A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian U. [Physikalisches Institut der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Flavour Workgroup

    2017-11-15

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT. (orig.)

  19. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile. Components of Two Salvia spp. F Forouzin*, R Jamei and R Heidari. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, West Azerbaijan, Iran. *For correspondence: Email: f_forouzin@yahoo.com, rjamei274@gmail.com, r.heidari@mail.urmia.ac.ir; Tel: ...

  20. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.