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Sample records for volatile flavour components

  1. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  2. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  3. 酱中挥发性风味物质的研究进展%Review on analysis of volatile flavour components in sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗志伟; 官伟; 刘玉平

    2012-01-01

    Sauce was a kind of important condiment in daily life, and its flavor was one of the important indexes which could impact the quality of sauce.Volatile fiavour compounds Of sauce were widely investigated in recent years. Extraction and identification methods of volatile flavour substances from sauce, main fiavour compounds and main factors influencing aromatic substances in sauce were summarized. What's more, some suggestions about the research of sauce flavor were put forward.%酱是日常生活中重要的调味品,风味是影响酱品质的重要指标之一。近年来对酱中挥发性风味成分的研究发展迅速,从提取、分离、鉴定、主要特征香气成分及其影响因素等方面对酱的挥发性风味物质进行综述,并对今后酱中挥发性风味成分的深入研究提出了一些建议。

  4. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period.

  5. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  6. Effect of tomato pleiotropic ripening mutations on flavour volatile biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development a

  7. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese: their formation and their contribution to flavour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour during the ripe

  8. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour duri

  9. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  10. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  11. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  12. Off-flavours in wines through indirect transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumi, M D; Lambri, M; De Faveri, D M

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the drying of coatings on the sensory characters of corks and wines. According to Italian National Standard Method 11021:2002, a small-scale chamber was used (1) to expose wines to the drying of coatings with both low and high VOCs, and (2) to expose corks to the same coatings. After exposure to the coatings, the corks were then placed in direct contact with wine. Different styles of white, red and rose wines were tested. In both directly exposed wines and in wines after contact with the exposed cork, the taste and smell off-flavour perception and intensity were assessed by a panel of eight experienced wine tasters using a five-point numerical scale according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods. The results showed that the sensory characters of wines, especially taste, were influenced by the VOC content of the coatings. The taste off-flavour perception was found to be higher than the smell in wines exposed to coatings with either high or low VOCs contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan analysis prove that: (1) panellist's answers were significantly different, (2) it was difficult to differentiate the off-flavour perception on the high-level scale, and (3) the panellist off-flavour perceptions versus wine style discriminated the wines into two groups (red and white/rose). For all the wine styles, Pearson's test showed no significant correlation between off-flavour perception levels and the main chemical characters of the wines. For the wines that were in direct contact with the exposed corks, the panellists detect the off-flavours according to the levels of VOCs in the coating and wine styles and they assessed the highest levels of alteration were to the taste.

  13. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  14. Volatiles and Water- and Fat-Soluble Precursors of Saanen Goat and Cross Suffolk Lamb Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the concentrations of water- and fat-soluble precursors of meat flavour, with the aim of characterising the effect of species on the volatile profile of grilled goat and lamb meat. Compared to goat, lamb meat had higher levels of saturated fatty acids—SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids—MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids—PUFA and similar levels of sugars and free amino acids, except for lysine and glycine, which were higher in goat. Major differences were detected in lipid-derived volatiles; only pyrazine, thiazole, and some Strecker aldehydes were at different concentrations in these species. Volatile compounds derived from the oxidation of linoleic acid were at higher levels in meat from lamb due to the higher concentration of the latter, while compounds formed from α-linolenic acid were at higher levels in goat. It can be concluded that lamb meat has a stronger flavour profile compared to goat meat because it has the highest concentrations of lipid-derived volatile compounds, primarily straight saturated alkanals, pyrazines and thiazole.

  15. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  16. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  17. Physicochemical parameters related to organoleptic properties of flavour components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, M.H.; Gemert, L.J. van

    1986-01-01

    Straight chain, saturated and unsarurated, aldehydes are important constituents of citrus fruit, dairy, vegetable, meat and other flavours. For instance, alkanals and 2-alkenals (C6 to C14) have been detected and quantified in Bitter Orange Oil. The organoleptic qualities and threshold values of the

  18. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated, whil

  19. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated, whil

  20. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

  1. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production.

  2. Determination of Volatile Flavour Profiles of Citrus spp. Fruits by SDE-GC-MS and Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Compounds by MDGC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joon Ho; Khan, Naeem; Jamila, Nargis; Hong, Young Shin; Nho, Eun Yeong; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong Mi; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-09-01

    Citrus fruits are known to have characteristic enantiomeric key compounds biosynthesised by highly stereoselective enzymatic mechanisms. In the past, evaluation of the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds in fruits has been applied as an effective indicator of adulteration by the addition of synthetic compounds or natural components of different botanical origin. To analyse the volatile flavour compounds of Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu), Citrus limon BURM. f. (lemon) and Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swingle (lime), and determine the enantiomeric ratios of their chiral compounds for discrimination and authentication of extracted oils. Volatile flavour compounds of the fruits of the three Citrus species were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enantiomeric composition (ee%) of chiral camphene, sabinene, limonene and β-phellandrene was analysed by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-seven (C. junos), 77 (C. limon) and 110 (C. aurantifolia) volatile compounds were identified with limonene, γ-terpinene and linalool as the major compounds. Stereochemical analysis (ee%) revealed 1S,4R-(-) camphene (94.74, 98.67, 98.82), R-(+)-limonene (90.53, 92.97, 99.85) and S-(+)-β-phellandrene (98.69, 97.15, 92.13) in oil samples from all three species; R-(+)-sabinene (88.08) in C. junos; and S-(-)-sabinene (81.99, 79.74) in C. limon and C. aurantifolia, respectively. The enantiomeric composition and excess ratios of the chiral compounds could be used as reliable indicators of genuineness and quality assurance of the oils derived from the Citrus fruit species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Volatile flavour retention in food technology and during comsumption: Juice and custard examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Frasnelli, J.; Carbonell, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study two aspects of the influence of water on flavour retention were evaluated. The first part of the study was focused on the influence of dehydration and subsequent reconstitution of mandarin juices, which was examined by headspace Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry. The different

  4. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  6. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris;

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...

  7. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  8. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  9. Volatile flavour constituent patterns of Terras Madeirenses red wines extracted by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Rodrigues, Freddy; Câmara, José S

    2008-06-01

    A suitable analytical procedure based on static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-(ITD)MS), was developed and applied for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of volatile components of Portuguese Terras Madeirenses red wines. The headspace SPME method was optimised in terms of fibre coating, extraction time, and extraction temperature. The performance of three commercially available SPME fibres, viz. 100 mum polydimethylsiloxane; 85 mum polyacrylate, PA; and 50/30 mum divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane, was evaluated and compared. The highest amounts extracted, in terms of the maximum signal recorded for the total volatile composition, were obtained with a PA coating fibre at 30 degrees C during an extraction time of 60 min with a constant stirring at 750 rpm, after saturation of the sample with NaCl (30%, w/v). More than sixty volatile compounds, belonging to different biosynthetic pathways, have been identified, including fatty acid ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, and monoterpenols/C(13)-norisoprenoids.

  10. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  11. Identification of volatile components in Chinese Sinkiang fermented camel milk using SAFE, SDE, and HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Fu-Ping, Zheng; Hai-Tao, Chen; Si-Yuan, Liu; Chen, Gu; Zhen-Yang, Song; Bao-Guo, Sun

    2011-12-01

    The volatile components of Chinese Sinkiang fermented camel milk were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE, dichloromethane and diethyl ether as solvent, respectively) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, CAR/PDMS, PDMS/DVB and DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre extraction, respectively) and analysed by GC/MS. A total of 133 volatile components were identified under 6 different conditions, including 30 esters, 20 acids, 18 saturated alcohols, 15 unsaturated aliphatic alcohols, 8 saturated ketones, 9 saturated aldehydes, 8 unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes, 6 furans, 5 sulphur-containing compounds, 5 ethers, 5 lactones, 3 other compounds, and 1 unsaturated aliphatic ketone. Three pretreatment methods were compared, assisted by principal component analysis (PCA). The results indicated that the volatile components obtained using different methods varied greatly both in categories and in content, and therefore, a multi-pretreatment method should be adopted together with GC/MS. A total of 71 aroma-active compounds were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), among which 66 aroma-active compounds were found by SDE (60, dichloromethane as solvent; 24, diethyl ether as solvent), 26 by SAFE.

  12. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  13. On the volatile flavour compounds of cooked trassi, a cured shrimp paste condiment of the Far East

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedarmo Moeljohardjo, D.

    1972-01-01

    The volatile compounds of cooked trassi, a cured shrimp paste condiment of the Far East have been studied. The techniques of volatiles isolation, concentration, fractionation as well as methods of identification have been described. 138 volatile compounds, which included 16 hydrocarbons, 7 alcohols,

  14. On the volatile flavour compounds of cooked trassi, a cured shrimp paste condiment of the Far East

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedarmo Moeljohardjo, D.

    1972-01-01

    The volatile compounds of cooked trassi, a cured shrimp paste condiment of the Far East have been studied. The techniques of volatiles isolation, concentration, fractionation as well as methods of identification have been described. 138 volatile compounds, which included 16 hydrocarbons, 7

  15. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...

  16. Study on Volatile Organic Components from Chinese Fir Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; OHIRA Tatsuro

    2006-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are emitted by a wide array of products, which include a variety of chemicals, some of them may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Several analytical instrument including gas chromatograph, high preferment liquid chromatograph, mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were used in this study. The results showed the aldehyde and ketone components of Chinese fir wood were little composed of formaldehyde, syn-acetaldehyde, anti-acetadehyde and acrolein, VOCs obtained by Tenax GR absorber consisted of the major component cedrene (42.92%) and another 28 components, and the major components of the VOCs from the sample by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were cedrene and cedrol.

  17. Volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinivasagam, H.N.; Bremner, Allan; Wood, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    , whereas sulphides and amines occurred whether the predominant spoilage organism was Ps.fragi or Shewanella putrefaciens. The free amino acid profiles of banana and king prawns were high in arginine (12-14%) and low in cysteine (0.1-0.17%) and methionine (0.1-0.2%). Filter sterilised raw banana prawn broth...... inoculated with a total of 15 cultures of Ps. fragi and S. putrefaciens and incubated for two weeks at 5°C, showed the presence of 17 major compounds in the headspace volatiles analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These were mainly amines, sulphides, ketones and esters. Principal...... Component Analysis of the results for the comparative levels of the volatiles produced by pure cultures, inoculated into sterile prawn broth, indicated three subgroupings of the organisms; I, Ps. fragi from a particular geographic location; II, S. putrefaciens from another geographic location; and III...

  18. Influence of volatile compounds on the development of off-flavours in pig back fat samples classified with boar taint by a test panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, M Angels; Hortós, M; García-Regueiro, Jose Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Dynamic Head Space methodology was applied to evaluate the possible contribution of some volatile compounds to the development of boar taint in pig backfat samples with low concentrations of skatole and androstenone, but which had previously been classified as tainted by a trained test panel. Volatile compounds were collected in a trap of graphited charcoal and analysed by GC-MS in Scan mode. Aldehydes and short chain fatty acids, compounds that play a significant role in the development of undesirable aromas in food products, were the main classes of compounds identified in this study, although the possible contribution of other compounds that were detected in a minor proportion - such as alcohols and ketones - was evaluated. Styrene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, compounds that may have come from an external contamination, showed a high concentration in the samples classified with boar taint, so these compounds could have been responsible for the development of some off-flavours in the fat samples studied in this work. In the same study, skatole and androstenone were also determined by normal phase HPLC and GCMS, respectively.

  19. Comparison of two headspace sampling techniques for the analysis of off-flavour volatiles from oat based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognat, Claudine; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Stewart, Derek

    2012-10-01

    Two different headspace sampling techniques were compared for analysis of aroma volatiles from freshly produced and aged plain oatcakes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre and entrainment on Tenax TA within an adsorbent tube were used for collection of volatiles. The effects of variation in the sampling method were also considered using SPME. The data obtained using both techniques were processed by multivariate statistical analysis (PCA). Both techniques showed similar capacities to discriminate between the samples at different ages. Discrimination between fresh and rancid samples could be made on the basis of changes in the relative abundances of 14-15 of the constituents in the volatile profiles. A significant effect on the detection level of volatile compounds was observed when samples were crushed and analysed by SPME-GC-MS, in comparison to undisturbed product. The applicability and cost effectiveness of both methods were considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.

  1. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed.

  2. Volatile components and sensory characteristics of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes during fermentation periods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Pinitklang, Surapong; Laohakunjit, Natta; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2016-01-01

    Headspace-volatile components and sensory characteristics, including color, Maillard reaction products and free amino acid profiles, of two types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta...

  3. Behaviors of volatile inorganic components in urban aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiromasa; Takemoto, Taroh; Kim, Young Pyo; Sha, Weiming

    A multicomponent gas-aerosol equilibrium model (Kim et al., 1993a,b; Kim and Seinfeld, 1995) was used to explain the behaviors of water content and other volatile species in the aerosols observed in polluted air mass in Central Japan. It was found that gas-aerosol equilibrium was attained after long-range transport of polluted air mass (e.g., 50 km) from emission source area, while it was not completed in large emission source areas. The present model predicted with high accuracy the gas-aerosol equilibrium of ammonium, nitrate and chloride at remote sites. The correlation coefficient was R=0.98 for ammonia and more than R=0.86 for gaseous nitric acid. It was R=0.94 for gaseous hydrochloric acid, which meant significant chlorine deficit under high-temperature and low humidity conditions was also predicted accurately. The predicted water content was consistent with that calculated by the semi-theoretical Winkler's formula (Aerosol Sceince, 13, 1973, 373-387). At RH=90% the water content attained almost the same weight as that of dry aerosol, while at about RH=60% it was less than 10%. In contrast, temperature dependency of the water content was weak except for very high air temperature conditions in summer. Finally, it emphasized the superiority of the multicomponent approach for gas-aerosol equilibrium, compared with the binary-component approach.

  4. Flavour Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奎斯特国际有限公司

    2004-01-01

    @@ A good flavour must taste realistic and natural as well as performing under tough conditions, says Mairi Coia. In conjunction with texture or mouthfeel, flavour is the most important aspect of food. It is the one thing can bring consumers back to a product again and again - or not, as the case may be. In short, taste is the number one attribute in food and that is why the global fiavour business is worth A5 billion every year as manufacturers strive to make food taste better and fresher for longer.

  5. Solid phase micro-extraction GC-MS analysis of natural volatile components in melon and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harrie A; Jonker, Harry; De Vos, Ric C H; Hall, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    The natural fragrance compounds produced by plants play key roles in the long-term fitness and survival of these plants as well as being of direct/indirect benefit to man. Almost all plant fragrances, either pleasant or unpleasant, comprise many different compounds, from different chemical classes and can indeed be highly complex in composition involving several hundred types of volatile molecule. Analyzing these mixtures and identifying their main (bio)active components is of importance in both fundamental and applied science. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) plays a central role here. GC-MS has regularly been used for fragrance analysis and different extraction/adsorption and detection protocols have been designed specifically for plant materials. In this chapter, two methods are presented for two highly contrasting plant organs-a melon fruit and rice grains. Metabolomics analyses of these important food crops are already helping us understand better which components are most important in determining the flavour of these important food crops and how we might go about producing new "designer" crops which are even tastier than the existing ones.

  6. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  7. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  8. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Nonlinear Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaglou, Kadir G.; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Stefen L.;

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A second volatility factor is economically most...

  9. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...... region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  10. Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into simple and threshold jumps and continuous variation yields a substantial improvement in volatility forecasting or not. The results provide the evidence that inclusion of realized bipower variance in the HAR models helps in predicting future volatility.

  11. Option Valuation with Long-run and Short-run Volatility Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat;

    This paper presents a new model for the valuation of European options, in which the volatility of returns consists of two components. One of these components is a long-run component, and it can be modeled as fully persistent. The other component is short-run and has a zero mean. Our model can...... be viewed as an affine version of Engle and Lee (1999), allowing for easy valuation of European options. The model substantially outperforms a benchmark single-component volatility model that is well-established in the literature, and it fits options better than a model that combines conditional...

  12. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  13. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  14. Use of non-growing Lactococcus lactis cell suspensions for production of volatile metabolites with direct relevance for flavour formation during dairy fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van de B.; Bron, P.A.; Sijtsma, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium that has been used for centuries in the production of a variety of cheeses, as these bacteria rapidly acidify milk and greatly contribute to the flavour of the fermentation end-products. After a short growth phase during cheese ripening L. lac

  15. Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair herba schizonepetae-ramulus cinnamomi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair (HP) herba schizonepetae-ramulus cinnamomi (HS-RC),single herb HS and RC was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data and chemometric resolution method (CRM).The two-dimensional data obtained from GC-MS instruments were resolved into a pure chromatogram and a mass spectrum of each chemical compound by CRM.In total,47,61 and 51 chemical components in volatile oil of HS,RC,and HP HS-RC were respectively determined qualitatively and quantitatively,accounting for 90.52%,88.37%,and 88.72% total contents of volatile oil of HS,RC,and HP HS-RC,respectively.The number of the volatile components of HP HS-RC is almost the addition of that of two single herbs,but their relative contents are changed.

  16. Volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinivasagam, H.N.; Bremner, Allan; Wood, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from king (Penaeus plebejus), banana (P. merguiensis), tiger (P. esculentus/semisulcatus) and greasy (Metapenaeus bennettae) prawns stored in ice or ice slurry, which is effectively an environment of low oxygen tension......, whereas sulphides and amines occurred whether the predominant spoilage organism was Ps.fragi or Shewanella putrefaciens. The free amino acid profiles of banana and king prawns were high in arginine (12-14%) and low in cysteine (0.1-0.17%) and methionine (0.1-0.2%). Filter sterilised raw banana prawn broth...

  17. Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Andersen, Torben G.; Diebold, Francis X.

    -Nielsen and Shephard (2004a, 2005) for related bi-power variation measures, the present paper provides a practical and robust framework for non-parametrically measuring the jump component in asset return volatility. In an application to the DM/$ exchange rate, the S&P500 market index, and the 30-year U.S. Treasury......A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in Barndorff...... but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the non-jump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications...

  18. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide decaffeination on volatile components of green teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Park, M K; Kim, K H; Kim, Y-S

    2007-09-01

    Volatile components in regular and decaffeinated green teas were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and then analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 41 compounds, including 8 alcohols, 15 terpene-type compounds, 10 carbonyls, 4 N-containing compounds, and 4 miscellaneous compounds, were found in regular and decaffeinated green teas. Among them, linalool and phenylacetaldehyde were quantitatively dominant in both regular and decaffeinated green teas. By a decaffeination process using supercritical carbon dioxide, most volatile components decreased. The more caffeine was removed, the more volatile components were reduced in green teas. In particular, relatively nonpolar components such as terpene-type compounds gradually decreased according to the decaffeination process. Aroma-active compounds in regular and decaffeinated green teas were also determined and compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Most greenish and floral flavor compounds such as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and some unknown compounds disappeared or decreased after the decaffeination process.

  19. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  20. Volatility Components, Affine Restrictions and Non-Normal Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Dorian, Christian

    Recent work by Engle and Lee (1999) shows that allowing for long-run and short-run components greatly enhances a GARCH model's ability fit daily equity return dynamics. Using the risk-neutralization in Duan (1995), we assess the option valuation performance of the Engle-Lee model and compare...... it to the standard one-component GARCH(1,1) model. We also compare these non-affine GARCH models to one- and two- component models from the class of affine GARCH models developed in Heston and Nandi (2000). Using the option pricing methodology in Duan (1999), we then compare the four conditionally normal GARCH...... models to four conditionally non-normal versions. As in Hsieh and Ritchken (2005), we find that non-affine models dominate affine models both in terms of fitting return and in terms of option valuation. For the affine models we find strong evidence in favor of the component structure for both returns...

  1. Optimisation of a complete method for the analysis of volatiles involved in the flavour stability of beer by solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2008-05-09

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used for the quantification of 32 volatiles which represent the typical chemical reactions that can occur during beer ageing. Detection was accomplished by employing on-fibre derivatisation using o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and normal HS-SPME extraction. The procedures were optimised for SPME fibre selection, PFBHA loading temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and effect of salt addition. Interference of matrix effects was overcome by calibrating according to the standard addition method and by using internal standards. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully and was applied to study the flavour stability of different beer types.

  2. Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th

  3. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  4. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  5. Volatility Components, Affine Restrictions and Non-Normal Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Dorian, Christian;

    Recent work by Engle and Lee (1999) shows that allowing for long-run and short-run components greatly enhances a GARCH model's ability fit daily equity return dynamics. Using the risk-neutralization in Duan (1995), we assess the option valuation performance of the Engle-Lee model and compare...... models to four conditionally non-normal versions. As in Hsieh and Ritchken (2005), we find that non-affine models dominate affine models both in terms of fitting return and in terms of option valuation. For the affine models we find strong evidence in favor of the component structure for both returns...

  6. Quantitative analysis of some volatile components in Mimusops elengi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantana Aromdee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried pikul flower (Mimusops elengi L., Sapotaceae is used in many recipes of Thai traditional medicine i.e. cardiotonic and stomachic. In this study, fresh and dried pikul flowers were investigated. The odour of pikul flower, even when it was dried, is very strong and characteristic. The constituents of volatile oils in fresh and dried pikul flowers extracted by ether were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Phenylethanol, 4-hydroxybenzenemethanol and cinnamyl alcohol were mainly found in fresh flower, 10.49, 8.69 and 6.17%, respectively. Whereas those mainly found in dried flowers were long chain carboxylic acid ester and (Z-9-octadecenoic acid, 5.37 and 4.71% of ether extract, respectively.An analytical method simultaneously determining benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben was developed by using the GC-FID method. The percent recoveries were 91.66, 104.59 and 105.28%, respectively. The intraday variations(% RSD were 7.22, 6.67 and 1.86%; and the interday variation were 3.12, 2.52 and 3.55%, respectively. Detection limits were 0.005, 0.014 and 0.001 ppm, and quantitation limits were 0.015, 0.048 and 0.003 ppm, respectively. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben content of dried flowers (9 samples from various drug stores in Thailand and one sample from China were 6.40-13.46, 17.57-196.57 and 27.35-355.53 ppm, respectively.

  7. Diffusion in multi-component polymeric systems: Diffusion of non-volatile species in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Kind, M.; Cairncross, R.; Schabel, W.

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric films for high-tech products like LCD-panels, transdermal patches or medical test strips typically consist of a polymer and one or more non-volatile additives. If during the production process a multi-component solution is coated and subsequently dried, the diffusion of solvents and non-volatile species in the polymeric systems plays an important role. Recent experiments revealed that the drying conditions can have a significant influence on the formation of inhomogeneous distribution of the non-volatile components in the final foil and therefore affects desired product properties. The distribution of the non-volatile components in the final film has an important impact on the physical and chemical properties, including mechanical and optical properties, wetting behavior or drug release rates i.e. the product quality of the polymeric system. To be able to describe the diffusion of non-volatile species in a multi-component polymeric system during drying correctly, reliable information about the influence of the solvent concentration on the mobility of the additive are essential. To obtain information about the mobility of the additive in the polymeric solution new experiments were performed and observed by means of Inverse-Micro-Raman-Spectroscopy (IMRS). By fitting simulated concentration profiles to the experimental data, the temperature and concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of the non-volatile additive in the polymer solution was determined. The investigations are part of a bilateral funding of NFG in the US and DFG in Germany. Diffusion of volatile species in multicomponent polymeric systems are investigated by the group of Richard Cairncross.

  8. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bonaccorsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L. Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm. Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in

  9. Change of volatile components in six microalgae with different growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lv; Chen, Jiao; Xu, Jilin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Chengxu; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Head space solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to analyze the volatile components of six marine microalgae (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Platymonas helgolandica, Nannochloropsis spp. and Dicrateria inornata) from Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta, respectively, in different growth phases. All volatile compounds were identified by database searching in the NIST08 Mass Spectral Library and analyzed by principal component analysis with SIMCA-P software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden). The results clearly revealed that the volatile components of the six microalgae were significantly different in the exponential, stationary and declining phases. Aldehydes, alkanes, some esters and dimethyl sulfide significantly changed in different growth phases. This is the first report on the comprehensive characteristics of volatile components in different microalgae and in different growth phases. The results may provide reference data for studies on the flavor of cultivated aquatic organism, odor formation in nature water, choice of feeding period and microalgae species selection for the artificial rearing of marine organisms. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Seasonal variations of Laurus nobilis L. leaves volatile oil components in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shokoohinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. (sweet laurel is one of the volatile oil bearing plants of Lauraceae family. It is cultivated in different parts of Iran and its leaves and fruits have been used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. There are a few reports about the effects of some environmental conditions on the quality and quantity of laurel volatiles. The goal of our work was to search the seasonal variations on the L. nobilis leaves volatile composition. The volatiles of four samples of the dried leaves of L. nobilis collected in March, June, September and December 2009 in Isfahan, Iran were prepared by using a Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-nine, thirty-one, thirty-three and thirty-four components consisting 96.91%, 97.66%, 97.46% and 95.44% of the total compounds were identified of the volatiles obtained with yields of 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 0.8% (w/w, subsequently. The main compound was found to be 1,8-cineole (30.80-40.25%. Although twenty-seven out of thirty-six volatile components were similar in different seasons, there were some differences between other compounds of our four samples. While the essential oil composition of the March and June plant samples were characterized by presence of 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and camphor, the volatiles of September and December plant samples contained 1,8-cineole, camphene and sabinene. Some compounds like eugenol, methyl eugenol and α-terpenyl acetate were not affected apparently by seasonal changes.

  11. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium) from North Western Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    B. BENYELLES; H. ALLALI; N. FEKIH,; M. Touaibia; MUSELLI, A.; N. DJABOU; M. E. DIB; B. TABTI; Costa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID), GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram) were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %), benzene acetonitri...

  12. Enantioselective GC-MS analysis of volatile components from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils and hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomi, Kenichi; Kitao, Makiko; Konishi, Norihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    Essential oils and hydrosols were extracted from rosemary harvested in different seasons, and the chemical compositions of volatile components in the two fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of some volatile components were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS. Classification of aroma components based on chemical groups revealed that essential oils contained high levels of monoterpene hydrocarbons but hydrosols did not. Furthermore, the enantiomeric ratios within some volatile components were different from each other; for example, only the (S)-form was observed for limonene and the (R)-form was dominant for verbenone. These indicate the importance of determining the enantiomer composition of volatile components for investigating the physiological and psychological effects on humans. Overall, enantiomeric ratios were determined by volatile components, with no difference between essential oils and hydrosols or between seasons.

  13. Interactions between volatile and nonvolatile coffee components. 1. Screening of nonvolatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Bernard, Marielle; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Rytz, Andreas; Roberts, Deborah D

    2005-06-01

    This study is the first of two publications that investigate the phenomena of coffee nonvolatiles interacting with coffee volatile compounds. The purpose was to identify which coffee nonvolatile(s) are responsible for the interactions observed between nonvolatile coffee brew constituents and thiols, sulfides, pyrroles, and diketones. The overall interaction of these compounds with coffee brews prepared with green coffee beans roasted at three different roasting levels (light, medium, and dark), purified nonvolatiles, and medium roasted coffee brew fractions (1% solids after 1 or 24 h) was measured using a headspace solid-phase microextraction technique. The dark roasted coffee brew was slightly more reactive toward the selected compounds than the light roasted coffee brew. Selected pure coffee constituents, such as caffeine, trigonelline, arabinogalactans, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, showed few interactions with the coffee volatiles. Upon fractionation of medium roasted coffee brew by solid-phase extraction, dialysis, size exclusion chromatography, or anion exchange chromatography, characterization of each fraction, evaluation of the interactions with the aromas, and correlation between the chemical composition of the fractions and the magnitude of the interactions, the following general conclusions were drawn. (1) Low molecular weight and positively charged melanoidins present significant interactions. (2) Strong correlations were shown between the melanoidin and protein/peptide content, on one hand, and the extent of interactions, on the other hand (R = 0.83-0.98, depending on the volatile compound). (3) Chlorogenic acids and carbohydrates play a secondary role, because only weak correlations with the interactions were found in complex matrixes.

  14. Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Andersen, Torben G.; Diebold, Francis X.

    A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in Barndorff...... bond yield, we find that jumps are both highly prevalent and distinctly less persistent than the continuous sample path variation process. Moreover, many jumps appear directly associated with specific macroeconomic news announcements. Separating jump from non-jump movements in a simple...... but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the non-jump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications...

  15. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics.

  16. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  17. Analysis of volatile components in Curcuma rhizome by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Qing; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Xu, Pan; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2013-02-01

    Volatile chemicals are a group of very important compounds in natural products. Curcuma rhizome, which contains many bioactive volatile compounds, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has long been used for the treatment of several diseases. In the present study, a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method was developed for the analysis of four volatile components in Curcuma rhizome, including germacrone, furanodiene, curcumenol and curdione. Experimental parameters, including the pH, type and concentrations of background electrolyte, and microemulsion compositions (type and concentrations of surfactant, co-surfactant and oil phase) were intensively investigated. Finally, the primary compounds in the methanol extract of Curcuma rhizome were separated within 30 min using a running buffer composed of 2.31% w/v (80 mmol/L) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 0.91% w/v (80 mmol/L) 1-octane, 6.95% w/v (937.5 mmol/L) 1-butanol and 1.88% w/v (312.5 mmol/L) propanol in a 5-mM borate buffer (pH 8.1). The contents of the four investigated compounds were determined in the rhizome from C. phaeocaulis. The results showed that the developed MEEKC method provided an alternative tool for the analysis of volatile components, especially those of heat-sensitive compounds from natural products.

  18. Determination of volatile components in cut tobacco with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lan-fang; WU Ming-jian; SUN Xian-jun; ZHONG Ke-jun; GUO Zi-ming; DAI Yun-hui; HUANG Ke-long; GUO Fang-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile components of cut tobacco samples with the help of heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP). After extracting with simultaneous distillation and extraction method, the volatile components in cut tobacco were detected by GC-MS. Then the obtained original two-dimensional data were resolved into pure mass spectra and chromatograms. The qualitative analysis was performed by similarity searches in the national institute of standards and technology(NIST) mass database with the obtained pure mass spectrum of each component and the quantitative results were obtained by calculating the volume of total two-way response. The accuracy of qualitative and quantitative results were greatly improved by using the two-dimensional comprehensive information of chromatograms and mass spectra. 107 of 141 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.01% of the total content. The result proves that the developed method is powerful for the analysis of complex cut tobacco samples.

  19. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shan Chi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components in single-flowered and double-flowered Chinese narcissus were identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with GC and GC/MS. Changes in aroma during the vase-life (days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of two samples were also studied. A total of 35 compounds were identified, of which all were present in single-flowered and 26 in double-flowered samples. The main aroma components were (E-β-ocimene, and benzyl acetate. Single-flowered narcissus have a higher percentage of benzyl acetate, while double-flowered narcissus have a higher percentage of 1,8-cineole. In vase-life, the total volatile component content peaked on day 2 for single-flowered and day 3 for the double-flowered narcissus. For both single-flowered and double-flowered narcissus flowers, the total content of volatile components had decreased significantly by day 4.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium from North Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BENYELLES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %, benzene acetonitrile (3.9 % and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate (2.9 %. Higher content in nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds accounting to 86.4 % of the volatile fraction composition of T. majus were quantified.

  1. 甜橙键合态芳香组分的酶(酸)解解离方法研究%Study on the Separation Method of Bound Flavour Component from Sweet Orange by Enzyme(Acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱东; 葛毅强; 阎红; 倪元颖; 蔡同一

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the separation of free and bound flavour component from orange juice by Amberlite XAD-2 absorption and methanol elution is processed, followed by simultaneous enzyme catalysis extraction using glucosidase and hydrochloric acid to release the potential flavour component from orange juice. The suitable resolve method is decided by the comparison of flavour components of different reaction fashions.%以甜橙为研究对象,通过采用Amberlite XAD-2树脂吸附溶剂解吸法,对橙汁的游离态与键合态芳香组分进行分离,然后酶(酸)解键合态组分,释放橙汁中的潜在芳香组分。通过对酶(酸)解反应方式释放的芳香组分的比较,确定适宜的解离方法。

  2. Quantitative Structure-retention Relationship Study of Volatile Components from Rosa Banksiae Ait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-Ping; BAO Xiao-Jing; WANG Gen-Li

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,(QSRR) study had been carried out for volatile components from Rosa banksiae Ait.based on various quantum-chemical and physicochemical descriptors derived by B3LYP method.To build QSRR models,a multiple linear regression (MLR) stepwise method was used.The generated models have good predictive ability and are of high statistical significance with good correlation coefficients (R2≥0.734) and p values far less than 0.05.Preliminary results indicated that the application of the models,especially the prediction of GC retention time and linear retention index of volatile components from Rosa banksiae Ait.,will be helpful.The models contribute also to the identification of important quantum-chemical and physicochemical descriptors responsible for the retention time and linear retention index.It was found that the shape attribute (ShpA) and logP value play a vital role in determining component’s GC retention time and linear retention index which increase with the lipophilicity of volatile components.The larger the shape attribute of analyte is,the larger the deformability is,the stronger the interaction between analyte and stationary phase is,and the longer the GC retention time is,the larger the linear retention index is.The importance of E HOMO,q+,and SEV is also embodied in models,but they are not dominant.

  3. Analysis of Volatile Components of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. by Steam Distillation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. plays an important role in its antibacterial and antiphlogistic activities. In this work, the volatile components were extracted by steam distillation (SD and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, and the major volatile components were α-limonene (20.59–35.07%, fenchone (15.79–31.81%, α-caryophyllene (6.98–10.32%, β-caryophyllene (6.98–10.19%, and piperitenone oxide (1.96–11.63%. The comparison of the volatile components from A. indianum (Lour. Merr. grown in two regions of China was reported. Also, the comparison of the volatile components by SD and HS-SPME was discussed. The results showed that the major volatile components of A. indianum (Lour. Merr. from two regions of China were similar but varied with different extraction methods. These results were indicative of the suitability of HS-SPME method for simple, rapid, and solvent-free analysis of the volatile components of the medicinal plants.

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOTAL VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM LEAVES OF CITRUS LIMON LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steamdistillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by meansof Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatilecomponents were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing theirretention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification wasdone by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RIvalues and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standardavailable literature.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Volatile Components Extracted from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Four Plants Growing in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boughalleb

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components extracted from the leaves, stems and flowers of Lantana camara, Malvaviscus arboreus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. red flowers and white flowers were tested against the fungi Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae, F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was found with volatile components extracted from the stems and the flowers. Complete inhibition was achieved against V. dahliae. The weakest effect was against P. ultimum. Volatile components extracted from the leaves were not effective.

  6. SPME-GC-MS对菜籽毛油和精炼菜籽油挥发性风味成分的分析%Analysis of volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil and refined rapeseed oil by SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婧; 徐俐; 吴浪; 夏晓峰

    2012-01-01

    以菜籽毛油和精炼菜籽油为原料,采用固相微萃取(SPME)装置顶空取样,用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)对挥发性风味成分进行鉴定.结果表明:菜籽毛油的主要挥发性风味成分为硫甙降解产物、氧化挥发物(醛、醇、酮等)及杂环类物质,其中硫甙降解产物以2-甲代-1-丙烯基-氰、4-甲硫基-丁腈、3-苯基丙腈及4-异硫氰基-1-丁烯为主,氧化挥发物以1,5-己二烯-3-醇和反-2-反-4-癸二烯醛为主要成分,杂环类物质则以吡嗪类化合物为主;精炼菜籽油的挥发性风味成分主要为氧化挥发物,以反-2-反-4-庚二烯醛、反-2-反-4-癸二烯醛、反-2-癸烯醛为主,其菜籽油特征性风味不足,主要源于精炼过程中硫甙降解产物及杂环类芳香物质的减少.%The volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil and refined rapeseed oil were analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) . The oil samples were extracted by solid - phase mi-croextraction( SPME) method. The results showed that main volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil were degraded glucosinolate products, oxidation volatile compounds and heterocyclic compounds. The main degraded glucosinolate products involved methallyl cyanide, 4 - ( methylthio) - butanenitrile, 3 -phenyl propionitrile and 4 - isothiocyanato - 1 - butene. The main oxidation volatile compounds involved 1 ,5 -hexadien -3 - ol and (E,E) -2,4- decadienal. Pyrazine compounds were the main heterocyclic compounds. As well as the main volatile flavour compounds in refined rapeseed oil were oxidation vola-tiles ((E,E) -2,4- heptadienal ,(E,E) -2,4- decadienal and ( E ) - 2 - decenal) . Refined rapeseed oil was lack of typical volatile flavour compounds because of the decrease of degraded glucosinolate products and heterocyclic compounds.

  7. Flavoured Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Chee Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total $B-L$ asymmetry can be up to a factor ${\\cal O}(30)$ larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.

  8. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL(-1), and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL(-1). This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis.

  9. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohakunjit, Natta; Selamassakul, Orrapun; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic bromelain seaweed protein hydrolysate (eb-SWPH) was characterised as the precursor for thermally processed seafood flavour. Seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) protein after agar extraction was hydrolysed using bromelain (enzyme activity=119,325 U/g) at 0-20% (w/w) for 0.5-24 h. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The proposed model took into account the interaction effect of the enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the physicochemical properties and volatile components of eb-SWPH. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for the production of eb-SWPH were 10% bromelain for 3h, which resulted in a 38.15% yield and a 62.91% degree of hydrolysis value. Three free amino acids, arginine, lysine, and leucine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Ten volatile flavours of the best eb-SWPH were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The predominant odourants were hexanal, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and dihydroactinidiolide. The thermally processed seafood flavour produced from eb-SWPH exhibited a roasted seafood-like flavouring.

  11. Fecal volatile components elicit aggregation in the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-Peng Shi; Hong-Li Sun; Nyndat Edward; Yu-Hua Yan

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation components from fecal volatiles of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis were identified with gas chromatographic/electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), GC-MS (mass spectrometry) analyses and behavioral bioassays. Both last instar nymphs and adults of the oriental migratory locust have similar aggregation pheromones in their volatiles. A total of 11 electrophysioiogically active compounds, namely, hexanal, cyclohexanol, heptanal, phenol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, guaiacol, nonanal, 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene1,4-dione and decyl aldehyde were identified in the fecal volatiles of 2-day-old immature adult male locusts. Only hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, cyclohexanol and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine elicited significant aggregation responses in immature 2-day-old adult males.However, adult males had significantly lower behavioral responses to synthetics of five single compounds than the blend of cyclohexanol, 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, benzaldehyde,nonanal, hexanal in ratios of 100 : 100 : 2 : 60 : 30 in the range of 30-60 μg/mL. We propose that it is the blend of these five compounds that plays a key role in eliciting and sustaining aggregation in gregarious oriental migratory locusts. These results also showed that the aggregation pheromones of the oriental migratory locust are significantly different from those found in the desert locust.

  12. Study on the retentivity of the volatile components of simulated guava juice using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Hashim Khalil

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on retentivity of major guava juice volatile compounds during ultrafiltration is presented in this paper. Simulated guava juice solutions were used throughout the study and the ultrafiltration was carried out in a batch stirred cell system. Polyethersulfone membranes with MWCO of 100,000 and 500,000 were used. The effects of important process operating parameters such as pressure and pectin concentration were studied. It was found that hydrophobic interactions with the membrane are the major factors, which control the flavor retention. A qualitative correlation between component polarity and retentivity was also observed.

  13. Analysis of Volatile Components in Strawberry Cultivars Xingdu 1 and Xingdu 2 and Their Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-tao; WANG Gui-xia; DONG Jing; ZHONG Chuan-fei; KONG Jin; LI Tian-zhong; HAN Zhen-hai

    2009-01-01

    To study differences and genetic trends of volatiles in Xingdu 1 and Xingdu 2,the strawberry cultivars,with their parents,the volatile components were analyzed by head space-solid phase microextraetion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results indicated that a total of 50 compounds were identified in Xingdu 1 cultivar,including hexanoic acid methyl ester and hexanoie acid ethyl ester,butanoic acid methyl ester,and butanoic acid ethyl ester,octanoic acid methyl ester and octanoic acid ethyl ester,isomyl hexanoate.And there were 71 compounds in Xingdu 2,which were similar to that of Xingdu 1.About 55 volatiles were identified in Allstar(female parent),including acetone,acetic acid 1-methylethyl ester,1-octanol,hexanoic acid ethyl ester and butanoic acid methyl ester.And 43 volatiles were identified in Toyonoka(male parent),including hexanoie acid ethyl ester,nerolidol,1-octanol,hexanoic acid methyl ester,acetic acid octyl ester,isomyl hexanoate and octanoic acid methyl ester.Consequently,hexanoic acid methyl ester and hexanoic acid ethyl ester,butanoic acid methyl ester,and butanoic acid ethyl ester and isomyl hexanoate in twins might be affected both sides of their parents.In the family,male parent(Toyonoka)had the highest concentrations of fragrance alcohols,such as nerolidol,linalool and 1-octanol,but which couldn't be transmitted to the descendants.Acetone,acetic acid 1-methylethyl ester of the twins originally came from matrilinear inheritance,as the contents of the two compounds were very high in Allstar but little in Toyonoka.Genetic trends of butanoic acid methyl ester,butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid methyl ester and isomyl hexanoate were affected by both sides of parents.

  14. Analysis of Volatile Components of Bergamot Oil by GC/TOFMS%香柠檬油挥发性成分的GC-TOFMS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨斌; 王凯; 朱瑞芝; 冒德寿; 李智宇; 唐辉

    2015-01-01

    The volatile components of bergamot oil were analyzed by using of gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the peak area normalization method was used to calculate the relative content of each component. With the mass spectrometry library search , 53 compounds which account for 98.24%in the volatile components of bergamot oil , were identified by using reference literature and retention index. Beta-Pinene (17.59%), linalyl acetate (15.25%), para-cymene (12.83%), gamma-terpinene (10.96%), limonene (6.29%), terpinolene (5.10%), alpha-pinene (4.53%), linalool (3.80%), myrcene (2.98%), alpha-terpineol (2.40%), geranyl acetate (2.26%), p-cymenol (1.76%), neryl acetate (1.67%), ortho-cymene (1.54%), octyl acetate (1.27%), alpha-terpinene (1.04%), 1,8-cineole (1.04%), beta-caryophyllene (1.01%) were the main components. Among them , 40 components were terpenoids and their derivatives, which account for 81.97%in the volatile components of bergamot oil. The aroma of main volatile components of bergamot oil was analyzed , and it provided guidance for product development and flavouring.%利用气相色谱/飞行时间质谱,对香柠檬油的挥发性成分进行了分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算了各成分的相对含量.通过质谱库检索,保留指数比对,分析并确定出香柠檬油中的53个成分,占香柠檬油挥发性成分的98.24%.香柠檬油的主要成分为β-蒎烯(17.59%)、乙酸芳樟酯(15.25%)、对伞花烃(12.83%)、γ-萜品烯(10.96%)、柠檬烯(6.29%)、萜品油烯(5.10%)、α-蒎烯(4.53%)、芳樟醇(3.80%)、月桂烯(2.98%)、α-萜品醇(2.40%)、乙酸香叶酯(2.26%)、对甲基苯异丙醇(1.76%)、橙花醇乙酸酯(1.67%)、邻伞花烃(1.54%)、醋酸辛酯(1.27%)、α-萜品烯(1.04%)、桉叶油醇(1.04%)、β-石竹烯(1.01%)等.其中,萜类化合物及其衍生物共40个,占香柠檬油挥发性成分的81.97%.对香柠檬油中的主要挥发性成分的香气进行了分析,为产品开发和调香提供了指导.

  15. Improvement in shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves through integration of kinetin pretreatment and packaging interventions: Studies on microbial population dynamics, biochemical characteristics and flavour retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, K; Shivashankara, K S; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Roy, T K; Bharathamma, H

    2017-04-15

    Effect of integrating optimized combination of pretreatment with packaging on shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves (MPCL) was appraised through analysis of their sensory attributes, biochemical characteristics, microbial population and flavour profile during storage. Minimally pretreated cilantro leaves pretreated with 50ppm kinetin and packed in 25μ polypropylene bags showed a shelf life of 21days. Optimized combination helped in efficiently maintaining sensory parameters, flavour profile, and retention of antioxidants in MPCL until 21days. Studies conducted on the effect of optimized combination on microbial population and flavour profile revealed that among different microorganisms, pectinolysers had a significant effect on spoilage of MPCL and their population of ⩽3.59logcfu/g was found to be acceptable. Principal component analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-hexadecenal, (E)-2-tetradecenal & (E)-2-tetradecen-1-ol in stored samples clustered with fresh samples and therefore, could be considered as freshness indicators for MPCL.

  16. Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair Semen Persicae-Flos Carthami by GC-MS and chemometric resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Xiaoru; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng

    2012-11-01

    Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair (HP) Semen Persicae-Flos Carthami (SP-FC) was performed by GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution method (CRM). Furthermore, temperature-programmed retention indices were used together with mass spectra for identification of the volatile components. With the help of CRM, the two-dimensional data obtained from GC-MS instruments were resolved into a pure chromatogram and a mass spectrum of each chemical compound. By use of these methods upon two-dimensional data, 26, 49, and 59 volatile chemical components in essential oils of single herb Semen Persicae, Flos Carthami, and HP SP-FC were determined qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 78.42, 81.08, and 82.48% total contents of essential oil of single herb Semen Persicae, Flos Carthami, and HP SP-FC, respectively. It is shown that the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative analysis can be enhanced greatly by means of CRM. It is further demonstrated that the numbers of volatile chemical components of HP SP-FC are almost the addition of those of two single herbs, but the main volatile chemical components of the former are completely different from those of single herb Semen Persicae or Flos Carthami because of chemical reactions and physical changes occurring in the process of decocting two single herbs. This means that chemical components especially pharmacologically active compounds in the recipe might be different from those of single herbs.

  17. Flavour Tagging at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Grabalosa Gandara, M

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.

  18. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  19. Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce,Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fan YANG; Shen-ru CHEN; Hui NI; Xing-qian YE

    2008-01-01

    Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl ace tate extraction fol-lowed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modem analysis methods.

  20. Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-05-12

    The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.

  1. Analysis of Volatile Components of Plum%梅果挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫民; 王之建; 吴晓红; 苗彩芬; 魏玉琪; 李琼

    2011-01-01

    The volatile components of plum were identified by method of HS-SFME -GC-MS. There were 66 volatile compounds, including 8 alcohols,4 lactones,12 aldehydes,23 esters,2 ketones,8 acids,7 terpenes and terpene alcohols and 2 aromatic compounds. The reason was analyzed why plum sends forth the aromas of peach,milk and apricot in the early,middle and late stages of aroma production.%采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了梅果的挥发性成分,共鉴定出66种挥发性成分,其中醇类8种、内酯类4种、醛类12种、酯类23种、酮类2种、酸类8种、萜烯及萜烯醇类7种以及其他芳香族类化合物2种.分析了梅果发香前、中和后期分别具有桃香、果香奶香和杏香的原因.

  2. Gauged Lepton Flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.

    2016-12-22

    The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.

  3. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  4. Protein-flavour interactions in relation to development of novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Vincken, J.P.; Roozen, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are known to interact with relatively small molecules such as flavour compounds and saponins, and may thus influence the taste perception of food. In this study, the interactions of flavour volatiles with pea proteins, and the effects of heat on these interactions were investigated. The pre

  5. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Y

    2010-01-01

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in particle theory/string theory/particle experiment familiar with the basics of the Standard Model. We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavour physics. We describe flavour physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi- Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavour physics for new physics. We emphasize the “new physics flavour puzzle”. As an explicit example, we explain how the recent measurements ofD0−D 0 mixing constrain the supersymmetric flavour structure. We explain how the ATLAS and CMS experiments can solve the new physics flavour puzzle and perhaps shed light on the standard model flavour puzzle. Finally, we describe various interpretations of the neutrino flavour data and their impact on flavour models.

  6. Flavour profiles of three novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S

    2013-08-15

    Novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) are emerging onto the UK market. These melons contain almost twice the amount of citric acid compared to standard melons and are described as 'zesty and fresh'. This study compared the flavour components of three acidic varieties with a standard Galia-type melon. The volatile and semivolatile compounds were extracted, using dynamic headspace extraction (DHE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). More than 50 volatile and 50 semivolatile compounds were identified in the headspace and the SPE extracts, respectively. GC-O revealed 15 odour-active components in the headspace, with esters being consistently higher in the acidic variety. This study showed quantitative and qualitative differences among all four varieties and key differences between acidic varieties and standard melons.

  7. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer, but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products. Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing

  8. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like....... An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth....

  9. [Determination of chemical components of volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian-hui; Tang, Ke-wen; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Ning-hua

    2002-11-01

    Volatile oil was extracted from Cuminum cyminum L. by using steam distillation. More than sixty peaks were separated and 49 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative amounts of the components were determined by area normalization method. Among the 49 compounds identified, there were 16 hydrocarbons and 32 oxygenated compounds. The main compnents were cuminal and safranal (accounting for 32.26% and 24.46% respectively in the components identified). The other nine compounds with contents all over 1%, were monterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic aldehydes and aromatic oxides etc. The other components with relatively small amounts were chiefly terpenes, terpenols, terpenals, terpenones, terpene esters and aromatic compounds. It is good to separate polar and apolar components in the volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. on the GC capillary column of moderate polarity.

  10. Effects of hunger state on flavour pleasantness conditioning at home: flavour-nutrient learning vs. flavour-flavour learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Sirous; Chambers, Lucy C; Yeomans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This study examined acquired liking of flavour preferences through flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning under hungry or sated conditions in a naturalistic setting. Each participant consumed one of three versions of a test drink at home either before lunch or after lunch: minimally sweetened ( 3% sucrose, 40 kcal), artificially sweetened (3% sucrose 40 kcal plus artificial sweeteners ASPARTAME) and sucrose-sweetened (SUCROSE: 9.9% sugar, 132 kcal). The test drink was an uncarbonated peach-flavoured iced tea served in visually identical drink cans (330 ml). Participants preselected as "sweet likers" evaluated the minimally sweetened flavoured drink (conditioned stimulus, CS) in the same state (hungry or sated) in which they consumed the test drink at home. Overall, liking for the CS flavour increased in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink, however, this increase in liking was significantly larger when tested and trained hungry than sated, consistent with a flavour-nutrient model. Overall increases in pleasantness for the CS flavour in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink when sated or the ASPARTAME drink independent of hunger state, suggest that flavour-flavour learning also occurred. These results are discussed in light of current learning models of flavour preference.

  11. Optimization of dynamic headspace extraction of the edible red algae Palmaria palmata and identification of the volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Marie-Annick; Grua-Priol, Joëlle; Prost, Carole; Demaimay, Michel

    2004-02-11

    A new extraction method was applied to the volatile compounds of Palmaria palmata. Dynamic headspace was optimized according to an experimental design, and descriptive sensory analysis and intensity and similarity tests were performed for each extract to assess their respective representativeness. Results showed that extract obtained with crushed algae after a 30 min purge was the most representative. GC-MS analysis was then performed on this extract to identify the volatile components. Seven halogenated compounds, seven aldehydes, two ketones, three alcohols, and four miscellaneous compounds were identified. Among them, halogenated compounds were the most characteristic of red algae, and more particularly, iodoethane and iodopentane, which had yet been found in other seaweeds.

  12. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  13. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h.

  14. LHCb flavour tagging performance

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Musy, M

    2003-01-01

    In CP violation measurements, the most accurate determination of the B flavour of neutral and charged B-mesons is necessary. In this note we summarize the tagging performances for the LHCb experiment, using different approaches and studying different decay channels.

  15. 烟草中挥发性、半挥发性酸性成分的分析%Study on the analysis of the volatile and semi-volatile acidic components in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春晓; 曲志刚; 毛多斌; 王志韬; 张文叶

    2003-01-01

    A new method was developed for the analysis of the volatile and semi-volatile acidic components in tobacco by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS, SIM)method. The acidic components in tobacco samples were extracted by methylene chloride using simultaneous distillation and extraction equipment, and they were analyzed by HP-INNOWAX column (30m × 250μm × 0.25μm ). Thirteen acidic components were quantitatively determined by internal standard curve method. The experiment results showed that the added standard recoveries of the acidic components were in the range from 80.6% to 98.8%, the relative standard deviations(RSD)were less than 2.0% and the correlation coeflqcients were more than 0.99. The method is simple, rapid and accurate for the determination of the volatile and semi-volatile acidic components in tobacco.

  16. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2017-06-07

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  18. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

    2014-03-01

    Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour.

  19. Effects of Volatile Components and Ethanolic Extract from Eclipta prostrata on Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhong Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta prostrata, an aromatic plant, is known in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In the present study, the volatile components were isolated from the aerial parts of this plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC–MS. A total of 55 compounds, which were the major part (91.7% of the volatiles, were identified by matching mass spectra with a mass spectrum library (NIST 05.L. The main components were as follows: heptadecane (14.78%, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (12.80%, n-hexadecanoic acid (8.98%, pentadecane (8.68%, eudesma-4(14,11-diene (5.86%, phytol (3.77%, octadec-9-enoic acid (3.35%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester (2.74%, (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (2.36%, (Z-7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene (2.08% and (Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (2.07%. The effects of volatile components and ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of this plant on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts were evaluated by the MTT method and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Both volatile components and ethanolic extract (1 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL significantly (p < 0.01 stimulated the proliferation and increased the ALP activity of primary osteoblasts. These results propose that E. prostrata can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation, and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  20. Ultrasonic Nebulization Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Volatile Components in Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yue; WANG Lu; WANG Zi-ming; YU Cui; ZHANG Han-qi; SHI Yu-hua

    2011-01-01

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction(UNE) was developed and applied to the extraction of volatile components from traditional Chinese patent medicine Xiaoyao Pills. Several parameters of ultrasonic nebulization extraction including the sample particle size, solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic power were studied and selected. As a result, 2.4 g of sample with particle size of 80 mesh was extracted with 15 mL of n-hexane for 20 min at an ultrasonic power of 35 W. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) under the optimal conditions and 57 compounds were identified. The precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were also studied. Compared with ultrasonic-assisted extraction(UAE) and hydrodistillation(HD) extraction, the proposed method is more efficient, faster and easier to be operated at room temperature with smaller sample and energy consumption. It is suggested that the ultrasonic nebulization extraction can be used as a novel alternative method for the extraction of volatile components from traditional Chinese patent medicine.

  1. Future flavour physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  2. Top-Flavoured Dark Matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral $D$ meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consid...

  3. Charged-Lepton Flavour Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoecker, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This writeup of a talk at the 2011 Lepton-Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarises recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. I review searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation. I also discuss recent progress in tau-lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  4. Charged-lepton flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Hoecker

    2012-11-01

    This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.

  5. Characterization of volatile components and odor-active compounds in the oil of edible mushroom Boletopsis leucomelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Sota; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oil from Boletopsis leucomelas (Pers.) Fayod was extracted by hydrodistillation with diethylether, and the volatile components of the oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The oil contained 86 components, representing 87.5% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were linoleic acid (15.0%), phenylacetaldehyde (11.2%), and palmitic acid (9.4%). Furthermore, sulfur-containing compounds including 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, 2-acetylthiazole, S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, and benzothiazole were detected using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. The odor components were evaluated by the odor activity value, and aroma extract dilution analysis was performed through gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The oil had a mushroom-like, fatty, and burnt odor. The main components contributing to the mushroom-like and fatty odor were hexanal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and (2E)-nonenal, while the burnt odor was due to furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl furfural, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, 2-acethylthiazole, and indole.

  6. Flavour Tagging with the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems require knowledge of the b quark production flavour. This identification is performed by the Flavour Tagging.

  7. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components in the Fresh Roots and Rhizomes of Curcuma wenyujin by Static Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; CHENG Zhi-Hong; GUO Yin-Long; CAI Yan-Ben

    2006-01-01

    Static headspace GC-MS method coupled with H/D exchange was firstly developed to determine and identify the volatile components in the fresh root and rhizome of Curcuma wenyujin. The TIC chromatograms of 3 batches of fresh roots harvested at different time showed significant difference in the volatile components: the constitution was the same but the content of them was different. More than 60 volatile components in fresh roots (Root of C.wenyujin) and rhizomes (Rhizome of C. wenyujin) of C. wenyujin were detected, of which 51 and 48 volatile components were identified respectively. The fresh roots and rhizomes of C. wenyujin were found to have the similar volatile components. The contents of these components were calibrated by the response of β-elemene. In addition,the principal active component, β-elemene, was further confirmed and relatively quantified by its standard.γ-terpinene showed obvious allylic hydrogen/deuterium exchange using deuterium oxide which gave a new method to identify some compounds containing allylic hydrogen. At the same time, the active hydrogen compounds were also further confirmed. The results show that HS-GC-MS method is a fast, simple and efficient way for the analysis of volatile components from medical plants.

  9. Open heavy flavour production: conceptual framework and implementation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung Wuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Tung@pa.msu.edu; Kretzer, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Heavy flavour production is an important quantum chromodynamics (QCD) process both in its own right and as a key component of precision global QCD analysis. Apparent disagreements between fixed-flavour scheme calculations of b-production rate with experimental measurements in hadro-, lepto- and photo-production provide new impetus for a thorough examination of the theory and phenomenology of this process. We review existing methods of calculation and place them in the context of the general perturbative QCD framework of Collins. A distinction is drawn between scheme dependence and implementation issues related to quark mass effects near threshold. We point out a so far overlooked kinematic constraint on the threshold behaviour, which greatly simplifies the variable flavour number scheme. This obviates the need for the elaborate existing prescriptions and leads to robust predictions. It can facilitate the study of current issues on heavy flavour production as well as precision global QCD analysis. (author)

  10. A new methodology capable of characterizing most volatile and less volatile minor edible oils components in a single chromatographic run without solvents or reagents. Detection of new components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L; Cristillo, Giovanna; Sopelana, Patricia; Guillén, María D

    2017-04-15

    The possibilities offered by a new methodology to determine minor components in edible oils are described. This is based on immersion of a solid-phase microextraction fiber of PDMS/DVB into the oil matrix, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It enables characterization and differentiation of edible oils in a simple way, without either solvents or sample modification. This methodology allows simultaneous identification and quantification of sterols, tocols, hydrocarbons of different natures, fatty acids, esters, monoglycerides, fatty amides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, epoxides, furans, pyrans and terpenic oxygenated derivatives. The broad information provided by this methodology is useful for different areas of interest such as nutritional value, oxidative stability, technological performance, quality, processing, safety and even the prevention of fraudulent practices. Furthermore, for the first time, certain fatty amides, gamma- and delta-lactones of high molecular weight, and other aromatic compounds such as some esters derived from cinnamic acid have been detected in edible oils.

  11. Metagenomics reveals flavour metabolic network of cereal vinegar microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Huan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zong-Min; Yu, Yong-Jian; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86 201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.

  12. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) to Volatile Components of Host-Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hui; Li Jiquan; Jin Youju

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of adult A. glabripennis (Motsch.) to volatiles from ashleaf maple(Acer negundo L.) were investigated to identify semiochemicals involved in host location. Measurable electroantennogram (EAG)responses were elicited to all compounds tested, the most effective antennal stimulants were trans-2-hexen-1-al,decyl aldehyde andtrans-2-hexen-1-ol.These profiles were similar between males and females. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, above three com-pounds with certain concentration, trans-2-hexen-1-al (1%), trans-2-hexen-1-ol (1%) and decyl aldehyde (10%), were significantlyattractive to the adults in laboratory. The results show that either EAG or olfactory responding to a particular volatile compound aremarkedly influenced by the concentration.

  13. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  14. A two-component volatile atmosphere for Pluto. I. The bulk hydrodynamic escape regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trafton, L. (Texas Univ., Austin (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The seasonal effects on Pluto's atmosphere of a simplified system of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} saturated over a solid solution are investigated, and the results are compared with previous CH{sub 4} models. It is found that bulk escape occurs for CH{sub 4} mole fractions less than 0.7 of Pluto's volatile reservoir. Greater CH{sub 4} abundance leads to diffusive separation during the escape of both species and an atmospheric mixing ratio of about Xc(0). If Xc(0) is in the range 0.02-0.10, Pluto's atmosphere remains largely intact at aphelion rather than virtually freezing out as it does for Xc(0) greater than 0.3 or less than 0.001, or form an atmosphere with only a single volatile gas. An upper limit for the CH{sub 4} mixing ratio is about 0.07 if N{sub 2} is the second gas. On the other hand, CH{sub 4} is the dominant surface constituent of the volatile deposit if Xc(0) is greater than 0.0001. 29 refs.

  15. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  16. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-06-27

    An introductory overview of the Standard Model description of flavour is presented. The main emphasis is put on present tests of the quark-mixing matrix structure and the phenomenological determination of its parameters. Special attention is given to the experimental evidences of CP violation and their important role in our understanding of flavour dynamics.

  17. Chemical investigation of the volatile components of shade-dried petals of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Swaroop Ram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roses are always appreciated because of their inimitable aroma, many uses and of course their beauty. In addition to the different damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill. products (oil, water, concrete, absolute, gulkand etc., its dried petals are also used for various health purposes. The hydrodistilled volatile oil and water of shade-dried damask rose petals were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The predominant components of tThe essential oil and rose water were aliphatic hydrocarbons (56.4 and 46.3%, followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (14.7 and 8.7%. The main aliphatic hydrocarbons of the essential oil and rose water were heneicosane (19.7 and 15.7%, nonadecane (13.0 and 8.4%, tricosane (11.3 and 9.3% and pentacosane (5.3 and 5.1% while the content of 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol was 0.4% and 7.1% in the essential oil and rose water, respectively. The chemical composition of the dried rose petal volatiles is quite different from fresh flower volatiles.

  18. Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Nunes, Inês S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

    2009-06-01

    Two oxygen-containing monoterpene substrates, menthol or geraniol (25 mg l(-1)), were added to Anethum graveolens hairy root cultures to evaluate the influence of the biotransformation capacity on growth and production of volatile compounds. Growth was assessed by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight measurement. The volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The total constitutive volatile component was composed, in more than 50%, by falcarinol (17-52%), apiole (11-24%), palmitic acid (7-16%), linoleic acid (4-9%), myristicin (4-8%) and n-octanal (2-5%). Substrate addition had no negative influence on growth. The relative amount of menthol quickly decreased 48 h after addition, and the biotransformation product menthyl acetate was concomitantly formed. Likewise, the added geraniol quickly decreased over 48 h alongside with the production of the biotransformation products. The added geraniol was biotransformed in 10 new products, the alcohols linalool, alpha-terpineol and citronellol, the aldehydes neral and geranial, the esters citronellyl, neryl and geranyl acetates and linalool and nerol oxides.

  19. Additive effects of flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour pairings on liking for the smell and flavour of a novel drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Mobini, Sirous; Chambers, Lucy

    2007-12-05

    Previous research has established that caffeine consumption can reinforce changes in liking for caffeine-paired flavours, while pairing a novel flavour with a liked or dislike taste can also result in enduring changes in liking for the flavour. The present study examined how these two forms of flavour-learning interact. 72 habitual caffeine consumers who liked sweet tastes rated the odour and flavour of a novel tea drink before and after four training sessions where the flavour was paired with either 100 mg caffeine or placebo in one of three flavour contexts: added sweetness (aspartame), bitterness (quinine) or control. The liking for both the odour and flavour of the tea increased after pairing with caffeine regardless of flavour context, while pairing with bitterness reduced flavour liking regardless of the presence of caffeine. Pairing with quinine increased the rated bitterness of the tea odour, and reduced the rated sweetness of the tea flavour, post-training, independent of effects of caffeine. These data suggest that flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour associations have additive effects on drink liking, while confirming that flavour-flavour associations can alter the immediate sensory experience of a flavour alone.

  20. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  1. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  2. Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel K-H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.

  3. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-05-31

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

  4. Compositional, microbiological, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characterization of four Italian semi-hard goats' cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Miracle, R Evan; De Angelis, Maria; Minervini, Fabio; Rizzello, Carlo G; Drake, Mary Anne; Fox, Patrick F; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-11-01

    Four semi-hard Italian goats' milk cheeses, Flor di Capra (FC), Caprino di Cavalese (CC), Caprino di Valsassina (CV) and Capritilla (C), were compared for compositional, microbiological, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics. Mean values for the gross composition in part differed between cheeses. At the end of ripening, cheeses contained 7.98-8.51 log10 cfu/g of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were dominant in almost all cheeses. As shown by the Principal Component Analysis of RP-FPLC data for the pH 4.6-soluble fractions and by the determination of free amino acids, secondary proteolysis of CC and CV mainly differed from the other two cheeses. A total of 72 volatile components were identified by steam distillation-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free fatty acids and esters qualitatively and quantitatively differentiated the profile of CV and CC, respectively. The lowest concentrations of volatile components characterized FC. Descriptive sensory analysis using 17 flavour attributes was carried out by a trained panel. Different flavour attributes distinguished the four goats' cheeses and relationships were found with volatile components, biochemical characteristics and technology.

  5. Non-minimally flavour violating dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Flavour symmetries provide an appealing mechanism to stabilize the dark matter particle. I present a simple model of quark flavoured dark matter that goes beyond the framework of minimal flavour violation. I discuss the phenomenological implications for direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, high energy collider searches as well as flavour violating precision data.

  6. Flavour physics at LHCb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected results of the LHCb experiment, running at the LHC with ppcollisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, are reported here, after operation with a total integratedluminosity of 3.0 fb−1 (Run 1. We focus on the most recent analyses on flavour physics,that include measurements of the CKM invariant phases γ and β, precision determination of the quark coupling strength Vub, observation of the very rare decays B0(s→μ+μ−, search for new physics in the anomalous branching ratio of B→D*τv̄, and precision angular analysis of the rare decays B0→K*0μ+μ− and B0s→ϕμ+μ−. Detailed comparisons are performed in all cases with the predictions of the Standard Model, and a fewinteresting tensions are observed.

  7. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary fla...

  8. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  9. Heavy flavour production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.

  10. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kou, Emi

    2014-01-01

    In these three lectures, I overview the theoretical framework of the flavour physics and CP violation. The first lecture is the introduction to the flavour physics. Namely, I give theoretical basics of the weak interaction. I follow also some historical aspect, discovery of the CP violation, phenomenological studies of charged and neutral currents and the success of the GIM mechanism. In the second lecture, I describe the flavour physics and CP violating phenomena in the Standard Model (SM). I also give the latest experimental observation of the CP Violation at the B factories and the LHC and discuss its interpretation. In the third lecture, I discuss the on-going search of the signals beyond SM in the flavour physics and also the future prospects.

  11. Volatiles produced by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus during growth in sausage minces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1999-01-01

    Aseptic model minces were inoculated with commercial samples of either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus. Volatiles produced by the cultures were collected during growth by diffusive sampling onto adsorbent traps, identified by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...... and quantified by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation. The data were analysed by principal component analysis. The study showed that both starter cultures produced a large number of volatiles in concentrations of sensory importance. Almost all of the major volatiles resulted from amino acid...... degradation, suggesting that the effect of Staphylococcus starter cultures on flavour quality is much related to their ability of catabolizing amino acids. With the exception of diacetyl, acetoin and 2-methyl-1-butanol, both cultures formed the same volatiles. Diacetyl and acetoin were not produced...

  12. Heavy flavour results from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell P. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A selection of heavy-flavour physics results from the ATLAS experiment is presented, based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC during 2010. Differential cross-sections for the production of heavy flavours, charmonium and bottomonium states and D-mesons are presented and compared to various theoretical models. Results of B-hadron lifetime measurements are also reported.

  13. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  14. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  15. The sensitivity of Secondary Organic Aerosol component partitioning to the predictions of component properties – Part 2: Determination of particle hygroscopicity and its dependence on "apparent" volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A large number of calculations of absorptive partitioning of organic compounds have been conducted, making use of several methods to estimate pure component vapour pressures and activity coefficients (p0 and γi. The sensitivities of the predicted particle properties (density, hygroscopicity, CCN activation potential to the choice of p0 and γi models and to the number of components used to represent the organic mixture have been systematically compared.

    The variability in theoretical hygroscopic growth factor attributable to the choice of estimation technique increases with decreasing mixture complexity. Generally there is low sensitivity to the choice of vapour pressure predictive technique. The inclusion of non-ideality is responsible for a larger difference in predicted growth factor, though still relatively minor.

    Assuming instantaneous equilibration of all semi-volatile on drying the aerosol to 0 % RH massively increases the sensitivity. Without such re-equilibration, the calculated growth factors are comparable to the low hygroscopicity of organic material widely measured in the laboratory and atmosphere. Allowing re-equilibration on drying produces a calculated hygroscopicity greater than measured for ambient organic material, and frequently close to those of common inorganic salts. Such a result has substantial implications on aerosol behaviour in instruments designed to measure hygroscopicity and on the degree of equilibration of semi-volatile components in the ambient atmosphere.

    The impacts of this variability on behaviour of particles as cloud condensation nuclei, on predicted cloud droplet number and uncertainty in radiative forcing are explored. When it is assumed only water evaporates on drying, the sensitivity in radiative forcing, "ΔF" to choice of p0 and γi estimation technique is low

  16. Identification and Characterization of Volatile Components Causing the Characteristic Flavor of Wagyu Beef (Japanese Black Cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Amano, Yohei; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-10-04

    To clarify the characteristic sweet aroma of Wagyu (Japanese Black Cattle), aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to the volatile fractions of Wagyu and Australia beefs. Some 20 odor-active peaks were detected, and 17 odorants were identified or tentatively identified. Among the perceived odorants, most of them were newly identified from the Wagyu beef. The main constituents of the potent odorants were aldehydes and ketones, which are known as the degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. In addition, the most potent odorant was trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, which is known to be the oxidation product of polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. Accordingly, these findings strongly suggested that the kind of fatty acid constituting lipids of the Wagyu plays an important role in the formation of the characteristic aroma of the Wagyu beef.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria.

  18. Finite-size effect and the components of multifractality in transport economics volatility based on multifractal detrending moving average method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Miao, Yuqi; Lu, Chunxia

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of freight rate volatility characteristics attracts more attention after year 2008 due to the effect of credit crunch and slowdown in marine transportation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis technique is employed to analyze the time series of Baltic Dry Bulk Freight Rate Index and the market trend of two bulk ship sizes, namely Capesize and Panamax for the period: March 1st 1999-February 26th 2015. In this paper, the degree of the multifractality with different fluctuation sizes is calculated. Besides, multifractal detrending moving average (MF-DMA) counting technique has been developed to quantify the components of multifractal spectrum with the finite-size effect taken into consideration. Numerical results show that both Capesize and Panamax freight rate index time series are of multifractal nature. The origin of multifractality for the bulk freight rate market series is found mostly due to nonlinear correlation.

  19. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and of volatile lipid oxidation products from fish lipid extracts are analyzed by multivariate data analysis [principal component analysis (PCA)]. Peak alignment is necessary in order to include all sampled points of the chromatograms in the data set....... The ability of robust algorithms to deal with outlier problems, including both sample-wise and element-wise outliers, and the advantages and drawbacks of two robust PCA methods, robust PCA (ROBPCA) and robust singular value decomposition when analysing these GC data were investigated. The results show...... that the usage of ROPCA is advantageous, compared with traditional PCA, when analysing the entire profile of chromatographic data in cases of sub-optimally aligned data. It also demonstrates how choosing the most robust PCA (sample or element-wise) depends on the type of outliers present in the data set....

  20. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant. METHODOLOGY: Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants. CONCLUSION: SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  1. Lepton Flavour Violation Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepton Flavour Violation in the charged lepton sector (CLFV is forbidden in the Minimal Standard model and strongly suppressed in extensions of the model to include finite neutrino mixing. On the other hand, a wide class of Supersymmetric theories, even coupled with Grand Unification models (SUSY-GUT models, predict CLFV processes at a rate within the reach of new experimental searches operated with high resolution detectors at high intensity accelerators. As the Standard model background is negligible, the observation of one or more CLFV events would provide incontrovertible evidence for physics beyond Standard model, while a null effect would severely constrain the set of theory parameters. Therefore, a big experimental effort is currently (and will be for incoming years accomplished to achieve unprecedented sensitivity on several CLFV processes. In this paper we review past and recent results in this research field, with focus on CLFV channels involving muons and tau's. We present currently operating experiments as well as future projects, with emphasis laid on how sensitivity enhancements are accompanied by improvements on detection techniques. Limitations due to systematic effects are also discussed in detail together with the solutions being adopted to overcome them.

  2. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of several essential oils and their components. Analysis showed that three oils (Carum carvi L., Verbena officinalis L. and Majorana hortensis L.) contained predominantly oxygenated monoterpenes, while others studied (Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mainly contained anethole. C. carvi, V. officinalis and M. hortensis oils exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, due their contents of carvacrol, anethole and estragol. Antibacterial action was assessed against a range of pathogenic and useful bacteria and fungi of agro-food interest. V. officinalis and C. carvi oils proved the most effective, in particular against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carvacrol proved most active against Escherichia coli, and completely inhibited the growth of Penicillium citrinum. The oils proved inactive towards some Lactobacilli strains, whereas single components showed an appreciable activity. These results may be important for use of the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products.

  3. Heavy Flavour Production at LHC: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bruno Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of experimental results on the production of heavy flavour (charm and bottom hadrons at LHC is presented. Both the open and hidden heavy flavour sectors are covered, with an emphasis on heavy ion collisions.

  4. Photooxidative degradation of beer bittering principles: product analysis with respect to lightstruck flavour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Sinnaeve, Bart; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Keukeleire, Denis

    2004-09-01

    Isohumulones, the main bittering agents in beer, are decomposed by light-induced reactions, thereby leading to radical precursors on the pathway to lightstruck flavour formation. Excited flavins, formed on visible-light irradiation, readily interact with isohumulones, as well as with reduced and oxidized derivatives thereof. From identification of both volatile and non-volatile reaction products thus formed, feasible degradation mechanisms are proposed.

  5. Top-flavoured dark matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon

    2017-05-01

    We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to right-handed up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral D meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consider all of these constraints in turn, studying their implications for the allowed parameter space. Imposing the mass limits and coupling benchmarks from collider searches, we then conduct a combined analysis of all the other constraints, revealing their non-trivial interplay. Especially interesting is the combination of direct detection and relic abundance constraints, having a severe impact on the structure of the dark matter coupling matrix. We point out that future bounds from upcoming direct detection experiments, such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LUX-ZEPLIN, and DARWIN, will exclude a large part of the parameter space and push the DM mass to higher values.

  6. Discrete Flavour Groups, \\theta_13 and Lepton Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Merlo, Luca; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Discrete flavour groups have been studied in connection with special patterns of neutrino mixing suggested by the data, such as Tri-Bimaximal mixing (groups A4, S4...) or Bi-Maximal mixing (group S4...) etc. We review the predictions for sin(\\theta_13) in a number of these models and confront them with the experimental measurements. We compare the performances of the different classes of models in this respect. We then consider, in a supersymmetric framework, the important implications of these flavour symmetries on lepton flavour violating processes, like \\mu -> e gamma and similar processes. We discuss how the existing limits constrain these models, once their parameters are adjusted so as to optimize the agreement with the measured values of the mixing angles. In the simplified CMSSM context, adopted here just for indicative purposes, the small tan(beta) range and heavy SUSY mass scales are favoured by lepton flavour violating processes, which makes it even more difficult to reproduce the reported muon g-2...

  7. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-12-11

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method.

  8. Heavy flavour production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnera Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review, recent experimental results from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations on heavy flavour production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regimes are summarized. The results cover charm fragmentation fractions, charm and beauty cross sections, F2cc̄ and F2bb̄ proton structure functions and the running charm- and beauty-quark masses.

  9. Kaon Flavour Physics Strikes Back

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2016-01-01

    In this short presentation I emphasize the increased importance of kaon flavour physics in the search for new physics (NP) that we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade. The main actors will be the branching ratios for the rare decays $K^+\\rightarrow\\pi^+\

  10. Heavy flavours: working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rukmani Mohanta; Anjan Kumar Giri

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look for CP violation effects in other systems besides the neutral kaons. The two -factories BABAR and BELLE, along with other experiments, in the last decade or so made studies in flavour physics and CP violation a very interesting one. In this article we discuss the status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and bottom sectors of the Standard Model. The important results in kaon sector will be briefly discussed. Recently, mixing in the charm system has been observed, which was being pursued for quite some time without any success. The smallness of the mixing parameters in the charm system is due to the hierarchical structure of the CKM matrix. Interestingly, so far we have not found CP violation in the charm system but in the future, with more dedicated experiments at charm threshold, the situation could change. Many interesting observations have been made in the case of bottom mesons and some of them show some kind of deviations from that of the Standard Model expectations which are mainly associated with the → flavour changing neutral current transitions. It is long believed that the system could be the harbinger of new physics since it is a system in which both bottom and strange quarks are the constituents. Recently, D0 and CDF announced their result for the mixing which is claimed to be the first possible new physics signature in the flavour sector. We plan to touch upon all important issues pointing out both theoretical and experimental developments and future prospects in this review article.

  12. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen stress induction on Levisticum officinale hairy roots grown in darkness and under photoperiod conditions: effect on growth and volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monya M; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Deans, Stanley G; Scheffer, Johannes J C

    2008-07-01

    Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24 degrees C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness or in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Greater growth was attained in darkness with 10:90 (control, SH medium), 50:50 and 25:75 NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios, and also with SH control medium under the photoperiod condition, with a 10, 14, 12.5 and 12.5 fold increase of biomass in terms of dry weight, respectively, at the end of 42 days of growth. UPGMA cluster analysis of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots grown with different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios confirmed their chemical variability. Although no particular grouping was detected in relation to the NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios or light conditions studied, most of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots were either dominated by n-octanal, (Z)-falcarinol or both components in about the same relative amounts.

  14. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.

  15. Lepton Flavour Violation in Models with A4 Flavour Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Lin, Yin; Merlo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We analyze lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments (MDMs) and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A4 x Z3 x U(1)_{FN}, whose choice is motivated by the approximate tri-bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. We construct the relevant low-energy effective Lagrangian where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. We separately analyze both a supersymmetric and a general case. While the observed discrepancy delta a_mu in the anomalous MDM of the muon suggests M of order of a few TeV, several data require M above 10 TeV, in particular the limit on EDM of the electron. In the general case also the present limit on BR(mu -> e gamma) requires M >10 TeV, at least. The branching ratios for mu -> e gamma, tau -> mu gamma and tau -> e gamma are all expecte...

  16. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  17. Aspects of Leptonic Flavour Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Feruglio, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations many ideas have been put forward to explain the special features of the leptonic mixing and the differences with respect to the quark sector. In this talk I review some of these proposals, emphasizing especially their predictability. In the light of the new data, I first revisit fixed-point relations among mixing angles and phases. Then I briefly comment on radiative neutrino masses. Finally I discuss the role of flavour symmetries. Given the very many existing models I focus on two classes of models. On the one hand I illustrate the ability of models based on a generalization of the anarchy idea in reproducing the main features of both the quark and the lepton spectrum, also in a GUT framework. On the other hand I discuss less ambitious but more predictive models based on discrete flavour symmetries, centered on the properties of the leptonic mixing matrix.

  18. DeepFlavour in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.

  19. Microwave distillation followed by headspace single drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for fast analysis of volatile components of Echinophora platyloba DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Piryaei, Marzieh; Maassoumi, Sayed Mohammad; Papzan, Abdolhamid

    2013-05-01

    To avoid the traditional and time consuming hydrodistillation, the analyses of volatile components in aerial parts of Echinophora platyloba DC was carried out by a simple microwave distillation followed by headspace single drop microextraction (MD-HS-SDME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The headspace volatile compounds were collected after irradiation using a single drop of n-heptadecan. The extraction conditions were optimised using the relative peak areas as index. The chemical composition of the MD-HS-SDME extracts was confirmed according to their retention indexes and mass spectra. Fifty-three components were extracted and identified by using the MD-HS-SDME method. E-β-ocimene (53.81%), R-D-decalactone (12.75%), α-pinene (6.43%), n-heptanol (6.27%), β-phellanderne (2.70%) and linalool (1.89%) were the major constituents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  1. Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  2. Study on Volatile Components from Flowers of Gymnema sylvestre%匙羹藤花挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘琴; 甄汉深; 黄培倩

    2013-01-01

    目的:对匙羹藤花挥发性成分进行分析.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取匙羹藤花挥发性成分,并采用GC-MS对其进行分析.结果:从匙羹藤花挥发性成分中共分离出55个化合物,初步鉴定出33个化合物,占挥发性成分总量的88.73%.匙羹藤花挥发性成分主要为植醇、(Z)-9-二十三烯、二十一烯、(E)-3-二十碳烯、(Z)-2-甲基-2-二十二烷.结论:该结果为进一步研究匙羹藤花化学成分提供了科学依据.%Objective:To analyze the volatile components from flowers of Gymnema sylvestre.Methods:Volatile components of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre were extracted by water vapor distilling,and the components were separated and identified by GC-MS.Results:55 components were separated and 33 components were identified,accounting for 88.73% of all quantity.The principal volatile components are Phytol,Pentacosane,10-Heneicosene(c,t),3-Eicosene,(E)-and 2-Methyl-Z-2-docosane.Conclusion:The research can provide scientific basis for chemical component research of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre.

  3. Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

    2010-07-01

    Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition.

  4. Neutrino and Changed Lepton Flavour Today

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Hernandez, D.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Flavour physics is a priceless window on physics beyond the Standard Model. In particular, flavour violation in the lepton sector looks very promising, as high precision measurements are prospected in future experiments investigating on $\\mu\\rightarrow e$ conversion in atomic nuclei: the predictions for this observable are analysed in the context of the type I Seesaw mechanism. Furthermore, new ideas to explain the Flavour Puzzle recently appeared, mainly based on a possible dynamical origin of the Yukawa couplings and on flavour symmetries. The focus of this proceeding will be set on the Minimal Flavour Violation ansatz and on the role of the neutrino Majorana character: when an $O(2)_{N}$ flavour symmetry acts on the right-handed neutrino sector, the minimum of the scalar potential allows for large mixing angles -in contrast to the simplest quark case- and predicts a maximal Majorana phase. This leads to a strong correlation between neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing pattern.

  5. Minimal flavour violation and anomalous top decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Gadatsch, Stefan [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomatic Physics, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Any experimental evidence of anomalous top-quark couplings will open a window to study physics beyond the standard model (SM). However, all current flavour data indicate that nature is close to ''minimal flavour violation'', i.e. the pattern of flavour violation is given by the CKM matrix, including the hierarchy of parameters. In this talk we present results of the conceptual test of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged as well as flavour changing top-quark couplings. Our analysis is embedded in two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II). Including renormalization effects, we calculate the top decay rates taking into account anomalous couplings constrained by minimal flavour violation.

  6. Flavour Covariant Formalism for Resonant Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena and apply it to study the flavour-dynamics of Resonant Leptogenesis (RL). We show that this formalism provides a complete and unified description of RL, consistently accounting for three distinct physical phenomena: (i) resonant mixing and (ii) coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, as well as (iii) quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. We describe the necessary emergence of higher-rank tensors in flavour space, arising from the unitarity cuts of partial self-energies. Finally, we illustrate the importance of this formalism within a minimal Resonant $\\tau$-Genesis model by showing that, with the inclusion of all flavour effects in a consistent way, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by up to an order of magnitude, when compared to previous partially flavour-dependent treatments.

  7. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt......-% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  8. Patterns of Flavour Violation in the RSc Model, the LHT Model and Supersymmetric Flavour Models

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the results on patterns of flavour violation in a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc) and compare them with those identified in the Littlest Higgs Model with T--parity (LHT) and in a number of SUSY Flavour Models. While K decays play in this presentation a prominent role, the inclusion of B physics and lepton flavour violation is crucial in the distinction between these three popular extensions of the Standard Model (SM) by means of flavour physics.

  9. Surfactant-free solid dispersion of fat-soluble flavour in an amorphous sugar matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tomo; Hidaka, Fumihiro; Miyake, Kento; Yoshiyama, Natsuki; Takeda, Koji; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-04-15

    A solid dispersion technique to homogeneously disperse hydrophobic ingredients in a water-soluble solid without using surfactant was examined as follows: first, freeze-dried amorphous sugar was dissolved in an organic medium that contained a soluble model hydrophobic component. Second, the mixed solution of sugar and the model hydrophobic component was vacuum dried into a solid (solid dispersion). Methanol and six fat-soluble flavours, including cinnamaldehyde, were used as organic media and model hydrophobic components. The retention of flavours in the solid dispersion during drying and storage under vacuum was evaluated. The amorphised disaccharides dissolved in methanol up to 100mg/mL, even temporarily (20s to 10 days) and could be solidified without any evidence of crystallisation and segregation from flavour. The solid dispersion, prepared using α-maltose usually showed 65-95% flavour retention during drying (and storage for cinnamaldehyde), whereas ⩾ 50% of the flavour was lost when the flavour was O/W emulsified with a surfactant and then freeze-dried with sugar.

  10. Characterization of Volatile Components from Hüller Bitterer Hop Variety Using In-Tube Extraction GC-MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanță

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of hop oil contributes to the aroma of beer and the essential oil profile of hop samples contains valuable information for brewers. The aim of this study was to characterize the Hüller Bitterer hop variety, during the development of hop cones, by analysis the composition of volatile oil using in-tube extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (ITEX-GC–MS. The obtained results show that the ITEX-GC/MS method is suitable for the determination of volatile compounds from hop samples. A number of 60 compounds were separated and 50 of them were identified. The most important volatile compounds found in Hüller Bitterer hop variety belonging to the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes classes are represented by: β-myrcene, β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. 

  11. An integrated approach for flavour quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Simona; Sivertsen, Hanne; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2013-08-15

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening and maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavour quality of fruits. The effect of ripening on chemical composition, physical parameters and sensory perception of three muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) cultivars was evaluated. Significant correlations emerging from this extensive data set are discussed in the context of identifying potential targets for melon sensory quality improvement. A portable ultra-fast gas-chromatograph coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW) was also used to monitor aroma volatile concentrations during fruit ripening and evaluated for its ability to predict the sensory perception of melon flavour. UFGC-SAW analysis allowed the discrimination of melon maturity stage based on six measured peaks, whose abundance was positively correlated to maturity-specific sensory attributes. Our findings suggest that this technology shows promise for future applications in rapid flavour quality evaluation.

  12. Lepton flavour violation in models with A flavour symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Hagedorn, Claudia; Lin, Yin; Merlo, Luca

    2009-03-01

    We analyze lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments (MDMs) and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A×Z×U(1, whose choice is motivated by the approximate tri-bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. We construct the relevant low-energy effective Lagrangian where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. We separately analyze both a supersymmetric and a general case. While the observed discrepancy δa in the anomalous MDM of the muon suggests M of order of a few TeV, several data require M above 10 TeV, in particular the limit on EDM of the electron. In the general case also the present limit on BR(μ→eγ) requires M>10 TeV, at least. The branching ratios for μ→eγ, τ→μγ and τ→eγ are all expected to be of the same order. In the supersymmetric case the constraint from μ→eγ is softened and it can be satisfied by a smaller scale M. In this case both the observed δa and the current bound on BR(μ→eγ) can be satisfied, at the price of a rather small value for ||, of the order of a few percents, that reflects on a similar value for θ.

  13. Determination of volatile components in fresh, frozen, and freeze-dried Padrón-type peppers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using dynamic headspace sampling and microwave desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruña-Concha, M J; López-Hernández, J; Simal-Lozano, J A; Simal-Gándara, J; González-Castro, M J; de la Cruz García, C

    1998-12-01

    "Padrón-type" peppers are a small variety of Capsicum annuum cultivated mainly in Galicia, Spain. To compare the effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the volatile components of Padrón-type peppers, preserved samples are analyzed by means of dynamic headspace sampling on an adsorbent followed by microwave desorption into a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometric detector. Sixty-five compounds are identified, including hydrocarbons, terpenes, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, pyrroles, pyrazines, and sulfurous compounds. Fresh whole, homogenized, and freeze-dried peppers have characteristic volatile-component profiles, whereas frozen peppers have a highly variable volatile-component profile.

  14. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  15. Leptogenesis with heavy neutrino flavours: from density matrix to Boltzmann equations

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale; Marzola, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Leptogenesis with heavy neutrino flavours is discussed within a density matrix formalism. We write the density matrix equation that describes the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry, for an arbitrary choice of the right-handed (RH) neutrino masses. For hierarchical RH neutrino masses lying in the fully flavoured regimes, the density matrix equation reduces to multiple-stage Boltzmann equations. In this case we recover and extend results previously derived within a quantum state collapse description. We confirm the generic existence of phantom terms, which are not washed out at production and contribute to the flavoured asymmetries proportionally to the initial RH neutrino abundances. Even in the N_1-dominated scenario they can give rise to lepton flavour asymmetries much larger than the baryon asymmetry with potential applications. We also confirm that there is a (orthogonal) component in the asymmetry produced by the heavier RH neutrinos which completely escapes the washout from the lighter RH neut...

  16. Two-component mantle melting-mixing model for the generation of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Implications for the volatile content of the Pacific upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-03-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in

  17. Flavour release from dried vegetables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these volatile compoun

  18. Heavy flavour production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Three recent results in heavy flavour production at the CMS experiment are addressed in this report. Measurements of the differential production cross sections of B hadron and quarkonium states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV are presented. These are important tools to investigate heavy-quark production mechanisms in QCD. The dependences on transverse momentum and rapidity are investigated and comparisons with theory expectations and among different collision energies are provided. Also the new observation of $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ production is reported.

  19. HEAVY FLAVOUR PRODUCTION AT ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sivoklokov, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The production of heavy flavours at LHC provides an opportunity for new insight into QCD. ATLAS detector provides data at higher transverse momenta and wider rapidity ranges than have previously been studied. Both Charmonia and Bottomonia production cross-section have been measured in proton-proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV as a function of transverse momemtum and rapidity. Exclusive B and D meson states have been also reconstructed. Results are compared to theoretical predictions of various QCD models.

  20. Lepton flavour violation searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dawe, Edmund; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Recent results from searches for lepton flavour violation performed by ATLAS and CMS in the $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\text{TeV}$ data are presented. The search for $Z\\rightarrow e\\mu$ and lepton flavour violating heavy neutral particle decays are summarized before covering the search for $H\\rightarrow \\mu \\tau$ in greater detail.

  1. 不同等级橄榄油中挥发性特征成分的研究%Volatile characteristic components in olive oils of different grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾强; 王玥; 陈君义; 乙小娟; 刘一军

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components of olive oils were systematically studied by the method of headspace -solid phase microextraction - GC/MS ( HS - SPME - GC/MS ). Two characteristic components were detected in the chromatogram with retention time of 15.71 min and 19. 98 min by lots of detections and in-tercomparisons and the contents of the components were closely related to the grades of the olive oils. The two volatile characteristic components could indicate the grades of olive oils, and a new method of grade identification of olive oil was developed.%利用顶空-固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC/MS)法,对不同等级橄榄油中的挥发性成分进行了系统研究.通过大量检测和比对,从色谱图上分辨出两种保留时间分别为15.71 min和19.98 min的特征成分,其含量与橄榄油等级密切相关.该研究工作首次确定了两种能反映橄榄油等级的挥发性特征成分,为开发全新的橄榄油等级鉴别方法奠定了理论基础.

  2. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Components of Marsdenia tenacissima%GC-MS分析测定乌骨藤挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浡; 王晓杰; 李双石; 曹奇光; 谢国莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study volatile components of Marsdenia tenocissima. Method; Soxhlet extraction method with petroleum ether and ethyl ether were accompanied with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyze the volatile components respectively. Result; 24 compounds identified by GC-MS with petroleum ether accounted for 55. 43% of all volatile components; fatty acids were 75. 10% and alkanes were 11.91% ; 24 compounds identified with ethyl ether accounted for 60.43% ; fatty acids were 38.98% and alkanes were 39. 27% . Conclusion; The study provides useful data for further analysis of components of Marsdenia tenocissima.%目的:研究乌骨藤挥发性成分.方法:采用石油醚和乙醚作为溶剂,用索氏提取法提取挥发性成分,气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)鉴定其化学成分.结果:采用石油醚作为溶剂鉴定出24种化合物,占挥发成分的55.43%,其中脂肪酸占75.10%,烷烃类占11.91%;乙醚作为溶剂提取鉴定出24种化合物,占60.43%,脂肪酸占38.98%,烷烃类占39.27%.结论:测定了乌骨藤挥发性成分,为进一步研究乌骨藤成分提供了理论依据.

  3. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key-components

  4. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Effect Of Polar Component(1-Propanol On The RelativeVolatility Of The Binary System N-Hexane - Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-liquid equilibrium data are presented for the binary systems n-hexane - 1-propanol, benzene - 1-propanol and n-hexane – benzene at 760 mm of mercury pressure. In addition ternary data are presented at selected compositions with respect to the 1-propanol in the 1-propanol, benzene, n-hexane system at 760 mmHg. The results indicate the relative volatility of n-hexane relative to benzene increases appreciably with addition of 1-propanol

  6. 碰碰香挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Plectranthus tomentosa volatile matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    为探明碰碰香Plectranthus tomentosa叶片挥发物的组成及其相对含量,以长势优的成年碰碰香为研究对象,采用顶空套袋法,并在热脱附系统(TDS)条件下用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集气体进行分析检测.测出叶片挥发物有44种,包括烷烃、烯烃等8类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有22种(相对含量为83.32%),其中柠檬烯含量最多(相对含量为47.61%);同时结合保留指数分析碰碰香叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确可靠.%This study was conducted to determine the composition of volatile matter from leaves of Plectranthus tomentosa and the relative contribution to its aromatherapy. The dynamic headspace collection method for total dissolved solids (TDS), was used to extract volatile matter of adult P. Tomentosa in good condition, and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was utilized to detect the composition of the extract. Results showed 44 kinds of volatile matter including eight types of compounds, such as alkanes and olefins. Also, 22 types of terpenoids (relative content of 83.32%)were found with Limonene having the highest level of simple carbohydrates (relative content of 47.61%). Thus, this work demonstrated that a retention index of P. Tomentosa volatile matter from leaves could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis, which may be helpful for the further exploitation.

  7. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  8. Flavour-mixing gauge field theory of massive Majorana neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Marsch, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    A gauge-field theory for massive neutral particles is developed on the basis of the real four-component Majorana equation. By use of its spin operator, a purely imaginary representation of the SU(2) algebra can be defined, which gives a covariant derivative that is real. Such a coupling to the gauge field preserves the real nature of the Majorana equation even when including interactions. As the associated isospin is four-dimensional, this procedure introduces four intrinsic degrees of freedom to the Majorana field, which may be related to four flavours. The main aim is to describe here the mathematical possibility for coupling Majorana particles with a gauge field which resembles that of the weak interaction. By adding a fourth member to the family, flavour could become a dynamic trait of the neutral Majorana particles, and thus lead to a dynamic understanding of mixing.

  9. Study on Flavour Volatiles of GABA Green Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and is known to ... units (Yao et al., 2005; Shimoda et al., 1995; Baptista et al., 1998; Kenji and ... This study took GABA tea through vacuum processing and water ...

  10. Analysis of Component and Extraction Technology of Maca Volatile Oil%玛卡挥发油的提取工艺与成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一波; 颜冬雪; 郑岩; 孙玉琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology and analyze the chemical composition of Maca volatile oil. Methods The yields of Maca volatile oil were investigated to compare different extraction technologies, including steam distillation (water), steam distillation ( salt water) , ultrasonic extraction method of petroleum ether and petroleum? ether soak extraction method. GC-MS was used to analyze the chemical composition of the volatile oil. Results Among the 4 methods, the steam distillation ( salt water) showed highest yield of Maca volatile oil. 78 chromatographic peaks were detected in the volatile oil sample by GC-MS and 26 chemi-cal compositions were identified, most of which were unsaturated components. Conclusion Steam distillation ( salt water) is an opti-mized method of extracting Maca volatile oil. phenylacetonitrile and benzyl isothiocyanate are main constituents of Maca volatilel oil ac-cording the GC-MS results.%目的:优化玛卡挥发油的提取工艺,并对挥发油的化学成分进行分析方法以挥发油得率为考察指标,比较水蒸气蒸馏法(水)、水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)、石油醚超声提取法、石油醚浸提法获取玛卡挥发油的提取工艺;采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对所提制的挥发油进行化学成分分析。结果4种玛卡挥发油提取方法,水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)提取的挥发油提取率最高。所得挥发油样品中检测出78个色谱峰,鉴定出26个化学成分,且多为不饱和成分。结论水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)能较好提制玛卡挥发油,经气相色谱质谱法( GC-MS)鉴定主要成分为苯乙腈类和异硫氰酸酯类。

  11. Study on Volatile Oil Components and Total Anti-oxidation Capacity and Simulated SOD Activity of Leaves from Michelia chapensis and M.fovelata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kaiyue; ZHANG Shuangquan; LI Xiaochu; FAN Yasu; LI Baocun

    2006-01-01

    The volatile oils from leaves of Michelia chapensis Dandy and M. foveolata Merr.ex Dandy were isolated by organic solvent extraction and their components were analyzed and quantified by GC/MS. Then, the total anti-oxidation capacity and simulated SOD activity were tested. Forty-four compounds in M. chapensis were identified and the main constituents are aromatic (1 1 .057%), ester (5.041%) and terpenoid compounds (19.772%). Fifty-two compounds in M. foveolata were identified, and their main constituents are aromatic (21.293%), alcohol (17.403%), alkene (6.909%), ester (5.657%) and alkane compounds (5.134%). The results showed that the two oils have strong anti-oxidation capacity and simulated SOD activity. The total anti-oxidation capacities were the highest when the volatile oil from M. foveolata was diluted by 50 times and that from M.chapensis by 100 times. The simulated SOD activity of volatile oil from M. chapensis was higher than that from M. foveolata, and CuZn-SODs in the two oils held 73%-74% of the total SOD. These results will provide scientific foundation for the exploration of the bioactivity of M. chapensis and M. foveolata.

  12. Relationships between flavour, lipid composition and antioxidants in organic, free-range and conventional chicken breasts from modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Kishowar; Paterson, Alistair; Spickett, Corinne M

    2006-01-01

    Consumers expect organic, free-range and corn-fed chicken to be nutritionally wholesome and have premium flavour characters. Interrelationships between flavour, fatty acids and antioxidants of retailed breasts were explored using simple correlations and chemometrics. Saturated fatty acid C16:0, and n-6 polyunsaturated C20:4 and C22:4 contents were correlated with lipid oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and in partial least-squares regression (PLS1) with 32 high-resonance gas chromatography (flame ionization) flavour components (r2>0.90), and also linked (r2>0.80) to antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, glutathione and catalase). A further 10 high-resonance gas chromatography nitrogen phosphorus detector flavour components were correlated (r2>0.85) with C18:3(n-3) content. Chicken character was correlated with C18:3(n-3), and C18:3(n-6) inversely with oily, off-flavour and lipid oxidation. Sweet, fruity and oily aromas were linked in PLS1 with 13 specific fatty acids (r2>0.6), and bland taste with total summed (six) fatty acid fractions (r2>0.81). Specific antioxidants were correlated with sweet, fruity and chicken aromas, and alpha-tocopherol inversely with lipid oxidation. PLS2 confirmed relationships between fatty acid composition, antioxidants and the subsets of 32 and 10 flavour components. Clear relationships were thus observed between lipid and antioxidant compositions and flavour in chicken breast meat.

  13. Headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer and to enantioselective gas chromatography for strawberry flavoured food quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipilliti, Luisa; Dugo, Paola; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-10-21

    Authenticity assessment of flavoured strawberry foods was performed using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). An authenticity range was achieved, investigating on the carbon isotope ratio of numerous selected aroma active volatile components (methyl butanoate, ethyl butanoate, hex-(2E)-enal, methyl hexanoate, buthyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalool, hexyl butanoate, octyl isovalerate, γ-decalactone and octyl hexanoate) of organic Italian fresh strawberries. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that all these components were investigated simultaneously by GC-C-IRMS on the same sample. The results were compared, when applicable, with those obtained by analyzing the HS-SPME extracts of commercial flavoured food matrices. In addition, one Kenyan pineapple and one fresh Italian peach were analyzed to determine the δ(13)C(VPDB) of the volatile components common to strawberry. The δ(13)C(VPDB) values are allowed to differentiate between different biogenetic pathways (C(3) and CAM plants) and more interestingly between plants of the same CO(2) fixation group (C(3) plants). Additional analyses were performed on all the samples by means of Enantioselective Gas Chromatography (Es-GC), measuring the enantiomeric distribution of linalool and γ-decalactone. It was found that GC-C-IRMS and Es-GC measurements were in agreement to detect the presence of non-natural strawberry aromas in the food matrices studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  15. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENGOLAHAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI CITARASA "OFF FLAVOUR" FORMULA TEMPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PROCESSING FACTORS AND INGREDIENTS CONTRIBUTED IN TEMPE FORMULA'S OFF FLAVOUR.Background: Tempe Formula is processed food with tempe as the main ingredient. was previously formulated as infant formula and under five years children formula who have diarrhea problem. In later researches, tempe Fromula was found to be efective to increase nutritional satatus of severe malnourished children, to cure gastrointestinal infection of 6-24 months children, and had benefit to repair dislipldemia in adults and bone reformation of pre and post menopause women. However, this formula had off flavour that limit Its utilization. Methods: The design is laboratory experiment. The type of research is explorative. The panelist is trained panelist.Results: The result shows that off flavour component identified were beany odour, moldy odour, tangy taste and bitter taste. Tempe processing with half boiled of soybean and steam sterilization with traditional starter of mixed innoculum gave the best sensori quality. Less intensity of beany flavour and bitter taste were gained by improving the composition of palm oil and sesame oil with composition 1:1. The additon of mocca and milk flavours also reduced the beany odour of the formula. Conclusion: Improved tempe formula was determined to have higher intensity of sweetness, less intensity of saltyness, bitemess and tangy taste, and less beany, rancid, and moldy odours than original formula.Keywords: tempe formula, off flavour, processing

  16. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  17. 驱蚊草挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Pelargonium graveolens volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of TDS, the volatile matter was extracted by dynamic headspace collection method with good adult Pelargonium graveolens, and the composition of the extract was detected by gas chrom atograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There were 58 kinds of volatile matter,including ten types of compounds, such as alkane, olefins etc. There were 32 types terpenoid (relative content of 61. 35% ), and the content of citronellal was the highest in simple carbohydrate (relative content of 14.46% ). Then, our work demonstrated that retention index could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis of the volatile matter from leaves of P. Graveolens. The results obtained may be helpful for the further exploitation of P. Graveolens.%以长势优的成年驱蚊草为研究材料,采用顶空套袋法收集挥发物,并在TDS条件下用气相色谱一质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集挥发物进行分析检测,测出叶片挥发物有58种.包括烷烃、烯烃等10类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有32种(相对含量为61.35%),其中香茅醛含量最多(相对含量为14.46%);同时结合保留指数分析驱蚊草叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确、可靠,有助于驱蚊草的进一步开发利用.

  18. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The composition of volatile components in olivines from Yakutian kimberlites of various ages: Evidence from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Bul'bak, T. A.; Khomenko, M. O.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The composition of volatiles from fluid and melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Yakutian kimberlite pipes of various ages (Olivinovaya, Malokuonapskaya, and Udachnaya-East) were studied for the first time by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was shown that hydrocarbons and their derivatives, as well as nitrogen-, halogen-, and sulfur-bearing compounds, played a significant role in the mineral formation. The proportion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the composition of mantle fluids could reach 99%, including up to 4.9% of chlorineand fluorine-bearing compounds.

  20. Flavour Physics and Implication for New Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Gino

    2016-10-01

    Flavour physics represents one of the most interesting and, at the same time, less understood sector of the Standard Theory. On the one hand, the peculiar pattern of quark and lepton masses, and their mixing angles, may be the clue to some new dynamics occurring at high-energy scales. On the other hand, the strong suppression of flavour-changing neutral-current processes, predicted by the Standard Theory and confirmed by experiments, represents a serious challenge to extend the Theory. This article reviews both these aspects of flavour physics from a theoretical perspective.

  1. Topological observables in many-flavour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    SU(3) gauge theory with eight massless flavours is believed to be walking, while the corresponding twelve- and four-flavour appear IR-conformal and confining respectively. Looking at the simulations performed by the LatKMI collaboration of these theories, we use the topological susceptibility as an additional probe of the IR dynamics. By drawing a comparison with SU(3) pure gauge theory, we see a dynamical quenching effect emerge at larger number of flavours, which is suggestive of emerging near-conformal and conformal behaviour.

  2. Precision physics with heavy-flavoured hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Koppenburg, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of flavour dynamics is one of the key aims of elementary particle physics. The last 15 years have witnessed the triumph of the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism, which describes all flavour changing transitions of quarks in the Standard Model. This important milestone has been reached owing to a series of experiments, in particular to those operating at the so-called $B$ factories, at the Tevatron, and now at the LHC. We briefly review status and perspectives of flavour physics, highlighting the results where the LHC has given the most significant contributions, notably including the recent observation of the $B_s^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay.

  3. Flavour Symmetries and Kahler Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, J R

    2004-01-01

    Any supersymmetric mechanism to solve the flavour puzzle would generate mixing both in the superpotential Yukawa couplings and in the Kahler potential. In this paper we study, in a model independent way, the impact of the nontrivial structure of the Kahler potential on the physical mixing matrix, after kinetic terms are canonically normalized. We undertake this analysis both for the quark sector and the neutrino sector. For the quark sector, and in view of the experimental values for the masses and mixing angles, we find that the effects of canonical normalization are subdominant. On the other hand, for the leptonic sector we obtain different conclusions depending on the spectrum of neutrinos. In the hierarchical case we obtain similar conclusion as in the quark sector, whereas in the degenerate and inversely hierarchical case, important changes in the mixing angles could be expected.

  4. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  5. Prediction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) flavour over different harvests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Pohu-Flament, L.M.M.; Wit-Maljaars, de S.C.; Willeboordse-Vos, F.; Bos, S.; Benning-de Waard, C.; Grauw-van Leeuwen, de P.J.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand and predict the complex multifactorial trait flavor, volatile and non-volatile components were measured in fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits throughout the growing season in a diverse panel of 24 breeding lines, hybrids, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank a

  6. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  7. Double Heavy Flavour Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding summarises the latest LHCb results on associated heavy flavour productions, including double charm production and associated bottomonia and charm production. This article belongs to the Topical Collection “New Observables in Quarkonium Production”.

  8. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Vinodkumar

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.

  9. Dynamics of Non-supersymmetric Flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    We continue investigating the effect of the back-reaction by non-supersymmetric probes in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein model. In the limit when the back-reaction is small, we discuss physical properties of the back-reacted geometry. We further introduce additional probe flavours in this back-reacted geometry and study in detail the phase structure of this sector when a constant electromagnetic field or a chemical potential are present. We find that the Landau pole, which serves as the UV cut-off of the background geometry, also serves as an important scale in the corresponding thermodynamics of the additional flavour sector. We note that since this additional probe flavours are indistinguishable from the back-reacting flavours, the results we obtain point to a much richer phase structure of the system.

  10. Strong coupling, discrete symmetry and flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    2010-01-01

    We show how two principles - strong coupling and discrete symmetry - can work together to generate the flavour structure of the Standard Model. We propose that in the UV the full theory has a discrete flavour symmetry, typically only associated with tribimaximal mixing in the neutrino sector. Hierarchies in the particle masses and mixing matrices then emerge from multiple strongly coupled sectors that break this symmetry. This allows for a realistic flavour structure, even in models built around an underlying grand unified theory. We use two different techniques to understand the strongly coupled physics: confinement in N=1 supersymmetry and the AdS/CFT correspondence. Both approaches yield equivalent results and can be represented in a clear, graphical way where the flavour symmetry is realised geometrically.

  11. Lepton Flavour Violation in Composite Higgs Models

    CERN Document Server

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Pattori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We discuss in detail the constraints on partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In a first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well-above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sectors mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged lepton...

  12. Changes in Volatile Components of Fresh Beef during Cold Storage%新鲜牛肉冷藏过程中挥发性成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓倩; 赵燕; 张顺亮; 赵冰; 乔晓玲; 陈文华; 李家鹏; 曲超

    2016-01-01

    以新鲜牛肉为研究对象,测定其4℃冷藏过程中总挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen,TVB-N)和菌落总数的变化,并采用采用吹扫/捕集-热脱附-气质联用分析技术,研究在此贮藏过程中挥发性成分种类及含量的变化。结果表明:TVB-N值和菌落总数在贮藏期间呈增长趋势,在贮藏第6天时,TVB-N值已超过新鲜肉最高限值,菌落总数也已接近国家标准。挥发性物质中酸类、醇类和酮类物质含量呈逐渐增加的趋势;醛类物质先增加后又降低;芳香烃类物质含量则随时间延长呈下降趋势;胺类物质于贮藏后期,第8天时被检出。因此,牛肉挥发性成分的变化在一定程度上可以反应其新鲜度。%Changes in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and total bacterial count (TBC) of fresh beef during storage at 4℃ were measured. Changes in the categories and relative contents of volatile components were also investigated by purge/trap-thermal desorption system-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-TD-GC-MS). The results showed that both TVB-N and TBC increasedsigniifcantly with the extension of storage time. TVB-N exceeded the maximum limit for fresh meat and TBC approached to the maximum limit stipulated in the Chinese national standard after 6 days of storage. The relative contents of acids, alcohols and ketones showed an increasing trend during cold storage, the content of aldehydes increased ifrstly and then decreased, while aromatic hydrocarbons decreased gradually. Amine substances were detected on the 8th day. The changes in volatile components could characterize beef freshness to a certain extent.

  13. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  14. Characterisation of the flavour profile from Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety by a novel dual stir bar sorptive extraction methodology coupled to thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulu, Maria; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sanchez-Ortega, Alicia; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2013-05-13

    The aim of this work was to develop a new analytical technique for the study of the organoleptic compounds (flavour profile) of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety. The cv. Graciano is a singular variety of red grapes with its origins in La Rioja and Navarra (northern Spain). This variety transfers an intense red colour, aroma and high acidity to musts and provides greater longevity and, consequently, a better capacity for ageing wine. A new dual-stir bar sorptive extraction approach coupled with thermal desorption (TD) and GC-MS has been used to extract the volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this extraction step, the optimal values for the experimental variables were obtained through the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Full scan chromatogram data were evaluated with two deconvolution software tools, and the results were compared. The volatile and semivolatile components were identified with an MS match ≥80%. As a result, the flavour metabolome of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety was obtained, and 205 metabolites were identified using different databases. These metabolites were grouped into esters, acids, alcohols, nitrogen compounds, furans, lactones, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, sulphur compounds, acetals and pyrans. The majority of the metabolites observed had already been reported in the literature; however, this work also identified new, previously unreported metabolites in red wines, which may be characteristic of the Graciano variety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. HS-SPME-GC-MS分析螺旋藻挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Components of Spirulina by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 许柏球; 王金林; 罗欢忠; 陈晚霞; 林伟强

    2013-01-01

      The Spirulina platensis was selected as material and the odor flavor components was analyzed .The volatile components was determined by Headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas hromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS).The results showd that 17 volatile components were indentified,including alkanes (relative content 79.77%), aldehydes and ketones (relative content 18.27%), alcohols (relative content 0.84 %) and aromatic compounds (relative content 1.17 %). The main volatile components of Spirulina platensis were Heptadecane (relative content 64.52 %), Pentadecane ( relative content8.59%), Dihydroactinidiolide (relative content 7.21%) ,β-ionone ( relative content 6.65%) and Hexadecane (relative content4.29%).%  以钝顶螺旋藻藻粉为原料,对其腥味物质进行分析。采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对钝顶螺旋藻的挥发性成分进行检测,共鉴定出17种有机化合物,烷烃类化合物(相对含量79.77%)、醛酮类化合物(相对含量18.27%)、醇类化合物(相对含量0.84%)、芳香族化合物(相对含量1.17%)。螺旋藻的主要挥发成分依次为十七烷(平均相对含量为64.52%)、十五烷(平均相对含量为8.59%)、二氢猕猴桃内酯(平均相对含量为7.21%)、β-紫罗兰酮(平均相对含量为6.65%)和十六烷(平均相对含量为4.29%)。

  16. Chemical composition of volatile components, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of n-hexane extract and essential oil from Trachyspermum ammi L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of some volatile components, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity of essential oil and n-hexane extract from Trachyspermum ammi L. (Family Apiaceae. The chemical composition of samples was obtained by GC-MS analysis, the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method whereas the in vitro anticancer activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine method. Twenty-three monoterpenoide compounds were identified in the essential oil in which four compounds; γ-terpinene, thymol, P-cymene and β-pinene were the major components of the oil with quantity 266.28, 201.97, 194.91 and 38.49 mg/g oil respectively whereas the other nineteen compounds had quantity < 10 mg/g oil. Twelve monoterpene compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract in which three compounds; thymol, γ-terpinene and P-cymene were the major components of volatile components of the n-hexane extract with quantity 138.85, 56.41 and 32.69 mg/g extract respectively whereas the other nine compounds had quantity < 10 mg/g extract. The essential oil and n-hexane extract exhibited an antimicrobial activity against five microorganisms and an anticancer activity against HepG2. The essential oil showed higher activity than the n-hexane. γ- thymol, terpinene and P-cymene of the two samples play an important role in antimicrobial and anticancer activity. In conclusion, this considered the first report that gave the real quantity of each volatile compound in the essential oil and n-hexane extract of T. ammi. Also, this the first work dealing with the anticancer activity of the two samples in addition to the agreement of antimicrobial activity with previous studies. More safety and toxicological studies will need to be addressed if the essential oil and n-hexane extract of T. ammi are to be used for food preservation or medicinal purposes.

  17. b-flavour tagging in pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.

  18. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Starkman, Glenn, E-mail: mstuke@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: glenn.starkman@case.edu [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  19. Minimal Flavour Violation and Anomalous Top Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Top quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the standard model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon "flavour". However, current flavour data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavour structure can be expected in the TeV scale. In turn, if there is "new physics" at the TeV scale, it must be "minimally flavour violating". This has become a widely accepted assumption for "new physics" models. In this paper we propose a way to test the concept of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged $Wtq$, $q\\in\\{d,s,b\\}$, and flavour-changing $Vtq$, $q\\in\\{u,c\\}$ and $V\\in\\{Z,\\gamma,g\\}$, couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e. in a model independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II), under the assumption that the top-q...

  20. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content.

  1. 冰糖草挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS Analysis of Chemical Components of Volatile Oil from Sweet Broomwort Herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亮; 黄健军

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究广西产冰糖草挥发油的化学组成及相对含量.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取黄杞叶中的挥发油,并通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用仪对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定,用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各组分相对百分含量.结果:从冰糖草挥发油中共分离出49个组分,鉴定了其中30个化合物,占总量的93.97%,主要成分为植酮(2-Pentadecanone,6,10,14-trimethyl-,19.75%)、石竹烯(caryophyllene,15.33%)、α-石竹烯(alpha.-caryophyllene,10.14%)、1S-(1,3a,3b,6a,6b) -十氢-3a-甲基-6-亚甲基-1-异丙基-环丁烷-[1,2,3,4]并二环戊烯、(cyclobuta[1,2:3,4]dicyclopentene,decahydro-3 a-methyl-6-methylene-1 -(1 -methylethyl) -,[ 1S-(1.alpha.,3a.alpha.,3b.beta.,6a.beta.,6b.alpha.)],6.53%)、氧化石竹烯(Caryophyllene oxide,4.90%)、表双环倍半水芹烯[(+)-Epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene,4.69%]、芳姜黄酮(Ar-tumerone,4.57%)、十七烷( heptadecane,4.13%)、肉豆蔻醛(tetradecanal,2.33%)、邻苯二甲酸异丁基十一烷酯(phthalic acid,isobutyl undecyl ester,2.11%)等.结论:广西产冰糖草挥发油中含脂肪酸、酯类、醇类、醛类、烃类等多种化学成分;分析结果可为冰糖草的质量控制提供依据,并为提高冰糖草的进一步开发利用提供了科学依据.%Objective: To ananlyze the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Sweet Broomwort Herb in Guangxi and determine their contents. Method: The volatile oil was extracted from Sweet Broomwort Herb by steam distillation, the amount of the components from the volatile oil was separated and identified by CC-MS, and the relative content of each component was calculated by area normalization method. Result: Fourty nine compounds were separated by GC and 30 of them were identified, which accounted for 93. 97% of volatile oil. The major components were 2-pentadecanone, 6, 10, 14-trimethyl- ( 19.75%), caryophyllene ( 15.33%), alpha. -caryophyllene (10

  2. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemical differences among all cultivars and identify markers characteristic of a particular botanical origin of the coffee. The major fatty acids of coffee were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and arachic acid. Leucine (0.84 g/100 g DW, lysine (0.63 g/100 g DW, and arginine (0.61 g/100 g DW were the predominant essential amino acids (EAAs in the coffee samples. Seventy-nine volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by HS-SPME/GC-MS. PCA of the complete data matrix demonstrated that there were significant differences among all cultivars, HCA supported the results of PCA and achieved a satisfactory classification performance.

  3. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta) Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Tan, Lehe; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Rongsuo; Lu, Minquan

    2015-09-14

    Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA) were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemical differences among all cultivars and identify markers characteristic of a particular botanical origin of the coffee. The major fatty acids of coffee were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and arachic acid. Leucine (0.84 g/100 g DW), lysine (0.63 g/100 g DW), and arginine (0.61 g/100 g DW) were the predominant essential amino acids (EAAs) in the coffee samples. Seventy-nine volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by HS-SPME/GC-MS. PCA of the complete data matrix demonstrated that there were significant differences among all cultivars, HCA supported the results of PCA and achieved a satisfactory classification performance.

  4. Activated Carbon Adsorption Characteristics of Multi-component Volatile Organic compounds in a Fixed Bed Adsorption Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jong Hoon; Rhee, Young Woo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sihyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to examine absorption characteristics of toluene, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethyl acetate (EA), and ternary-compounds, all of which are widely used in industrial processes, by means of four types of commercial activated carbon substances. It turned out that among the three types of volatile organic compounds, the breakthrough point of activated carbon and that of IPA, whose affinity was the lowest, were the lowest, and then that of EA and that of toluene in the order. With the breakthrough point of IPA, which was the shortest, as the standard, changes in the breakthrough points of unary-compounds, binary-compounds, and ternary-compounds were examined. As a result, it turned out that the larger the number of elements, the lower the breakthrough point. This resulted from competitive adsorption, that is, substitution of substances with a low level of affinity with those with a high level of affinity. Hence, the adsorption of toluene-IPA-EA and ternary-compounds require a design of the activated carbon bed based on the breakthrough of IPA, and in the design of activated carbon beds in actual industries as well, a substance whose level of affinity is the lowest needs to be the standard.

  5. Nanoparticle-Incorporated PDMS Film as an Improved Performance SPME Fiber for Analysis of Volatile Components of Eucalyptus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Aberoomand Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fabrication strategy was proposed to prepare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS- coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME on inexpensive and unbreakable Cu fiber. PDMS was covalently bonded to the Cu substrate using self-assembled monolayer (SAM of (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3MPTS as binder. To increase the performance of the fiber, the incorporation effect of some nanomaterials including silica nanoparticles (NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH to PDMS coating was compared. The surface morphology of the prepared fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their applicability was evaluated through the extraction of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs of Eucalyptus leaf in headspace mode, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized. Extracted compounds were analyzed by GC-MS instrument. The results obtained indicated that prepared fibers have some advantages relative to previously prepared SPME fibers, such as higher thermal stability and improved performance of the fiber. Also, results showed that SPME is a fast, simple, quick, and sensitive technique for sampling and sample introduction of Eucalyptus VOCs.

  6. Heavy Flavour Electron Elliptic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto

    Due to the large mass of the Charm and Beauty quarks, they are c reated in the very first moments of the ultra-high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions taking place at the CERN LHC, therefore, they should be unaware of the geome try of the colli- sion system and carry no azimuthal anisotropies. Similarly , the energy loss via gluon radiation for these massive quarks should be suppressed, th e so-called dead cone ef- fect. Although the observation of elliptic flow in the electro ns produced through the semileptonic decay of these heavy mesons is an indirect meas urement, throughout this thesis it will be shown that a strong correlation exists between the momentum anisotropy of the mother and daughter particles. In the low t ransverse momentum region such measurement would establish whether or not the s ystem reaches local thermal equilibrium. While at large transverse momentum, t he observation of collec- tivity for the heavy flavours can be understood only if the col lisional and radiative in-medium interaction...

  7. The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-12-15

    By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.

  8. Lepton-flavour violation in a Pati-Salam model with gauged flavour symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Moch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Combining Pati-Salam (PS) and flavour symmetries in a renormalisable setup, we devise a scenario which produces realistic masses for the charged leptons. Flavour-symmetry breaking scalar fields in the adjoint representations of the PS gauge group are responsible for generating different flavour structures for up- and down-type quarks as well as for leptons. The model is characterised by new heavy fermions which mix with the Standard Model quarks and leptons. In particular, the partners for the third fermion generation induce sizeable sources of flavour violation. Focusing on the charged-lepton sector, we scrutinise the model with respect to its implications for lepton-flavour violating processes such as $\\mu \\rightarrow e\\gamma$, $\\mu\\rightarrow 3e$ and muon conversion in nuclei.

  9. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers.

  10. Studies on the Volatile Components of Artificial Culture of Cordyceps formosana%台湾虫草人工培养物挥发性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海燕; 刘洋; 于士军; 张龙娃; 李春如; 樊美珍

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components in mycelia of Cordyceps formosana cultured under different conditions and artificial culture of fruiting bodies of C.formosana were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction(SDE) for the first time and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper.The results showed that culture conditions had great influence on the content and number of volatile components,but little impact on compound classes which mainly were alcohols,olefins,esters,phenols and ethers.There were 19 and 12 volatile components identified in mycelia of liquid and solid culture with the highest content of 1-octene-3-alcohl(51.63%) and 2-decene-5-lactone(41.13%),respectively.Fifteen compounds are identified from artificial culture of fruiting bodies,wherein the content of 1-octene-3-alcohl was highest(37.70%).The common volatile components of 3 kinds of artificial culture of C.formosana were 1-octene-3-alcohol,2-decene-5-lactone,butylated hydroxytoluene and 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.This paper will provide experimental foundation and scientific basis for further development of C.formosana.%首次采用同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)提取了不同培养方式下获得的台湾虫草液体和固体菌丝体及人工培养子实体的挥发性成分,并应用气相色谱质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行了分析。结果表明:不同培养方式对台湾虫草挥发性物质的数目和含量有较大影响,对挥发性成分的类型影响不大,主要为醇类、烯类、酯类、酚类和醚类化合物。液体和固体培养菌丝中分别鉴定出19种、12种挥发性物质,分别以1-辛烯-3-醇(51.63%)和2-癸烯-5-内酯(41.13%)的相对含量最高,人工培养子实体中鉴定出15种挥发性物质,以1-辛烯-3-醇的相对含量最高(37.70%)。3种人工培养物挥发性物质的共有成分为1-辛烯-3-醇、2-癸烯-5-内酯、2,6-二叔丁基对甲酚及4-羟基-3-叔丁基-苯甲醚。

  11. Influence of serving temperature on flavour perception and release of Bourbon Caturra coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida; Waehrens, Sandra S; Petersen, Mikael A; Münchow, Morten; Bredie, Wender L P

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50°C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of 'sour', 'tobacco' and 'sweet' were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31-44°C, whereas coffees served between 50°C and 62°C exhibited stronger 'overall intensity', 'roasted' flavour and 'bitter' notes.

  12. Comparison of Volatile Components in Different Mulberry Vine%不同品种桑果酒挥发性成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵秋; 陆春霞; 周晓玲; 吴婧婧; 董桂清

    2013-01-01

      利用顶空固相微萃取方法对不同品种桑果酒中的挥发性成分进行提取,并用气相色谱-质谱技术(GC-MS)对化合物进行分析和分类,同时经过NIST 05谱库检索定性。结果表明:大十桑果酒中检测到35种挥发性成分化合物;特2桑果酒中检测到33种挥发性化合物;12桑果酒中检测到35种挥发性化合物。大十桑果酒、桑特优2号桑果酒、桂桑优12桑果酒所含的挥发性成分中,均以醇类化合物为主,相同的化合物有17种。%  The volatile components in different mulberry wines were extracted by headspace solid phase micro-ex-traction method and the compounds analyzed and classified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), contracted with NIST 05 library to qualitative. The results show that: the dashi mulberry wine contains 35 volatile components; Sant and NO.2 mulberry wine contains 33 kinds and guisangyou 12 mulberry vinegar contains 35 kinds, mainly to alcohols, and 17 kinds was the same one in all.

  13. Multivariate analysis of the volatile components in tobacco based on infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Zhou, Guojun; Chu, Guohai; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Kailong; Xia, Qian; Cheng, Changhe

    2016-11-01

    A novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method has been developed for the rapid determination of the volatile components in tobacco. The optimal extraction conditions for maximizing the extraction efficiency were as follows: 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber, extraction time of 20 min, infrared power of 175 W, and distance between the infrared lamp and the headspace vial of 2 cm. Under the optimum conditions, 50 components were found to exist in all ten tobacco samples from different geographical origins. Compared with conventional water-bath heating and nonheating extraction methods, the extraction efficiency of infrared-assisted extraction was greatly improved. Furthermore, multivariate analysis including principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and similarity analysis were performed to evaluate the chemical information of these samples and divided them into three classifications, including rich, moderate, and fresh flavors. The above-mentioned classification results were consistent with the sensory evaluation, which was pivotal and meaningful for tobacco discrimination. As a simple, fast, cost-effective, and highly efficient method, the infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique is powerful and promising for distinguishing the geographical origins of the tobacco samples coupled to suitable chemometrics.

  14. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, D.; Ruth, van S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas

  15. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, D.; Ruth, van S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas chromatography-olf

  16. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC'workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays'and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  17. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC' workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays' and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  18. Identification and characterization of volatile components of the Japanese sour citrus fruit Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Mei; Ikeda, Yukinori; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2008-07-01

    A total of 39 aroma compounds were detected in the essential oil of Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka (nagato-yuzukichi) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (12 components, 90.52%). The composition pattern of essential oil in C. nagato-yuzukichi was fairly similar to that of Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Sudachi). Principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained with an electronic nose indicated a variation of each oil along PC1. The oils of Citrus junos Tanaka (Yuzu) and Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanaka (Kabosu) showed a clear upward displacement as compared with those of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi. However, in PC2, the oils of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi showed a displacement in a negative direction and a positive one respectively.

  19. Comparison of thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers based on their main components: Cellulose, xylan and lignin. TG-FTIR analysis of volatile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica, E-mail: monica_benitez_guerrero@yahoo.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain); López-Beceiro, Jorge [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial II, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade da Coruña, Avda. Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Sánchez-Jiménez, Pedro E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pascual-Cosp, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of sisal fibers has been discussed. • Decompositions of lignocellulosic components and sisal are compared by TXRD and TG-FTIR. • Hot washing reduces the temperature range in which sisal decomposition occurs. • Sisal cellulose decomposition goes by an alternative route to levoglucosan generation. - Abstract: This paper presents in a comprehensive way the thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers, based on the fundamental components of lignocellulosic materials: cellulose, xylan and lignin. The research highlights the influence exerted on the thermal stability of sisal fibers by other constituents such as non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and mineral matter. Thermal changes were investigated by thermal X-ray diffraction (TXRD), analyzing the crystallinity index (%Ic) of cellulosic samples, and by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled with Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (TG/DTA-FTIR), which allowed to examine the evolution of the main volatile compounds evolved during the degradation under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The work demonstrates the potential of this technique to elucidate different steps during the thermal decomposition of sisal, providing extensible results to other lignocellulosic fibers, through the analysis of the evolution of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, formaldehyde and 2-butanone, and comparing it with the volatile products from pyrolysis of the biomass components. The hydroxyacetaldehyde detected during pyrolysis of sisal is indicative of an alternative route to that of levoglucosan, generated during cellulose pyrolysis. Hot-washing at 75 °C mostly extracts non-cellulosic components of low decomposition temperature, and reduces the range of temperature in which sisal decomposition occurs, causing a retard in the pyrolysis stage and increasing Tb{sub NCP} and Tb{sub CEL}, temperatures at the

  20. New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, R. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)

  1. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2010-10-12

    Encapsulation is used to decrease the premature release of volatile flavour ingredients while offering protection against environmental damage such as oxidation, light-induced reactions, etc. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is investigated here as a 'smart,' temperature responsive membrane for flavour encapsulation and delivery. Gel films were synthesized and characterized by diffusion and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Increasing temperature typically increases the diffusion rate across a membrane; HPC, however, can be tailored to give substantially improved elevated temperature properties. Scattering results indicate processing conditions have a significant impact on membrane morphology (micro phase separation). Under certain synthetic conditions, micro phase separation is mitigated and the membranes show temperature-independent diffusivity between 25 C and 60 C.

  2. Influence of serving temperature on flavour perception and release of Bourbon Caturra coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ida; Wæhrens, Sandra Stolzenbach; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31 °C to 62 °C. Coffee samples were...... increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50 °C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of ‘sour’, ‘tobacco’ and ‘sweet’ were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31–44 °C, whereas coffees served between 50 °C and 62 °C...

  3. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  4. Metabolite profiling of the ripening of Mangoes Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins' by real-time measurement of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Iain R; Blake, Robert S; Taylor, Andrew J; Monks, Paul S

    Real-time profiling of mango ripening based on proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) of small molecular weight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is demonstrated using headspace measurements of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes. VOC metabolites produced during the ripening process were sampled directly, which enabled simultaneous and rapid detection of a wide range of compounds. Headspace measurements of 'Keitt' mangoes were also conducted for comparison. A principle component analysis of the results indicated that several mass channels were not only key to the ripening process but could also be used to distinguish between mango cultivars. The identities of 22 of these channels, tentatively speciated using contemporaneous GC-MS measurements of sorbent tubes, are rationalized through examination of the biochemical pathways that produce volatile flavour components. Results are discussed with relevance to the potential of headspace analysers and electronic noses in future fruit ripening and quality studies.

  5. Flavour-Violating Gluino and Squark Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC; Porod, Werner; /Wurzburg U.

    2010-06-11

    We consider scenarios with large flavour violating entries in the squark mass matrices focusing on the mixing between second and third generation squarks. These entries govern both, flavour violating low energy observables on the one hand and squark and gluino decays on the other hand. We first discuss the constraints on the parameter space due to the recent data on B mesons from the B factories and Tevatron. We then consider flavour violating squark and gluino decays and show that they can still be typically of order 10% despite the stringent constraints from low energy data. Finally we briefly comment on the impact for searches and parameter determinations at future collider experiments such as the upcoming LHC or a future International Linear Collider.

  6. Leading Particle Production in Light Flavour Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The energy distribution and type of the particle with the highest momentum in quark jets are determined for each of the five quark flavours making only minimal model assumptions. The analysis is based on a large statistics sample of hadronic Z0 decays collected with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider. These results provide a basis for future studies of light flavour production at other centre-of-mass energies. We use our results to study the hadronisation mechanism in light flavour jets and compare the data to the QCD models JETSET and HERWIG. Within the JETSET model we also directly determine the suppression of strange quarks to be gamma_s=0.422+-0.049 (stat.)+-0.059 (syst.) by comparing the production of charged and neutral kaons in strange and non-strange light quark events. Finally we study the features of baryon production.

  7. Minimal flavour violation and SU(5)-unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo, E-mail: barbieri@sns.it; Senia, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.senia@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Minimal flavour violation in its strong or weak versions, based on U(3){sup 3} and U(2){sup 3}, respectively, allows suitable extensions of the standard model at the TeV scale to comply with current flavour constraints in the quark sector. Here we discuss considerations analogous to minimal flavour violation (MFV) in the context of SU(5)-unification, showing the new effects/constraints that arise both in the quark and in the lepton sector, where quantitative statements can be made controlled by the CKM matrix elements. The case of supersymmetry is examined in detail as a particularly motivated example. Third generation sleptons and neutralinos in the few hundred GeV range are shown to be compatible with current constraints.

  8. On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such "indirect" models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the $\\Delta(3n^2)$ and $\\Delta(6n^2)$ groups, together with other examples such as $Z_7\\rtimes Z_3$. In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.

  9. Extraction and Identification of Volatile Components of Two Salvia Species Native to Iran (Salvia limbata and S. multicaulis by Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramezani

    2016-02-01

    sage leaves mixed into a 20 ml screw-on cap HS vial to 5 ml of 5% Ethanol and 0.5 mg of Na2SO4. The vials were sealed after stirringwith a Teflon (PTFE septum and an aluminum cap (Chromacol, Hertfordshire, UK for the production of headspace and the successive analysis. The sample vial was put in the instrument dry block-heater and held at 40°C for 20 min to come into equilibrium. The extraction and injection processes were automatically performed using an auto sampler MPS 2 (Gerstel, Mülheim, Germany. The fiber was, then, automatically inserted into the vial’s septum for 10 min, to allow the volatile compounds absorption onto the SPME fiber surface. Each SPME fiber was conditioned before its first use, as recommended by the manufacturer. In order to desorb the volatile metabolites, the SPME fiber was introduced into the injector port of the gas chromatograph device, model GC 7890A, Agilent (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, USA coupled with a mass spectrometer 5975 C (Agilent wherein the metabolites were thermally desorbed and transferred directly to a capillary column HP-Innowax (30m×0.25 mm×0.5µm Agilent J&W and analyzed. The identification of VOMs was accomplished by comparing the retention times of the chromatographic peaks with those, when available, of authentic standards run under the same conditions. For volatiles for which reference substances were not available, the identification was performed by matching their retention indices (RI determined relative to the retention time of a series of n-alkanes (C8–C20 with linear interpolation, with those of authentic compounds or literature data (Van Den Dool&Kratz, 1963. Confirmation of metabolites identification was also conducted by searching mass spectra in the available database (NIST, version 2005; Wiley, version 2007. Results and Discussion: 66 volatile components were identified in Salvia limbata, which Sabinene (19.16%, β-Pinene (19%, α-Pinene (16.3%, α-Terpinolene (14.41%, 1,8-Cineole (10.86% and

  10. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J; Carroll, John F; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC-MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species.

  11. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC–MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  12. An expert system for automated flavour matching - Prioritizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Bárbara Santos; Tøstesen, Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Flavour matching can be viewed as trying to reproduce a specific flavour. This is a time consuming task and may lead to flavour mixtures that are too complex or too expensive to be commercialized. In order to facilitate the matching, we have developed a new mathematical model, called Prioritizer....

  13. LHCb New algorithms for Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The Flavour Tagging technique allows to identify the B initial flavour, required in the measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems. The identification performances at LHCb are further enhanced thanks to the contribution of new algorithms.

  14. Power-law correlations in finance-related Google searches, and their cross-correlations with volatility and traded volume: Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insignificant or even negative correlations. In addition, the correlations vary quite strongly across scales.

  15. Heavy-flavour production in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shingo

    2014-06-15

    We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.

  16. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Kaons in flavour tagged B decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Bittner, M.; Eckstein, P.; Paulini, M. G.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    1994-09-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II, flavour-dependent kaon production in B meson decays has been studied. Using the leptons as flavour tags, it has been possible to separately measure the multiplicities of K +, K - and K {/s 0} in inclusive B decays and in semileptonic B decays. The kaon production in semileptonic B decays was further used to estimate the ratio of charmed decays over all decays, and thus also the fraction of charmless B decays.

  18. Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.

  19. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  20. Capture and identification of the volatile components in crude and processed herbal medicines through on-line purge and trap technique coupled with GC × GC-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Xin; Li, Qingli; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the volatile components in crude and processed herbal medicines (HMs). Using Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR) as a model HM, the volatile components were captured through on-line purge and trap technique and identified by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF MS) system. A total of 224 and 171 volatile compounds were identified in crude and processed AMR samples, respectively. After frying with honey-bran, 52 compounds which were found in crude AMR samples disappeared in processed AMR samples, and 15 compounds were newly generated in processed AMR. The established method can be applied in different research areas such as HM and food processing.

  1. Chemical Characterization and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Potential of Volatile Components of Aerial Parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern (Rasana is an important medicinal plant due to its usage in number of Ayurvedic formulations. First time, chemical composition of essential oil from the aerial part of P. lanceolata was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil was also evaluated using mouse brain homogenate. The major components were linalool (32.2%, β-caryophyllene (8.5%, α-terpineol (8.0%, spathulenol (7.4%, linalylacetate (5.6%, naphthalene, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl- (4.3%, α-copaene (3.6%, epi-cubebol (3.6% and trans-α-bergamontene (3.1%. The experimental results showed that hydrodistilate of P. lanceolata significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (IC 50 value 2.54 ± 0.03 µg/mL.

  2. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  3. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  4. Analysis on Chemical Components of Volatile Oil in Wisteria Pods with GC/MS%气相色谱/质谱法分析紫藤荚挥发油化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金振国; 刘萍; 王香婷

    2012-01-01

    With the purpose of developing and using wisteria pods,its chemical componen!s of volatile oil is analysed. The volatile oil in wisteria pods was extracted by steam distillation. The components of volatile oil was separated and structurally identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the relative contents of the components with the peak-area normalization method in gas chromatography. 14 compounds have been identified from the volatile oil of wisteria pods, accounting 87.49% of total volatile oil. The principal constituents of the volatile oil is 3-methyl-oxiran-2-yl-methanol,Others are the acetic ether, acetic acid,benzoic aldehyde,etc.There exist great differences in constutients of volatile oil in pods and flwours of wisteria%研究了紫藤荚挥发油的化学成分,为其开发利用奠定基础。用水蒸汽蒸馏法从紫藤荚中提取挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱联用分析法进行成分分析,用色谱峰面积归一化法测定各组分相对含量。结果表明,共鉴定出14种化学成分,占挥发油总量的87.49%,其主要成分为2,3-环氧基-1-丁醇,其它依次是乙酸乙酯、乙酸、苯甲醛等,与文献报道紫藤花挥发油成分差别较大。

  5. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed...... to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante...

  6. Search for Charged Lepton Flavour Violation at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagata

    2017-01-01

    Lepton flavour is a conserved quantity in the standard model of particle physics, but it does not follow from an underlying gauge symmetry. After the discovery of neutrino oscillation, it has been established that lepton flavour is not conserved in the neutral sector. Thus the lepton sector is an excellent place to look for New Physics, and in this perspective the Charged Lepton Flavour Violation is interesting. Various extensions of the standard model predict lepton flavour violating decays that can be observed at LHC. This talk presents several searches for lepton flavour violation with data collected by the CMS detector.

  7. General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    De Causmaecker, Karen; Herrmann, Bjoern; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  8. General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causmaecker, Karen De [Theoretische Natuurkunde, IIHE/ELEM and International Solvay Institutes,Vrije Universiteit Brussel,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Fuks, Benjamin [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005 Paris (France); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/Département Recherches Subatomiques,Université de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Herrmann, Björn [LAPTh, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS,9 Chemin de Bellevue, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon,CNRS, UMR 5574, Saint-Genis Laval Cedex, F-69561 (France); Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allée d’Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Physics Department, CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); O’Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg,D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Sekmen, Sezen [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Strobbe, Nadja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University,Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, 60510-5011 (United States)

    2015-11-19

    We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  9. Safety evaluation of natural flavour complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Hall, R.L.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is

  10. Constraining multi-Higgs flavour models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Silva, Joao P. [Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa-ISEL, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Ivanov, I.P. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Liege (Belgium); Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent (Belgium); Nishi, C.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Serodio, Hugo [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Burjassot (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    To study a flavour model with a non-minimal Higgs sector one must first define the symmetries of the fields; then identify what types of vacua exist and how they may break the symmetries; and finally determine whether the remnant symmetries are compatible with the experimental data. Here we address all these issues in the context of flavour models with any number of Higgs doublets. We stress the importance of analysing the Higgs vacuum expectation values that are pseudo-invariant under the generators of all subgroups. It is shown that the only way of obtaining a physical CKM mixing matrix and, simultaneously, non-degenerate and non-zero quark masses is requiring the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields to break completely the full flavour group, except possibly for some symmetry belonging to baryon number. The application of this technique to some illustrative examples, such as the flavour groups Δ(27), A{sub 4} and S{sub 3}, is also presented. (orig.)

  11. Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio, E-mail: feruglio@pd.infn.it; Paradisi, Paride, E-mail: paride.paradisi@pd.infn.it [Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘G. Galilei’, INFN, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea, E-mail: pattori@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-08

    We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ→e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis.

  12. Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ → e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis. (orig.) 7.

  13. Safety evaluation of natural flavour complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Hall, R.L.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is

  14. Working group report: Collider and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debajyoti Choudhury; Asesh K Datta; Anirban Kundu

    2009-01-01

    The activities of the working group took place under two broad subgroups: Collider Physics subgroup and Flavour Physics subgroup. Reports on some of the projects undertaken are included. Also, some of the leading discussions organized by the working group are summarized.

  15. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects o

  16. The Revival of Kaon Flavour Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2016-01-01

    After years of silence we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade the revival of kaon flavour physics. This is not only because of the crucial measurements of the branching ratios for the rare decays $K^+\\to\\pi^+\

  17. The effect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and flavour profile properties of yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata; Grega, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fibre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, flavour profile etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and flavour profile parameters of yoghurts. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added (10% w/w) to the processed cow's milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profile analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive flavour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper flavours were dominating in the fermented milks fortified with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin flavours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not influenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable flavour.

  18. 川芎与东川芎挥发性成分分析%Analysis of the volatile component from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自梁; 王景迪; 邹依霖; 安仁波

    2016-01-01

    用气流吹扫微注射器萃取技术(GP-MSE)得到川芎和东川芎的挥发性成分,用气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)鉴定了所得挥发性物质的化学成分,并用归一化法测定了其相对含量.在川芎中鉴定出2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(21.94%)、间苯二胺(6.04%)、丁烯苯酞(5.17%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)2甲基1丙酮(4.83%)等32个化合物.在东川芎中鉴定出(1Z,4Z)6丁基环庚1,4二烯(15.76%)、2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(13.46%)、(11E,14E)二十碳二烯酸甲酯(9.32%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)1丙酮(5.61%)等34个化合物.2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯为首次从川芎和东川芎中鉴定出的成分,其相对百分含量分别为21.94%和13.46%.%The volatile component of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino were han-dled by gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE),and were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spec-trometer (GC-MS).Area normalization method was used for the detection of the volatile component.Thirty-two compounds were identified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and the components conclude isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (21.94%),benzene-1,3-diamine (6.04%),n-butene phthalide (5.17%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-methylpropan-1-one (4.83%),etc;thirty-four compounds were extracted and identified from Cnidium officinale Makino,the components conclude (1Z,4Z)-6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene (15.76%), isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (13.46%),(11E,14E)-methyl icosa-11,14-dienoate (9.32%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)propan-1-one (5.61%),etc.The component isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate was iden-tified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino for the first time,the relative per-centage content is 21.94% and 13.46%,respectively.

  19. OFF-FLAVOURS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is the main factor determining the purchase of food and it also effects to consumer preferences. Therefore, flavour problems usually come to light as a result of consumers' complaints, and flavour defects in food are a major cause of consumer rejection of the food product including milk and milk products. Flavour and off-flavour in milk and milk products have been the subject of active research in the last decade; there have been developments in the analytical techniques used to monitor flavour development, flavour and off-flavour compounds in many dairy product have now been investigated. The chemicals responsible for unacceptable flavours in milk and milk products can originate incidental contamination from environmental sources, from animal feeding, from chemical reactions occuring within the food material itself and from other sources. The objectives of this paper comprise, after definitions, summarizing the possible sources and specific compounds of off-flavours, and discussing different approaches for off-flavour concept in milk and dairy products.

  20. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  1. Cern Academic Training programme 2011 - Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES   4, 5, 6 and 7 April 2011 Flavour Physics and CP Violation Dr. Yosef Nir (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 11:00-12:00 - 4, 6 and 7 April - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant 5 April - Bldg. 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor   The B-factories have led to significant progress in our understanding of CP violation and of flavour physics. Yet, two flavour puzzles remain. The standard model flavour puzzle is the question of why there is smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters. The new physics flavour puzzle is the question of why TeV-scale new physics was not signalled in flavour changing neutral current processes. The high pT experiments, ATLAS and CMS, are likely to shed light on these puzzles. As concerns CP violation, the LHC will lead to progress on the puzzle of the baryon asymmetry as well.  

  2. Flavour Covariant Transport Equations: an Application to Resonant Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena, by deriving Markovian master equations that describe the time-evolution of particle number densities in a statistical ensemble with arbitrary flavour content. As an application of this general formalism, we study flavour effects in a scenario of resonant leptogenesis (RL) and obtain the flavour-covariant evolution equations for heavy-neutrino and lepton number densities. This provides a complete and unified description of RL, capturing three relevant physical phenomena: (i) the resonant mixing between the heavy-neutrino states, (ii) coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, and (iii) quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. To illustrate the importance of this formalism, we numerically solve the flavour-covariant rate equations for a minimal RL model and show that the total lepton asymmetry can be enhanced up to one order of magnitude, as compared to that obtained from flavour-diagonal or partially ...

  3. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  4. Monitoring the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation by analysis of gene expression levels in brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, S M G; Verbelen, P J; Vanbeneden, N; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-10-01

    During fermentation, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces a broad range of aroma-active substances, which are vital for the complex flavour of beer. In order to obtain insight into the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation, we analysed flavour production and the expression level of ten genes (ADH1, BAP2, BAT1, BAT2, ILV5, ATF1, ATF2, IAH1, EHT1 and EEB1) during fermentation of a lager and an ale yeast. Higher initial wort gravity increased acetate ester production, while the influence of higher fermentation temperature on aroma compound production was rather limited. In addition, there is a good correlation between flavour production and the expression level of specific genes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma compounds. We conclude that yeasts with desired amounts of esters and higher alcohols, in accordance with specific consumer preferences, may be identified based on the expression level of flavour biosynthesis genes. Moreover, these results demonstrate that the initial wort density can determine the final concentration of important volatile aroma compounds, thereby allowing beneficial adaptation of the flavour of beer.

  5. Determination of volatile components of saffron by optimised ultrasound-assisted extraction in tandem with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Heidari, Reza; Samadi, Soheila

    2014-01-15

    In the present research, a combined extraction method of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in conjunction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied to isolation and enrichment of saffron volatiles. The extracted components of the saffron were separated and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The mixture of methanol/acetonitrile was chosen for the extraction of the compounds and chloroform was used at the preconcentration stage. The important parameters, such as composition of extraction solvent, volume of preconcentration solvent, ultrasonic applying time, and salt concentration were optimised by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). Under the optimal conditions, the linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) were 10-10,000mgL(-)(1). The determination coefficients (R(2)) were from 0.9990 to 0.9997. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for the extracted compounds were 6-123mgL(-)(1) and 20-406mgL(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.48-9.82% (n=3). The enhancement factors (EFs) were 3.6-41.3.

  6. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  7. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Alves

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2 S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components, and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15, metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties.

  8. Analysis of Common Volatile Components in Different Batchs of Saffron by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%藏红花挥发油共有组分的气相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋吴彬

    2011-01-01

    The volatile components in saffron were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare the volatile components and contents in different batches of saffron from the same origin. The relative contents of each component were determined by peak area normalization, and the volatile components variation of different batches of saffron was investigated. As a result, 42 components were identified and certain similarity has been found in different batches of saffron from the same origin.%本文采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法分析不同批次的藏红花挥发性成分,探讨同一产地不同批次藏红花挥发组分的成分与含量,并用峰面积归一化法确定各成分的相对含量,以其中的主要挥发组分作为考察指标,观察不同批次藏红花挥发组分的变化情况.初步鉴定出42种成分,且同一产地不同批次藏红花挥发性成分具有一定相似性.

  9. Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanqi; Zhu, Baoqing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-04-15

    The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing.

  10. Analysis of the Volatile Fragrance Component from Fuling Zhacai Sauce with the GC-MS%涪陵榨菜酱油香气成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林奇; 江波; 王庆; 周尚

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The characteristic data for the evaluation and identification of the inherent quality of Fuling Zhacai sauce could be provided through the preliminary analysis of the volatile fragrance component from it. [ Method] The volatile component in Fuling Zhacai0 sauce sample was isolated with solvent extraction action and identified with GC-MS. [ Result] More than 30 kinds of volatile fragrance components was identified, among which, main component was carboxide, ethanol, acid, ester, ketone, phenol, heterocyclic compound and sulfo-compounds and those component could contribute the formation of fragrance. [ Conclusion ] Main component of volatile fragrance was assured,which result could be used for the control of the internal quality of Fuling Zhecai sauce.%[目的]初步分析涪陵榨菜酱油中挥发性香气成分,为其内在质量评价和鉴定提供特征数据.[方法]采用乙醚萃取法提取榨菜酱油中的香气成分,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析鉴定.[结果]鉴定出30多种化合物,其中主要成分是醇类、羧酸类、酯类、酮类、酚类以及杂环化合物(如呋喃类、吡嗪类、吡咯类)和一些含硫化合物等,它们对涪陵榨菜酱油的风味贡献较大.[结论]GC-MS分析方法明确了涪陵榨菜酱油中的挥发性香气成分,可以辅助甩于其内在质量控制.

  11. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  12. Two approaches towards the flavour puzzle. Dynamical minimal flavour violation and warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Michaela E.

    2010-08-16

    The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work

  13. Flavon-induced connections between lepton flavour mixing and charged lepton flavour violation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pascoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In leptonic flavour models with discrete flavour symmetries, couplings between flavons and leptons can result in special flavour structures after they gain vacuum expectation values. At the same time, they can also contribute to the other lepton-flavour-violating processes. We study the flavon-induced LFV 3-body charged lepton decays and radiative decays and we take as example the $A_4$ discrete symmetry. In $A_4$ models, a $Z_3$ residual symmetry roughly holds in the charged lepton sector for the realisation of tri-bimaximal mixing at leading order. The only processes allowed by this symmetry are $\\tau^-\\to \\mu^+ e^- e^-, e^+ \\mu^- \\mu^-$, and the other 3-body and all radiative decays are suppressed by small $Z_3$-breaking effects. These processes also depend on the representation the flavon is in, whether pseudo-real (case i) or complex (case ii). We calculate the decay rates for all processes for each case and derive their strong connection with lepton flavour mixing. In case i, sum rules for the branching...

  14. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  15. Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebola, Luis M.; Emmanuel-Costa, David [Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez [Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-03-15

    We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the 3σ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and for the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given. (orig.)

  16. Revisiting Lepton Flavour Universality in B Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Paride

    2017-04-01

    Lepton flavour universality (LFU) in B-decays is revisited by considering a class of semileptonic operators defined at a scale Λ above the electroweak scale v. The importance of quantum effects is emphasised [F. Feruglio, P. Paradisi and A. Pattori, arxiv:arXiv:1606.00524 [hep-ph], to appear in PRL]. We construct the low-energy effective Lagrangian taking into account the running effects from Λ down to v through the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGE) in the limit of exact electroweak symmetry and QED RGEs from v down to the 1 GeV scale. The most important quantum effects turn out to be the modification of the leptonic couplings of the vector boson Z and the generation of a purely leptonic effective Lagrangian. Large LFU breaking effects in Z and τ decays as well as visible lepton flavour violating (LFV) effects in τ decays are induced.

  17. Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the $3\\sigma$ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given.

  18. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258787

    2012-01-01

    At the Moriond QCD conference LHCb has presented results on heavy flavour production and spectroscopy. Here the latest results are discussed, which include the first observation and measurement of the branching fraction of the hadronic decay $B^+_e \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$, the mass measurement of the excited B mesons and the mass measurement of the $\\Xi_b$ and $\\Omega_b$ baryons.

  19. Searches for lepton flavour violation at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Lepton flavour violation (LFV) is a striking signature of potential beyond the Standard Model physics. Searches for LFV with the ATLAS detector are reported in channels focusing on the decay of the Higgs boson, the Z boson and of a heavy neutral gauge boson, Z', using pp collisions data with a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV.

  20. Towards Four-Flavour Dynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Herdoiza, Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of physical effects from sea quarks has been one of the main advances in lattice QCD simulations over the last few years. We report on recent studies with four flavours of dynamical quarks and address some of the potential issues arising in this new setup. First results for physical observables in the light, strange and charm sectors are presented together with the status of dedicated simulations to perform the non-perturbative renormalisation in mass-independent schemes.

  1. Some theoretical issues in heavy flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    2012-11-01

    Some of the recent developments in heavy flavour physics will be reviewed. This will include an update on some of the Standard Model predictions, and a summary of recent measurements that may indicate the presence of new physics (NP). The focus will be on selected models of NP that are indicated by the anomalies in the current data. Observables that can potentially yield signatures of specific physics beyond the Standard Model will be pointed out.

  2. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulini, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); CDF and D0 Collaborations

    1997-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{bar B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given. 38 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Towards four-flavour dynamical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Inst. de Fiscia Teorica

    2011-03-15

    The inclusion of physical effects from sea quarks has been one of the main advances in lattice QCD simulations over the last few years. We report on recent studies with four flavours of dynamical quarks and address some of the potential issues arising in this new setup. First results for physical observables in the light, strange and charm sectors are presented together with the status of dedicated simulations to perform the non-perturbative renormalisation in mass-independent schemes. (orig.)

  4. Lepton flavour violation in the RS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, Paul; Beneke, Martin [Physik Department T31, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rohrwild, Juergen [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    We consider charged lepton flavour observables in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model with and without custodial protection.To this end, we apply a fully five dimensional (5D) framework to calculate the matching coefficients of the effective field theory at the electroweak scale. This enables us to compute predictions for the radiative decay μ → eγ as well as the decay μ → 3e and μ → e conversion in nuclei.

  5. Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing with Discrete Flavour Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, Luca

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that the data on neutrino mixing are still compatible with a situation where Bimaximal mixing is valid in first approximation and it is then corrected by terms of order of the Cabibbo angle, we present examples where these properties are naturally realized. The models are supersymmetric in 4-dimensions and based on the discrete non-Abelian flavour symmetry S4.

  6. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-08

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone).

  8. Neutrino-flavoured sneutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    March-Russell, John; McCabe, Christopher; McCullough, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique ‘smoking gun’ signature — sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of ν μ and ν τ (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of the parameter space through both elastic and inelastic scattering. We show in detail that the observed neutrino masses and mixings can arise as a consequence of supersymmetry breaking effects in the sneutrino DM sector, consistent with all experimental constraints.

  9. Neutrino-Flavoured Sneutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John; McCullough, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique `smoking gun' signature--sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of nu_mu and nu_tau (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of...

  10. Flavour Condensate and the Dark Sector of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tarantino, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the development of a nonperturbative quantum field theoretical approach to flavour physics, with special attention to cosmological applications. Neutrino flavour oscillation is nowadays a fairly well-established experimental fact. However, the formulation of flavour oscillations in a relativistic field theoretical framework presents non-trivial difficulties. A nonperturbative approach for building flavour states has been proposed by Blasone, Vitiello and coworkers. The formalism implies a non-trivial physical vacuum (called "flavour vacuum"), which might act as a source of Dark Energy. Furthermore, such a vacuum has been recognized as the effective vacuum state arising in the low energy limit of a string theoretical model, D-particle Foam Model. In the attempt of probing the observable phenomenology of the D-particle foam model, a simple toy model (two scalars with mixing \\`a la Blasone & Vitiello on a adiabatically expanding background) has been studied, proving that the flavour...

  11. Dark matter within the minimal flavour violation ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis can provide an attractive framework for Dark Matter (DM). We consider scalar DM candidates carrying flavour quantum numbers and whose representation under the flavour group guarantees DM stability. They interact with the Standard Model fields through Higgs portal at renormalisable level and also to quarks through dimension-6 operators. We provide a systematic analysis of the viable parameter space for the DM fields, which are triplet of the flavour group, considering several DM-quark interactions. In this framework, we analyse in which cases the viable parameter space differs from Higgs portal models thanks to the underlying flavour structure. In contrast to minimal Higgs portal scenarios, we find that light DM in the GeV mass range as well as heavier candidates above Higgs resonance could be allowed by colliders, direct and indirect DM detection searches as well as flavour constraints. The large mass regime above the top mass could even be beyond the reach of future exper...

  12. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  13. Study on the volatile Component of Green and Red Leave of the Pistacia weinmannifolia%云南清香木绿叶和嫩红叶挥发性成分对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔永锋; 彭永芳; 方云山; 黄吉; 张艳芳; 吴成龙

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The volatile component of green and red leave of the Pistacia weinmannifolia were studied. [Method] In the present study, the volatile oil of green and red leave of the Pistacia weinmannifolia were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction(SDE) , followed by the analysis with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative contents in the volatile oil were determined by area normalization. [Result] The volatile oil of green leave has 114 compounds while the other oil has 144 compounds. [Conclusion] 43 compounds in the two kinds of volatile oil were same, but their contents were varied greatly. Most of the compounds in the both kinds of the volatile oil were terpene compounds.%[目的]对比云南清香木绿叶和嫩红叶中的挥发性成分.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)和气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法分析比较清香木绿叶和嫩红叶中的挥发性成分,采用峰面积归一化法计算各成分的质量分数.[结果]从绿叶挥发油中鉴定出了114个化合物,嫩红叶挥发油中鉴定出144个化合物.[结论]清香木叶挥发油主要合萜烯类化合物,绿叶和嫩红叶挥发油中有43种成分是相同的,但含量变化较大.

  14. Study on the Chemical Components of Volatile Oils from Zingiber officinale in Guangxi by GC-MS%广西生姜挥发油化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建宁; 梁臣艳; 黄秋洁; 关小丽; 梁金妮

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical components of volatile oils of Zingiber officinale from different habitats in Guangxi. METHODS: The volatile oils were extracted by water distillation method and the chemical component was analyzed by GC-MS. RESULTS: The yield rate of volatile oils were 0.11%~0.23%. Twenty-one common components were present in volatile oils from Z officinale from five habitats in Guangxi, while the relative percentage content was between 60%-85%. The chemical components including lS-a-Pinene,Camphene,Cineole,Borneol,Nerol and Citral were found in Z. Officinale. There was significant difference in relative percentage of same components, particularly the highest percentage of nerol was 10 times as munch as the lowest. CONCLUSION: The chemical components of volatile oils in Z officinale from different habitats in Guangxi have little difference , but there is great difference in the same chemical components.%目的:测定广西境内5个不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对广西生姜挥发油化学成分进行分析.结果:广西5个产地的生姜挥发油得油率在0.11%~0.23%之间.5个产地的生姜挥发油中共有化学成分21个,相对百分含量在60%~85%之间.共有化学成分主要有1S-α-蒎烯(1S-α-Pinene)、莰烯(Camphene)、桉油精(Cineole)、龙脑(Borneol)、橙花醇(Nerol)和柠檬醛(Citral).不同产地的生姜挥发油中,同一成分相对百分含量差异较大,其中橙花醇的相对百分含量相差近10倍.结论:广西境内不同产地的生姜挥发油的化学成分差异不大,但同一成分的相对百分含量差异较大.

  15. Growth and volatile compound production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Perello, M C; de Revel, G; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2008-06-01

    Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis is a particularly troublesome wine spoilage yeast. This work was aimed at characterizing its behaviour in terms of growth and volatile compound production in red wine. Sterile red wines were inoculated with 5 x 10(3) viable cells ml(-1) of three B. bruxellensis strains and growth and volatile phenol production were followed for 1 month by means of plate counts and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. Maximum population levels generally attained 10(6)-10(7) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) and volatile phenol concentrations ranged from 500 to 4000 microg l(-1). Brettanomyces bruxellensis multiplication was also accompanied by the production of organic acids (from C(2) to C(10)), short chain acid ethyl-esters and the 'mousy off-flavour' component 2-acetyl-tetrahydropyridine. Different kinds of 'Brett character' characterized by distinct metabolic and sensory profiles can arise in wine depending on the contaminating strain, wine pH and sugar content and the winemaking stage at which contamination occurs. We identified new chemical markers that indicate wine defects caused by B. bruxellensis. Further insight was provided into the role of some environmental conditions in promoting wine spoilage.

  16. A Study on Human Brain Waves Influenced by Volatile Components Released from Native Green Tea Leaves%土种绿茶挥发物成分及其对人体脑波的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 吕乐燕; 李天佑; 张汝民; 侯平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]对茶叶的挥发性芳香物质及其对人体脑波影响进行分析.[方法]采用顶空套袋采集法和TDS-GC/MS,分析自然状态室温下摊放4h绿茶鲜叶挥发性芳香物质成分,并使用生物反馈仪测定嗅闻茶叶挥发性芳香物质的人体脑波变化.[结果]摊放鲜叶的挥发性芳香物质以酯类和萜烯类化合物为主.香气成分能够显著增加α波的波值.嗅闻摊放鲜叶对人体具有放松身心的功效.[结论]该研究可以为茶的芳香疗法提供初步参考.%[Objective] The aim was to analyze volatile aromatic compounds from tea leaves in nature and its effect on human brain waves.[Method] Natural volatile aromatic components of fresh tea leaves which had spread for 4 h at room temperature were analyzed by dynamic headspace collection and thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC/MS).The effect of the spreading fresh tea leaves on human brain waves were determined by biofeedback instrument.[Result] The volatile aromatic components of spreading fresh leaves were mainly the compounds of esters and terpenes.Aromatic components could increase significantly the Alpha amplitude.Furthermore,the volatile aromatic components of fresh tea leaves has the efficacy of relaxing the body and the mind.[Conclusion] The study provided a reference for the application of tea in aromatherapy.

  17. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  18. arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.

  19. Leptonic minimal flavour violation in warped extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek M Iyer; Sudhir K Vempati

    2012-10-01

    Lepton mass hierarchies and lepton flavour violation are revisited in the framework of Randall–Sundrum models. Models with Dirac-type as well as Majorana-type neutrinos are considered. The five-dimensional -parameters are fit to the charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixings using 2 minimization. Leptonic flavour violation is shown to be large in these cases. Schemes of minimal flavour violation are considered for the cases of an effective LLHH operator and Dirac neutrinos and are shown to significantly reduce the limits from lepton flavour violation.

  20. Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the extension of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis to the MSSM without R-parity. The novelty of our approach lies in the observation that supersymmetry enhances the global symmetry of the kinetic term and in the fact that we consider as irreducible sources of the flavour...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...

  1. Flavour tagging of $b$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mueller, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed $b$ hadrons, is essential for precision measurements of decay time-dependent $CP$ violation and of mixing parameters in the the neutral $B$ meson systems. LHC's $pp$ collisions with their high track multiplicities constitute a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of $CP$ violation measurements in decays of $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons.

  2. Analysis of volatile aroma components in steamed wheat by SPME%固相微萃取法提取蒸麦芽中风味物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼德; 陈存社; 张甜甜; 卢志兴

    2012-01-01

    Wheat germ is rich in nutriton and the flavor of its products varies according to the processing technology.Peanut was pressure steamed,extracted by SPME and then condensed for GC-MS and GC-O analysis of its volatile aroma components.Besides 56 kinds of aroma compounds were identified from steamed wheat by SPME-GC-MS,accounting for 97.76% of the total peak areas of components which were 9 aldehydes(11.79%),6 alcohols(14.87%),4 hydrocarbons(2.8%),8 ketones(9.7%),7 ester(27.91%),3 phenols(2.19%),9 acids(15.58%),10 nitrogen-or sulfur-containing or heterocyclic compounds(14.16%),and 31 odor-active compounds were identified by SPME-GC-O of which the components that had the highest FD factors were ethyl acetate(wine),isovaleraldehyde(chocolate),2-methylpyrazine(roasted),furfural(caramel),2-acetylfuran(toast),hexanoic acid(musty),gamma-nonanolactone(potato),(E)-2-decenal(licorice),and they account for the pivotal aroma components of steamed wheat.%小麦胚芽具有很高的营养价值,但加工工艺复杂,不同的工艺会产生不同的风味,采用高压蒸汽的方式对小麦胚芽进行处理,通过SPME法萃取蒸麦香的风味物质,经GC-MS与GC-O分析,确定蒸麦芽的挥发性香味成分。SPME-GC-MS共从蒸麦风味物质中鉴定出56种化合物,占总峰面积的97.76%,包括醛类9种(11.79%)、醇类6种(14.87%)、酮类8种(9.7%)、烃类4种(2.8%)、酯类7种(27.91%)、酚类3种(2.19%)、酸类9种(15.58%)、含氮杂环化合物10种(14.16%);通过GC-O检测共发现31个气味活性区,其中FD=6的化合物为:乙酸乙酯(葡萄酒香)、异戊醛(巧克力香可可香)、2-甲基吡嗪(焙烤香)、糠醛(焦糖香)、2-乙酰基呋喃(烤面包香)、己酸(霉香)、丙位壬内酯(土豆香)、(E)-2-癸烯醛(甘草香),是蒸麦风味的主要贡献化合物。

  3. 红树莓与黄树莓挥发性成分差异研究%Research on Red and Yellow Raspberries' Differences of Volatile Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 唐道邦; 温靖; 余元善

    2014-01-01

    ,Crithmene,.α-Myrcene,D-Limonene et al. Thirty-six species of higher levels of ketones,esters,aldehydes,alkenes substances were detetected,followed by higher levels ofβ-lonene, (E)-β-lonene,α-lonene,5-Hydrxoymethylfurfural, ethyl acetate,Nonanal,Longicyclene,(3E)-4-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one,α- Phellandrene, D-limonene,1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene. Yellow raspberry and red raspberry volatile components were significantly different. Yellow raspberry can be used as a new kind of raspberry raw material for further development.

  4. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  5. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  6. Optimization of supstrate composition for the obtaining of Trappist cheese flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Hardi, Jovica

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the possibility of development of trappist cheese flavour on substrates which were formulated as model-systems and optimized (based on the results of preliminary investigations) to provide for the maximal activity of starter cultures. Six different compositions were prepared using powdered casein, powdered milk, ultrafiltrated concentrated milk, butter and water. All compositions were fortified with oligo and microelements and vitamin components, homogenized, sterilized an...

  7. Flavour covariant transport equations: An application to resonant leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bhupal Dev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a fully flavour-covariant formalism for transport phenomena, by deriving Markovian master equations that describe the time-evolution of particle number densities in a statistical ensemble with arbitrary flavour content. As an application of this general formalism, we study flavour effects in a scenario of resonant leptogenesis (RL and obtain the flavour-covariant evolution equations for heavy-neutrino and lepton number densities. This provides a complete and unified description of RL, capturing three distinct physical phenomena: (i the resonant mixing between the heavy-neutrino states, (ii coherent oscillations between different heavy-neutrino flavours, and (iii quantum decoherence effects in the charged-lepton sector. To illustrate the importance of this formalism, we numerically solve the flavour-covariant rate equations for a minimal RL model and show that the total lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by up to one order of magnitude, as compared to that obtained from flavour-diagonal or partially flavour off-diagonal rate equations. Thus, the viable RL model parameter space is enlarged, thereby enhancing further the prospects of probing a common origin of neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe at the LHC, as well as in low-energy experiments searching for lepton flavour and number violation. The key new ingredients in our flavour-covariant formalism are rank-4 rate tensors, which are required for the consistency of our flavour-mixing treatment, as shown by an explicit calculation of the relevant transition amplitudes by generalizing the optical theorem. We also provide a geometric and physical interpretation of the heavy-neutrino degeneracy limits in the minimal RL scenario. Finally, we comment on the consistency of various suggested forms for the heavy-neutrino self-energy regulator in the lepton-number conserving limit.

  8. 电子烟雾化液挥发性成分分析及开发思路探讨%Analysis and Discussion on Volatile Components in Electronic Cigarette Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温光和; 杨雪燕; 潘红成; 马涛; 肯生叶; 姜正灯; 汤小民

    2016-01-01

    为了深入探索电子烟雾化液的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析技术检测了4家公司生产的6种烟草口味电子烟雾化液产品,对样品中的挥发性成分进行了定性和半定量分析。在所有电子烟雾化液样品中,共检测出45种挥发性成分,并根据挥发性成分绘制了香味轮廓图。在此基础上,对比了电子烟雾化液与传统卷烟烟气的差异,提出了电子烟雾化液的开发思路,使其更接近传统卷烟的抽吸品质。%In order to further explore the volatile components in the electronic cigarette liquid, six kinds of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids from four companies were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), the volatile components in the samples were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. Forty-five volatile components were detected, and according to the main volatile constituents, their aroma profiles were mapped. On the basis of the analytical results, the difference between the e-cigarette liquid and the traditional cigarette smoke was compared. Furthermore, some ideas that how to formulate e-cigarette liquids were discussed, so as to make the product with the quality of suction closer to that of traditional cigarettes.

  9. Study on Chemical Components of Volatile Oils from Leaves and Stems of Albizia julibrissin Durazz%合欢叶、茎挥发油的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫强; 王燕红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical components of volatile oils from the leaf and stem of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Methods The volatile oils of the leaf and stem from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. were extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, and then were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Results A total of 117 components were identified from the volatile oil. The main constituents from the leaves were 1, 1-diethoxy-ethane, n-hexadecanoic acid, tetratriacontane, heneicosane and phytol. The main constituents from the stems were methyl salicylate, 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 6-octadien-3-ol, methyl cyclohexane, toluene, phytol, 2-hydroxy- benzoic acid, ethyl ester, methoxy phenyl oxime, 1-methylpropyl ester acetic acid and trans-α, α, 5-trimethyl- ethenyltetrahydro-2-furanmethanol. Conclusion A total of 117 components have been identified from the volatile oil of the leaves and stems of Albizia julibrissin Durazz., induding 30 common components. Chemical components of volatile oils from the leaf significantly vary from those from the stem.%目的:研究合欢叶、茎挥发油的化学成分。方法超临界二氧化碳萃取合欢叶、茎中的挥发油,以气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法鉴定其化学成分。结果共鉴定出117个化合物,其中合欢叶挥发油主要成分有1,1-二乙氧基乙烷、十六烷酸、三十四烷、二十一烷、叶绿醇;合欢茎挥发油主要成分有水杨酸甲酯、3,7-二甲基-1,6-辛二烯-3-醇、甲基环己烷、甲苯、叶绿醇、2-羟基苯甲酸甲酯、甲氧基苯基肟、乙酸仲丁酯、 trans-α,α,5-三甲基-5-乙烯基四氢化呋喃-2-甲醇。结论合欢叶、茎挥发油中共鉴定出117个化合物,共同成分有30种,合欢叶、茎挥发油成分类别和含量差别比较大。

  10. Charged lepton flavour violation in supersymmetric and holographic composite Higgs models with flavour symmetries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2014-01-01

    be detected by future experiments, thanks to the presence of a flavour symmetry Gf which constrains the form of the relevant couplings. The symmetry Gf is chosen to be finite, discrete and non-abelian and also helps to predict the peculiar lepton mixing pattern. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  11. Characterization of C-S lyase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 and its potential role in food flavour applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Alessandra; Astegno, Alessandra; La Verde, Valentina; Dominici, Paola

    2016-12-21

    Volatile thiols have substantial impact on the aroma of many beverages and foods. Thus, the control of their formation, which has been linked to C-S lyase enzymatic activities, is of great significance in industrial applications involving food flavours. Herein, we have carried out a spectroscopic and functional characterization of a putative pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent C-S lyase from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 (LDB C-S lyase). Recombinant LDB C-S lyase exists as a tetramer in solution and shows spectral properties of enzymes containing PLP as cofactor. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity toward sulphur-containing amino acids with aminoethyl-L-cysteine and L-cystine being the most effective substrates over L-cysteine and L-cystathionine. Notably, the protein also reveals cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase activity in vitro, and is able to cleave a cysteinylated substrate precursor into the corresponding flavour-contributing thiol, with a catalytic efficiency higher than L-cystathionine. Contrary to similar enzymes of other lactic acid bacteria however, LDB C-S lyase is not capable of α,γ-elimination activity towards L-methionine to produce methanethiol, which is a significant compound in flavour development. Based on our results, future developments can be expected regarding the flavour-forming potential of Lactobacillus C-S lyase and its use in enhancing food flavours.

  12. Analysis of quality and volatile components in pickles during natural fermentation%泡菜自然发酵过程中品质及挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹萍; 蒲彪; 罗松明; 张金凤; 卓志航; 冯亚超; 贾春燕

    2015-01-01

    为得到泡菜在自然发酵过程中的品质变化规律及对风味影响较大的挥发性成分种类,对泡菜的乳酸菌总数、基本理化指标和感官进行测定,同时采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对发酵过程的挥发性成分进行分析检测.结果表明,发酵第6d泡菜品质最优,为最佳食用期;不同发酵时间的泡菜挥发性成分种类和含量差异较大,发酵过程共检出化合物45种,酯类在发酵过程相对含量最高,是结球甘蓝泡菜的特征挥发性物质.对挥发性物质进行主成分分析,得到硫氰酸甲酯、(E)-丁酸-4-己烯酯、乙酸己酯、叶醇、正己醇、B-蒎烯、二甲基二硫和二甲基三硫对泡菜风味形成影响较大.%Several quality indexes of pickles including total number of lactic acid bacteria,physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were detected in order to learn the discipline of quality variation during fermentation.Methods of headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME)and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were used to detect the volatile components.The results showed that the quality of pickles was the best in the sixth day of fermentation.Type and relative content of volatile components were distinct at different fermentation time.A total of 45 types of volatile components were identified.Relative content of esters was the highest during fermentation which made it a characteristic component in pickles of cabbage.The volatile components were analyzed by method of principal component analysis (PCA).It showed that thiocyanic acid methyl ester,(E)-Hex-4-en-1-yl butyrate,acetic acid hexyl ester,(Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol,1-Hexanol,.beta.-Pinene,disulfide dimethyl,dimethyl trisulfide were the main components contributed to the flavor of pickles.

  13. Production and spectroscopy in heavy flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Maevskiy, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A wide programme of studies of heavy flavour production at the LHC is performed with the ATLAS detector. This paper covers recent results in measurements of pair $b$-quark production, di-$J/\\psi$ production cross-section and effective cross-section from double parton scattering. Studies on the production of $\\psi(2S)$ and $X(3872)$ are presented as well. Paper also covers the measurement of $J/\\psi$-meson non-prompt production fraction and $B^\\pm$-meson mass reconstruction.

  14. Heavy flavour decay properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Carli, Ina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results on CP-violation searches in the Bs system, studied in the decay into J/psi phi, and the Bd system through the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state J/psi K* and in the CP eigenstate J/psi KS. We additionally present new results in the search for the rare decays of Bs and Bd into mu+mu-. These searches are based on the full sample of data collected by ATLAS at 7 and 8 TeV collision energy. The consistency with the SM and with other available measurements is discussed.

  15. New Physics Search in Flavour Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    With the running B, kaon and neutrino physics experiments, flavour physics takes centre stage within today's particle physics. We discuss the opportunities offered by these experiments in our search for new physics beyond the SM and discuss their complementarity to collider physics. We focus on rare B and kaon decays, highlighting specific observables in an exemplary mode. We also comment on the so-called B {yields} {pi}{pi} and B {yields} K{pi} puzzles. Moreover, we briefly discuss the restrictive role of long-distance strong interactions and some new tools such as QCD factorization and SCET to handle them.

  16. Test of lepton flavour universality at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lionetto, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents the $R_D{\\ast}$ and $R_K$ measurements, which are a clean probe of lepton flavour universality, and the angular analyses of the $B^0 \\to K^\\ast {0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to K^\\ast{0} ~e^+ e^-$ decays, which allow to search for New Physics in rare decays proceeding through ${\\text a} ~b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ transition. All measurements have been performed by the LHCb collaboration using the full statistics of LHC Run I. An overview of the ongoing and future measurements is given in the conclusions.

  17. Lepton flavour universality violation from composite muons

    CERN Document Server

    Stangl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We describe a possibility to explain the $2.6\\sigma$ deviation from lepton flavour universality observed by the LHCb collaboration in $B^+\\to K^+\\ell^+\\ell^-$ decays in the context of minimal composite Higgs models. We find that a sizable degree of compositeness of partially composite muons can lead to a good agreement with the experimental data. Our construction predicts a new physics contribution to $B_s$-$\\bar{B}_s$ mixing. Additionally, it accounts for the deficit in the invisible $Z$ width measured at LEP.

  18. Two-Higgs Leptonic Minimal Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Botella, F J; Nebot, M; Rebelo, M N

    2011-01-01

    We construct extensions of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublets, where there are flavour changing neutral currents both in the quark and leptonic sectors, with their strength fixed by the fermion mixing matrices $V_{CKM}$ and $V_{PMNS}$. These models are an extension to the leptonic sector of the class of models previously considered by Branco, Grimus and Lavoura, for the quark sector. We consider both the cases of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and identify the minimal discrete symmetry required in order to implement the models in a natural way.

  19. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted.

  20. Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC–TOFMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; McNeish, C.; Seethapathy, S.; Mostafa, A.; Górecki, T.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the ongoing research into the chemical composition of the uniquely South African wine cultivar Pinotage, the volatile composition of nine young wines of this cultivar was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in combination with time-of-flight mass

  1. Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC–TOFMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; McNeish, C.; Seethapathy, S.; Mostafa, A.; Górecki, T.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the ongoing research into the chemical composition of the uniquely South African wine cultivar Pinotage, the volatile composition of nine young wines of this cultivar was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in combination with time-of-flight mass

  2. Minimal flavour violation and multi-Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botella, F.J., E-mail: fbotella@uv.e [Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C., E-mail: gustavo.branco@cern.c [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rebelo, M.N., E-mail: margarida.rebelo@cern.c [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-12

    We propose an extension of the hypothesis of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) to general multi-Higgs models without the assumption of Natural Flavour Conservation (NFC) in the Higgs sector. We study in detail under what conditions the neutral Higgs couplings are only functions of V{sub CKM} and propose a MFV expansion for the neutral Higgs couplings to fermions.

  3. B flavour tagging using charm decays at the LHCb experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is described for tagging the flavour content at production of neutral B mesons in the LHCb experiment. The algorithm exploits the correlation of the flavour of a B meson with the charge of a reconstructed secondary charm hadron from the decay of the other b hadron produced in the proton

  4. Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Braun, Svende Annelies

    2015-01-01

    This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.

  5. 烟草味电子烟油中挥发性成分分析%Analysis of the Volatile Components in Tobacco Flavor Electronic Cigarette Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍娟; 冯守爱; 吴彦; 黄天辉; 刘绍华; 黄东业; 黄世杰; 李小兰; 田兆福

    2014-01-01

    采用二氯甲烷对3家公司的5种电子烟油样品进行萃取,并用气-质联用(GC-MS)法鉴定。通过对 NIST 11谱库的检索,对5种样品中挥发性成分进行了比较分析。结果表明5种样品中的挥发性成分差别较大,共鉴定出40种挥发性成分,依据作用或来源分为雾化剂、烟叶提取物和薄荷提取物三类。其中相对含量水平较高且在5种样品中都检出的成分是丙二醇、烟碱和甘油。3家公司的5种烟草味电子烟油在抽吸品质上有所差异,C 公司样品在抽吸感官感受上相较其他两家公司样品具有明显优势,其中样品 C1又略好于 C2。比较发现,C 公司电子烟油的挥发性成分中含特有的8种多甘醇类化合物,可能是这些物质的协同作用而改善了抽吸品质。%Five kinds of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids origin from three companies were extracted by dichlorometh-ane,40 volatile components were identified by GC-MS.Results indicated that the differences were significant among five kinds of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids.All components were sorted to three groups according their function and origin:fogging agent,tobacco extracts and mint extracts.There were three common compounds with higher content in five samples, including propylene glycol,nicotine and glycerin.There were significant differences in smoking quality of samples from three companies,company C′s showed a notable advantage over the other two companies,sample C1 was slightly better than sample C2.Meanwhile,there were 8 kinds of distinctive multiethylene glycol compound that only existed in samples from company C, but not found in samples from companies A or B.It was probably the combined effect of these substances that improved the sensory quality of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids.

  6. HS-SPME/GC-MS分析发酵人参香气成分%Analysis of Volatile Components of Fermented Panax Ginseng by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴贺; 周亚楠; 初琦; 王玉华; 朴春红

    2016-01-01

    研究Kefir粒发酵对人参香气成分产生的影响.鲜人参经预处理后进行Kefir粒无氧和有氧发酵,利用顶空固相微萃取与气质联用相结合的方法优化顶空萃取头类型、萃取时间、萃取温度,再分析发酵前后人参香气成分的变化.结果表明:萃取头类型为非键合型PDMS(聚二甲基硅氧烷,涂层厚度100μm)、萃取时间为30 min,萃取温度为75℃时萃取效果最佳.该条件下未发酵人参香气共50种,其中烷烃类21种,萜烯类18种,醇类4种,醛酮类2种,酚类2种,芳香类1种,含氮杂环化合物2种,人参呈土腥味;Kefir粒无氧发酵人参香气成分共64种,其中烷烃类22种,萜烯类21种,醇类9种,醛酮类4种,芳香类3种,酯类2种,酚类1种,含氮杂环化合物2种,发酵后的人参呈果香和朗姆味;Kefir粒有氧发酵人参香气成分共64种,其中烷烃19种,萜烯类22种,醇类8种,醛酮类4种,芳香类2种,酯类3种,酚酸类2种,含氮杂环化合物4种,发酵后的人参呈草药味和烧烤香味.Kefir发酵人参显著提高了人参的芳香气味.%In order to study on the effect of Kefir fermented ginseng on the aroma components of panax ginseng, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for the qualitative determination of volatile components in ginseng, anaerobic fermented ginseng and aerobic fermented ginseng. The conditions of SPME fiber type, extraction time and equilibrium temperature were optimized. Optimum adsorption was achieved using PDMS (100μm) fiber for adsorption at 75 ℃for 30 min. As a result, 50 aroma compounds were extracted out of the ginseng, including 21 alkanes, 18 terpenes, 4 alcohols, 2 aldehydes and ketones, 2 phenols, 1 aromatics, 2 heterocyclic.Samples were smelled of wood and earth; 64 aroma compounds were extracted out of the anaerobic ginseng, including 22 alkanes, 21 terpenes, 9 alcohols, 4 aldehydes and ketones, 3 aromatics, 2

  7. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol  (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al  (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol  (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %).

  8. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved.

  9. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  10. Update of the flavour-physics constraints in the NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, Florian [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica (UAM/CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    We consider the impact of several flavour-changing observables in the B- and the Kaon sectors on the parameter space of the NMSSM, in a minimal flavour violating version of this model. Our purpose consists in updating our previous results in [4] and designing an up-to-date flavour test for the public package NMSSMTools. We provide details concerning our implementation of the constraints in a series of brief reviews of the current status of the considered channels. Finally, we present a few consequences of these flavour constraints for the NMSSM, turning to two specific scenarios: one is characteristic of the MSSM-limit and illustrates the workings of charged-Higgs and genuinely supersymmetric contributions to flavour-changing processes; the second focus is a region where a light CP-odd Higgs is present. Strong limits are found whenever an enhancement factor - large tanβ, light H{sup ±}, resonant pseudoscalar - comes into play. (orig.)

  11. Linear flavour violation and anomalies in B physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben; Renner, S A

    2015-01-01

    We propose renormalizable models of new physics that can explain various anomalies observed in decays of B-mesons to electron and muon pairs. The new physics states couple to linear combinations of Standard Model fermions, yielding a pattern of flavour violation that gives a consistent fit to the gamut of flavour data. Accidental symmetries prevent contributions to baryon- and lepton-number-violating processes, as well as enforcing a loop suppression of new physics contributions to flavour violating processes. Data require that the new flavour-breaking couplings are largely aligned with the Yukawa couplings of the SM and so we also explore patterns of flavour symmetry breaking giving rise to this structure.

  12. Lepton flavour violating processes in an S_3-symmetric model

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A; Peinado, E

    2008-01-01

    A variety of lepton flavour violating effects related to the recent discovery of neutrino oscillations and mixings is here systematically discussed in terms of an S_3-flavour permutational symmetry. After presenting some relevant results on lepton masses and mixings, previously derived in a minimal S_3-invariant extension of the Standard Model, we compute the branching ratios of some selected flavour-changing neutral current processes (FCNC) as well as the contribution of the exchange of neutral flavour-changing scalar to the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the muon. We found that the minimal S_3-invariant extension of the Standard Model describes successfully masses and mixings, as well as, all flavour changing neutral current processes in excellent agreement with experiment.

  13. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  14. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    be replaced by, easier to produce, wheat porridge or cooked grain in future sensory analyses. Sixty four field- and 81 greenhouse cultivated wheat varieties were used. Wheat grain volatiles were extracted by Dynamic Headspace Extraction (DHE) and trapped volatiles were analysed by Gas Chromatography...... with bread. Furthermore variations in descriptors for “cocoa” and “oat porridge” correlate between wheat porridge and bread samples. Cooked grain shares 5 odour and 6 flavour descriptors with bread (Paper III). This indicates that wheat flour porridge would best substitute bread, although cooked grain could...... varieties was mostly described by descriptors for odour and flavour of maize, bulgur, oat porridge and sweet. Low-extraction bread is also influenced by variations between wheat varieties. Five odour and 6 flavour descriptors differentiated the 4 low extraction bread samples (Paper III). Eighty eight...

  15. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  16. Retronasal perception and flavour thresholds of iron and copper in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omur-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2011-03-01

    Drinking water flavour has a strong role in water quality perception, service satisfaction, willingness to pay and selection of water sources. Metallic flavours are often caused by the dissolved iron and copper, commonly found in groundwater or introduced to tap water by corroding infrastructure. Taste thresholds of iron and copper have been investigated by several studies; however, reported results and test methods vary considerably. This study determined the taste thresholds of ferrous and cuprous ions in room temperature reagent water by using the one-of-five test with multi-nation panellists in the United States. For ferrous and cuprous ions, individual thresholds ranged from 0.003 to >5 mg l(-1) and 0.035 to >5 mg l(-1), respectively. Population thresholds were determined by logistic regression and geometric mean methods as 0.031 and 0.05 mg l(-1) for ferrous ion, and 0.61 mg l(-1) for cuprous ion by both methods. The components of metallic sensation were investigated by use of nose-clips while panellists ingested iron and copper solutions. Results showed that metallic sensation has a significant odour component and should be treated as a flavour instead of a taste. Ferrous, cuprous and cupric ions also produced weak bitter and salty tastes as well as astringent mouthfeel. In comparison, ferric ion produced no sensation.

  17. Critical Number of Flavours in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Bashir, A; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Tejeda-Yeomans, M E

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavours $N_f$. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling $\\alpha$ beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in $\\alpha$ to illustrate this. We study the flavour and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of $\\alpha$ and $N_f$. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through $(\\alpha, \\alpha_c) \\leftrightarrow (1/N_f, 1/N_f^c)$. Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m$ shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the $\\beta$-function. The criticality plane is drawn in the $(\\alpha...

  18. Minimal flavour violations and tree level FCNC

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, Anjan S

    2007-01-01

    Consequences of a specific class of two Higgs doublet models in which the Higgs induced tree level flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) display minimal flavour violation (MFV) are considered. These FCNC are fixed in terms of the CKM matrix elements and the down quark masses. The minimal model in this category with only two Higgs doublets has no extra CP violating phases but such a phase can be induced by adding a complex singlet. Many of the theoretical predictions are similar to other MFV scenario. The FCNC contribute significantly to $B$ meson mixing and CP violation. Detailed numerical analysis to determine the allowed Higgs contributions to neutral meson mixings and the CKM parameters $\\bar{\\rho},\\bar{\\eta}$ in their presence is presented. The Higgs induced phase in the $B^0_{d,s}-\\bar{B}^0_{d,s}$ transition amplitude $M_{12}^{d,s}$ is predicted to be equal for the $B_d$ and the $B_s$ systems. There is a strong correlation between phases in $M_{12}^{d,s}$ and $|V_{ub}|$. A measurable CP violating phas...

  19. B decays and lepton flavour (universality) violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellin, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb found hints for physics beyond the standard model in Bto K^*μ^+μ^- , Bto K^*μ^+μ^-/Bto K^*e^+e^- and B_stoφμ^+μ^- . In addition, the BABAR results for Bto D^{(*)}τν and the CMS excess in htoτ^±μ^∓ also point towards lepton flavour (universality) violating new physics. While Bto D^{(*)}τν and htoτ^±μ^∓ can be naturally explained by an extended Higgs sector, the probably most promising explanation for the bto sμμ anomalies is a Z' boson. Furthermore, combining a 2HDM with a gauged L_μ-L_τ symmetry allows for explaining the bto sμ^+μ^- anomalies and htoτ^±μ^∓ simultaneously, with interesting correlations to τto3μ . In the light of these deviations from the SM we also discuss the possibilities of observing lepton flavour violating B decays ( e.g. Bto K^{(*)}τ^±μ^∓ and B_stoτ^±μ^∓ in Z^' models.

  20. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours.

  1. Forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility in the Presence of Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    of exchange rate futures options, allowingcalculation of option implied volatility. We find that implied volatility is an informationallyefficient but biased forecast of future realized exchange rate volatility. Furthermore,we show that log-normality is an even better distributional approximation...... for impliedvolatility than for realized volatility in this market. Finally, we show that the jump componentof future realized exchange rate volatility is to some extent predictable, and thatoption implied volatility is the dominant forecast of the future jump component....

  2. 鲜艾叶与干艾叶挥发性成分的HS-SPME-GC-MS分析%HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 赵先恩; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 刘建华; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)技术分析比较鲜艾叶与干艾叶的挥发性成分。考察了不同萃取头和萃取温度对艾叶挥发性成分的萃取效果,以选用65μm PDMS/DVB SPME萃取头和60℃水浴加热时萃取效果最好;采用峰面积归一化法测定各成分的质量分数,共鉴定出58种挥发性成分,主要为烯烃类、芳香类和醇类物质,占总峰面积90%以上。鲜艾叶与干艾叶均含有莰烯、1-辛烯-3-醇、α-水芹烯、邻聚伞花素、桉油精、石竹烯等,此外又各自具有特有成分,表明艾叶在干制后其挥发性成分发生变化。%We analyzed volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant.with headspace solid phase microextraction(SPME) and GC-MS.We also investigated the impacts of different SPME fibers and extraction temperature on the extracts.Results demonstrate that 65 μm PDMS/DVB fibre and temperature of 60 ℃ exhibit good extraction effect.We employed peak area normalization method to determine the volatile components.Fifty-eight compounds are identified in the fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi,which include alkanes,alkenes and alcohols,and whose area exceeds 90% of the total peak area.Results also show that fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi not only contain identical volatile compounds such as Camphene,1-Octen-3-ol,alpha-Phellandrene,Benzene,1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-Eucalyptol and Caryophyllene,but also contain their own unique volatile compounds.This shows that their volatile components change after dryness.

  3. The Changes of Volatile Components in Foeniculum vulgare Mill During Storage%小茴香储存过程中挥发性成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 钟永科; 李明明; 范会

    2016-01-01

    The changes of volatile components in Foeniculum vulgare Mill during 12 months'storage are analyzed and discussed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)coupled to solid phase microextraction (SPME).It is found that besides the main ingredients trans-anethole and estragole (the relative total content is 72.2%,85.49%,93.06%,95.89%,90.13% in the origin and 3,6,9,12 months'storage respectively),the content of others changes significantly.The relative content of anisealdehyde increases to 6.1% from 0.47% after the storage of 12 months.The relative content of linalool reduces to 0.28% from 9.72% at the time of 6 months'storage.With the same storage time,the relative total content of terpenoids reduces to 2.5 1% from 14.87% (the main ingredient limonene reduces to 1.52% from 7.98%).Besides,small amount of esters (at the medium of storage),acids and alcohols (at the end of storage)is also detected in the storage.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用技术,测定了储存12个月的小茴香挥发性成分,探讨了其储存中挥发性成分的相对含量变化。结果发现:小茴香储存中除主要成分反式茴香脑和爱草脑的含量相对稳定外(在储存初始及3,6,9,12个月的总含量分别是72.2%,85.49%,93.06%,95.89%,90.13%),其他成分含量变化较大,其中,茴香醛含量增加,由起初的0.47%不断增加到6.1%;芳樟醇和萜类成分含量减小,且都在储存前半期,芳樟醇由初期的9.72%减少到0.28%,而萜类成分个数由14个减少到10个,总含量也由14.87%减少到2.51%(主要成分柠檬烯由初期的7.98%减少到1.52%)。此外,小茴香在储存中期还有少量酯类产生,尾期主要是酸类和醇类,它们的含量均不高。

  4. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extensi...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  5. 3种不同发酵方式对荔枝果醋挥发性风味成分的影响%Effect on volatile aromatic components in litchi vinegar of three different fermentation ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈利民; 肖更生; 吴继军; 徐玉娟; 唐道邦; 杨韦杰

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用技术,对液体深层发酵、静置发酵和摇床发酵3种发酵方式所得的荔枝果醋的挥发性风味成分进行了分析比较,根据Nist数据库检索和参照相关文献的保留指数等方法,分别鉴定出34、32、22种挥发性风味成分,占各自总挥发性成分的91.16%、89.14%和94.34%.酸类、酯类和醇类是3种发酵方式发酵果醋主要的挥发性风味成分,含量较高的分别为乙酸、丁二酸二乙酯和苯乙醇等.3种发酵方式果醋中有13种相同的挥发性风味成分.酯类在Lsu果醋挥发性风味成分中含量最高(38.41%),而酸类在Lsh果醋挥发性风味成分中含量最高(73.34%)%Three kinds of litchi vinegar respectively accomplished fermentation with Liquid Submerged fermentation (Lsu), Liquid Standing fermentation (Lst) and Liquid Shaking fermentation (Lsh). Volatile aromatic components in the three kinds of litchi vinegar were analyzed and compared by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS. According to the methods of searching Nist database and retention indices with relevant literatures, 34, 32and 22 kinds of volatile aromatic components with total relative contents of 91.16%, 89.14% and 94.34% were identified from litchi vinegars with three different fermentation ways, respectively. Acids, esters and alcohols were major aromatic components in these volatile aromatic components of the three kinds of litchi vinegar, such as, acetic acid, butanedioic acid, diethyl ester and phenylethyl alcohol. In addition, 13 volatile common aromatic components exist in the three kinds of litchi vinegar. Furthermore, the content of esters fermented with Lsu was the highest in the three kinds of vinegar, reaching up to 38.41% ,while the content of acids fermented with Lsh was the highest in the three kinds of vinegar, reaching up to 73.34%.

  6. Variação anual do rendimento e composição química dos componentes voláteis da Siparuna guianensis Aublet Annual variation of yield and chemical composition of volatile components of Siparuna guianensis Aublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Abido Valentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the volatile composition obtained by hidrodistillation of fresh leaves of Siparuna guianensis Aublet collected from Cuiabá (MT, Brazil. The composition of DCM extract of hydrolate was determined by GC-MS analysis and the results showed that the specie present a range of components according to their phenology and period of the leaves were collects. The highest volatile components yield was obtained during the reproductive period and the principal compound was the siparunone.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLATILE COMPONENTS OF WHEAT FLOUR AND BIOCHEMICAL INDEXES IN DIFFERENT SIORED CONDITION%不同储藏条件下小麦粉挥发物与理化指标相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 鞠兴荣; 高瑀珑; 袁建; 沈崇玉

    2012-01-01

    In order to find out the relationships between the volatile components and storage quality parameters of wheat flour and investigate the aging mechanism of stored wheat flour, the volatile components of wheat flour in different storage conditions were measured by the method of headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC- MS). The physiological and biochemical indexes were also measured. The sorts and contents of volatile components, and their correlation with physiological and biochemical indexes of stored wheat flour were analyzed respectively. The results showed that the wheat flour in different storage conditions produced the same volatile components. Total volatile components were analyzed by principal component analysis and correlation analysis, Hexanal、2-Nonenal、2-Octenal、Decadienal、l-Hexanol、l-Hex-anol、2 - ethyl -、Benzyl AlcohoU Acetophenone、 Dodecane、 Tetradecane contents show more significant correlation with fatty acid value, MDA respectively, retrogradation and it can be used as an assessment index for the storage quality of stored wheat flour. The volatile matters may be produced from the oxygena-tion and hydrolysis of lipids in stored wheat flour.%为了探索挥发性物质与小麦粉储藏品质指标的关系,进一步研究小麦粉品质变化机理,采用顶空气相色谱一质谱联用法测定了不同储藏条件下小麦粉中的挥发性物质,同时测定其生化指标,分析挥发性物质的种类和含量及其与生化指标的相关性.研究结果表明:不同储藏条件的小麦粉挥发性物质种类基本相同,只是在量上存在差异.通过主成分分析和相关性分析显示,小麦粉挥发物中的己醛、2-壬烯醛、2-辛醛、癸二烯醛、1-己醇、2—乙基—1—己醇,、苯甲醇、丙酮、十二烷、十四烷含量与脂肪酸值、丙二醛和回生值呈较高相关性,可作为小麦粉储存品质变化的评判指标,同时小麦粉中挥发物来源主要由脂类的氧化和水解产生.

  8. Modelling the effect of oil/fat content in food systems on flavour absorption by LLDPE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the phenomena in food packaging interactions is flavour absorption. Absorption of flavour compounds from food products into food-packaging materials can result in loss of flavour compounds or an unbalance in the flavour profile changing a product's quality. The food matrix influences the amou

  9. Advances in the Studies of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Volatile Components from Mentha L.%薄荷属植物挥发性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智坤; 梁呈元; 任冰如; 于盱; 李维林

    2013-01-01

    薄荷属(Mentha L.)植物广泛分布于世界各地,有着悠久的药食两用史.目前,薄荷属植物挥发性物质主要应用于医药、食品、化妆品、香料、烟草等工业.现代研究表明其挥发性成分主要含有多种单萜类化合物,药理学研究显示其具有抗氧化、抗菌、抗辐射、抗癌、降血压等生物活性.本文主要对该属植物挥发性化学成分及药理作用的研究现状进行综述,以期为进一步开发和利用该属植物提供科学依据.%Mentha L.species widely distribute around the world.They had been used in foods and medicines for more than 2000 years.Currently the volatile components(or essential oils) from mint were widely used in medicine,food,cosmetics,perfume,tobacco and others industry.Recent researches show that the volatile components are mainly composed by monoterpenoids and have the biological activity such as antioxidation,antibacterial,antiradiation,anticancer,lowering school pressure,and etc.In this paper,we review progresses on botany,chemistry and activity of volatile components about this species,in order to provide the evidence for utilizing this resource better.

  10. Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)

  11. Heavy flavour and quarkonia measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gallus, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Charm and bottom quarks provide a powerful tool to study the properties of the hot, dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, and in particular may help differentiate between initial and final state effects in large collision systems. Measurements of open heavy flavour particle and quarkonia production, including their prompt and non-prompt components, and their correlations with light hadrons, build a path to understanding how heavy quarks propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. Additionally, an important component in these studies is the comparison between large and small collision systems. In this talk, ATLAS presents results on measurements of quarkonia production in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, including separated prompt and non-prompt particle yields and a new measurement of the anisotropic flow of the J/Psi. The flow measurement provides information on the stage at which charmonium states are formed during the system evolution, thus giving insights on the effects that modify their production. Add...

  12. Chemical components of volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vulgare mill from different habitats by GC-MS%不同产地茴香根皮挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤凤; 美丽万·阿不都热依木; 周静

    2014-01-01

    To analyze and compare the chemical components of the volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. The components of volatile oil were separated and analyzed by GC-MS. The relative content of each constituent was calculated by normalization. Result showed that twenty-six components in the volatile oil of roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats were identified. 13,7,11,10,14,11,14,11,10,10 components were identified from Xiaoerbage,Lawati,Tacheng,Bageqi,Shufu,Lasikui,Manglai,Yili,Moyu,Buzhake of Xin-jiang. Dill Apiol and 1,3-benzodioxole,4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-and 1,3-benzodioxole,4-me-thoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-are its common and main ingredients,which account for 90. 81% ~96. 18% and 0. 54% ~2. 76% and 0. 10% ~3. 33% of the total oils.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取10个不同产地小茴香根挥发油,运用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)进行化学成分分析,面积归一化法测定各成分的相对百分含量。结果表明,从10个不同产地的茴香根挥发油中共鉴定出26个成分,其中肖尔巴格乡、阿瓦提乡、塔城、巴格其镇、疏附县、拉丝奎镇、芒来乡、伊犁、墨玉县、布扎克乡分别鉴定出了13、7、11、10、14、11、14、11、10、10个成分,其中莳萝芹菜脑、洋芹脑和肉豆蔻醚是它们的共有成分和主要成分,莳萝芹菜脑占挥发油总量的90.81%~96.18%,洋芹脑占挥发油总量的0.54%~2.76%,肉豆蔻醚占挥发油总量的0.10%~3.33%。

  13. GC -MS Analysis of Volatile Components from Leaves of Dlender Acanthopanax%气质联用法分析细柱五加叶挥发油的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇龙; 朱冬青; 林崇良; 王贤亲; 林观样

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical components of volatile oils from leaves of Dlender acanthopanax. Methods:he volatile was extracted by steam - stilling and identified by GC - MS. The percentage composition of volatile oil was calculated by the peak area normalization method- Results: 51 peaks were separated and 47 compounds were identified from volatile oils of leaves of Dlender acanthopanax,accounting for 97. 83% of the total,in which the major constituents were alpha-Pinene(9.93% ) ,Bicyclo[3. 1.0]hex-2 - ene,4 - methyl - 1 - (1 - methylethyl) - ( 15.05% ) ,3 -Cy-clohexen-1 - ol ,4 - methyl - 1 -(1 -methylethyl) -,(R) - (14. 82% ) ,Caryophyllene(9. 63% ). Conclusion: The volatile oils from leaves of Dlender acanthopanax is rich in biological active components and it was of high use value.%目的:研究细柱五加叶挥发油的化学成分.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,利用GC - MS计算机联用仪定性分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发油中化学成分的百分含量.结果:从细柱五加叶挥发油中共分离出51个峰,鉴定出47个化学成分,占挥发油总量的97.83%,主要有2-蒎烯(9.93%)、4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)二环[3.1.0]己-2 - 烯(15.05%)、(-)-4-萜品醇(14.82%)、反式石竹烯(9.63%).结论:细柱五加叶的挥发油富含生物活性成分,有良好的利用价值.

  14. Neutrino masses and mixing: a flavour symmetry roadmap

    CERN Document Server

    Morisi, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last ten years tri-bimaximal mixing has played an important role in modeling the flavour problem. We give a short review of the status of flavour symmetry models of neutrino mixing. We concentrate on non-Abelian discrete symmetries, which provide a simple way to account for the TBM pattern. We discuss phenomenological implications such as neutrinoless double beta decay, lepton flavour violation as well as theoretical aspects such as the possibility to explain quarks and leptons within a common framework, such as grand unified models.

  15. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.05.023

    2011-01-01

    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep -> mu X and ep -> tau X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s} = 319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb^-1 of e^+ p and 166 pb^-1 of e^- p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e^+- p collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively.

  16. Heavy flavour decay properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00235989; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results on CP-violation searches in the $B_s$ system, studied in the $B_s\\rightarrow J/\\psi \\phi$ decay and the $B_d$ system through the comparison of the decay time distributions in the flavour specific state $J/\\psi\\ K^*$ and in the CP eigenstate $J/\\psi\\ K_s$. We also present new results in the search for the rare decays of $B_d$ and $B_s$ into $\\mu^+\\mu^-$. All results are based on the full sample of data collected during LHC Run 1 by ATLAS at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The consistency with the SM and with other available measurements is discussed.

  17. The warped, resolved, deformed conifold gets flavoured

    CERN Document Server

    Gaillard, Jerome; Nunez, Carlos; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a simple transformation that allows to generate SU(3) structure solutions of Type IIB supergravity with RR fluxes, starting from non-Kahler solutions of Type I supergravity. The method may be applied also in the presence of supersymmetric source branes. We apply this transformation to a solution describing fivebranes wrapped on the two-sphere of the resolved conifold with additional flavour fivebrane sources. The resulting solution is a generalisation of the resolved deformed conifold solution of Butti et al. by the addition of D5 brane and D3 brane sources. We propose that this solution may be interpreted in terms of a combined effect of Higgsing and cascade of Seiberg dualities in the dual field theory.

  18. Application of clustering analysis of volatile components in the identification of soy sauce%挥发性成分聚类分析在酱油鉴别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽贤

    2012-01-01

    应用同时蒸馏萃取法和气质联用技术对对酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸世界植物蛋白调味液共17个样品的挥发性成分进行分析,筛选其特征挥发性组分进行比较.发现酿造酱油特征组分以醇类、醛类、酸类为主,酸水解植物蛋白调味液特征组分以醛类、酚类、杂环化合物为主,而配制酱油挥发性成分则兼有前两者的特征组分.以17个样品的挥发性成分及其含量进行聚类分析,建立了区分酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸水解植物蛋白调味液的识别模型,为建立酿造酱油和配制酱油鉴别技术打下较好的基础.%The volatile components from 17 fermented soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were analyzed by using a combination of simultaneous steam - distillation - extraction and gas chromatog-raphy mass spectrometry. The characteristicvolatile components were screened and compared. It was found that the main characteristic components in fermented soy sauce were alcohols, aldehydes and acids, and the main characteristic components in acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were aldehydes, phenols and heterocycliccompounds. The-blended soy sauce had volatile components of both. The analytical data of 17 samples were subjected to clustering analysis based on the kind and content of the volatile components. Arecognition model of discriminating among soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasoningswas established. The results of this study laid a solid foundation for discrimination between fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce.

  19. 中国不同产地姜油挥发性成分的对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Volatile Components of Ginger Oil Originated from Different Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔俭杰; 李琼

    2011-01-01

    采用气质联用法(GC-MS)对不同产地(山东、云南、安徽、江苏、新疆)的姜油中的挥发性成分进行分析和比较.采用双柱(DB-1柱和HP-INNOWAX柱)保留指数(RI)辅助定性,气相色谱(GC)面积归一法定量.研究过程中,成功分离分析出醇类、酮类、烯烃类、酯类、醛类、杂环类、芳香类化合物等共计64种成分,其组成成分平均含量最高为姜烯(29.7%),其它依次为β-倍半水芹烯(12.28%)、α-姜黄烯(9.7%)、β-水芹烯1,8-桉叶素+苧烯(7.5%)、γ-杜松烯+α-金合欢烯(7.0%)、β-红没药烯(6.9%)和莰烯(5.7%)等.对比结果表明,不同产地的姜油含有几乎相同的化学成分,但含量存在差异.%This paper reports analysis and comparison of volatile components of oil of ginger (Zingiber of ficinale Roscoe) produced from different areas in China (Shandong, Yunnan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Xinjiang) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ( GC-MS) . The qualitative analysis was supported by retention index (RI) on two columns ( DB-1 column and HP-INNOWAX column). The quantification of components was based on peak area in GC. In the study, totally 64 volatile components were successfully separated and identified, including alcohols, ketones, olefins, esters, aldehydes and heterocyclic components. It was found that Zingiberene was the highest level volatile component (29. 68%) , followed by β-sesquiphellandrene (12.3%), α-curcumene (9. 7%), β-phellandrene + 1, 8-cineole + limonene (7. 5%), β-bisabolene (6. 9%), and camphene (5. 7%). The results show that ginger oil produced at different areas contain almost same components but in different quantities.

  20. Does the Shape of the Drinking Receptacle Influence Taste/Flavour Perception? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Spence

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the latest evidence demonstrating that the shape and feel of the glassware (and other receptacles that we drink from can influence our perception of the taste/flavour of the contents. Such results, traditionally obtained in the world of wine, have often been interpreted in terms of changes in physico-chemical properties (resulting from the retention, or release, of specific volatile aromatic molecules, or the differing ways in which the shape of the glassware funnels the flow of the liquid across the tongue. It is, however, not always clear that any such physico-chemical differences do, in fact, lead to perceptible differences. Others, meanwhile, have stressed the importance of cultural factors, and the perceived appropriateness, or congruency, of the receptacle to the drink, based on prior experience. Here, though, we argue that there is also a much more fundamental association at work between shape properties and taste/flavour. In particular, the suggestion is made that the shape properties of the drinking receptacle (e.g., whether it be more rounded or angular—regardless of whether the receptacle is seen, felt, or both—can prime certain expectations in the mind of the drinker. And, based on the theory of crossmodal correspondence, this priming is thought to accentuate certain aspects of the tasting experience, likely as a result of a taster’s attention being focused on the attributes that have been subtly primed.

  1. 山刺番荔枝果实发育进程中挥发性成分的组成分析%Analysis of volatile components in Annona montana fruit at different developmental stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子健; 龙娅丽; 江雪飞; 乔飞; 党志国; 陈业渊

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨山刺番荔枝果实发育过程中挥发性物质的组成及变化.[方法]采用顶空固相微萃取技术对山刺番荔枝青果期、转白期和成熟期果实进行挥发性气体的鉴定,并结合气相色谱/质谱法进行测定分析.[结果]山刺番荔枝各个阶段果实中共检测出16种相对含量超过1%的挥发性物质,包括醛类、酯类、醇类和酸类.其中青果期挥发性物质以(E)-2-己烯醛为主,转白期挥发性物质以辛酸甲酯为主,在成熟期中相对含量最高的是梨醇酯.果实发育过程中,酯类挥发性物质逐渐增加.对果实挥发性物质的香韵进行分析,发现青果期果实中包含14种香型,其中青香荷载较大;转白期和成熟期果实中分别包含23种香型和21种香型,果香荷载最大.[结论]在山刺番荔枝果实发育的不同阶段,挥发性物质成分及相对含量有有较大的变化.随着果实成熟,香韵明显增多,由青香型向果香型转变.转白期香型种类最多,香韵特征最明显,是食用或精油提取的最佳阶段.%[Objective]Annona montana is native to central America,the Amazon,and the islands in the Caribbean.It is a medicinal plant and produces edible fruit.It has been used as rootstock for cultivated Annonas since 1980s in southern China,Guangdong province and Hainan Province.The fruit is nearly round and covered with many short fleshy spines.During ripening,the pulp turns from white to yellow,and emits unique aroma.Though the pulp is fibrous and with many seeds,it is with strong tropical fruit aromas and can be used as additive to make tropical flavor food or beverage.However,volatile components in the fruit have not been identified since the wild trees of Annona montana were introduced to China.Therefore,in this study the variation and composition of volatile components in Annona montana fruit were analyzed at different fruit development stages.[Methods] Volatile components were analyzed with HS

  2. Analysis of the Volatile Organic Components in Malus hupenhensis Rehd Leaves by Direct Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry%湖北海棠叶挥发性成分的 DTD-GC/MS 分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宵; 杜业云; 杨志斌; 李晖; 杨柳

    2015-01-01

    The method of direct thermal desorption (DTD)combed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)was applied to analyze the volatile organic components in leaves of Malus hupenhensis for the first time,and 46 kinds of volatile organic components were identified.The main chemical components were hydrocarbons,esters,alcohols,ke-tones,vinyl,aldehydes and so on.8 kinds of components can be used as spice additives,5 types can be used for medical purposes,2 kinds can be used as insecticides.This method of analyzing Malus hupenhensis leaves components had good re-peatability,and was simple,efficient,sensitive and environment-friendly.%采用直接热脱附—气相色谱/质谱联用技术(DTD-GC/MS)首次分析了湖北海棠叶挥发性成分,共检测鉴定出有效成分46种,主要包括烷烃类、酯类、醇类、酮类、烯类、醛类等化合物。其中,8种可用作香料添加剂,5种可作医疗用途,2种可用于杀虫剂。采用直接热脱附—气相色谱/质谱法分析湖北海棠叶挥发成分重现性好、操作简单、效率高、绿色环保。

  3. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs.

  4. Compartive study of volatile components and fatty acids of plants and in vitro cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill) nym ex hill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M G; Sánchez-Mendoza, I R; Ochoa-Alejo, N

    1999-08-01

    Volatile compounds from plants, callus tissue cultures, and cell suspensions of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were captured during the growth cycle using a dynamic headspace extraction and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Parsley plants were found to produce mainly monoterpenes, and the compound of major abundance was p-1,3,8-menthatriene, followed by beta-phellandrene and apiole. Callus cultures and cell suspensions produced aldehydes (nonanal and decanal) that were also detected in parsley plant. The former also produced limonene, acetophenone, and benzotiazol; these were not observed in the plants. The production of volatiles in plants, callus tissue, and cell suspensions was found to be time-dependent. Free and bound fatty acids were also monitored by an in situ method. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids were the most abundant fatty acids in all materials; however, higher levels were found in plants. On the other hand, the unsaturated C16:1 and C16:3 were not detected in the in vitro cultures.

  5. Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malbe, Marge, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks

  6. SO(10) models with flavour symmetries: classification and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. P.; Lavoura, L.

    2016-10-01

    Renormalizable SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) models equipped with flavour symmetries are a popular framework for addressing the flavour puzzle. Usually, the flavour symmetry group has been an ad hoc choice, and no general arguments limiting this choice were known. In this paper, we establish the full list of flavour symmetry groups which may be enforced, without producing any further accidental symmetry, on the Yukawa-coupling matrices of an SO(10) GUT with arbitrary numbers of scalar multiplets in the {{10}}, \\bar{{{126}}}, and {{120}} representations of SO(10). For each of the possible discrete non-Abelian symmetry groups, we present examples of minimal models which do not run into obvious contradiction with the phenomenological fermion masses and mixings.

  7. Flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra ' boson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahoo; L Maharana

    2004-09-01

    New neutral gauge bosons ' are the features of many models addressing the physics beyond the standard model. Together with the existence of new neutral gauge bosons, models based on extended gauge groups (rank > 4) often predict new charged fermions also. A mixing of the known fermions with new states, with exotic weak-isospin assignments (left-handed singlets and right-handed doublets) will induce tree-level flavour-changing neutral interactions mediated by exchange, while if the mixing is only with new states with ordinary weak-isospin assignments, the flavour-changing neutral currents are mainly due to the exchange of the new neutral gauge boson '. We review flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra ' boson. Then we discuss some flavour-changing processes forbidden in the standard model and new contributions to standard model processes.

  8. Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malbe, Marge, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks

  9. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...... the approach developed by the “Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives” (JECFA) and referred to in Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000. First, the 2800 flavouring substances are divided into groups of structurally related substances. The Procedure is then a stepwise approach that integrates...

  10. Earthy off-flavour in wine: evaluation of remedial treatments for geosmin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Gambuti, Angelita; Genovese, Alessandro; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Seven treatments (activated charcoal, bentonite, PVPP, yeast cell walls, potassium caseinate, zeolite and grape seed oil) were evaluated for their efficacy in decreasing the concentration of geosmin, responsible for earthy off-flavour in wine. In the red wine the potassium caseinate and grape seed oil treatments decreased the concentration of geosmin by 14% and 83%, respectively, while in the white wine, the activated charcoal and the grape seed oil were able to decrease the concentration of geosmin by 23% and 81%, respectively. The effective treatments in decreasing geosmin also decreased aroma volatile compounds, most of all esters, responsible for fruity notes. Considering the OAVs (concentration/odour threshold) only the treatment with grape seed oil was able to decrease the relative contribution of geosmin to the profile of the odour active compounds, both in red and in white wine. Sensory analysis confirmed the efficacy of the grape seed oil as a remedial treatment.

  11. 广西白木香叶挥发性油的化学成分∗%Chemical Components of Volatile Oils from the Leaves of Aquilaria sinensis in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠芳; 檀小辉; 王丽萍; 黄秋伟

    2016-01-01

    The volatile oils of the leaves from Aquilaria sinensis were extracted by steam distillation and its chemical constituents were analyzed through GC-MS. 23 chemical components of volatile oils were identified from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis. Its main component is Myristicin ( 35. 13%) , Phytone ( 15. 14%) , Palmitic acid ( 11. 92%) , Plantalcohol ( 6. 756%) , Caryophyllene oxide ( 2. 573%) , Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl este (1. 912%) , α-Curcumene (1. 791%) , Farnesylaceton (1. 647%) , Methyl hexadecanoate (1. 514%) , etc.%采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取广西白木香叶挥发油,应用气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)联用仪测定其化学成分。结果表明,白木香叶的挥发油共鉴定出23个化学成分。主要成分为肉豆蔻醚(35.13%)、植酮(15.14%)、棕榈酸(11.92%)、植物醇(6.756%)、石竹素(2.573%)、十六酸乙酯(1.912%)、α-姜黄烯(1.791%)、法尼基丙酮(1.647%)、棕榈酸甲酯(1.514%)等,主要成分占挥发油总量的78.383%。

  12. 互叶白千层花、果与叶挥发油成分的对比分析%Comparative Analysis on Chemical Components in Volatile Oils from Flowers,Fruits and Leaf of Melaleuca alternjfolja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玲; 刘布鸣; 林霄; 何开家; 白懋嘉

    2014-01-01

    以水蒸气蒸馏法提取互叶白千层花、果、叶三个不同部位的挥发油,采用气相色谱法、气相色谱-质谱联用法分别鉴定了花、果和叶中挥发油的化学成分,并比较互叶白千层不同部位挥发油的主要化学成分及含量差异。分析结果可为互叶白千层花、果研究提供试验依据。%The volatile oils were obtained by extracting flowers,fruits and leaf of Melaleuca alternifolia respectively with steam distillation.GC and GC-MS methods were applied to identify the components in these volatile oils from different parts of Melaleuca alternifolia ,and the differences and relative contents of the main chemical components were compared.The results provide experimental data for the study of flowers and fruits from Melaleuca alternifolia .

  13. Analysis of Volatile Components in Semen Sojae Praepatum with Automatic Static Headspace and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%静态顶空-气质联用分析淡豆豉中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴川; 于生; 崔小兵; 张爱华; 朱栋; 单晨啸; 文红梅

    2013-01-01

    It was the first report on the volatile components contained in Semen Sojae Praepatum. For the analysis, the Semen Sojae Praepatum was analyzed by automatic static headspace and gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry. A total of 27 compounds were identified in Semen Sojae Praepatum through the computer retrieval on the NIST5 mass spectral library. They consisted of 11 generality components, such as 2-Butanone, Butanal 3-methyl-, Butanal 2-methyl-, Limonene and 16 special components, such as copaene, Pyrazine, tetramethyl-, 2,3,5-Trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol,1,7,7-trimethyl-,acetate,(1S-endo)-. Meanwhile, the quantitative analysis was taken using area normalization method, which showed that some difference was detected among six batches of Semen Sojae Praepatum. The results indicated that automatic static headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was a fast,easy,efficient and accurate method to analyze the volatile components in Semen Sojae Praepatum , and we thought that the findings may promote the fingerprint research of the volatile components in Semen Sojae Praepatum , to provide a scientific basis for the establishment of the quality standard.%  采用自动化静态顶空(HS)-气质联用(GC-MS)技术对6个批次淡豆豉的挥发性成分进行快速分析鉴定。从测定到的40多种成分中确定了2-丁酮、3-甲基丁醛、2-甲基丁醛、香芹烯等11种共有化合物及2,3,5-三甲基吡嗪、L-乙酸冰片酯、古巴烯、四甲基吡嗪等16种非共有化合物;同时使用峰面积归一化法计算了27种挥发性成分的相对含量,各组分的质量分数存在一定差异。研究表明,使用自动化静态顶空气质联用法测定淡豆豉的挥发性成分快速简便,且在一定程度上促进了淡豆豉挥发性成分的指纹图谱构建,为淡豆豉质量标准的建立提供了参考。

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  15. A T' Flavour Model for Fermions and its Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric flavour model based on the T' discrete group, which explains fermion masses and mixings. The flavour symmetry, acting in the supersymmetric sector, provides well defined sfermion mass matrices and the resulting supersymmetric spectrum accounts for sufficiently light particles that could be seen at LHC. Furthermore, several contributions to FCNC processes are present and they can be useful to test the model in the present and future experiments. We will review the main results for both leptons and quarks.

  16. Rare decays of flavoured mesons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In absence of strong, direct signs of New Physics at the LHC, rare decays of heavy flavoured hadrons constitute an ideal laboratory for indirectly exploring energies beyond those of the LHC in order to look for deviations from the Standard Model. The main results regarding flavour changing neutral current transitions obtained at the LHC are presented here, with particular emphasis put on $b \\to s$ transitions, in which tensions with the Standard Model have been observed.

  17. Comparison of volatile oil components beteween Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma wenyujin decoction by GC-MS%GC-MS法比较温莪术挥发油与水煎液中的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华凤; 马慧; 赵路路; 宋爱华

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用GC-MS法比较温莪术传统水煎液与挥发油所含挥发性成分的差别,初步探讨水煎剂中的主要化学成分,为温莪术水煎剂临床疗效物质基础研究积累数据,为温莪术挥发油及其制剂的临床用药给予指导.方法 采用GC-MS法对温莪术挥发油和水煎液的乙酸乙酯萃取物化学成分进行分析,通过标准谱库检索结合文献分析,确定温莪术挥发油与水煎液乙酸乙酯萃取物中所含的主要挥发性成分,并对二者所含化学成分进行比较.结果 从温莪术挥发油中指认出49种化学成分,从温莪术水煎液乙酸乙酯萃取物中指认出28种化学成分,其中仅有莪术二酮(curdione)、斯巴醇(spathulenol)和deoxysericealactone等3种成分为二者共有成分.结论 温莪术挥发油与水煎液所含挥发性成分存在显著差别,温莪术水煎液的有效成分需进一步研究.%Objective Using an GC-MS method to determine the volatile oil difference between Curcuma wenyujin and the Curcuma wenyujin decoction,preliminary study the main chemical components of the Curcuma wenyujin decoction,accumulate data for the clinical study on the material foundation of Curcuma wenyujin decoction and give direction to the clinical application of volatile oil from Curcuma wenyujin and its preparations.Methods an GC-MS method was established to analysis the volatile oil chemical composition of Curcuma wenyujin and the ethyl acetate part of Curcuma wenyujin decoction,their chief volatile oil components were determined by searching standard spectrum library combine with literature review.Results 49 compounds were identified in volatile oil of Curcuma wenyujin,and 28 compounds from the ethyl acetate part of Curcuma wenyujin decoction were confirmed.Conclusions There exists significant difference about the volatile oil between Curcuma wenyujin and the ethyl acetate part of Curcuma wenyujin decoction,the therapeutic components in Curcuma wenyujin decoction

  18. Analysis of Volatile Components of Fresh and Cooked Frankincense by Thermal Desorption and GC/MS%热脱附-气相色谱/质谱联用法分析生、炙乳香挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岳华; 周围; 张雅珩; 魏荣霞

    2013-01-01

    为了研究天然乳香的挥发性成分及生、炙乳香挥发性成分的异同,为乳香挥发油的工艺优化和品质评估提供科学的依据,同时为固体挥发性成分分析提供新思路,采用热脱附-气相色谱/质谱联用技术直接对自然状态下乳香颗粒的挥发性成分进行分析.结合NIST 08标准谱库检索和Mass WorksTM质谱解析软件的分析结果,在分离出的40余种挥发性成分中,最终确定出20种化学成分.结果表明:生、炙乳香中的挥发性成分主要由单萜、醇及酯类物质构成,其中以醋酸辛酯含量最高,约占挥发性成分的50%;其次为1-辛醇、芳樟醇、乙酸龙脑酯,在生乳香中的含量分别为19.44%、2.27%、2.64%,在炙乳香中的含量分别为9.12%、2.61%、1.33%.%In order to make clear the natural volatile composition of frankincense and the differences between fresh frankincense and cooked frankincense, to provide a scientific basis on improving techniques and evaluating qualities of frankincense volatile oil, and to offer a new method to analyse volatile composition from solid for reference, the volatile components of natural fresh and cooked frankincense were extracted and determined directly by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrornetry(GC/MS). More than 40 components are separated and 20 components are identified by comparing their mass spectra with those contained in the NIST mass spectral database and Mass Works?software. The results show that the main components includ terpenes, alcohol and esters et al,n-octyl acetate is the most important volatile components to frankincense. The normalized peak areas exceed 50% both in fresh frankincense and cooked frankincense,followed by 1-octanol, lina-lool and bornyl acetate, the normalized peak areas in fresh frankincense are 19. 44%, 2. 27% and 2. 64%, in cooked frankincense are 9. 12%, 2. 61% and 1. 33%, respectively.

  19. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...

  20. Heavy flavours production in DIS events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellan, Paolo

    2008-10-15

    The estimation of the fraction of events in which an heavy quark is produced in the deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions is the measurement performed in the present analysis. The analysed data sample corresponds to about 130 pb{sup -1} collected during the years 2004-2005 by the ZEUS detector, located in one of the interaction points of the HERA collider in Hamburg. The measured percentages are directly related to the proton structure, formally encoded by the contribution of the heavy quarks to the structure functions F{sub 2}. The tagging of the events in which an heavy quark is produced is achieved by means of the Impact Parameter method. The correlation between the lifetime of the hadrons and the geometrical properties of the relative tracks makes possible to pick out the heavy flavours production form the background. This kind of 'topological' method makes an extensive use of the silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD). This essential component of the tracking suite of the ZEUS detector has been the major upgrade realized in the second half of the ZEUS experiment data taking period. The achievement of the physical goal has strongly leaned on its performance and reliability, so a considerable part of the work consisted in feasibility, refinement and optimization studies. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of Volatile Components in Wild Strains of Rabdosia rubescens in Jiyuan Area%济源地区野生品系冬凌草中挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李高申; 刘文; 张伟; 郭梅珍; 尹震花

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析济源地区野生品系冬凌草中的挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)法对河南省济源地区43种野生冬凌草地上部分中的挥发性成分进行提取,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法检测成分,采用面积归一化法计算各成分的相对含量.结果:43种野生冬凌草挥发性成分的种类和相对含量具有明显差异,种类在0~11种之间,相对含量在0~84.03%之间;石竹烯、石竹烯氧化物、二氢猕猴桃内酯、植酮和百秋李醇在多种不同品系野生冬凌草的挥发性成分中存在,是其主要成分;其挥发性成分的主要结构类型由萜烯类、酮类、醇类和酯类组成,此外在个别品系冬凌草中还含有少量的脂肪酸类,如棕榈酸、油酸和亚油酸.结论:济源地区不同品系野生冬凌草内在质量存在一定差异.%OBJECTIVE:To analysis the volatile components in wild strains of Rabdosia rubescensin in Jiyuan area. METH-ODS:Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was conducted to extract the volatile components in 43 wild species of R. rubescens,GC-MS was conducted to identify the components,and peak area normalization method was conducted to calculate the relative content of the components. RESULTS:The variety and relative contents of the volatility components in 43 wild species had obvious differences and the ranges of species number and relative content was from 0 to 11 and from 0 to 84.03% respectively. Caryophyllene,caryophyllene oxide,dihydroactinidiolide,phytone and patchouli alcohol were main components which existed in a variety of different strains of volatile components of R. rubescens,and were mainly composed of terpenes,ketones,alcohols and es-ters. In addition,fatty acids such as palmitic acid,oleic acid and linoleic acid were contained in a few individual varieties. CON-CLUSIONS:The internal quality in 43 wild species of R. rubescens has certain differences.

  2. 气质联用法分析泽泻中的挥发性成分的研究%GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Alisma orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 吴启南; 李兰; 谷巍; 于慧

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the volatile components of Alisma orientalis from three origins through three different extract methods by GC-MS. METHODS HS, SD and SFE-CO2 were accompanied with GC-MS to analyze the volatile components respectively. RESULTS HS-GC-MS affirmed 17 mutual components including δ-Elemene, β-Elemene and Beta-caryophyllene which are of high content. There were 14 mutual components identified by SD-GC-MS 14, of which Palmitic acid, Caryophyllene oxide and δ-Elemene are high contented. Besides, SFE-CO2-GC-MS got 7 mutual components, and n-Hexadecanoic acid, Alloaromadedrene and Ethyl linoleate are in a large quantity. CONCLUSION The volatile components of Alisma orientalis from different origins through different extract methods are different but connected. HS and SD are suitable for the further study into volatile components of Alisma orientalis.%目的 利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析3种不同提取方法 获取的3种产地泽泻的挥发性成分.方法 顶空萃取(HS)、水蒸气蒸馏提取(SD)和CO2超临界流体萃取(SFE-CO2)3种方法 分别与气相色谱-质谱技术联用对泽泻挥发性成分进行分析.结果 HS-GC-MS法分析鉴别出17种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有δ-Elemene(δ-榄香烯)、β-Elemene(β-榄香烯)、Beta-caryophyllene(β-石竹烯);SD-GC-MS法分析鉴别出14种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有Palmitic acid(棕榈酸)、Caryophyllene oxide(氧化石竹烯)、δ-Elemene(δ-榄香烯);SFE-CO2-GC-MS法分析鉴别出7种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有n-Hexadecanoic acid(棕榈酸)、Alloaromadedrene(别香树烯)、Ethyl linoleate (亚油酸乙酯).结论 不同提取方法 不同产地的泽泻药材挥发性成分既有联系又有区别.HS和SD法均较适宜用于泽泻挥发性成分的进一步研究.

  3. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, P M; Maliepaard, C; Tikunov, Y; Haanstra, J P W; Bovy, A G; Visser, R G F

    2012-05-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed.

  4. Direct Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Foods by Headspace Extraction Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hurtado, P; Palmer, E; Owen, T; Aldcroft, C; Allen, M H; Jones, J; Creaser, C S; Lindley, M R; Turner, M A; Reynolds, J C

    2017-08-30

    The rapid screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by direct analysis has potential applications in the areas of food and flavour science. Currently the technique of choice for VOC analysis is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the long chromatographic run times and elaborate sample preparation associated with this technique have led a movement towards direct analysis techniques, such as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and electronic noses. The work presented here describes the design and construction of a Venturi jet-pump based modification for a compact mass spectrometer which enables the direct introduction of volatiles for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Volatile organic compounds were extracted from the headspace of heated vials into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer using a Venturi pump. Samples were analysed directly with no prior sample preparation. Principal component analysis was used to differentiate between different classes of samples RESULTS: The interface is shown to be able to routinely detect problem analytes such as fatty acids and biogenic amines without the requirement of a derivatisation step, and is shown to be able to discriminate between four different varieties of cheese with good intra and inter-day reproducibility using an unsupervised principal component analysis model. Quantitative analysis is demonstrated using indole standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.395 μg/mL and 1.316 μg/mL, respectively. The described methodology can routinely detect highly reactive analytes such as volatile fatty acids and diamines without the need for a derivatisation step or lengthy chromatographic separations. The capability of the system was demonstrated by discriminating between different varieties of cheese and monitoring the spoilage of meats. This article is protected by

  5. Contribution of oxidized tallow to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing; Niu, Yunwei; Hayat, Khizar; Eric, Karangwa

    2012-09-07

    Flavour profiles of seven beeflike process flavours (BFs) including non-oxidized or oxidized tallow were comparatively analysed by electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis to characterize the headspace of BFs. Analysis of volatiles by GC-MS indicated that the effect of oxidized tallow with moderate oxidization level on Maillard reaction was more prominent than that of others, which potentially could result in an optimal meat flavour with strong, harmony and species-specific characteristics detected by sensory analysis. In addition, electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the GC-MS and sensory analysis results. Correlation analysis of the electronic nose measurements, sensory evaluation and characteristic compounds through Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) further explained that moderate oxidized tallow with peroxide value (PV) of 87.67-160 mequiv./kg, the p-anisidine value (p-AV) of 30.57-50, and the acid value (AV) of 1.8-2.2 mg KOH/g tallow was a desirable precursor for imparting aroma characteristics of beef flavour.

  6. Flavour blindness and patterns of flavour symmetry breaking in lattice simulations of up, down and strange quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the up-down quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, first for the general 1+1+1 flavour case and then for the 2+1 flavour case (when two quark flavours are mass degenerate). These enable highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results for the 2+1 flavour case confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. Singlet quantities remain constant which allows the lattice spacing to be determined from hadron masses (without necessarily being at the physical point). Furthermore an extension of this programme to include partially quenched results is also given. (orig.)

  7. 用代谢组学法分析四种山西陈醋的挥发性成分%Metabolomics Analysis of Volatile Components in four kinds of Shanxi Mature Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白津榕

    2013-01-01

    Different Shanxi Mature Vinegar has different flavor.In this study,metabolomics method was used to analyze the components difference among four kinds of Shanxi mature vinegar.Volatile compounds of different vinegar during different aging periods were extracted with simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE),and were analyzed with GC—MS and NIST 08.The results indicated that the acids,ketones,esters and heterocycle compounds were identified in all different vinegars but the content of each of those components were different in the samples,and each sample contains its specific volatile components which provide the technical method to monitor the Shanxi Mature Vinegar's quality.%不同品牌、类别的山西陈醋,在嗅觉、口感等方面有所差异,用代谢组学的思想,采用同时蒸馏萃取对4种品牌的山西陈醋进行提纯,并用气—质联用(GC-MS)法进行检测,通过NIST 08谱库检索,最后判定4种样品中挥发性成分的化学物质组成及含量.结果表明,4种样品中都含有酸类、醇类、杂环化合物等物质,但其含有的一些化学物质的含量却有明显的差异,而且每种样品都含有其特有的化学成分.这些为检测山西陈醋的产品质量提供了技术思路.

  8. Search for Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Characterizing Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography / Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les regards se sont principalement tournés sur les composants à faible polarité dans la résine de feuilles de tabac en raison de leur lien probable avec le goût et l’arôme des produits du tabac, l’absence d’une méthode praticable et d’un outil analytique a longtemps fait obstacle à l’identification des composants non-volatils à faible polarité. L’auteur a, en l’occurrence, porté son attention sur l’analyse recourant à la chromatographie en phase inverse non aqueuse couplée à un détecteur à barrettes de photodiodes et à un détecteur de spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique à pression atmosphérique. Cette analyse fut considérée applicable à la séparation des composants nonvolatils significatifs mais inconnus. Son application a permis, avec succès, de séparer, détecter et quantifier simultanément plus de 100 composants non-volatils présentant des polarités faibles et différenciées. Ces composantes furent, entre autres, des solanésols, des triacylglycérides, des phytostérols et des chlorophylles. Cependant, les données concernant les différences de composition parmi les diverses feuilles de tabac demeurent encore partielles et basées sur une analyse ciblée plutôt que globales et basées sur une analyse exhaustive. Aucune étude n’a été, à ce jour, accomplie qui recense les composants essentiels permettant de distinguer, parmi les feuilles de tabac, les différents goûts, arômes, variétés, cultivars, processus de séchage et régions de culture. Par conséquent, toutes les données de quantification ont été consolidées dans le but de former une matrice multidimensionnelle complète et ont subi un traitement statistique qui a mis en exergue les catégories et les composants-clés des diverses feuilles de tabac grâce à une analyse en composantes principales et une classification hiérarchique. Les feuilles de tabac ont, dans un premier temps, été ventilées en

  9. Flavour Dependent Gauged Radiative Neutrino Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seungwon; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: $\\mu$ minus $\\tau$ symmetry $U(1)_{\\mu-\\tau}$. A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks $U(1)_{\\mu-\\tau}$ symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases which can be determined five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the ...

  10. Dark matter and observable Lepton Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Heurtier, Lucien

    2016-01-01

    Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density ...

  11. Dark Matter and observable lepton flavour violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heurtier, Lucien [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Teresi, Daniele [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique

    2016-07-15

    Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density via the decays of the latter. The phenomenological implications of the model are discussed, finding that large LFV rates, observable in the near-future μ→e conversion experiments, require the DM mass to be in the keV range. Moreover, the active-neutrino coupling to the Majoron-like scalar field could be probed in future detections of supernova neutrino bursts.

  12. Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Pablo F. de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK),RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2016-07-28

    We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N{sub eff}. We find a value of N{sub eff}=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), predicted in many theoretical models where neutrinos acquire mass. For two sets of NSI parameters allowed by present data, we find that N{sub eff} can be reduced down to 3.040 or enhanced up to 3.059.

  13. Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited

    CERN Document Server

    de Salas, Pablo F

    2016-01-01

    We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N_eff. We find a value of N_eff=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), ...

  14. Flavour Physics with High-Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the first dedicated B-factory experiments BaBar (USA) and BELLE (Japan) Flavour Physics has entered the phase of precision physics. LHCb (CERN) and the high luminosity extension of KEK-B together with the state of the art BELLE II detector will further push this precision frontier. Progress in this field always relied on close cooperation between experiment and theory, as extraction of fundamental parameters often is very indirect. To extract the full physics information from existing and future data, this cooperation must be further intensified. This MIAPP programme aims in particular to prepare for this task by joining experimentalists and theorists in the various relevant fields, with the goal to build the necessary tools in face of the challenge of new large data sets. The programme will begin with a focus on physics with non-leptonic final states, continued by semileptonic B meson decays and Tau decays, and on various aspects of CP symmetry violation closer to the end. In addition, in the final ...

  15. Linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,Palaiseau (France); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Warsaw (Poland); Ziegler, Robert [TUM-IAS and Physik Department, Technische Universität München,Munich (Germany)

    2014-01-22

    With the aim of linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics, a model is proposed based on a family symmetry G×U(1), where G is a discrete nonabelian subgroup of SU(2), with both F-term and (abelian) D-term supersymmetry breaking. A good fit to the fermion masses and mixing is obtained with the same U(1) charges for the left- and right- handed quarks of the first two families and the right-handed bottom quark, and with zero charge for the left-handed top-bottom doublet and the the right handed top. The model shows an interesting indirect correlation between the correct prediction for the V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} ratio and large right-handed rotations in the (s,b) sector, required to diagonalise the Yukawa matrix. For the squarks, one obtains almost degenerate first two generations. The main source of the FCNC and CP violation effects is the splitting between the first two families and the right-handed sbottom determined by the relative size of F-term and D-term supersymmetry breaking. The presence of the large right-handed rotation implies that the bounds on the masses of the first two families of squarks and the right handed sbottom are in a few to a few tens TeV range. The picture that emerges is light stops and left handed sbottom and much heavier other squarks.

  16. Flavour singlets in gauge theory as Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group $SO(N_f)$ in $U(N_c)$ gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at $N_f =6$, belong to the scalar sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. A simple formula is given for the two-point functions in the free field limit of $g_{YM}^2 =0$. The free two-point functions are shown to be equal to the partition function on a 2-complex with boundaries and a defect, in a topological field theory of permutations. The permutation equivalence classes are Fourier transformed to a representation basis which is orthogonal for the two-point functions at finite $N_c , N_f$. Counting formulae for the gauge-invariant operators are described. The one-loop mixing matrix is derived as a linear operator on the permutation equivalence classes.

  17. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  18. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  19. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.

  20. 干姜和炮姜挥发油中致香成分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS Analysis of Aroma Components in Volatile Oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis and Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢常珑

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To research the effects of processing on the aroma components in volatile oils of zingiber, and to provide references for the development and utilization of zingiber and its preparata in perfume industry.[Method] Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation method.The aroma components in volatile oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis and Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology.[Result] Components with relatively high content in volatile oils of Rhizoma Zingiberis were sabinene, camphene, eucalyptol, borneol, α-zingiberene, linalyl propionate, α-pinene and so on; while those of Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata were camphene , sabinene,α-curcumene, borneol, eucalyptol,α-pinene and so on.Two components of cymene and elemol were newly added.At the same time, relative contents of α-curcumene,α-pinene, camphene,α-bisabolene, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-ketone, tricyclene, eucalyptol, nerolidol and α-sesquiphellandrene increased significantly;while relative contents of α-zingiberene,α-phellandrene, eucalyptol, (E)-citral, (Z)-citral, linalyl propionate,α-terpilenol and geranyl acetate.[ Conclusion] After Rhizoma Zingiberis was processed into Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata by heat-ing, its physicochemical properties has certain changes, which leads to the differences in aroma components.%[目的]研究炮制对姜挥发油中致香成分的影响,为姜及其炮制品在香料行业的开发利用提供参考。[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,以气相色谱-质谱联用技术对干姜挥发油和炮姜挥发油致香成分进行分析。[结果]干姜挥发油中相对含量较高的组分依次是桧烯、莰烯、桉叶油醇、龙脑、α-姜烯、丙酸芳樟醇和α-蒎烯等,而炮姜挥发油中相对含量较高的组分依次是莰烯、桧烯、α-姜黄烯、龙脑、桉叶油醇和α-蒎烯等,新增加了对伞花烃和榄香醇2种成分,同时α-姜黄烯、α

  1. 固相微萃取-气质联用法对红子种子挥发性组分的测定%Determination of Volatile Components from Seeds of Pyracantha fortuneana by SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宏波; 陈青; 韦黄山

    2012-01-01

    Volatile components from seed of Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) Ii were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). 30 compounds in seed were identified, which were 91.98% of total volatile constitutes, such as dodecanoic acid (12.36%), (E,E)-2, 4-decadienal (8.87%), (Z,Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid(7.96%), nonanal(6.91%), hexanal (6.79%), 2-undecenal (5.20%) and so on.%采用固相微萃取法提取贵州红子[Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.)Li]种子中的挥发性组分,采用GC-MS进行分析.结果表明,从红子种子中共鉴定出30种化学组分,占挥发性组分的91.98%,包括月桂酸(12.36%)、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛(8.87%)、亚油酸(7.96%)、壬醛(6.91%)、己醛(6.79%)和2-十一烯醛(5.20%)等.

  2. A fast and simple method for quantitative determination of fat-derived medium and low-volatile compounds in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cheese flavour is a mixture of many (volatile) compounds, mostly formed during ripening. The current method was developed to qualify and quantify fat-derived compounds in cheese. Cheese samples were extracted with acetonitrile, which led to a concentrated solution of potential favour compounds, main

  3. Volatilization behavior of metals from silver-contained lead-antimony multi-component alloys by vacuum distillation%含银铅锑多元合金真空蒸馏的元素挥发行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 刘大春; 杨斌; 徐宝强; 戴永年; 周厚军

    2012-01-01

    以富集银为目的,采用真空蒸馏法研究含银铅锑多元合金在中真空(5~25Pa)的条件下蒸馏过程中各元素的挥发行为,考察蒸馏温度、蒸馏时间对各元素脱除率的影响.实验结果表明:在系统压力为5-25 Pa,蒸馏温度为950℃,蒸馏时间≥45 min的条件下,Pb和Bi脱除率接近100%; As和Sb的挥发较为彻底,其脱除率分别达到96.3%和92.5%以上,而Ag和Cu基本不挥发.残留物的XRD分析结果表明,残留物中Cu与Sb形成化合物Cu2Sb及Cu10Sb3,Ag与Sb生成Ag3Sb,As与Cu生成Cu5As2,使得Sb和As的挥发不够彻底.真空蒸馏法提供-种含银铅锑多元合金中Ag与贱金属分离的方法,使Ag能得到有效富集.%The volatilization behavior of metals from silver-contained lead-antimony multi-component alloys was investigated by vacuum distillation process for the enrichment of silveT under the condition of medium vacuum. The effects of distillation temperature, distillation time on metals' removal rate were examined- Experimental results demonstrate that the removal rate of Bi and Pb is close to 100% at 950 ℃ for more than 45 min when the system pressure is 5 to 25 Pa, and more than 96.3% As and 92.5% Sb are volatilized although the results are not very ideal. Ag and Cu are basically non-volatile under the same conditions. XRD analysis indicates that the residual copper, antimony, silver and arsenic are present in phases of Cu2Sb, Cu10Sb3, Ag3Sb and Cu5As2. This is the reason why antimony and arsenic can not be volatilized thoroughly. The vacuum distillation process provides a simple, clean and efficient way for the separation of silver and other metals which compose the lead anode slime with high antimony and low silver. And the silver enrichment is efficient by vacuum distillation.

  4. Behavioral responses of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) to volatiles from plants infested by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphidae) and analysis of volatile components%多异瓢虫对瓜蚜为害后植物挥发物的行为反应及挥发物成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 韩海斌; 闫锋

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the roles of volatiles from host plants in the process of Hippodamia variegata ( Goeze) searching for preys, the behavioral responses of the lady beetle adults to volatiles from Aphis gossypii Glover, intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants were observed with a Y-tube olfactometer. The results showed that the adults were significantly attracted to volatiles from high-density (≥700 individuals/L) aphids, aphid-plant complex, and aphid-infested Cucumis sativus plants (aphid density≥400 individuals/pot) and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa plants (aphid density ≥200 individuals/pot) , while not to volatiles from low-density ( ≤500 individuals/L) aphids and the intact plants. Dynamic headspace collection was used to extract volatiles from the intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants, respectively, and the extracted volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight, twelve and eighteen components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. sativus, respectively. The main components include 1-octadecene, [ E ]-5-eicosene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are p-xylene, 1, 2-dimethy-benzene, tridecane, 1-tetradecene, a-farnesene, cedrol, octadecane, hexacosane and other seven unknown components. Eleven, eighteen and twenty components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. pepo var. medullosa, respectively. The main components include a-caryophyllene, 1-octadecene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, a-pinene, tetradecane, longifolene, a-caryophyllene and other two unknown components. The results lay a necessary foundation for further research on the effective components to attract lady beetles.%为明确寄主植物挥发物在多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata

  5. Influence of water quality on the presence of off-flavour compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinet, Julien; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean

    2010-12-01

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are off-flavour compounds related to poor organoleptics and a decrease in consumer satisfaction with drinking water. The relationship between these off-flavour compounds and 39 parameters of water quality (chemical, physical and biological) for three different surface waters from lotic systems that supply potable water to Quebec City and Lévis (Canada) was studied using principal component analysis. The objective of this study was to show that a multidimensional approach with principal component analysis using the component matrix serves to differentiate the processes involved in the appearance of the olfactory compounds from those not involved or little involved and to extract the most representative data of these processes. Our study shows that the presence of geosmin can be explained, in the case of the water studied, by a process associated primarily with the eutrophication of water and, to a lesser degree, by an allochthonous origin. However, the presence of 2-methylisoborneol may be linked to two processes with different origins, but of equal importance: a winter origin - most likely allochthonous - involving anthropic contributions and an autochthonous bacterial origin.

  6. 天福号酱香鸡挥发性香成分的提取与分析%Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Aroma Components in Tianfuhao-Branded Sauce Fragrant Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓兰; 张宁; 綦艳梅; 陈海涛; 孙宝国

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the volatile aroma composition of Tianfuhao-branded Sauce fragrant chicken, volatile aroma components were isolated and identified by simultaneous distillation extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SDE- GC-MS). 84 and 72 volatile aromatic compounds were identified from the ethyl ether and dichloromethane extracts from Tianfuhao- branded Sauce fragrant chicken, respectively. Altogether, 85 flavor compounds were found in both extracts, including 10 hydrocarbons, 24 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 2 ethers, 2 phenols, 19 alcohols, 4 acids, 4 ester and 8 nitrogen-containing or sulfur- containing or heterocyclic compounds. The major volatile aroma components with relatively higher peak area (〉 1%) were hexanal, 1- methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene, hexadecanal, nonanal, eucalyptol, heptanal, 2-pentyl-furan, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, octanal, 1-octen- 3-ol, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, (S)-alpha, a/pha-4-trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol and 2,3- octanedione. Among these aroma components, aldehydes, ethers and nitrogen-containing and sulfur-containing and heterocyclic compounds were considered as the major flavor components in Tianfuhao Sauce fragrant chicken.%为探究北京传统肉制品——天福号酱香鸡的挥发性风味成分,采用同时蒸馏萃取法对酱香鸡的香成分进行提取,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对香成分进行分离鉴定。结果表明:以乙醚作溶剂共鉴定出84种风味化合物,以二氯甲烷作溶剂共鉴定出72种风味化合物,两者共计鉴定出85种风味化合物,可分为9类,即烃类10种、醛类24种、酮类12种、醚类2种、酚类2种、醇类19种、酸类4种、酯类4种、含氮含硫及杂环化合物8种;含量较高(峰面积大于1%)的化合物有己醛、茴香脑、棕榈醛、壬醛、桉叶油醇、庚醛、2-正戊基呋喃、(反,反)-2,4-癸二烯醛、正辛醛、1-辛烯-3-醇、反-2-

  7. Invariants and flavour in the general Two Higgs Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botella, F.J., E-mail: fbotella@uv.es [Departament de Física Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C., E-mail: gustavo.branco@cern.ch [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rebelo, M.N., E-mail: margarida.rebelo@cern.ch [Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-05-13

    The flavour structure of the general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) is analysed and a detailed study of the parameter space is presented, showing that flavour mixing in the 2HDM can be parametrized by various unitary matrices which arise from the misalignment in flavour space between pairs of various Hermitian flavour matrices which can be constructed within the model. This is entirely analogous to the generation of the CKM matrix in the Standard Model (SM). We construct weak basis invariants which can give insight into the physical implications of any flavour model, written in an arbitrary weak basis (WB) in the context of 2HDM. We apply this technique to two special cases, models with MFV and models with NNI structures. In both cases non-trivial CP-odd WB invariants arise in a mass power order much smaller than what one encounters in the SM, which can have important implications for baryogenesis in the framework of the general 2HDM.

  8. STUDY ON THE OPTIMAL CONDITIONS OF ANALYZING VOLATILE COMPONENTS IN JAPONICA RICE%粳稻挥发性成分测定条件的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 张婷筠; 张明

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components in japonica rice were analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrosocpy(GC-MS) The conditions of extrac- tion including extraction temperature, extraction time, equilibration time, sample amount, desorption time and carrier gas flow rate were optimized. Extraction characteristics of three solid phase micro—extraction fibers--100?m PDMS, 50?m DVB/CAR/PDMS and 75?m CAR/PDMS were compared. The results indicated that the optimal conditions of analyzing volatile components in japonica rice are that selecting 50?m DVB/CAR/'PDMS solid phase micro-extraction fibers, sample amount of 20g, extraction temperature of 80, extraction time of 60min, equilibration time of 45min, desorption time of 5min and carrier gas flow rate of 60 mL/min.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)-气质(GC-MS)联用法对粳稻挥发性成分进行分析,优化萃取温度、萃取时间、平衡时间、样品量、解析时间和载气流量等萃取条件,用100 μm PDMS、50μm DVB/CAR/PDMS和75μm CAR/PDMS 3种固相微萃取头进行萃取效果的比较.结果表明:测定粳稻谷挥发性成分的最优条件为选用50 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS固相微萃取头、样品量20 g、萃取温度80℃、平衡时间60 min、萃取时间45min、解析时间5 min、载气流速60 mL/min.

  9. Relationship Between Quantitative Structure and Chromatographic Retention Time of Volatile Component from Styrax japonicus Sieb%野茉莉花香气成分的定量构效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦正龙; 陈茂繁

    2013-01-01

    计算了从野茉莉花中分离出的37种香气成分的两类分子拓扑指数(m Xt v、En ),采用最佳子集回归方法建立这些拓扑指数与37种香气成分色谱保留时间(RT)的定量构效关系模型。该模型的相关系数(R2)为0.951,逐一剔除法交叉验证系数(R2cv )为0.920。通过 R2、F、R2Adj、R2cv、VIF、FIT 等检验,上述模型具有令人满意的稳健性和预测能力。%Based on the molecular topological theory,the electrotopological state index (En )and Kiers molecular valence connectivity index (m Xt V )of 37 volatile components from Styrax japonicus Sieb were calcu-lated.A six-variable model of the quantitative structure-retention relationship between En ,m Xt V and gas chrom-atographic retention time (RT)of volatile components from Styrax japonicus Sieb was established by Leaps-and-Bounds regression (LBR).Multiple correlation coefficient (R2 )and cross-validation correlation coeffi-cient (R2cv )of leave-one-out(LOO)were 0.951 and 0.920 respectively.The QSRR models have both favora-ble estimation stability and good prediction capability by R2 ,F,R2Adj ,R2cv ,VIF,FIT tests.

  10. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  11. Volatile Components of Essential Oil from Mulberry Variety “Longsang 1” Leaves%龙桑一号桑叶精油的挥发性组分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 王海英; 刘姗姗; 蒋乃翔

    2011-01-01

    The mulberry variety “Longsang 1” (Morus alba) was cultivated in Gannan Forest Mulberry Industry Science and Technology Demonstration Field of the Qiqihar City in Heilongjiang Province in Northeastern China.In July,August and September of 2009,the leaves of “Longsang 1” were collected,then the volatile components of the essential oils in the leaves were hydrodistillated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that phytol (alcohols),hexahydrofamesyl acetone (ketones),heptacosane,and pentacosane (hydrocarbons) were the common volatile components of the essential oil.Hexadecanoic acid was dominant in the essential oil from leaves collected in July and August.(E) -β-farnesene,(Z) -β-famesene,β-bisabolene,trans-α-bergamotene and α-curcumene were the main volatile flavor compounds in the essential oil from leaves collected in September.Air-dried mulberry leaves collected in September has relatively high medicinal value due to their higher content of terpenoids in the essential oil.%桑品种龙桑一号(Morus alba)栽培于中国东北黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市甘南林场桑产业科技示范园.2009年7月、8月和9月的桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油中的挥发性组分经水蒸馏提取后进行了气相色谱-质谱(GCMS)分析.结果表明桑叶精油的共有组分是植醇(醇类化合物)、六氢金合欢丙酮(酮类化合物)、二十七烷和二十五烷(烃类化合物).棕榈酸为7月和8月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的共有第一主成分.顺式-β-金合欢烯、反式-β-金合欢烯、β-甜没药烯、反式-α-佛手柑油烯和α-姜黄烯是9月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的主要芳香组分.萜类化合物相对含量较高的9月份采集的干桑叶精油具有药用价值.

  12. The Deep Mantle Volatile Cycle Revealed in Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michael; Thomson, Andrew; Frost, Jennifer; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Diamonds crystallize in the mantle primarily as a consequence of fluid or melt metasomatism. In doing so they sample the fluid-melt-solid equilibria directly by incorporation of carbon and its isotopic flavours, and by entrapping other phases as they grow. Superdeep diamonds from the transition zone and lower mantle provide evidence for crystallization from melts derived from subducted materials [1, 2]. The presence of deeply subducted volatile components such as carbon and water are important because they lower the solidus of subducted materials. The source of carbon may ultimately be via deposition of biogenic or abiogenic carbon in subducted crust, and water may become available via dehydration of high-pressure hydrous phases in the slab (e.g. superhydrous B, Phase D) [3]. Foundering of slabs around 700 km due to density inversion and thermalization with surrounding mantle leads to the generation of low-degree, volatile-charged melts. Melts from subducted oceanic crust may be carbonated, and diamond crystallization occurs as a consequence of 'redox freezing' when the oxidized slab melts react with reducing mantle rocks [4]. Reaction of slab melts with mantle peridotite may precipitate phases such as Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite, majorite and ferropericlase. Here we will survey evidence from the chemistry of superdeep mineral inclusions for a record of this deep mantle reactive transport process, and speculate on the role of deep mantle volatiles. 1. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 2. Walter, M.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 454: p. 622-U30. 3. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 4. Rohrbach, A. and M.W. Schmidt, Nature, 2011. 472: p. 209-212.

  13. Use of dietary rosemary diterpenes to inhibit rancid volatiles in lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, J; Serrano, R; Bañón, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of dietary rosemary diterpenes on the formation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for rancid flavour in raw lamb meat. The lamb diet was supplemented during the fattening stage with two levels (200 and 400 mg/kg feed) of a dietary rosemary extract (DRE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (1 : 1, w/w). The formation of VOCs (determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 40°C and MS) and odour deterioration (assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis) were monitored in meat fillets (longissimus dorsi-lumborum muscle) packed in a 70/30 O2/CO2 protective atmosphere and kept at 2°C for up to 14 days. The raw meat odour deteriorated under pro-oxidizing conditions due to the development of an incipient rancidity caused by the formation of volatiles from lipid oxidation. A total of 46 volatile compounds were determined in lamb headspace: 18 aldehydes, seven alcohols, seven organic acids, six ketones, four furan compounds, two benzene compounds, one ester and one terpenoid. The use of DRE contributed to inhibit VOC formation and rancidity. Heptanal, octanal, nonanal and 2-pentyl-furan were the only VOCs affected (P0.75; Plamb meat. Principal component analysis confirmed that the differences in the VOC profile make it possible to identify whether or not samples have been reinforced with dietary rosemary diterpenes. Thus, VOC profiling can be regarded as a useful tool for assessing the dietary treatments used in sheep to improve the oxidative stability of lamb meat.

  14. 浙贝母花挥发油的气相色谱-飞行时间质谱分析%Analysis of volatile components of flowers of Fritillaria thunbergii by GC-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁君玲; 曹小吉; 李建伟; 任红星; 吴世华

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To determine the structures and contents of the volatile components of flowers of Fritillaria thunbergii, and investigate the effects of operation modes on its volatile components. Method: The volatile oils were first obtained by the hydrodis-tillation assay and then submitted to gas chromatography-time-of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. Result: More than 60 peaks were resolved, and 39 of which were identified quantitatively and qualitatively based on high-resolution spectra and compounds library screening. Among these identified components, the octadecatrienoic acid methyl esters were major components in the unprocessed flowers, while some aromatic aldehydes and ketones, such as benzeneacetaldehyde and l-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-etha-none, were prominent components in the flowers both dried in the fluidized bed and in shadow. In addition, the flowers dried in the flu-idized bed were more fragrant than other flowers. Conclusion: The component and contents closely related to their processing mode, and the fluided bed drying may be a best choice to process the flowers of F. thunbergii.%目的:揭示浙贝母花中挥发性成分的组成和含量,以及不同处理方式对其组分的影响,为浙贝母花的资源开发提供依据.方法:浙贝母花样品经水蒸汽蒸馏得挥发油,并用气相色谱-飞行时间质谱法进行分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发性化学成分的相对含量.结果:在分离到的60种组分中,共鉴定出38种挥发性成分,其中,新鲜浙贝母花中主要的挥发性成分为十八烯酸甲酯类物质,而经流化床或阴干处理后,浙贝母花的芳香醛酮类物质增加,尤以流化床干燥后的浙贝母花,其中的香味成分含量变化最为显著.结论:浙贝母花中挥发性成分的组成和含量与其处理方式密切相关,其中流化床干燥处理的方法增加了其香味成分的比例,因此,可以作为浙贝母花产品加工的一种优选方式.

  15. Chemical analysis of turmeric from Minas Gerais, Brazil and comparison of methods for flavour free oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyleni R. A. Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa L cultivated in eight different cities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil was carried out. The levels of curcuminoid pigments varied from 1.4 to 6.14 g/100 g and of volatile oil from 0.97 to 7.55 mL/100 g (dry basis. Samples from Patrocínio, Arinos and Brasilândia contained higher pigment levels compared to the others. The sample from Patrocínio contained the highest volatile oil content. The mean levels of ethyl ether extract, protein, fiber, ash and starch were 8.51, 7.01, 7.22, 7.81 and 39.87 g/100 g dry basis, respectively. Laboratory extraction of flavour free oleoresin was performed in triplicate. A higher yield of pigment in the oleoresin was obtained when the volatile oil was extracted with water vapor and the oleoresin with ethanol. The oleoresin obtained was free of flavour and could be used in a wider range of food applications.Análise química de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L provenientes de oito municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil foi efetuada. Os teores (base seca de pigmentos curcuminóides variaram de 1,4 a 6,14 g/100 g e os de óleo volátil, de 0,97 a 7,55 mL/100 g. Amostras de Patrocínio, Arinos e Brasilândia continham os maiores teores de pigmentos e as de Patrocínio os maiores teores de óleos voláteis. Os teores médios (base seca de extrato etéreo, proteínas, fibras, cinzas e amido encontrados foram 8,51; 7,01; 7,22; 7,81 e 39,87 g/100 g, respectivamente. Com o objetivo de obter corante amarelo isento de flavor, métodos de extração em laboratório foram comparados em triplicata. Um maior rendimento de pigmento na oleoresina foi obtido extraindo-se o óleo volátil com vapor d'água e a oleoresina com etanol. A oleoresina obtida é isenta de flavor e pode ser utilizada em um número maior de aplicações na indústria alimentícia

  16. The neutron EDM vs up and charm flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Sala, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We derive a strong bound on the chromo-electric dipole moment of the charm quark, and we quantify its impact on models that allow for a sizeable flavour violation in the up quark sector. In particular we show how the constraints coming from the charm and up CEDMs limit the size of new physics contributions to direct flavour violation in D meson decays. We also specialize our analysis to the cases of split-families Supersymmetry and composite Higgs models. The results we expose motivate an increase in experimental sensitivity to fundamental hadronic dipoles, and a further exploration of the SM contribution to both flavour violating D decays and nuclear electric dipole moments.

  17. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Olive, Keith A. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Velasco-Sevilla, L. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics and Technology, PO Box 7803, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m{sub 0} specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m{sub 1/2} and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m{sub 0} may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity. (orig.)

  18. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.

  19. Controlled flavour changing neutral couplings in two Higgs Doublet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joao M.; Botella, Francisco J.; Branco, Gustavo C.; Cornet-Gomez, Fernando; Nebot, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    We propose a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree level, but under control due to the introduction of a discrete symmetry in the full Lagrangian. It is shown that in this class of models, one can have simultaneously FCNC in the up and down sectors, in contrast to the situation encountered in the renormalisable and minimal flavour violating 2HDM models put forward by Branco et al. (Phys Lett B 380:119, 1996). The intensity of FCNC is analysed and it is shown that in this class of models one can respect all the strong constraints from experiment without unnatural fine-tuning. It is pointed out that the additional sources of flavour and CP violation are such that they can enhance significantly the generation of the Bbaryon asymmetry of the Universe, with respect to the standard model.

  20. Inclusive tagging of B-flavour at LHCb [Vidyo

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important procedure needed for the study of CP violation in Beauty sector is the tagging of the flavour of neutral B-mesons at production. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present a proposal to upgrade current flavour tagging strategy in LHCb experiment. This strategy consists of inclusive tagging ensemble methods (i.e: the use inclusive information about the event without a firm selection rule), which are combined using a probabilistic model for each event. The probabilistic model uses all reconstructed tracks and secondary vertices to obtain well-determined probability of B flavour at production. Such approach reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus has the potential to increase the overall performance.

  1. Heavy flavour measurements with ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)

  2. Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hondt, Jorgen; Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Onsem, Gerrit Van [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); DESY,Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-03-10

    We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.

  3. Flavoured quantum Boltzmann equations from cQPA

    CERN Document Server

    Fidler, Christian; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Rahkila, Pyry Matti

    2011-01-01

    We develop a Boltzmann-type quantum transport theory for interacting fermion and scalar fields including both flavour and particle-antiparticle mixing. Our formalism is based on the coherent quasiparticle approximation (cQPA) for the 2-point correlation functions, whose extended phase-space structure contains new spectral shells for flavour- and particle-antiparticle coherence. We derive explicit cQPA propagators and Feynman rules for the transport theory. In particular the nontrivial Wightman functions can be written as composite operators $\\sim {\\cal A} F {\\cal A}$, which generalize the usual Kadanoff-Baym ansatz. Our numerical results show that particle-antiparticle coherence can strongly influence CP-violating flavour mixing even for relatively slowly-varying backgrounds. Thus, unlike recently suggested, these correlations cannot be neglected when studying asymmetry generation due to time-varying mass transition, for example in electroweak-type baryogenesis models. Finally, we show that the cQPA coherence...

  4. Universal Constraints on Low-Energy Flavour Models

    CERN Document Server

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Pokorski, Stefan; Ziegler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    It is pointed out that in a general class of flavour models one can identify certain universally present FCNC operators, induced by the exchange of heavy flavour messengers. Their coefficients depend on the rotation angles that connect flavour and fermion mass basis. The lower bounds on the messenger scale are derived using updated experimental constraints on the FCNC operators. The obtained bounds are different for different operators and in addition they depend on the chosen set of rotations. Given the sensitivity expected in the forthcoming experiments, the present analysis suggests interesting room for discovering new physics. As the highlights emerge the leptonic processes, $\\mu\\rightarrow e\\gamma$, $\\mu\\rightarrow eee$ and $\\mu\\rightarrow e$ conversion in nuclei.

  5. Lepton Mixing Predictions from (Generalised) CP and Discrete Flavour Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Neder, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    An important class of flavour groups, that are subgroups of $U(3)$ and that predict experimentally viable lepton mixing parameters including Majorana phases, is the $\\Delta(6n^2)$ series. The most well-known member is $\\Delta(24)=S_4$. I present results of several extensive studies of lepton mixing predictions obtained in models with a $\\Delta(6n^2)$ flavour group that preserve either the full residual $Z_2\\times Z_2$ or a $Z_2$ subgroup for neutrinos and can include a generalised CP symmetry. Predictions include mixing angles and Dirac CP phase generally; and if invariance under a generalised CP symmetry is included, also Majorana phases. For this, the interplay of flavour group and generalised CP symmetry has to be studied carefully.

  6. Fermion masses and mixing in $\\Delta(27)$ flavour model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) based on the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$ is considered. The $\\Delta(27)$ flavour symmetry is spontaneously broken only by gauge singlet scalar fields, therefore our model is free from any flavour changing neural current. We show that the model accounts simultaneously for the observed quark and lepton masses and their mixing. In the quark sector, we find that the up quark mass matrix is flavour diagonal and the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix arises from down quarks. In the lepton sector, we show that the charged lepton mass matrix is almost diagonal. We also adopt type-I seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses. A deviated mixing matrix from tri-bimaximal Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (MNS), with $\\sin\\theta_{13} \\sim 0.13$ and $\\sin^2 \\theta_{23} \\sim 0.41$, is naturally produced.

  7. Neutrino Mixings and the S4 Discrete Flavour Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzocchi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    Discrete non-Abelian Symmetries have been extensively used to reproduce the lepton mixings. In particular, the S4 group turned out to be suitable to describe predictive mixing patterns, such as the well-known Tri-Bimaximal and the Bimaximal schemes, which all represent possible first approximations of the experimental lepton mixing matrix. We review the main application of the S4 discrete group as a flavour symmetry, first dealing with the formalism and later with the phenomenological implications. In particular, we summarize the main features of flavour models based on S4, commenting on their ability in reproducing a reactor angle in agreement with the recent data and on their predictions for lepton flavour violating transitions.

  8. Production of volatile aroma compounds by bacterial strains isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetae, Pawinee; Bonnarme, Pascal; Spinnler, Henry E; Helinck, Sandra

    2007-10-01

    Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified using dynamic headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) appeared to be produced by the different bacteria on a casamino acid medium. Four out of eight species used in this study: B. linens, M. foliorum, P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showed a high flavouring potential. Among these four bacterial species, P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest varieties but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds having low olfactive thresholds such as sulphur compounds. Branched aldehydes, alcohols and esters were produced in large amounts by P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showing their capacity to breakdown the branched amino acids. This investigation shows that some common but rarely mentioned bacteria present on the surface of ripened cheeses could play a major role in cheese flavour formation and could be used to produce cheese flavours.

  9. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, S.L.

    2008-01-07

    We address to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in a framework that generalizes the quark minimal flavour violation hypothesis to the lepton sector. We study the impact of CP violation present at low and high energies and investigate the existence of correlations among leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation. Further we present an approach alternative to minimal flavour violation where the suppression of flavour changing transitions involving quarks and leptons is governed by hierarchical fermion wave functions. (orig.)

  10. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements in $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production ("Flavour Tagging") is fundamental. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. The performances of the flavour tagging algorithms on the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  11. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements of $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production is fundamental. This is known as "flavour tagging" and at LHCb it is performed with several algorithms. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. Also the performances of the flavour tagging algorithms in the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  12. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GC/MS法结合保留指数分析橙叶油中挥发性成分%Analysis of volatile components in petitgrain oil by GC/MS combined with retention index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源栋; 刘秀明; 党立志; 蒋举兴; 王文元; 冒德寿; 段焰青

    2016-01-01

    The volatile components of petitgrain oil were analyzed by GC/MS, and the peak area normalization meth-od was used to calculate the relative content of each component. With the mass spectrometry library search, 56 com-pounds which accounted for 97. 471% in the volatile components of petitgrain oil, were confirmed using retention in-dex comparison. Linalyl acetate ( 30. 685%) , linalool ( 22. 166%) , alpha-terpineol ( 9. 040%) , geranyl acetate (5. 696%), myrcene(3. 716%), neryl acetate(3. 573%), limonene(3. 263%), beta-pinene(2. 943%), nerol (2. 314%), (E)-beta-ocimene(1. 941%), beta-caryophyllene(1. 851%), gamma-terpineol(1. 557%), alpha-pi-nene,(1. 332%), (Z)-beta-ocimene(1. 300%) were the main components. The cis(trans)-isomers were confirmed by retention index, and the accuracy of compound qualitative analysis in natural flavor was improved. These results provided the technical support for the development and application of petitgrain oil.%利用GC/MS联用技术,对橙叶油挥发性成分进行分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量。通过质谱库检索,辅助保留指数比对,共分析并确定出橙叶油中的56种成分,占橙叶油挥发性成分的97.471%。主要成分为乙酸芳樟酯(30.685%)、芳樟醇(22.166%)、α-松油醇(9.040%)、乙酸香叶酯(5.696%)、月桂烯(3.716%)、乙酸橙花酯(3.573%)、柠檬烯(3.263%)、β-蒎烯(2.943%)、橙花醇(2.314%)、(E)-β-罗勒烯(1.941%)、β-石竹烯(1.851%)、γ-松油醇(1.557%)、α-蒎烯(1.332%)、(Z)-β-罗勒烯(1.300%)。通过保留指数来鉴别顺反同分异构体,提高了天然香原料中化合物定性的准确性。上述研究结果可为橙叶油产品开发、应用提供参考。

  14. Analysis of volatile components in mosquito.repellent sticks by headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry%顶空气相色谱质谱法分析避蚊贴中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昕荣; 区雪连; 马瑜璐; 朱斌

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用技术分析鉴定了4种避蚊贴中的挥发性物质.样品经90℃、45 min顶空后,采用GC-MS进行定性分析.用面积归一化法得出各组分的相对含量.结果表明:经NIST质谱数据库检索和文献对照,样品Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别检出并确定了33、39、39和24种成分.样品Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ主要成分分别为桉树醇(相对含量39.61%)、蒎烷(相对含量32.61%)、柠檬烯(相对含量34.40%)和为香茅醛(相对含量41.31%),其他成分主要为烯、醇、酮、醚等.%The volatile components of four mosquito-repellent sticks were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS). Samples were extracted at 90℃ for 45 min by headspace and separated by VOC capillary column, then were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After normalization of peak areas, the relative contents of the identified compounds were obtained. The results showed that the samples Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ and Ⅳ were detected and the components 33、39、39 and 24 were identified by comparing their mass spectra with those contained in the NIST mass spectrometry library and in some references literatures. The largest quantities of compounds of the samples Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ and Ⅳ were eucalyptol ( relative content of 39.61% ) 、pinane ( relative content of 32.61% ) 、 limonene ( relative content of 34.40% ) and citronellal (relative content of 41.31%), respectively. In addition, other components were mainly alkene 、alcohol 、ketones and ether. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the analysis of volatile flavor components in mosquito-repellent sticks.

  15. Event displays with heavy flavour jets from 2016 CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A broad range of physics analyses at CMS rely on the efficient identification of heavy flavour jets. Identification of these objects is a challenging task, especially in the presence of a large number of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The presented summary contains a set of graphical displays of reconstructed events in data collected by CMS in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in 2016. The displays highlight the main properties of heavy flavour jets in several event topologies, including QCD multijet, top quark pair, W+c and boosted H to bb.

  16. Impact of squark flavour violation on neutralino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Bjoern [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Univ. Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2011-06-15

    We discuss the possibility of new sources of flavour violation in the squark sector of supersymmetric models in the context of the dark matter relic density. We show that the corresponding non-minimal flavour violation terms in the squark mass matrices can have an important impact on the thermally averaged (co)annihilation cross section of the neutralino, and in consequence can modify its predicted relic density. We discuss in detail the relevant effects and present a numerical study of neutralino annihilation and coannihilation in this context. We also comment on the LHC phenomenology of the corresponding scenarios. (orig.)

  17. Heavy-flavour production in hot quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mischke, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Recent results from RHIC and first measurements from the ALICE experiment at the CERN-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on open heavy-flavour are presented. We focus on RHIC measurements of single electrons and jet-like heavy-flavour particle correlations. First D meson signals from 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in ALICE are discussed. Next-to-leading-order QCD processes, such as gluon splitting, become important at LHC energies and its contribution can be accesses by the measurement of the "charm content in jets".

  18. Pulsars: Macro-nuclei with 3-flavour symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Renxin

    2015-01-01

    A pulsar-like compact star is the rump left behind after a supernova where normal baryonic matter is intensely compressed by gravity, but the real state of such compressed baryonic matter is still not well understood because of the non-perturbative nature of the fundamental color interaction. We argue that pulsars could be of condensed matter of quark clusters, i.e., "quark-cluster stars" which distinguish from conventional neutron and quark stars. In comparison with 2-flavour symmetric micro-nuclei, a quark-cluster star could simply be considered as a macro-nucleus with 3-flavour symmetry. New research achievements both theoretical and observational are briefly presented.

  19. Heavy-flavour and quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of heavy-flavour hadron production in proton-proton, proton-Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC offers the opportunity to investigate the properties of the high-density colour-deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter (Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP that is expected to be formed in high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei. A review of the main quarkonium and open heavy-flavour results obtained by the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments is presented.

  20. Impact of squark flavour violation on neutralino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Björn; Boulc'h, Quentin Le

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of new sources of flavour violation in the squark sector of supersymmetric models in the context of the dark matter relic density. We show that the corresponding non-minimal flavour violation terms in the squark mass matrices can have an important impact on the thermally averaged (co)annihilation cross section of the neutralino, and in consequence can modify its predicted relic density. We discuss in detail the relevant effects and present a numerical study of neutralino annihilation and coannihilation in this context. We also comment on the LHC phenomenology of the corresponding scenarios.

  1. Theory of electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Electric dipole moments and charged-lepton flavour-violating processes are extremely sensitive probes for new physics, complementary to direct searches as well as flavour-changing processes in the quark sector. Beyond the "smoking-gun" feature of a potential significant measurement, however, it is crucial to understand their implications for new physics models quantitatively. The corresponding multi-scale problem of relating the existing high-precision measurements to fundamental parameters can be approached model-independently to a large extent; however, care must be taken to include the uncertainties from especially nuclear and QCD calculations properly.

  2. Jagiellonian University Heavy flavour highlights from the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00640989

    2017-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the flavour anomalies observed by the LHCb experiment. All results are based on the dataset collected during the full LHC Run 1 by the LHCb Collaboration. Measurements of branching fractions of several $b \\rightarrow sll$ decays are presented together with the angular analysis of $B^{0} \\rightarrow K∗ \\mu^{+}\\mu^{−}$ decays and the lepton flavour universality tests R(K) and R(D∗). In addition, a direct search for a new light scalar particle in the $B^{+} \\rightarrow K^{+}\\chi$ decay, with $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$, is presented.

  3. Novel tomato flavours introduced by plastidial terpenoid pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Beat; Niederberger, Peter; Pétiard, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Until recently breeding efforts centred on high-yield production while sacrificing flavour and taste quality traits of mass produced food products, such as tomatoes. The recent publication of Davidovich-Rikanati et al. demonstrates the technical feasibility of the genetical engineering of pathways in tomato plants to modify their fruit flavour profile in a proof-of-concept approach. The reported work ranks among an increasing number of reported successful modifications of edible plants with a focus on the benefits to end-consumers.

  4. Gauge Invariants and Correlators in Flavoured Quiver Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Mattioli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.

  5. 不同品种百合花挥发性成分定性与定量分析%Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Floral Volatile Components from Different Varieties of Lilium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉秀; 胡增辉; 冷平生; 王文和; 徐芳; 赵静

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同品种百合(Lilium spp.)花挥发物的组成成分与释放量,寻找百合关键致香成分.[方法]采用活体植株动态顶空套袋-吸附采集法与ATD-GC/MS(自动热脱附-气质联用)分析技术,对4个杂种系7个品种百合花的挥发性成分进行定性与定量分析.[结果]试验共检测出64种化合物,属淡香型的亚洲百合和LA百合杂种系的3个品种含有39种,属浓香型的东方百合和麝香百合杂种系的4个品种含有54种.不同香型百合花的挥发性成分存在显著差异,亚洲百合和LA百合杂种系烷烃类化合物释放量较高,主要成分为2-乙基-1-己醇、乙苯、邻二甲苯、2,2,4,6,6-五甲基庚烷、5-乙基-2,2,3-三甲基庚烷、3-甲基十一烷和2,2,6-三甲基癸烷.东方百合和麝香百合杂种系萜烯类释放量最高,β-月桂烯、罗勒烯、芳樟醇、2-乙基-1-己醇为其主要成分.[结论]3个淡香型百合品种中没有检测到萜烯类化合物和苯甲酸甲酯,而4个浓香型百合品种中萜烯类释放量最高,主要为β-罗勒烯和芳樟醇,可初步确定这两种化合物为百合花致香的关键成分.%[Objective] The aim of this experiment was to analyze the floral volatile composition and emission,and find out the key aroma components of Lilium spp.[Method] Dynamic headspace collection and ATD-GC/MS (Auto Thermal Desorber-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the floral volatile components of seven varieties of Lilium spp.from four lily hybrids.[Result] A total of 64 floral volatile compounds were identified from Lilium spp,39 compounds were identified from 3 varieties of Asiatic hybrids and Longiflorum×Asiatic hybrids with weak fragrance,54 compounds from 4 varieties of Oriental hybrids and Longiflorum hybrids with strong fragrance.The results showed that the floral volatile components were significantly different among lily hybrids.The amount of hydrocarbons

  6. Volatile Components of Two Main Kinds of Edible Gingers in Yunnan Province%2种云南主要食用姜的挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 谢文申; 江明

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To analyze the chemical components of two main kinds of edible gingers in Yunnan Province.[Method] Chemical compo-nents of volatile oil from two types of Zingiber officinale Rosc ( White Ginger and Luoping Ginger) were researched by GC/MS method.[ Result] A total of 56 components were detected in the volatile oil of white ginger;and 50 components were identified.The main chemical components wereβ-phelandrene(14.800%), 2-nonanone(12.648%), camphene(12.349%), citral(6.342%), borneol(5.357%), limonene(6.342%), citronellol(2.895%),β-bisabolene(2.842%)and so on.As for Luoping Ginger, 67 components were detected in the volatile oil;and 60 compo-nents were identified.The main chemical components wereβ-phelandrene(10.832%), camphene(8.317%), citral(8.301%), ethyl trans-cine-matic(6.799%), 1,8-cineole(5.795%), borneol(5.357%), limonene(4.643%),geraniol(3.650%),alloaromadendrene(2.940%), citron-ellyl acetate(2.675%) and so on.[Conclusion] Comparison of the volatile oils from two kinds of Z.officinale showes that their characteristic fra-grance components are all most the same, and fragrance of Luoping Ginger is more abundance and gentleness.%[目的]分析云南地区2种主要食用姜的化学成分,比较2种姜品质的差异。[方法]采用GC/MS的方法对云南农贸市场上的2种食用姜挥发油化学成分进行研究,一种是市场上的普通白姜,简称“姜”,一种是罗平的小黄姜,简称“罗平姜”。[结果]姜挥发油中检测出56个成分,鉴定了50个成分,主要化学成分是β-水芹烯(14.800%)、2-十一烷酮(12.648%)、莰烯(12.349%)、香叶醛(8.361%)、龙脑(6.985%)、柠檬烯(6.342%)、香茅醇(2.895%)、β-红没药烯(2.842%)、α-蒎烯(2.824%)、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮(2.598%)等。罗平姜挥发油中检测出67个成分,鉴定了60个成分,主要化学成分是β-水芹烯(10

  7. Effect of Antioxidants on Volatile Flavor Components in Sichuan Traditional Bacon during Chilling Storage%抗氧化剂对川式腊肉低温冷藏中挥发性风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范代超; 易倩; 刘洋; 周才琼

    2012-01-01

    了解低温贮藏与川式腊肉风味品质的关系以指导合理贮藏。采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用法分析抗氧化剂对川式腊肉低温贮藏中挥发性风味物质的影响。结果显示,处理A(直接真空包装)、处理B(添加0.4g/kg茶多酚后真空包装)、处理C(添加0.5g/kg异抗坏血酸钠后真空包装)的腊肉挥发性成分从原料的67种分别变化至贮藏结束(120d)时的75、64、63种;处理A、B、C的酚类、碳氢化合物及羰基化合物种类从初始的56种分别变化至结束时的55、45、44种,相对含量从初始的69.44%分别变化至结束时的59.30%、60.51%、61.87%;主体风味物质酚类相对含量从初始的34.43%分别降至结束时的24.26%、28.06%、33.41%;处理B、C的苯酚、愈创木酚、5-甲基愈创木酚、壬醛、乙酰呋喃、3-呋喃甲醇和苯甲醛相对含量高于处理A。表明添加抗氧化剂可减缓腊肉特征风味物质在冷藏中下降的趋势。%SDE-CJC/MS was used to explore the effect of antioxidants on volatile flavor components of Sichuan traditional bacon during chilling storage at 5 ℃. The results showed that freshly prepared Sichuan traditional bacon contained 67 volatile components; the number of volatile components varied to 75, 64 and 63 after 120 d of storage with treatments A (vacuum packaging), B (addition of 0.4 gag tea polyphenols and then vacuum packaging) and C (addition of 0.5 g/kg sodium D-isoascorbate and then vacuum packaging), respectively. The number of phenols, hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds changed from 56 to 55, 45 and 44 with a relative content change from 69.44% to 59.30%, 60.51% and 61.87%, respectively. The relative content of phenols as the major flavor components changed from 34.43% to 24.26%, 28.06% and 33.41%, respectively. The relative contents of phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy, 2-methoxy-5-methylphenol, nonanal, acetyl furan, 3-furanmethanol and benzaldehyde after B

  8. Qualitative analysis of volatile components in different parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza by HS- SPME-GC/MS%GC-MS分析丹参不同部位中的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈康健; 王喆之

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱法(HS-SPME/GC-MS)分析了栽培丹参干燥花、茎、叶、根的挥发性成分.结果表明,在丹参4个不同部位中,挥发性成分以倍半萜为主,其次含有芳香族和脂肪族化合物.倍半萜类化合物中,β-石竹烯(.beta.-Caryophyllene)含量较高,丹参花中含36.16%,茎22.22%、叶5.41%;另一种倍半萜大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D),丹参花中含8.00%,茎9.69%、叶16.76%;波旁烯(Bourbonene)丹参花中含4.25%,茎4.61%、叶13.05%,丹参根不合这3种挥发性成分.经过分析丹参干燥花中BCP及其异构体、含氧化合物占挥发性成分相对含量的53.25%,茎18.84%,叶13.05%,其特性和药理活性对丹参的药用部位的开发利用具有一定的价值.%The volatile components in dry flower, leave, root and stem of Salvia mittiorrhiza were identified by the head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results shown that the main volatile component was sesquiterpene in all of the four different parts, while following was aromatic and aliphatic compounds. In the sesquiterpene compounds, the content of β-caryophyllene ( Beta-caryophyllene, BCP) was higher, and the ratio was 36.16% in flower, 22. 22% in stem, and 5. 41% in leaf, respectively; another sesquiterpene, germacrene D, was 4. 25%, 4. 61%, and 13.05% in each part; and the percentage of bourbonene was 4. 25%, 4. 61%, 13. 05%.However, all the three sesquiterpene components were not detected from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Based on the analysis, the relative content of BCP, its isomers and oxidized derivatives in the volatile components was 53.25% from Saluia miltiorrhiza dried flowers,18. 84% from stems. 13.05% from leaves. The distribution characteristics and pharmacological activities of BCP compounds have a certain practical value for development and utilization the part used for medical purpose from

  9. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化及其挥发性成分分析%Optimization of Technology for Salty Baked Capsicum Powder Making and Analysis of Volatile Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 张晓; 邓后勤

    2012-01-01

    作者研究了焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺与香气特征,以野山椒为材料,通过正交试验方法确定焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺,采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱—质谱联用技术,分析灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒和野山椒四种焦盐辣椒粉的香气特征.结果表明:烘烤温度120℃、烘烤时间10 min、加盐量5%为焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺;最佳工艺条件下,4种焦盐辣椒粉共检出69种挥发性成分,其中灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒、野山椒分别为22种、39种、33种、50种,18种成分为4种辣椒粉共有.%To study the processing technology and aroma constitution of salty baked chili powder i the optimum processing technological parameters of salty baked capsicum frutescens var was investigated through orthogonal array experiment and the results listed as follows : baking temperature 120℃ ,baking time l0min,and salt concentration 5%. Furthermore,the volatile components from salty baked bell pepper,salty baked chili hot pepper,salty baked Vietnam capsicum frutescens var and salty baked capsicum frutescens var prepared by the optimum processing were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS),it was Found that a total of 69 volatile components with bell pepper 22,chili hot pepper 39,Vietnam capsicum frutescens var 33,and capsicum frutescens var 50,including 18 common components are identified under the optimum processing technology.

  10. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Black Tea Extract and its Application in Cigarette%红茶提取物挥发性成分GC/MS分析及在卷烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢清桃; 王坤波; 董颖; 姚瑞; 谢春桥; 李建军; 董德华

    2012-01-01

    为开发和丰富烟用天然香精香料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取正山小种红茶提取物挥发性成分,用GC/MS法对挥发性成分进行了分离鉴定,共鉴定出35种挥发性成分,主要有苯乙醛、香叶醇、芳樟醇及氧化物、苯乙醇、苯甲酸苄酯、棕榈酸乙酯、植醇、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯等。将该提取物用于卷烟加香,能够明显丰富烟香,减小刺激性和改善卷烟余味。%In order to develop a new natural cigarette flavor, the volatile oil from the Lapsang Souchong black tea ex-tract was extracted by SDE and analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that 35 volatile constituents were identified in the oil and the major components were benzeneacetaldehyde, (E) - geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, phytol, linoleic acid ethyl ester and linolenic acid ethyl ester. The black tea extract was added into cigarettes as tobacco flavoring and evaluated by panelists, and the results indicated that the ex-tract could enrich the tobacco flavor, reduce the irritancy of smoke, and improve taste obviously.

  11. A comparative study of volatile components in green, oolong and black teas by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhongda; Zhao, Chunxia; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-10-25

    The difference of volatile components in green, oolong and black teas was studied by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Simultaneous distillation extraction was proved to be a suitable technique to extract the analytes with interest. A total of 450 compounds were tentatively identified with comparison to the standard mass spectra in available databases, retention index on the first dimension and structured chromatogram. 33 tea samples, including 12, 12 and 9 samples of green, oolong and black tea were analyzed by using GC×GC-TOFMS. After peak alignment, around 3600 peaks were detected. Partial least squares - discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to classify these samples, then non-parametric hypothesis test (Mann-Whitney U test) and the variable importance in the projection (VIP) were applied to discover the key components to distinguish the three types of tea with significant difference amongst them. 74 differential compounds are defined to interpret the chemical differences of 3 types of tea. This study shows the power of GC×GC-TOFMS method combined with multivariate data analysis to investigate natural products with high complexity for information extraction.

  12. Analysis of Volatile Components in Magnolia by HS-SPME-GC/MS%顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析玉兰花的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许柏球; 栾崇林; 刘莉萍; 陈敏; 崔淑芬

    2014-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对白玉兰花和黄玉兰花的挥发性成分进行分析。两种玉兰花共鉴定出91种挥发性成分,其中共有成分检出31种。白玉兰花的主要挥发性成分为2-甲基-丁酸甲酯(42.04%)、丙酸甲酯(13.89%)、苯乙醇(4.86%)、3,7-二甲基-1,6-辛二烯-3-醇(4.61%)和石竹烯(3.80%);黄玉兰花的主要挥发性成分为3,7-二甲基-1,6-辛二烯-3-醇(41.34%)、安息香酸甲酯(9.68%)、4-(2,6,6-三甲基-2-环己烯-1-基)-2-丁酮(7.93%)、苯乙醛(6.70%)、(E)-4-(2,6,6-三甲基-1-环己烯-1-基)-3-丁烯-2-酮(4.29%)、β-月桂烯(4.06%)和 D-苎烯(3.55%)。对于萘(樟脑)类化合物,白玉兰花测得的相对百分比为5.20%,黄玉兰花未检出;对于甲酯类化合物,白玉兰花测得的相对百分比为62.10%,黄玉兰花测得的相对百分比为11.60%;对于醇类化合物,白玉兰花测得的相对百分比为9.47%,黄玉兰花测得的相对百分比为42.70%;对于烯烃类(含萜烯)化合物,白玉兰花和黄玉兰花测得的相对百分比分别为17.80%和10.30%。研究结果显示,两种玉兰花的挥发性成分及其相对百分比存在很大差异。%Using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile components in Magnoliadenudate (M. denudate)and Magnoliachampaca (M. champaca)were analyzed. Ninety one volatile components were identified,among which 31 were common in both flowers. The major volatile components of M. denudate were methyl 2-methyl-butanoate (42.04% ),methyl propionate (13.89% ),phenyl ethyl alcohol (4.86% ),3,7-dim-ethyl-1,6-octadiene-3-ol (4.61% )and caryophyllene (3.80% ). The major volatile components of M. champaca were 3,7-dim-ethyl-1

  13. Perinatal flavour learning and adaptation to being weaned: all the pig needs is smell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Oostindjer

    Full Text Available Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment or control diet (Control treatment during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment or in the air (Air treatment after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P = 0.02 and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P<0.001. Salivary cortisol levels tended to be lower four and seven hours postweaning for Flavour piglets compared to Control piglets (4 hours: 2.5 versus 3.0 ng/ml, P = 0.05, 7 hours: 3.1 versus 3.4 ng/ml, P = 0.08. Flavour piglets played more and showed less damaging behaviours than Control piglets, indicating that the familiar flavour reduced stress around weaning. Few interaction effects were found between preweaning and postweaning treatment, and no effects of postweaning treatment. We conclude that in the newly weaned pig, perinatal flavour learning results in a reduction of stress when the familiar flavour is present, regardless of providing the flavour in the food or in the air.

  14. LHCb : Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Rives Molina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations has re-opened the case for searches of lepton-flavour violating decays. We report on recent results on searches for short or long-lived Majorana heavy neutrinos in B&arr;μμπ and τ→μμμ decays

  15. A fuller flavour treatment of N_2-dominated leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Jones, David A; King, Steve F

    2010-01-01

    We discuss N_2-dominated leptogenesis in the presence of flavour dependent effects that have hitherto been neglected, in particular the off-diagonal entries of the flavour coupling matrix that connects the total flavour asymmetries, distributed in different particle species, to the lepton and Higgs doublet asymmetries. We derive analytical formulae for the final asymmetry including the flavour coupling at the N_2-decay stage as well as at the stage of washout by the lightest right-handed neutrino N_1. We point out that in general part of the electron and muon asymmetries can completely escape the wash-out at the production and a total B-L asymmetry can be generated by the lightest RH neutrino wash-out yielding so called phantom leptogenesis. Taking of all these new effects into account can enhance the final asymmetry produced by the decays of the next-to-lightest RH neutrinos by orders of magnitude, opening up new interesting possibilities for N_2-dominated thermal eptogenesis. We illustrate these effects for...

  16. Grand Unified Theories and Lepton-Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, C S

    1998-01-01

    Lepton-flavour violating processes, such as $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$, are studied in ordinary (non-SUSY) SU(5) and SUSY SU(5) grand unified theories. First given are some introductory argument on the mechanism of U.V. divergence cancellation in flavour changing neutral current processes and on the decoupling of particles with GUT scale masses . We next see that such general argument is confirmed by an explicit calculation of the amplitude of $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$ in ordinary SU(5), which shows that logarithmic divergence really cancels among diagrams and remaining finite part are suppressed by at least $1/M_{GUT}^2$. In SUSY SU(5), flavour changing slepton mass-squared term get a logarithmic correction, as recently claimed. However, when the effect of flavour changing wave function renormalization is also taken into account such logarithmic correction turns out to disappear, provided a condition is met among SUSY breaking soft masses. In SUGRA-inspired SUSY GUT, such condition is not satisfied. But the remaining logarit...

  17. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  18. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-11-21

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple

  19. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception, sensory quality.Abso

  20. The role of flavon cross couplings in leptonic flavour mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Pascoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In models with discrete flavour symmetries, flavons are critical to realise specific flavour structures. Leptonic flavour mixing originates from the misalignment of flavon vacuum expectation values which respect different residual symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Flavon cross couplings are usually forbidden, in order to protect these symmetries. Contrary to this approach, we show that cross couplings can play a key role and give raise to necessary corrections to flavour-mixing patterns, including a non-zero value for the reactor angle and CP violation. For definiteness, we present two models based on $A_4$. In the first model, all flavons are assumed to be real or pseudo-real, with 7 real degrees of freedom in the flavon sector in total. A sizable reactor angle associated with nearly maximal CP violation is achieved, and, as both originate from the same cross coupling, a sum rule results with a precise prediction for the value of the Dirac CP-violating phase. In the second model, the fla...