WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatile flavor constituent

  1. Volatile flavor constituents in the pork broth of black-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Mengyao; Hou, Li; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Pork of black-pig in China is well known for its quality and preferred by consumers. However, there is a lack of research on its flavors. By solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with GC-MS, 104 volatile compounds in the stewed pork broth of black-pig were identified with the dominant amounts of fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. By aroma extract dilution analysis-GC-O method, 27 odor-active compounds were characterized, including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 2-furfurylthiol, γ-decalactone, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal that had high FD factors. Compared to the common white-pig, the aroma compounds in both pork broths were almost the same, but the aroma profile of potent odorants for the black-pig pork broth showed less fatty and more roasted notes, which were partially attributed to the higher monounsaturated fatty acids and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat. With aid of authentic chemicals and selected reaction monitoring mode of GC-MS/MS, 19 aroma compounds were quantitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction for determination of volatile constituents in tobacco flavor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ke-jun; WEI Wan-zhi; GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang

    2005-01-01

    The volatile and semi-volatile components in tobacco flavor additives were extracted by both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Extraction conditions for solid-phase micro-extraction were optimized with information theory. Then, detection were accomplished by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characteristic of each method was compared. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of 6# tobacco flavor sample were accomplished through both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. The experimental results show that solid-phase micro-extraction method is the first choice for qualitative analysis and simultaneous distillation extraction is another good selection for quantitative analysis. By means of simultaneous distillation extraction, 20 components are identified, accounting for 92.77% of the total peak areas. Through solid-phase micro-extraction, there are 17 components identified accounting for 91.49% of the total peak areas. The main aromatic components in 6# tobacco flavor sample are propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, menthol and menthyl acetate. The presented method has been successfully used for quality control of tobacco flavor.

  3. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  4. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  5. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Constituents from Ginkgo biloba Exocarp%银杏外种皮挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩帅; 苗志伟; 刘玉平; 孙宝国

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) or simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As a result, 29 compounds were identified, including 9 carboxilic acids, 9 esters, 3 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 4 alcohols, 1 hydrocarbon and 2 heterocyclic compounds. Both extraction methods allowed the identification of 12 volatile compounds. AS determined by SDE-GC-MS, hexanoic acid (65.88%), butanoic acid (21.46%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.53%) and octanoic acid (1.15%) were predominant among them. The predominant compounds determined by SPME-GC-MS were butanoic acid (59.96%), hexanoic acid (25.45%), methyl hexanoate (3.90%), methyl butyrate (3.59%) and acetic acid (1.65%). Butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, methyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, etc made a greater contribution to the odor characteristics of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp.%采用同时蒸馏萃取和固相微萃取两种萃取技术提取银杏外种皮的挥发性成分,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用对其挥发性物质成分进行分离鉴定。结果共鉴定出29种挥发性化合物,包括酸类9种、酯类9种、酮类3种、醛类1种、醇类4种、烃类1种、杂环类化合物2种,两种萃取物中都鉴定出的挥发性成分有12种。经SDE—GC—MS分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积比〉1%)的化合物有己酸(65.88%)、丁酸(21.46%)、棕榈酸(4.53%)、辛酸(1.15%);经固相微萃取.气相色谱-质谱联用分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积Lt〉1%)的化合物有丁酸(59.96%)、己酸(25.45%)、己酸甲酯(3.90%)、丁酸甲酯(3.59%)、乙酸(1.65%)。根据分析出的挥发性成分的香气特征可知对银杏外种皮挥发性气味贡献较大的物质有丁酸、己酸、丁酸甲酯和己酸甲酯等。

  7. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Josino Soares; Marc Pignitter; Miriam Margit Ehrnhöfer-Ressler; Jessica Walker; Isabella Montenegro Brasil; Veronika Somoza

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was perfor...

  8. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  9. Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; Miao, Zhiwei; Guan, Wei; Sun, Baoguo

    2012-03-26

    The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST) were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs) of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  10. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  11. 27 CFR 24.130 - Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-flavor concentrate operations. 24.130 Section 24.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.130 Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. If the proprietor desires to make any change in the process employed to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate...

  12. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fruit-flavor concentrate operations. 24.113 Section 24.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step...

  13. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-flavor concentrate. 24.184 Section 24.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... fruit-flavor concentrate. (a) General. In the cellar treatment of natural wine of the winemaker's own production there may be added volatile fruit-flavor concentrate produced from the same kind of fruit or from...

  14. The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%).

  15. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor...

  16. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a...

  17. The Effects of Filter Ventilation on Flavor Constituents in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and capillary gas chromatography (GC. The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.

  18. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-08

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  19. Effect of roasting on the volatile constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roasted Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds have much more intense flavor than the raw seeds, and are commonly used as food and in the preparations of many medicinal formulations. Volatile constituents in the raw and roasted T. kirilowii seeds were separated by simultaneous distillation and extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry on two capillary gas chromatography columns of different polarities (DB-WAX and HP-1. A total of 40 volatile compounds were identified in the raw seeds, with pentanal, 2-pentanol, styrene, (Z-2-heptenal, (+-calarene, and α-muurolene being the predominant compounds; 40 volatile compounds were also identified in the roasted seeds, with 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, 2-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, (E,E-2,4-nonadienal, and 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-9-methylene-bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene being the most abundant compounds. A total of 15 compounds, mostly aldehydes, were common in both seeds. Roasting of T. kirilowii seeds resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of sesquiterpenes and short-chain aliphatic aldehydes. By contrast, high concentrations of 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, 2-butanol, and alkyl pyrazines were generated, which was responsible for the unique flavor of the roasted seeds. The study results may be useful for optimizing the roasting process and oil processing of T. kirilowii seeds.

  20. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of...-flavor concentrate plant or vice-a-versa, the proprietor must comply with the requirements of §§ 18.39...

  1. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...

  2. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  3. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  4. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  5. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.

  6. Chilling-induced tomato flavor loss is associated with altered volatile synthesis and transient changes in DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial tomatoes are widely perceived by consumers as lacking flavor. A major part of that problem is a postharvest handling system that chills fruit. Low-temperature storage is widely used to slow ripening and reduce decay. However, chilling results in loss of flavor. Flavor-associated volatiles...

  7. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aaron; Park, Woosung; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with isospin I =1/2 . We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible S U (3 ) flavor states. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using the variational method in a constituent quark model with a confining and hyperfine potential. We find that, for all configurations with spin S =0 , 1, 2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there is no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  9. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Aaron; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with $I=\\frac{1}{2}$. We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible SU(3) flavor state. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks, and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using variational method in a constituent quark model with confining and hyperfine potential. We find that for all configurations with S=0,1,2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there are no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  10. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were se

  11. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  12. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  13. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  14. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  15. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones.

  16. Role of an esterase in flavor volatile variation within the tomato clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Mageroy, Melissa H; Lam, Nghi B; Floystad, Abbye; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2012-11-13

    Tomato flavor is dependent upon a complex mixture of volatiles including multiple acetate esters. Red-fruited species of the tomato clade accumulate a relatively low content of acetate esters in comparison with the green-fruited species. We show that the difference in volatile ester content between the red- and green-fruited species is associated with insertion of a retrotransposon adjacent to the most enzymatically active member of a family of esterases. This insertion causes higher expression of the esterase, resulting in the reduced levels of multiple esters that are negatively correlated with human preferences for tomato. The insertion was evolutionarily fixed in the red-fruited species, suggesting that high expression of the esterase and consequent low ester content may provide an adaptive advantage in the ancestor of the red-fruited species. These results illustrate at a molecular level how closely related species exhibit major differences in volatile production by altering a volatile-associated catabolic activity.

  17. A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction to enhance volatile flavor in Chinese marinated chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiuli; Wang, Chunqing; Zhang, Chunhui; Li, Xia; Wang, Jinzhi; Li, Hai; Tang, Chunhong

    2017-02-01

    A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction was investigated by adding d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine to the marinated brine of quantitative marinating, which was expected to enhance the volatile flavor of Chinese marinated chicken. Response surface methodology was used to optimize parameters, in which response was sensory evaluation scores of marinated chicken. A Box-Behnken center design was applied to the optimized added contents. The optimized contents were d-xylose (1-5‰), l-cysteine (1-5‰) and thiamine (1-3‰). Analysis of variance indicated that a second-order polynomial equation could predict the experimental data well (R(2)  = 0.94), and sensory evaluation scores were significantly affected by the added amount of d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine. The optimal conditions that maximized the sensory evaluation score of Chinese marinated chicken were found to be 4.96‰ d-xylose, 2.28‰ l-cysteine and 2.66‰ thiamine (w/w). Given these optimal conditions, a number of meat-like flavor compounds such as 2-pentyl-furan, benzothiazole and 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol were identified by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Our results suggested that a combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction might be a promising method to enhance the volatile flavor, especially meat-like flavor, of Chinese marinated chicken. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  19. Modeling the sensory impact of defined combinations of volatile lipid oxidation products on fishy and metallic off-flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2004-01-01

    and highlighted the importance of two-factor interactions for contribution toward off-flavors. The results suggest that (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one could be useful markers for fishy and metallic off-flavors in fish oil and fish oil enriched foods. Within the addition levels of the volatiles......The volatiles (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, and (EE)-2,4-heptadienal were added to milk containing 1.5% fat according to a central composite design, to evaluate the individual and combinatory effects of these volatiles on sensory properties. The milk samples with added...... volatiles were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis for fishy and metallic off-flavors. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares regression and multiple linear regression to develop mathematical models. The models revealed significant main effects of (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one...

  20. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  1. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUML. FROM ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA GHANNADI

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. which is cultivated in Isfahan was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by TLC, GC, GC/MS and ^-NMR. Eight compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were characterized. Linalool (56.2%, y- terpinene (12.0% and 5-3-carene (9.7% were the major constituents of the oil which were obtained in 0.68% (V/W yield.

  2. Analysis on Volatile Constituents in Leaves and Fruits of Ficus carica by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; TIAN Yu-zeng; SUN Bao-ya; YANG Dan; CHEN Ji-ping; MEN Qi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits ofFicus carica.Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used.Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%),β-damascenone (10.17%),benzyl alcohol (4.56%),behenic acid (4.79%),and bergapten (1.99%),etc.The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%),5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%),and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%),etc.Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits ofF.carica,among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits.Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.

  3. A new way for chemical degradation of plastic by natural volatile constituents of Ledum palustre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Zhilong; ZHU Xiuling; ZHANG Daijia; YIN Jianzhong; WANG Dehe; AN Lijia

    2003-01-01

    A novel phenomenon of degradation of polypropylene plastic by volatile constituents of Ledum palustre is reported in this study. The characteristic of degradation is described by tensile strength, melting point, and scanning electron micrographs as well as optical micrographs. The chemical composition of volatile oil of Ledum palustre is analyzed by gas chrography and mass spectrometry. The mechanism of degradation and problems needed to be solved are also discussed.

  4. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  5. Volatile constituents in the flowers of Elsholtzia argyi and their variation: a possible utilization of plant resources after phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong-yun; YANG Xiao-e

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation effectiveness and remediation costs are driving factors of this project. Full utilization of plant resources after their being used for phytoremediation is an unsolved problem. GC/MS technique was used to investigate the volatiles of the flowers from Elsholtzia argyi (PFE1: Purple Flower Elsholtzia) and their variation (WFE: White Flower Elsholtzia),naturally growing in Pb/Zn mined area, and Elsholtzia argyi (PFE2: Purple Flower Elsholtzia), naturally growing in Jiuxi uncontaminated agriculture soil. Seventeen compounds constituting 86.88% of total essential oils were identified in PFE1, with 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester being the main constituent (63.30%). Sixteen compounds accounting for 95.32% of total essential oils were identified in WFE, with caryophyllene being the main component (55.02%). Compared to PFE1, PFE2 contained lower level of 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester (31.76%), which was the main constituent in the total essential oils of PFE2. Caryophyllene is the main ingredient of flavor. Elsholtzia ketone was identified in all the three Elsholtzia plants. It can be concluded that the selected Elsholtzia argyi plants can be exploited on their versatile uses as fragrances and antiseptics due to the perfume ingredient and antibacterial components existing in their essential oils.

  6. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

  7. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  8. Effects of wort gravity and nitrogen level on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Haifeng; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming

    2012-03-01

    Normal gravity wort and high gravity wort with different nitrogen levels were used to examine their effects on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles. Results showed that both the wort gravity and nitrogen level had significant impacts on the growth rate, viability, flocculation, and gene expression of brewer's yeast and the levels of flavor volatiles. The sugar (glucose, maltose, and maltotriose) consumption rates and net cell growth decreased when high gravity worts were used, while these increased with increasing nitrogen level. Moreover, high gravity resulted in lower expression levels of ATF1, BAP2, BAT1, HSP12, and TDH, whereas the higher nitrogen level caused higher expression levels for these genes. Furthermore, the lower nitrogen level resulted in increases in the levels of higher alcohols and esters at high wort gravity. All these results demonstrated that yeast physiology and flavor balance during beer brewing were significantly affected by the wort gravity and nitrogen level.

  9. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the Folium Rhododendri Daurici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-qing; Liu, Feng-hua

    2009-02-01

    To compare the chemical constituents of volatile oils from Folium Rhododendri Daurici between supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE-CO2) and steam distillation (SD). The chemical constituents of volatile oils obtained by two methods were analyzed by GC-MS. 52 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SCE-CO2 and 48 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SD were separated and identified separately. There were 45 same components. The chemical constituents obtained by SCE-CO2 and SD are approached.

  10. Oxidative stability and lipid oxidation flavoring volatiles in antioxidants treated chicken meat patties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Imran, Ali; Hussain, Shahzad

    2017-02-01

    Chicken meat contains higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to oxidative deterioration ultimately leading towards lower consumer acceptability for chicken meat products. Accordingly, meat processing industries are looking for combinations of natural antioxidants to enhance the oxidative stability and consumer acceptability of meat based products. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of directly added quercetin dihydrate in combination with α-tocopherol on oxidative stability, color characteristics, total carbonyls and flavor volatile compounds in chicken meat patties. Considering the preliminary studies, 3 levels of quercetin dihdrate @ 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg meat in combination with α-tocopherol at the rate 100 and 200 mg/kg meat were added to develop chicken meat patties and were stored at refrigeration temperature for 7 days. The oxidative stability of the antioxidant treated patties was determined by measuring malonaldehydes using TBARS and total carbonyls assay. The color (Lightness, redness and yellowness) of the patties was determined by using Konica Minolta Color Meter. Moreover, the volatile compounds were measured through gas chromatography at various storage intervals. The results elucidated that quercetin dehydrate inclusion at the rate of 50 mg/kg meat as well as particularly 100 mg/kg meat decreased the oxidation by reducing generation of malonaldehydes and total carbonyls in treated patties. Highest value for TBARS at initiation of storage was reported in (T0) as 1.93 ± 0.02 whereas lowest were reported in T6 and T5 as 0.37 ± 0.01 and 0.38 ± 0.03 that were increased to 3.47 ± 0.14, 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.94 ± 0.34 at the completion of storage. Moreover, the lowest carbonyls also reported in T6 and the values at various storage intervals (1st, 3rd and 7th) were as 0.59 ± 0.025, 0.77 ± 0.015 and 1.02 ± 0.031, respectively. The antioxidants inclusion also

  11. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  12. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  13. Chemical investigation of the volatile constituents of Cleome viscosa from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Olatunji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem; 1% in seeds/fruits and 1.5% in roots. The monoterpenes occurred frequently in the oils. Fatty acid esters especially ethyl palmitate which constituted a major constituent in the oil from the seeds/fruits was not detected in the oils from the roots.

  14. Flavoring agents present in a dentifrice can modify volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) formation in morning bad breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a flavor-containing dentifrice on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning bad breath. A two-step, blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 50 dental students with a healthy periodontium divided into two experimental groups: flavor-containing dentifrice (test) and non-flavor-containing dentifrice (control). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3 X/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath scores (ORG), VSC levels (as measured by a portable sulphide monitor) before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating (TC) wet weight and BANA test from TC samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in ORG, from 3 to 2, after 30 days for the test group (p flavor also did not interfere in the BANA results between groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a flavor-containing dentifrice seems to prevent VSCs formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of TC in periodontally healthy subjects.

  15. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  16. 浒苔挥发性风味成分分析%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds from Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋绍华; 裘迪红

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法对新鲜肠浒苔的挥发性风味成分进行测定,并加以感官评定分析比较风味物质组成。结果表明:浒苔的主要特征性风味物质是顺-3-十七烯,该物质在新鲜肠浒苔中含量高达59.54%,其次是棕榈醛、(E,E)-2,4-庚二烯醛、β-紫罗兰酮、壬醛、反式-2-己烯醛、2,4-戊二烯醛以及反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛等。%Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to determine the volatile flavor compounds of the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalis. A comparative sensory evaluation of the main flavor substances was also done. The results showed that the main characteristic volatile flavor compound ofEnteromorpha intestinalis were (Z)-3-heptadecene, with a content as high as 59.43% in fresh samples. The other volatile flavors were hexadecanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, beta-ionone, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 2,4 - pentadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and so on.

  17. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红; 于沈晶; 任春生; 修志龙

    2012-01-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile con- stituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active cud oxidative species, radicals, products cud high euergy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (Crbmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  18. Volatile constituents of the dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia (Sennae folium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, W; Jahn, K; Richter, R

    1996-12-01

    The official drug Sennae folium (obtained from Cassia angustifolia and/or C. acutifolia) was found to contain small amounts of volatiles (0.047% based on dry weight) which were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS. More than 200 compounds could be detected, 122 of them were identified, representing about 90.7% of the peak area of the total mixture. The volatile constituents can be classified into monoterpenoids (8.8% for sample A and 34.6% for B), sesquiterpenoids (4.2% and 4.0%, respectively), phenylpropanoids (4.2%/15.2%), fatty acids and esters (54.3%/14.2%), and miscellaneous compounds (19.3%/22.7%). Apart from hexadecanoic acid which was strong in both samples (36.8%/9.7%), the occurrence of menthol, geranylacetone, and (E)-anethole is of interest.

  19. New volatile constituents from leaves of Stemodia trifoliata (Link.) Reichb. (Schrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wildson Max B. da; Assuncao, Joao Carlos da C.; Araujo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    The leaf essential oils of Stemodia trifoliata (Scrophulariaceae), collected at the same month of two different years (August 2005 and 2006), were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 22 volatile components represented by sesquiterpenes and diterpenes was identified. {beta}-Caryophyllene (9.4-15.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.2-9.0%) were the major compounds identified in the sesquiterpene fraction, while the diterpenoids 6{alpha}-acetoxymanoyl oxide (13.9-23.2%) and 6{alpha}-hydroxymanoyl oxide (25.1-29.7%) were the main constituents of the diterpene fraction. The two novel manoyl oxide derivatives had their structures established by means of spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR. This work describes for the first time the chemical investigation on the volatile composition of S. trifoliata. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Lee, Sung-Eun; Takeoka, Gary R

    2003-01-01

    Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene.

  1. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  2. Mandarin flavor and aroma volatile composition are strongly influenced by holding temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin flavor quality often declines during storage but the respective contributions to the flavor disorder of warm versus cold temperature portions of the storage regime were unknown. To determine this ‘W. Murcott’ mandarins were stored for either 6 weeks at a continuous 5 ºC or held at 20 ºC fo...

  3. Identification and Characterization of Volatile Components Causing the Characteristic Flavor of Wagyu Beef (Japanese Black Cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Amano, Yohei; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-10-04

    To clarify the characteristic sweet aroma of Wagyu (Japanese Black Cattle), aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to the volatile fractions of Wagyu and Australia beefs. Some 20 odor-active peaks were detected, and 17 odorants were identified or tentatively identified. Among the perceived odorants, most of them were newly identified from the Wagyu beef. The main constituents of the potent odorants were aldehydes and ketones, which are known as the degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. In addition, the most potent odorant was trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, which is known to be the oxidation product of polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. Accordingly, these findings strongly suggested that the kind of fatty acid constituting lipids of the Wagyu plays an important role in the formation of the characteristic aroma of the Wagyu beef.

  4. Volatile constituents of Aristolochia trilobata L. (Aristolochiaceae: a rich source of sulcatyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlisson de Alexandria Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the volatile fraction of Aristolochia trilobata stem led to the identification of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (23.31 ± 0.28%, limonene (15.43 ± 0.030%, linalool (8.70 ± 0.29%, p-cymene (7.81 ± 0.12%, bicyclogermacrene (4.21 ± 0.11%, and spathulenol (4.17 ± 0.14% as the major constituents of the essential oil. Linalool (29.51 ± 0.49%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol (19.54 ± 0.82%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (8.92 ± 0.16%, and a-terpineol (4.62 ± 0.05% were identified as major constituents of the hydrolate. The compound 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate was isolated for the first time from this plant and was identified as the major component of the volatile fraction.

  5. Use of fiber interface direct mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile flavor release from model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, M B; Rozier, V; Bakker, J

    1999-03-01

    Described in this paper is a fiber interface direct headspace mass spectrometric system for the real-time measurement of flavor release. The system was optimized for the detection of the garlic aroma volatile, diallyl disulfide, from water. Parameters investigated included interface temperature, flow rate through the fiber, flow rate through the sample vessel, and sample stir rate. The delay time for detection of sample after introduction into the sample vessel was determined as 43 s. The system proved to be reliable and robust with no loss in sensitivity or contamination of the mass spectrometer over a 6 month period. The technique was applied to a homologous series of aliphatic alcohols from C(2) to C(7). Results showed that as polarity decreased with increasing chain length the release of volatile into the headspace was faster and gave a higher maximum intensity. Release of the garlic aroma volatile from different commercial mayonnaise products clearly showed a decrease in the release of diallyl disulfide as fat content increased. These results demonstrate the potential of using this technique as a tool for understanding the complex interactions that occur between flavor compounds and the bulk food matrix.

  6. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  7. Cytotoxic activity and constituents of the volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxiang; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjian

    2005-10-01

    The volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge was isolated by steam distillation, and separated into four major fractions (Fr. A-D) by means of column chromatography. A total of 39 compounds (1-39) were identified by GC/MS analysis, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human ovarian carcinoma cells (HO-8910) and human hepatoma cells (Bel-7402) (Table 1). Fr. A showed the strongest inhibitory effect on HO-8910 (IC50 = 21 microg/ml) and Bel-7402 cells (16 mcirog/ml), whereas Fr. B was the least active (>100 microg/ml). By comparison of the constituents of the four fractions, we assume that the cytotoxicity of the volatile oil of P. scabra is mainly due to the lignans and azulenes, rather than to caryophyllene oxide I (18). Our results suggest that the volatile oil of P. scabra possesses potent and tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and could serve as a possible candidate for future cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Changes of headspace volatile constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Muhammad Nor Bin; Nor, Nor Nazuha M; Idris, Nor Aini

    2007-04-01

    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.

  9. "Volatile Constituents of Amedicinal Plant of Iran , Echium Amoenim Fisch. and C.A. Mey "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Ghassemi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Boraginaceae is an endemic Iranian plant, that its dry violet–blue petals has long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the dried petals of this plant which was isolated by steam distillation extraction with pentane (in yield of 0.05% was examined by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats’ indices. The major components except aliphatic alkanes which belong to sesquiterpenes were: δ-cadinene (24.25%, viridiflorol (4.9%, α-muurolene (4.52%, ledene (3.8%, α-calacorene (3.04%, and γ-cadinene (2.9%.

  10. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jihane OUMATOU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS. The study allowed the identification of forty-six compounds for the VOCs. The most abundant compounds in the three varieties (Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul were 2-hexanal and n-hexanol with a percentage of 10.6%, 10.9% and 44.0% for the first compound and 10.3 %, 59.0%, 18.7% for the second, successively. The extraction of phenolic compounds permitted the identification and quantification of 15 fractions of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid with 16.0 and 10.8 mg/100g of plant material respectively for Dellahia and Aissa. For flavoinoids composition, isorhamnetin was the major compound. It accounted respectively for 40.5% and 43.2% for Dellahia and Aissa. We can conclude that cactus pear fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants and the major compounds responsible of flavor in the studied varieties are 2-hexanal and n-hexanol.

  11. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  12. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  13. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Constituents from Fresh Fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E. Essien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, can be exploited to ameliorate the problem of microbial resistance. The fruit essential oils of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were subjected to in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity screening. Thirty-eight compounds comprising 97.7% of A. cordifolia oil and forty-six constituents representing 98.2% of C. subcordatum oil were identified. The major components in A. cordifolia oil were methyl salicylate (25.3%, citronellol (21.4%, α-phellandrene (7.4%, terpinolene (5.7% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Benzaldehyde (28.0%, β-caryophyllene (15.5%, (E,E-α-farnesene (5.3% and methyl salicylate (4.5% were the quantitatively significant constituents in C. subcordatum fruit essential oil. A. cordifolia essential oil demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg/mL and marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 156 μg/mL. C. subcordatum showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 156 μg/mL and notable antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 39 μg/mL. However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cells (Hs 578T and human prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3 were observed for either essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of A. cordifolia and C. subcordatum fruit essential oils are a function of their distinct chemical profiles; their volatiles and biological activities are reported for the first time.

  15. ESTIMATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN THE FISH FLESH FROM WILD AND FARMED CIRRHINA MRIGALA AND CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahboob; Bilal Hussain; Zahid Iqbal; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of fish meat using gas chromatography is described. Flavor is the sensation arising from the interplay of the signals of sensing smell, taste and irritating stimuli from food stuff. For human, flavor and nutrition are inseparable. In fish, trace amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major compounds to affect consumer's preference, which are produced during storage and spoilage. In the present study, volatile compounds were extracted by Likens-Nickerson con-current distillation apparatus from wild and farmed Cirrhina mrigala and Cyprinus carpio. The quantitative and qualitative estimation of volatiles was made by gas chromatography. Wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes were compared for these compounds (appearing in the form of peaks), which were identified from their retention time by comparing with the stand-ards. Fifteen major VOCs were found in these species which included hexadecane, 3-octanol, hexanal, decane, 3-hexene-1-ol, 2-undecanone, 2-heptanone, butanal, 2-nonanone, 1-heptanal, furaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanal, trans-3-hexene-1-ol, octanal and decanal. These compounds varied qualitatively and quantitatively in both wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes.

  16. Volatile constituents of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves using headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Sayamol; Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Thongpoon, Chalermporn; Machan, Theeraphan; Wongchuphan, Rattana

    2014-12-01

    The volatile components of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves, collected from Surat Thani province, Thailand were studied by using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The four fibers employed to extract the volatiles were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), carboxane-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene-carboxane (PDMS-DVB-CAR). The volatile constituents of M. koenigii fresh leaves were also extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-one compounds were identified by these fibers. Five major compounds, γ-terpinene, β-caryophyllene, β-phellandrene, a-selinene and a-pinene, were detected in all fibers. The PDMS-DVB-CAR fiber was considered as the best for trapping key volatiles of M. koenigii fresh leaves.

  17. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B

    2010-10-01

    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  18. [Analysis of volatile constituents in leaves of three cypress species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dejun; Zhang, Yonghui; Dai, Huaguo; Wang, Yan

    2006-03-01

    Volatile oils in leaves of three cypress species were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-four constituents were separated and identified. The majority of the components were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. There were 33, 37, 37 compounds in the oils of leaves of Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant, Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill and Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca, respectively. Fourteen compounds were common to them, which were thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, beta-elemene, alpha-amorphene, germacrene D, delta-cadinene and elemol. In addition, each species had particular compounds. The main components were found to be: sabinene (20.99%), limonene (19.78%) and bornyl acetate (11.68%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant; alpha-pinene (10.39%), sabinene (11.19%) and delta-3-carene (8.88%) for Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill; limonene (24.56%), beta-myrcene (8.04%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca.

  19. Volatile organic compound constituents from an integrated iron and steel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lai, Nina; Ma, Sen-Yi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2008-09-15

    This study measured the volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents of four processes in an integrated iron and steel industry; cokemaking, sintering, hot forming, and cold forming. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were the predominant VOC species in these processes. However, some of the chlorinated compounds were high (hundreds ppbv), i.e., trichloroethylene in all four processes, carbon tetrachloride in the hot forming process, chlorobenzene in the cold forming process, and bromomethane in the sintering process. In the sintering process, the emission factors of toluene, benzene, xylene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and ethylbenzene were over 9 g/tonne-product. In the vicinity of the manufacturing plant, toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene and ethylbenzene were high. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene, 1-butene and isopentane were the major ozone formation species. Aromatic compounds were the predominant VOC groups, constituting 45-70% of the VOC concentration and contributing >70% to the high ozone formation potential in the stack exhaust and workplace air. The sequence of VOC concentration and ozone formation potential was as follows: cold forming>sintering>hot forming>cokemaking. For the workplace air, cokemaking was the highest producer, which was attributed to the fugitive emissions of the coke oven and working process release.

  20. Flavors Fragrance Delivery Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quellet, Christian; Schudel, Markus; Ringgenberg, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    This article focusses on the art of encapsulating flavors and fragrances into carrier materials, emphasizing the scientific challenges imposed by the particular nature of these essentially volatile encapsulants...

  1. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  2. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  3. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  4. Kitchen practices impact on volatile flavors in ripe tomatoes: effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both blanching and refrigeration of ripe tomatoes are common practices in kitchen and food service prior to being sliced. However, little is reported on the impact of such treatments on volatile profiles in tomato fruit. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at full red stage were dipped in 52 °C hot wate...

  5. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  6. Discrimination of origin of farmed trout by means of biometrical parameters, fillet composition and flavor volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caprino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To date it is well known that the quality of farmed trout is affected by diet composition, by feeding regime, by husbandrypractices and by rearing conditions and environment. The trout processing industry and the large-scale retail trade, in considerationof the wide variability of trout quality and characteristics, have imposed, or will soon impose, quality criteria forthe end product. Moreover, recent food scares and the malpractices of some food producers have increased public requestsfor traceability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the main chemical quality and the biometrical characteristicsof rainbow trout produced in three different farms in Italy (two intensive farms, located one on mountain and one onplain, and an extensive farm in which fish fed only on naturally available nutrients and to establish whether farmed troutorigins could be differentiated by these parameters. Trout farmed in the intensive mountain farm (IMF showed the highestcrude lipid content in the fillets and the fatty acids of their fillets were characterized by the highest percentage of MUFA.Trout farmed in the intensive plain farm (IPF were characterized by low dressing percentage, and the lipid of their filletswas rich in n-6 fatty acids. Trout stocked for the last year of their life in the extensive farm (EF were leaner both in thecarcass and in the fillets. The analysis of flavor volatile compounds showed some differences in the bouquet design, particularlydifferences in the amounts of n-3 and n-6 derivates volatile aldehydes and alcohols. All data significantly different(Pequations generating a strong prediction model for classification of farmed trout respective to their origins.

  7. Comparison of Aroma Character Impact Volatiles of Thummong Leaves (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.), Mangdana Water Beetle (Lethocerus indicus), and a Commercial Product as Flavoring Agents in Thai Traditional Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Luanphaisarnnont, Torsak; Rouseff, Russell

    2017-07-11

    Thummong (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.) is a tree native to southern Thailand. The leaves of this tree are highly aromatic and used to flavor Thai dishes in place of the traditional water beetle Mangdana (Lethocerus indicus) for religious and cultural reasons. Total and aroma-active volatiles from both flavoring materials were compared using gas chromatography-olfactory (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatiles from Thummong leaves and the Mangdana water beetle were collected and concentrated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. A total of 23 and 25 aroma-active volatiles were identified in Thummong leaves and Mangdana, respectively. The major aroma-active volatiles in Thummong leaves consisted of 7 aldehydes, 5 ketones, and 3 esters. In contrast, the aroma-active volatiles in the water beetle consisted of 11 aldehydes, 3 esters, and 2 ketones. Both had (E)-2-nonenal as the most intense aroma-active volatile. The water beetle character impact volatile (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was absent in the leaves, but its aroma character was mimicked by 11-dodecen-2-one in the leaves, which was absent in the beetle. In addition, a commercial Mangdana flavoring was examined using GC-O and GC-MS and found to contain only a single aroma-active volatile, hexyl acetate. All three flavoring sources exhibited similar aroma characteristics but were produced from profoundly different aroma-active volatiles.

  8. Analysis on Volatile Constituent in Pandan Leaves%香兰叶挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竹君; 王道平; 罗亚男; 陶晨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测香兰叶中挥发性成分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC/MS)对香兰叶的挥发性成分进行了分析.[结果]鉴定出18种化学成分,其中含量最高的为亚油酸甲酯,其次为叶绿醇,还含有草蒿脑、棕榈酸、角鲨烯、甲基丁香酚,邻苯二甲酸、α-紫罗兰酮和吉马烯D等成分;另含有几种烷烃及少量的醛、酮类化合物.[结论]该方法准确、简便,适用于香兰叶中挥发性成分的检测.%[ Objective] The aim was to detect the volatile constituent in Pandan leaves. [ Method] The volatile constituent in Pandan leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrum. [Result] 18 kinds of chemical composition were identified, the content of linoleic acid methyl ester was highest, followed by phytol, and it also contained estragole, palmitic acid, squalene, methyl eugenol, phthalic acid, α-irisone and Gemmaen D. , in addition, it contained a small amount of several alkanes and aldehydes, ketones. [ Conclusion] The method is accurate, simple and convenient, is suitable to the detection of volatile constituent in Pandan leaves.

  9. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Oxidized Sheep Bone Oil on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Mutton Flavor Seasoning%氧化羊骨油对羊肉味调味基料挥发性风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金凯; 高远; 王振宇; 陈丽; 张德权; 艾启俊

    2014-01-01

    气为主,并包含甜香、青香、焦香和柑橘等香气;通过聚类分析将11种关键风味物质分为三类,第一类物质在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值变化较小;第二类包括反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛、反-2-壬烯醛,在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值显著增加;第三类为癸醛,在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值显著降低,而第二类与第三类物质在未添加羊骨油组和添加未氧化羊骨油组间的差异不显著(P>0.05)。【结论】添加氧化羊骨油,可以显著影响羊肉味调味基料挥发性风味物质的种类,增强热反应型羊肉味调味基料的风味,反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛与反-2-壬烯醛是改善调味基料最关键挥发性风味物质。%[Objective]The effect of a moderate addition of oxidation sheep bone oil on the volatile flavor compounds in thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning were investigated in order to provide a scientific basis for improving the flavor of the high quality mutton flavor seasoning.[Method]Samples of oxidized sheep bone oil indicating peroxide value, acid value and p-anisidine value were prepared by the control oxidization technology. Influences of sheep bone oil on the volatile flavor compounds in thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning were discussed. An electronic nose was used to analyze the three thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning, including without adding sheep bone oil, adding non-oxidized sheep bone oil and adding moderate oxidized sheep bone oil. With the discrimination index of the PCA about the three mutton flavor seasonings as response value, the effects of sheep bone oil on mutton flavor seasonings were studied. The volatile flavor compounds in three systems were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a parameter named “relative odor activity value (ROAV)”was applied in evaluating the contributions to global odor perception of three systems. The

  11. Effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, I.; Ishak, S.; Ayub, M.K. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor)

    1983-12-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author).

  12. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超

    2003-01-01

    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  13. Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel; Constituintes quimicos volateis e nao-volateis de Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2005-02-01

    The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were {beta}-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), {beta}-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), {gamma}-muurolene (28.4%), {alpha}-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and {beta}-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature. (author)

  14. Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-08-13

    Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

  15. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  16. Volatile constituents of Aristolochia trilobata L. (Aristolochiaceae): a rich source of sulcatyl acetate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Franco, Clovis Roberto Pereira; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the volatile fraction of Aristolochia trilobata stem led to the identification of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (23.31 ± 0.28%), limonene (15.43 ± 0.030%), linalool (8.70 ± 0.29%), p-cymene (7.81 ± 0.12...

  17. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  18. Effects of Lipoxygenase Null Genes of Soybean in Controlling Beany-flavor of Soymilk and Soyflour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; GUAN Chun-yun; HE Xiao-ling; ZHANG Guo-zheng; DIN An-lin

    2002-01-01

    The flavor of the soymilk and soyflour obtained from the lipoxygenase mutant isolines was concentrated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and its constituents were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the same 24 flavor constituents were isolated in both soymilk and soyflour, and most of them were aldehydes and alcohols. Lox2 was most responsible for the production of the volatile and beany-flavor components, and Lox1 less responsible.Lox3 was least responsible and can reduce the yield of hexanal. Either Lx1 or Lx2 could significantly reduce the volatile and beany-flavor, and Lx3 could significantly increase the yield of hexanal. Primary and secondary interactions existed among the null mutant genes, and the major effects and interactions could be affected by processing conditions. The isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes yielded the least volatile and beany-flavor components, and the isoline without the lipoxygenase gene Lx3 produced the greatest amount of the volatile and beany-flavor components. The amounts of volatile and beany-flavor components produced by the other isolines were between that of the isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes and the isoline without lipoxygenase gene Lx3. According to the correlation analysis, the hexanal amount could be used as an index in evaluating the importance of lipoxygenase isozymes in the yield of beany-flavor compounds, and the effects of the different types of lipoxygenase null mutants in controlling beany-flavor compounds. The cultivars with triple lipoxygenase null genes will be a quality raw material for soyfood processing.

  19. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  20. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    jihane OUMATOU; Saadia ZRIRA; Petretto, Giacomo L.; Bouchta SAIDI; Mariaelena SALARIS; Giorgio PINTORE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The study allowed the identifi...

  1. Highly Volatile Constituents of Vetiveria zizanioides Roots Grown under Different Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampan Promsiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC and solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC×GC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively. The highly volatile fractions isolated from the three essential oils by SPME were subjected to analysis by GC-MS and 42 compounds were identified in total. Volatile component profiles of the oils obtained by normal soil and semi-hydroponic cultivation were similar, whereas a quantitative difference was noted in some major volatiles when the cultivation system containing microbes was utilized.

  2. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  3. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  4. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i) The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g), and (ii) the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels) was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g). The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g). Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity. PMID:22647252

  5. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g, and (ii the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g. Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity.

  6. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Hosni; Amel Kerkenni; Wafa Medfei; Nadia Ben Brahim; Houcine Sebei

    2010-01-01

    The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and traditional dry distillation (DD) and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%). The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4%) in DD extract when compared t...

  7. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hosni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD and traditional dry distillation (DD and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%. The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4% in DD extract when compared to that of HD one (13.6%. As temperature increased (100°C during DD, the oil quality decreased. The most significant changes were observed in 2-phenethyl alcohol percentage (4.5%. Moreover, an increase of alkanes/alkenes and the production of furan derivatives were observed. So, DD at moderate temperature (50°C seemed more suitable to improve the volatile oil quality and hence, to make more value of R. canina.

  8. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, -terpene (2.6 % and -phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. -Pinene, -phellandrene, l-limonene, - terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. -Thujene and trans--caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis--farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

  9. Variation in the volatile constituents of different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana from western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2012-08-01

    The essential oil composition of the leaves, stem, flowers and roots of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Forty-five constituents, forming 93.2%-97.8% of the oil compositions, were dominated by acetylenic (31.5%-92.8%) compounds and sesquiterpenoids (0.3%-44.4%). The leaf essential oil was mainly composed 3,5-nonadiyne (35.8%), beta-selinene (20.9%), alpha-funebrene (10.1%) and (Z)-falcarinol (6.1%). The stem oil was dominated by acetylenic compounds (73.8%) represented by 3,5-nonadiyne (67.8%) and (Z)-falcarinol (5.7%). On the contrary, the major components of the flower essential oil were sesquiterpenoids (37.5%), such as germacrene D (16.6%), alpha-funebrene (7.4%), and acetylenic compounds (31.5%), such as (Z)-falcarinol (21.0%) and 3,5-nonadiyne (10.0%). Monoterpenoids constituted 23.9% of the flower oil with limonene (19.9%) as the single major constituent. The essential oil of the roots was dominated by 3,5-nonadiyne (90.5%). The results showed considerable qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of L. wallichiana. (Z)-Falcarinol (1.9%-21.0%) and alpha-funebrene (0.1%-10.1%) were reported for the first time from the essential oils of L. wallichiana.

  10. α-Pinene Rich Volatile Constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. Don from Uttarakhand Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Hema; Gwari, Garima; Andola, H C; Bhandari, U; Chauhan, N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  11. α-pinene rich volatile constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. don from Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Lohani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  12. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  13. GC-MS of Volatile Chemical Constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis%苏合香挥发性化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宇; 彭颖; 夏厚林; 周颖; 王建; 曾南

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究苏合香的挥发性化学成分.方法:通过固相微萃取技术提取苏合香的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分析鉴定.结果:共鉴定出苏合香28种成分,占总色谱峰面积的90.72%,其中α-蒎烯(15.97%)、莰烯(13.28%)和β-蒎烯(12.82%)的含量较高.结论:本方法简便、高效,可为芳香辛味含挥发性成分药物的成分研究提供参考.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the volatile chemical constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis. METHODS: HS-SPME was used to extract the volatile chemical constituents and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile chemical constituents. RESULTS: 28 compounds were identified, which accounts for 90.72% of the total GC peak area, of which the amounts of the volatile chemical constituents a-pinene( 15.97%),camphene( 13.28%) and ^-pinene (12.82%) had taken a larger part. CONCLUSION: The method employed in the study is convenient and efficient, and the study can serve as a reference to researches on aromatic and pungent Pharmaceuticals with volatile constituents.

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile constituents in Thai vetiver root oils obtained by using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Marriott, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Vetiver root oil is known as one of the finest fixatives used in perfumery. This highly complex oil contains more than 200 components, which are mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives. Since conventional GC-MS has limitation in terms of separation efficiency, the comprehensive two-dimensional GC-MS (GC x GC-MS) was proposed in this study as an alternative technique for the analysis of vetiver oil constituents. To evaluate efficiency of the hyphenated GC x GC-MS technique in terms of separation power and sensitivity prior to identification and quantitation of the volatile constituents in a variety of vetiver root oil samples. METHODOLOGY. Dried roots of Vetiveria zizanioides were subjected to extraction using various conditions of four different methods; simultaneous steam distillation, supercritical fluid, microwave-assisted, and Soxhlet extraction. Volatile components in all vetiver root oil samples were separated and identified by GC-MS and GC x GC-MS. The relative contents of volatile constituents in each vetiver oil sample were calculated using the peak volume normalization method. Different techniques of extraction had diverse effects on yield, physical and chemical properties of the vetiver root oils obtained. Overall, 64 volatile constituents were identified by GC-MS. Among the 245 well-resolved individual components obtained by GC x GC-MS, the additional identification of 43 more volatiles was achieved. In comparison with GC-MS, GC x GC-MS showed greater ability to differentiate the quality of essential oils obtained from diverse extraction conditions in terms of their volatile compositions and contents.

  15. Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

    2005-02-01

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa.

  16. Volatile Constituents of Two Croton Species from Caatinga Biome of Pernambuco – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilzenayde de Araújo Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and stem essential oils from Crotonpulegioides Müll.Arg. and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius (Kunth Müll.Arg were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The composition of the oils from the two Croton species was very different. The main components of the C. pulegioides oils were 1,8-cineole (15.86± 0.23% in leaf, p-cymene (14.40± 0.01% in leaf, camphor (13.28%± 0.12% in leaf and α-humulene (12.98± 0.22% in leaf, α-calacorene (12.95± 0.45% in stem, cis-isolongifolane (8.94±0.54% in stem and juniper camphor (6.44±0.45% in stem. The main components of the C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius oils were β-caryophyllene (20.82±0.48% in leaf, spathulenol (16.37±0.56% in leaf and β-elemene (17.28±0.06% in stem and guaiol (18.38±0.84% in stem. Phenylpropanoids common to Croton species were only found in C. rhamnifolius var. heliopropiifolius oils at percentages below 5%. This is the first report of the essential oil constituents of C. pulegioides and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius from the Caatinga biome of the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil.

  17. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  18. STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS, VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES AND PHENOLICS FROM CANDEIA WOOD - Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main chemical components of Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC. (candeia or cambará wood were investigated. This wood is native in the Southern region of Minas Gerais - Brazil.  The chemical composition was:  47.5% of α-cellulose, 25.4% of A and B hemicelluloses, 24.0% of lignin, 73.2% of holocellulose, 3.82% of ethanol:cyclohexane  (1:1, v v-1 extractives, 3.21% of ethanol extractives and 4.04%  of hot water extractives.  The volatile composition was mainly: α-curcumene, α-dihydroturmerone, β-dihydroturmerone, cedranol, 1-cyclopentyl-3-[2,4-dimethylphenyl]propane. The total phenols analysis was carried out on methanol:water (MW and acetone:water (AW extracts. The last one presented better yield. The total phenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and the modified Prussian blue assays.  Folin-Ciocalteau yielded 0.93 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 1.56 for AW extract; modified Prussian blue yielded 2.74 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 4.42 for AW extract. Proanthocyanidins were determined by n-buthanol-acid and vanillin assays. The n-buthanol acid yielded 0.012 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.017 for AW extract; vanillin: 0.29 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.58 for AW extract. 3-deoxy-proanthocyanidins were not detected.

  19. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  20. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  1. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  2. 加热温度对牡蛎挥发性风味成分的影响%EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VOLATILE FLAVOR COMPOUNDS OF OYSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 王霞; 侯云丹; 王求娟; 陈义方; 张腾军; 苏秀榕

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Nose Technology and Headspace-solid Phase Micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile compounds in oysters. The results showed that the electronic nose could be sensitive to detect the changes of odor of oysters during the heating processing. Odor of fresh oysters changed significantly while it were heated to 100℃ and 150℃. A total of 47, 59 and 56 volatile compounds in three kinds of samples were identified. Hexanal, (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, heptanal, oetanal and other aldehydes had the greater impact on the flavor of fresh oysters that contributed a fishiness, mushroom and cucumber like aroma to fresh oysters. Aldehydes and heteroeyclic compounds were the main volatile flavor substances of oysters that with 100℃ heated. After heated at 100℃ , oysters had less seafood flavor and showed dense scent of cooked shellfish. The main volatile compounds of 150℃ heated oysters were hydrocarbons, heteroeyclic compounds played an important role in the formation of baking flavors of 150℃ heated oysters.%为探讨牡蛎挥发性风味与加工温度的关系,运用电子鼻和顶空固相微萃取气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)对不同温度加热牡蛎的挥发性成分进行分析。结果表明,电子鼻能够灵敏地检测到牡蛎在加热过程中气味的变化,新鲜牡蛎在加热到1000C和1500C时气味发生明显变化。通过GC-MS从新鲜牡蛎、100℃加热牡蛎和150℃加热牡蛎中分别检出47、59和56种挥发性物质,己醛、反-2-,顺-6-壬二烯醛、庚醛、辛醛等醛类物质对新鲜牡蛎的风味影响较大,使其具有腥味、蘑菇及黄瓜的风味;经过100℃加热后,牡蛎的腥味减弱,肉香浓郁,醛类和杂环化合物是其主要的挥发性风味物质;150℃加热牡蛎的主要挥发性物质是烃类,杂环化合物对其烘烤风味的形成具有重要作用。

  3. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  4. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

  5. Oven, microwave, and combination roasting of peanuts: comparison of inactivation of salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium, color, volatiles, flavor, and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Perry, Jennifer J; Marshall, Julie A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-08-01

    Peanut safety and quality were evaluated for different roasting technologies. Shelled raw peanuts were roasted using an oven at 163 to 204 °C, microwave, or oven and microwave combinations. The lethal effect of these treatments was investigated on peanuts inoculated with the Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium and stored at room temperature for 1 h, 24 h, or 7 d before roasting. Roasted peanut color, odor activity values (OAVs), descriptive sensory panel analysis, free fatty acid, and peroxide values were determined. Color and OAVs were also analyzed on 2 commercial peanut butters. OAVs were calculated using volatile levels quantified with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and known odor thresholds. All treatments resulted in a minimum of 3 log reduction of inoculated bacterial population. Resistance to the process was not influenced by storage of inoculated peanuts prior to treatment. Roasting by different methods produced equivalent, commercially ideal L* color. Based on the OAVs, treatments had similar volatiles important to flavor compared to the commercial samples. Descriptive sensory analysis showed no significant difference between the roasting treatments for most of the sensory attributes. Lipid oxidation was not significantly different between the roasting methods, displaying no evidence that roasting time or temperature affected lipid oxidation, when ideal color was produced. These results suggest that oven, microwave, or combination roasting should be sufficient to mitigate the threat of Salmonella contamination and produce similar color, OAVs, sensory attributes, and lipid oxidation results.

  6. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  7. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  8. Primary Study on the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Low-Salt Chinese Cured-Meat of Accelerated Maturtion%快速成熟低盐腊肉挥发性成分的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彩平; 刘美玉; 郑立红; 郭慧媛; 任发政

    2012-01-01

    To explore the volatile flavor compounds of low-salt Chinese cured-meat of accelerated maturation, lowsalt Chinese cured-meat was exposed under ultraviolet and O3 conditions to promote fat turning into flavor compounds. The volatile flavor compounds of traditional and low-salt Chinese cured-meat were analyaed using SPME-GC/MS. The result showed the amount of volatile flavor compounds of traditional Chinese cured-meat, low-salt Chinese cured-meat, low-salt Chinese cured-meat treated by ultraviolet, and low-salt one treated by O3 were 82, 85, 104, and 89, respectively. The treatment of active oxygen could change the volatile flavor compounds of low-salt Chinese cured-meat to some extent. The chief volatile flavor compounds were guaiacol, eugennol, palmitic acid, and oleic aid, etc. Which were similar with the chief flavor compounds of traditional Chinese cured-meat.%为了探明加快成熟后低盐腊肉挥发性成分的变化,采用紫外灯照射和O3发生器产生的活性氧促进低盐腊肉中脂肪快速氧化,用SPME-GC/MS对传统腊肉、低盐腊肉以及活性氧催熟的低盐腊肉样品的挥发性风味成分进行分析,结果表明,传统腊肉挥发性成分有82种,低盐腊肉挥发性成分有85种,经紫外灯照射处理的低盐腊肉有104种,经O3处理有89种.活性氧加快成熟的低盐腊肉风味成分有所改变,且形成一些新的风味物质,而主要呈味物质愈疮木酚、丁子香酚、棕榈酸、油酸等与传统腊肉一致.

  9. Flavor variability and flavor stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M A; Drake, M A; Gerard, P D

    2009-09-01

    Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P flavor (R(2)= 0.38, P flavor (R(2)= 0.61, P flavor and flavor stability.

  10. Effect of starter culture on volatile flavor compounds in Smoked Horse Sausages%发酵剂对熏马肠挥发性风味化合物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鲜娜; 卢士玲; 李开雄; 李宝坤; 王庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSSPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatiles in Smoked horse sausages.106 volatile flavor compounds were detected from 5 different samples,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:hydrocarbons,alcohols,esters,acids,aldehydes,ketones,hydroxybenzenes,furans compounds,nitrogen-containing compounds.The main volatile flavor components include hydrocarbons,alcohols,acids,ketones,hydroxybenzenes.Differences of kinds and content of volatile flavor component existed between control sausages and starter culture sausages.%通过顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)测定熏马肠中的挥发性风味物质.从5个不同样品中共鉴定出106种风味物质,包括烃类、醇类、酯类、酸类、醛类、酮类、酚类、呋喃类、含氮类等化合物.其中烃类、醇类、酸类、酮类、酚类化合物含量较高,空白组和发酵剂组熏马肠中挥发性风味化合物的种类和含量都存在着一定的差别.

  11. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  12. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Han Jia; Yi Liu; Yu-Zhen Li

    2011-01-01

    The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE) and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone) were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC-MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower.

  13. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found...

  14. Effects of food gums on volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice during storage%食用胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 任志伟; 张静; 吴巧

    2012-01-01

    Along with the extending of storage time, the volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice will disappear gradually and causes poor quality of dried duck meat slice. Therefore, maintaining the stability of the volatile flavor substances is discussed in this papeT. The effects of Xanthan gum, Carrageenan, Arabic gum, Konjac gum on the quality changes were studied. HS - SPEM - GC - MS was appllied to extract and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in dried duck meat during the storage. The study showed that food gums could slow down the volatile speed of the flavor and retained flavor component nonanal and estragole better. Thus, stability of the volatile flavor was kept and shelf life of the products was extended.%随着保藏时间的延长鸭肉脯中的挥发性风味物质会逐渐挥发,造成鸭肉脯的风味减淡,影响鸭肉脯的品质,因此在加工的过程中需要采取措施以保持鸭肉脯在保藏过程中的挥发性风味物质的稳定性,以鸭肉为原料,研究了鸭肉脯在加工过程中添加黄原胶、卡拉胶、阿拉伯胶和魔芋胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化规律的影响.采用顶空固相微萃取技术和气相色谱质谱联用检测方( HS - SPEM - GC - MS)对鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质进行萃取和检测,研究结果表明,添加食用胶后可以减缓鸭肉脯挥发性风味物质总含量的挥发速度,有效的保持了鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质,同时添加食用胶对鸭肉脯中主要挥发性风味物质中的壬醛、草蒿脑等起到较好的保持作用,从而有利于延长鸭肉脯的保藏时间风味稳定性.

  15. 浓香葵花籽油挥发性风味成分的鉴定%Indentification of volatile flavor compounds of sunflower oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍萍; 黄健花; 宋志华; 王兴国

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取法(HS-SPME)萃取葵花籽油的挥发性风味物质,优化了萃取条件,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对其进行分离鉴定。结果表明,萃取温度50℃和萃取时间50minT解吸5min萃取效果最好.经数据库检索,葵花籽油中共鉴定出97种化合物,占总检出化合物的83.14%,包括吡嗪、呋喃、醛、酯和酸等化合物。初步判断葵花籽油主要香气成分中包含2-戊基呋喃和2,5-二甲基吡嗪。%The volatile flavor compounds in sunflower oil were extracted by using headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME) and it was performed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) to separate and identify the volatile compound. The optimum extraction conditions were determined and listed as follows=the extraction temperature of 50℃,the extraction time of 50rain and the desorption time of 5min. A total of 97 compounds which accounted for 83.14% of all the extracted compounds were identified as pyrazine, furan,aldehydes,esters,acids and so on. The results showed that 2-pentyl furan and 2,5-bimethylpyrazine were included in the characteristic aroma compents of sunflower oil.

  16. 迷迭香挥发油提取工艺优化及其化学成分分析%Optimization of Extraction Technology of Volatile Oil from Rosemary and Analysis on the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏妙; 郭占京; 卢汝梅; 蒙亮

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oil was extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by water steam distillation method. The extraction technology was optimized by orthogonal test. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were compared by GC-MS. According to orthogonal design, the optimum technology for extracting volatile oil from rosemary was, the herb was cut into pieces with length of 1 cm, then soaked for 3 h when the dosage of water was fifteen fold of material mass, and extracted for 4 h, under such conditions the extraction rate of volatile oil was 1.870%. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were similar. The quality was not affected by drying in the shade.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取迷迭香(Rosmarinus officindis L.)挥发油,运用正交设计优化提取工艺.结果表明,迷迭香挥发油最佳提取工艺条件为迷迭香剪成1 cm长的小段、料水质量比1∶15、浸泡时间3h、提取时间4h,此条件下挥发油的得率为1.870%.运用GC-MS技术分析并比较了迷迭香鲜样和干样挥发油的化学成分,结果表明二者化学成分基本相同,药材阴干后挥发油品质没有受到明显影响.

  17. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of three endemic Centaurea species from Turkey: Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek and their antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Celik, Sezgin; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 94 components were identified. Sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids and carbonylic compounds were the most abundant components in the oils. Hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z )-9,12-octadecadienoic acid were the main fatty acids in all the examined samples, that showed different patterns of composition. The study on the biological activity of the oils showed an action mainly against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  18. [Effects of processing methods on the amounts of volatile oil of nutmeg and on isolation and characterization of the volatile oil constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Xu, Z; Pan, J; Mao, S

    1990-07-01

    In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of various processing methods, i.e., scalding in hot purified talc, simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran, on nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) in terms of the quantities of the volatile oil. The experimental results revealed that the amounts of volatile oil contained in nutmeg vary remarkably with the lengths of cooking time and the fluctuation of temperature. Detected by GC-MS-computer, 32 compounds of nutmeg were characterized, and their contents were determined by GC respectively.

  19. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Lasiosphaera fenzlii%脱皮马勃挥发性成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑楠; 司攀; 高玉琼; 刘建华; 杨广成

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide the foundation for reasonable utilization by analyzing the volatile constituents of Lasiosphaera fenzlii. Method: The volatile oil was extracted from L. fenzlii by team distillation. The chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS. Result: Eighty nine compounds were separated and forty nine of them were identified, which accounted for 70.713% of all the volatile oil. The major components were acenaphthylene (16.836%), ar-curcumene (7.800%), caryophyllene oxide (5.448%), beta-tumerone (2. 814% ) , beta-cadinene (2. 771% ). Conclusion: This paper reported, for the first time, the composition of volatile oils of L. fenzlii by GC-MS.%目的:分析脱皮马勃的挥发性成分,为脱皮马勃的开发利用提供实验依据.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取脱皮马勃(Lasiosphaera fenzlii Reich)挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对挥发油进行分析.结果:共分离出89个化学成分,鉴别出49个化学成分,占挥发油总量的70.713%,其主要成分为苊(16.836%);芳-姜黄烯(7.800%);丁香烯环氧物(5.448%);β-姜黄酮(2.814%);β-杜松萜烯(2.771%).结论:首次采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对脱皮马勃的挥发性成分进行研究.

  20. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  1. A Search for CD36 Ligands from Flavor Volatiles in Foods with an Aldehyde Moiety: Identification of Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes with 9-16 Carbon Atoms as Potential Ligands of the Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kimoto, Yusaku; Inoue, Kazuo

    2017-08-09

    Volatile compounds with an aldehyde moiety such as (Z)-9-octadecenal are potential ligands for cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a transmembrane receptor that has recently been shown to play a role in mammalian olfaction. In this study, by performing an assay using a peptide mimic of human CD36, we aimed to discover additional ligands for the receptor from volatiles containing a single aldehyde group commonly found in human foods. Straight-chain, saturated aliphatic aldehydes with 9-16 carbons exhibited CD36 ligand activities, albeit to varying degrees. Notably, the activities of tridecanal and tetradecanal were higher than that of oleic acid, the most potent ligand among the fatty acids tested. Among the aldehydes other than aliphatic aldehydes, only phenylacetaldehyde showed a weak activity. These findings make a contribution to our knowledge of recognition mechanisms for flavor volatiles in foods with an aldehyde group.

  2. 烟草味电子烟油中挥发性成分分析%Analysis of the Volatile Components in Tobacco Flavor Electronic Cigarette Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍娟; 冯守爱; 吴彦; 黄天辉; 刘绍华; 黄东业; 黄世杰; 李小兰; 田兆福

    2014-01-01

    采用二氯甲烷对3家公司的5种电子烟油样品进行萃取,并用气-质联用(GC-MS)法鉴定。通过对 NIST 11谱库的检索,对5种样品中挥发性成分进行了比较分析。结果表明5种样品中的挥发性成分差别较大,共鉴定出40种挥发性成分,依据作用或来源分为雾化剂、烟叶提取物和薄荷提取物三类。其中相对含量水平较高且在5种样品中都检出的成分是丙二醇、烟碱和甘油。3家公司的5种烟草味电子烟油在抽吸品质上有所差异,C 公司样品在抽吸感官感受上相较其他两家公司样品具有明显优势,其中样品 C1又略好于 C2。比较发现,C 公司电子烟油的挥发性成分中含特有的8种多甘醇类化合物,可能是这些物质的协同作用而改善了抽吸品质。%Five kinds of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids origin from three companies were extracted by dichlorometh-ane,40 volatile components were identified by GC-MS.Results indicated that the differences were significant among five kinds of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids.All components were sorted to three groups according their function and origin:fogging agent,tobacco extracts and mint extracts.There were three common compounds with higher content in five samples, including propylene glycol,nicotine and glycerin.There were significant differences in smoking quality of samples from three companies,company C′s showed a notable advantage over the other two companies,sample C1 was slightly better than sample C2.Meanwhile,there were 8 kinds of distinctive multiethylene glycol compound that only existed in samples from company C, but not found in samples from companies A or B.It was probably the combined effect of these substances that improved the sensory quality of tobacco flavor electronic cigarette liquids.

  3. Investigation of the volatile oils, lipid constituents and biological activity of Ballota andreuzziana, Teucrium zanonii andVerbena tenuisecta in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled A Abdelshafeek; Adnan A Elgattar; Aziza H Zarkoon; Mohamed A Alwahash; Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the chemical composition of essential oils and lipid constituents of Ballota andreuzziana (B. andreuzziana), Teucrium zanonii (T. zanonii)andVerbena tenuisecta (V. tenuisecta) growing in Libya, and to test the antibacterial activity of different extracts ofTeucrium zanonii.Methods: The volatile oils of all plants were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed byGC/MS method. The lipid constituents of plants were obtained by extraction with petroleum ether and fractionated into fatty alcohols, fatty acids and unsapoinfiable matters. Antibacterial activity ofT. zanonii extracts and antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii were also studied.Results: The volate oil ofB. andreuzziana was found to consists of20 compounds in which caryophyllin is the main one (63.1%), the volatile oil ofT. zanonii consists of74 compounds in which germacrene-D was the main compound, while the volatile oil ofV. tenuisecta consists of13compounds with1-octen-3- ol as a major constituent(52.87%). The study of antimicrobial activity of different extracts ofV. tenuisecta showed that, both methanol and butanol extracts exhibited the highest activity againstMycobactirium phlei (M. phlei) andCandida albicans (C. albicans) respectively, while petroleum ether, fatty alcohols and unsaponifiable fractions had no antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Investigation of the antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii usingDPPH method proved that, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed the highest activity where the inhibition percentage(I%) are 93.6 and92.1 respectively.Conclusions:This is the first report about the volatile oils of these plants whereT. zanonii have the highest content and the highest number of the identified compounds. The study of antioxidantT. zanonii extracts proved that, the ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous extracts have the highest antioxidant activity. Methanol and butanol extracts of

  4. 仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分研究%Determination of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.) Haw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯莎; 丁丽娜; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 安立群; 廖川

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究仙人掌中的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取经超微粉碎后的仙人掌[Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.)Haw]挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:共分离鉴定出32个化学成分,占总成分的98.097%,其中相对百分含量大于2%的分别确定为异丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Isobutyl phthalate)27.492%,棕榈酸(Palmific acid)16.716%,丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Butyl phthahte)11.257%,薄荷脑(Menthol)6.722%,亚油酸(Linoleic acid)5.995%,壬醛(Nonanal)4.594%,乙醛(Hexanal)3.614%,十二酸(Dodecanic acid)3.244%.结论:通过对仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分的分析鉴定及相对含量测定,为综合利用仙人掌植物资源等提供科学依据.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw.Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS.The constituents were identified by their mass spectra.The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas.Result: Thirteen-two kinds of chemical constituents in Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw were separated and characterized;which were representing 98.097% of the oil.Relative contents that were more than 2% were determined as Isobutyl phthalate 27.492%,Palmitic acid 16.716%,Butyl phthalate 11.257%,Menthol 6.722%,Linoleic acid 5.995%,Nonanal 4.594%,Hexanal 3.614%,Dodecanic acid 3.244%.Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils of micro-milling of Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw's comprehensive utilization to provide reference data.

  5. Changes in the enantiomeric distribution of selected volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokl, Michał; Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, Maria Luisa Ruiz

    2006-11-15

    The variation, in general, of the composition of the aromatic fraction and, in particular, of the enantiomeric composition of certain chiral volatile compounds of commercial Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by boiling water was evaluated. A comparison between the volatile profile of the studied herbs demonstrated that most M. pulegium L. samples contained high proportions of Mentha piperita L., even when this information was not specified on the label. Likewise, substantial changes in the volatile fraction of the infusions with respect to the composition of the original plant used in their preparation were found. The enantiomeric composition of some chiral compounds of the dried plant material, particularly limonene, was modified by adding hot water, whereas others were kept invariable. The results shown in this work reflect the need for the control of the composition of commercial powders and brews of M. pulegium L. to ensure their correct application.

  6. 清炖与红烧猪肉挥发性风味成分的GC-MS比较%Comparison of volatile flavor compounds in braised and stewed pork by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾画艳; 黄业传; 罗兰

    2011-01-01

    对清炖猪肉、红烧猪肉及生猪肉的挥发性风味成份用GC-MS进行了对比,在原料、清炖猪肉和红烧猪肉中分别检测出挥发性风味成份576、8和69种。清炖猪肉中肉香贡献化合物总数明显大于生猪肉,同时与生猪肉相比,得出清炖猪肉特有香气化合物36种,这些物质主要是由生肉中的风味前体物质在加热过程中产生的;与清炖猪肉相比,红烧猪肉特有香气化合物35种,这些物质主要来自于红烧时加入的调料。%Volatile flavor compounds of braised pork,stewed pork and fresh pork were compared by GC-MS.57,68 and 69 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were detected in fresh,stewed and braised pork respectively.Compared with the fresh pork,there were more meaty aroma compounds from the stewed pork,and 36 kinds of characteristic volatile compounds were detected,these compounds mainly resulted from the flavor precursors substances in raw meat during heating process;compared with stewed pork,there were 35 kinds of characteristic volatile compounds from braised pork,and they mainly came from the adding spices.

  7. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Yunnan Weigela florida%云南产锦带花挥发油化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文晖; 梁倩

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Yunnan Weigela florida. METHODS: The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation, and identified by GC-MS. RESULTS: 16 compounds were isolated, including organic acid, alkane, phenols and ketone. The content of palmitic acid was the highest (53.048%), followed by linoleic acid (9.654%), pentacosane(8.967%),heptacosane(8.555%),tricosane (5.665%) and linolenic acid (3.848%). CONCLUSION: The study report the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Yunnan W. Florida for the first time and provide scientific basis for the further effective utilization of W. Florida.%目的:研究云南产锦带花挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取锦带花挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行化学成分分析.结果:共分离出16种化学成分,包含有机酸、烷烃、酚类和酮类.其中含量最高的是十六烷酸(53.048%),其次是亚油酸(9.654%)、正二十五烷(8.967%)、正二十七烷(8.555%)、正二十三烷(5.665%)和亚麻酸(3.848%).结论:本研究首次报道了云南产锦带花的挥发油化学成分,可为锦带花的进一步高效合理使用提供科学依据.

  8. Analysis of volatile constituents in beeswax using HS-GC/MS%顶空-气质联用测定黑龙江地产蜂蜡中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 张宁; 雷勇; 孙慧峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究蜂蜡挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空-气质联用手段进行测定,利用ChemStation、AMDIS、NIST05库相结合的方法对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用相对峰面积法计算相对百分含量.结果:分离得到色谱峰34种,确定了其中29种化合物,其中大部分成分在蜂蜡中首次报道.结论:应用顶空气一质联用技术能够全面、便捷测定蜂蜡中挥发性成分.%Objective: To study the volatile constituents from beeswax sample. Methods: The volatile constituents of beeswax which were analyzed by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra using ChemStation, AMDIS and NIST05. The relative percentage of volatile constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Results: Thirty-four kinds of chemical constituents in beeswax were separated, of which twenty-nine compounds were characterized. Conclusion: HS-GC/MS was simple and less sample-demanding and can be used for the fast analysis of the volatile constituents of beeswax.

  9. Comparison of volatile constituents extracted from model grape juice and model wine by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven-Quantrill, Darren J; Buglass, Alan J

    2011-02-18

    A stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimised for the analysis of volatile components of a model wine, based on a previously optimised method used for analysis of the same components in model grape juice. The presence of ethanol in the model wine sample matrix resulted in decreased sensitivity of the method toward most of the volatile constituents. Mean percent relative recoveries and reproducibilities (%CV) were 22.8% and 7.1%, respectively, compared with 28.4% and 8.5% for model grape juice. The mean limit of detection (LoD) ratio (juice:wine) was 0.25. Similar sensitivities for the two sample matrices using this method were achieved by changing the split ratio from 20:1 (grape juice) to 5:1 (wine), giving a mean limit of detection ratio (juice:wine) of 1.0, thus allowing direct comparison of chromatograms of volatile components in the two matrices. This enabled direct comparisons of grape juices and the wines derived from them by alcoholic yeast fermentation. The influence of ethanol concentration in the range 9-15% on method sensitivity is discussed, using an overlay of the total ion chromatograms. The use of a gas saver device for the 5:1 split ratio analysis of desorbed model wine aroma compounds is discussed in terms of preventing extraneous reaction of sorbent and stationary phases with air during analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction with Simultaneous Steam Distillation Extraction for the Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in Chinese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-xia; CHEN Xue-sen; WANG Xin-guo; CI Zhi-juan; LIU Xiao-li; HE Tian-ming; ZHANG Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    Volatile constituents in fully mature fruits of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Xinshiji were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SSDE) and then analyzed using capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 70 components were identified by HSSPME, including 20 esters, 19 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ketones, 4 acids, 4 lactones, 3 aldehydes, and 10 miscellaneous components, with the esters being the dominant constituent. On the basis of the odor unit values, it is believed that the following compounds probably contributed to the fresh apricot odor: hexyl acetate, β-ionone, butyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal,linalool, limonene, γ-decalactone, and hexanal. A total of 49 components were also detected by SSDE, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 9 esters, 4 ketones, 4 lactones, 2 acids, and 1 miscellaneous component, of which the monoterpene alcohols were the dominant constituents. It could be judged from the odor unit values that the following compounds were the major contributors to boiled apricot aroma: β-ionone, linalool, hexyl acetate, γ-dodecalactone, γ-decalactone, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, γ-octalactone, phenylacetaldehyde, butyl acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, and δ-decalactone.The results show that HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method, which is an alternative to the classical SSDE.

  11. Analysis Natural Volatile Constituents of Nothapodytes Pittosporoides with SPME-GC-MS%SPME-GC-MS 分析马比木中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 柳小兰; 王道平; 李齐激; 杨小生; 高渐飞; 张凡; 曹佩雪; 张明; 周美

    2016-01-01

    Nothapodytes pittosporoides containing camptothe-cin and its methyl derivatives which are im-portant anti-cancer active ingredients was extensively attracted as an alternative to camptotheca acuminate.Nat-ural volatile constituents of Nothapodytes pittosporoides were extracted by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)and separated and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The relative content of natural volatile constituents for Nothapodytes pittospo-roides was calculated to take area normalization meth-od of chromatographic peak.Through computer retrieval,80 natural volatile constituents of Nothapodytes pit-tosporoides were identified.The main ingredients were 2-methyl Butanal (4.85 1%),2-Methyl-2-butenal (3. 088%),Hexanal (5.780%),2-Furancarboxaldehyde (40.413%),(E)-2-Hexenal (6.099%),3-Hexen-1-ol (2. 739%),(Z)-Hexenol(3.260%),1-Hexanol(1 1.5 14%)and so on.%马比木(Nothapodytes pittosporoides )含有重要的抗癌活性成分喜树碱及其甲基衍生物.利用固相微萃取技术(SPME)提取马比木中的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对其化学成分进行分离分析,并用色谱峰面积归一化法测定各成分的相对含量.通过计算机检索,鉴定出80个挥发性化学成分,其中主要成分为2-甲基丁醛(4.851%)、2-甲基-2-丁烯醛(3.088%)、己醛(5.780%)、2-呋喃甲醛(40.413%)、(E)-2-己烯醛(6.099%)、3-己烯-1-醇(2.739%)、(Z)-己烯醇(3.260%)、正己醇(11.514%)等.

  12. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  13. Volatile flavour constituent patterns of Terras Madeirenses red wines extracted by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Rodrigues, Freddy; Câmara, José S

    2008-06-01

    A suitable analytical procedure based on static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-(ITD)MS), was developed and applied for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of volatile components of Portuguese Terras Madeirenses red wines. The headspace SPME method was optimised in terms of fibre coating, extraction time, and extraction temperature. The performance of three commercially available SPME fibres, viz. 100 mum polydimethylsiloxane; 85 mum polyacrylate, PA; and 50/30 mum divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane, was evaluated and compared. The highest amounts extracted, in terms of the maximum signal recorded for the total volatile composition, were obtained with a PA coating fibre at 30 degrees C during an extraction time of 60 min with a constant stirring at 750 rpm, after saturation of the sample with NaCl (30%, w/v). More than sixty volatile compounds, belonging to different biosynthetic pathways, have been identified, including fatty acid ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, and monoterpenols/C(13)-norisoprenoids.

  14. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  15. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  16. Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Pulicaria sicula (L.) Moris growing wild in Sicily: chemotaxonomic volatile markers of the genus Pulicaria Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Riccobono, Luana; Spadaro, Vivienne; Campisi, Patrizia; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Pulicaria sicula (L.) Moris was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil was particularly rich in oxygenated terpenoids. Among the oxygenated monoterpenes (content of 44.5%), the most abundant were borneol (23.7%), bornyl acetate (6.5%), and isothymol isobutyrate (6.2%). Caryophyllene oxide (10.2%), caryophylladienol I (4.3%), and caryophylla-3,8(13)-dien-5β-ol (4.4%) were identified as the main constituents among the oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, a complete literature review on the composition of the essential oils of all the Pulicaria taxa studied so far was performed and a principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out.

  17. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  18. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum%果上叶挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛世昌; 王道平; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 刘文炜; 李计龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究果上叶中的挥发性成分.方法:利用有机溶剂-水蒸气蒸馏法提取果上叶挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:分离鉴定出38种化学成分,占挥发油总量91.448%,其中含量大于2%的分别为Z-9-十八烯醛18.075%、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚3.264%、棕榈酸5.413%、油酸25.079%、二十三烷6.344%、二十四烷3.768%、1-十八烯酸单甘油酯2.146%、亚油酸甘油酯4.953%、二十五烷4.332%、二十六烷3.387%、二十七烷3.841%、二十八烷3.102%.结论:本文采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对果上叶中的挥发性成分进行研究.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum. Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by organic-steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra. The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Result: Thirty-eight kinds of chemical components were identified from B. odoratissimum. The amount of the identified components was accounted for 91. 448% of all the volatile oil. The constituents whose relative content was more than 2% were determined as Z-9-octadecenal (18. 075% ), 2,4-Di-tertbutylphenol (3.264%), palmitic acid (5.413%), oleic acid (25.079%),tricosane (6. 344% ), tetracosane (3. 768% ), 1-Monoolein (2. 416% ), 1-monolinolein (4. 953% ), pontacosane (4. 332% ), hexacosane (3. 387% ), heptacosane (3. 841% ), octacosane (3. 102% ). Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils from B. odoratissimum by GC-MS.

  20. Anodized aluminum wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber for rapid determination of volatile constituents in medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi

    2011-09-02

    Headspace solid phase microextraction using anodized aluminum fiber in combination with capillary GC-MS was utilized as monitoring technique for the collection and detection of the volatile compounds of Echinophora platyloba DC. Experimental parameters, including the sample weight, extraction temperature, extraction time and humidity effect, desorption time and desorption temperature were examined and optimized. Using HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 53 compounds were separated and identified in E. platyloba DC, which mainly included E-β ocimene (47.63%), R-D-decalactone (13.28%), α-pinene (7.43%) and nonane (6.71%). Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), HS-SPME, provides the advantages of a small amount of sample, timesaving, simplicity and cheapness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using anodized aluminum fiber in solid-phase microextraction coupled to headspace for the investigation of volatile fraction of medicinal plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow Sprengel Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were beta-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%, beta-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%, gamma-muurolene (28.4%, alpha-humulene (26.0%, 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5% and beta-pinene (10.6%. Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS, and comparison with the literature.

  2. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  3. Lowest-lying even-parity anti B{sub s} mesons: heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetry, chiral dynamics, and constituent quark-model bare masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P.G. [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of the D{sup *}{sub s0}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q anti q and (Q anti q)(q anti q) Fock components. In contrast to the c anti s sector, there is no experimental evidence of J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, 1{sup +} bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave anti B{sub s} scalar and axial mesons and the anti B{sup (*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels. (orig.)

  4. Volatile constituents of the oils from Povedadaphne Quadriporata (lauraceae from "Alberto M. Brenes" biological preserve, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the leaf, bark and wood oils of Povedadaphne quadriporata W. Burger from Costa Rica were analyzed by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. One hundred and sixty-three compounds were identified. The major components from the leaf oil were a-pinene (21.2%, germacrene D (18.1%, b-pinene (14.8%, a-phellandrene (7.8%, a-copaene (6.6%, b-caryophyllene (6.1% and d-cadinene (3.5%. From bark oil, the main constituents were a-pinene (27.7%, p-cymene (7.8%, b-pinene (7.4%, camphene (3.6%, a-copaene (3.5% and limonene (3.3%. From wood oil, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (8.0%, a-eudesmol (3.4%, cadalene (3.4% and d-cadinene (3.0% were the major compounds identified. This paper describes for the first time the composition of essential oils in this unique species and genus.

  5. 毕节烟叶中性致香成分和潜香物质分析%The Neutral Flavor Constituents and Potential Fragrant Substances Analysis of Tobacoo in Bijie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉霞; 牟兰; 刘仁祥; 李黔柱; 肖志达; 周萍; 张庆民; 王芳

    2012-01-01

    利用HPLC、GC-MS对毕节地区5个典型植烟区考烟的中性挥发性香味及潜香成分进行了分析.结果表明:HPLC检测烟草多酚类物质总含量均在30 mg/g以上,不同产地的含量依次为赫章>毕节>金沙>大方>威宁.GC-MS检测出34种重要中性挥发性香味成分,其中新植二烯含量高,占总香味成分的85%-90.5%.毕节市烟区样的苯丙氨酸类物质总量、棕色化产物总量、类西柏烷类总量都显著高于其他烟区;大方烟区的香气物质总量,类胡萝卜降解产物总量、大马酮、香叶基丙酮、巨豆三烯酮B、D均显著高于其他烟区.%The volatile neutral flavor and potential fragrant substances of tobacco leaves from five typical planting areas in Bijie were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. The results show that : the total amount of polyphenols by HPLC was more than 30mg/g among different planting areas , which demonstrated a decrease tendency of Hezhang > Bijie > Jinsha > Dafang > Weining. The important flavor components of thirty-four was detected by GC-MS. The content of neophytadiene was higher in total flavor components which accounts for 85% -90.5%. The Phenylalanine group, browning reaction substance and cembratriendiol group of Bijie planting areas were higher than that of other areas. But the total contents of aroma substances, carotenoid degradation products dama-scenone and Geranylacetone megastigmatrienone B, D of Dafang planting areas were higher than that of other areas.

  6. Study of Volatile Chemical Constituents in Different Parts of Picrasma quassioides%苦木不同部位挥发性化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再波; 郭治友; 龙成梅; 毛海立; 孙成斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)分析苦木不同部位的挥发性化学成分.方法:采用微波辅助顶空固相微萃取技术分别提取苦木叶柄、叶和枝的主要挥发性化学成分,用气相色谱-质谱法与Kovats色谱保留指数相结合进行定性定量分析.结果:从苦木的叶柄、叶片和枝中分别鉴定出84,76,60个组分,分别占挥发油总峰面积的97.247%,97.179%,97.141%,在叶柄中主要成分香芹酚(5.201%),麝香草酚(6.185%),反式-丁香烯(6.562%),α-佛手柑油烯(6.295%),反-β-金合欢烯(5.088%),枯茗醇(10.807%),β-甜没药烯(6.136%).叶片中主要成分是反式-丁香烯(7.017%),α-佛手柑油烯(7.848%),反-β-金合欢烯(8.297%),枯茗醇(10.728%),β-甜没药烯(7-150%),(-)-石竹烯氧化物(5.094%).而在枝中主要是反式-丁香烯(5.530%,α-佛手柑油烯(9.997%),反-β-金合欢烯(7.994%),枯茗醇(15.416%),β-甜没药烯(12.733%).结论:苦木叶柄、叶和枝所含挥发性成分差异较大.%Objective:To analyze and compare the volatile constituents which were extracted from the different parts of Picrasna quassioides . Method:The volatile components were extracted from the different parts of P.quassioides by the methods of MAE-HS-SPME and the chemical components of them were identified by GC-MS and Kovats retention index. Result: Eight-four volatile constituents in the petiole,76 in the leaf blade and 60 in the branch of P. quassioides were separated and identified, Accounting for 97. 247% ,97. 179% and 97. 141% of the total peak areas,respectively. Which is the main component in petiole carvacrol(5.201% ) ,thymol(6. 185% ) ,transcaryophyllene ( 6.562% ) , alpha-bergamotene ( 6. 295% ) , trans-beta-farnesene ( 5. 088% ), cuminol ( 10. 807% ),beta-bisabolene 6. 136% ). And in the leaf blade trans-caryophyllene ( 7. 017% ) , alpha-bergamotene ( 7. 848% ),trans-beta-farnesene ( 8.297% ) , cuminol ( 10. 728% ) , beta-bisabolene ( 7. 150

  7. Constituent of Sugars and Acids and the Flavor Trait of Megranate Fruits%石榴果实的糖酸组成及风味特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦改花; 黄文江; 赵建荣; 邓盾; 周玉丽

    2011-01-01

    The content of sugars and organic acids of ripening fruits of four megranate cultivars were detected by HPLC. The taste value and relationship between content of sugars and acids and the flavor indices of different cultivars were studied. Results showed, the soluble sugars of megranate fruits included sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol. Glucose and fructose were sugars of higher concentration, they accounted for 43.84% ~48.36% and 49.18%~50.67% of total sugars respectively. "Yushizi" was the cultivar of the highest sugars, while "Baipi" was the one of lowest among the four cultivars. The main organic acids of megranate fruits were quininic acid and succinic acid. Besides, oxalic acid, L-malic acid, shikimic acid, citrate acid and D-malic acid were detected in megranate fruits. "Manaozi" was the cultivar of the highest concentration of organic acids while "Qingpi" was the one of the lowest. Fructose had the greatest sweetness taste in megranate, followed by glucose; while quininic acid had the greatest sourness taste, followed by citrate acid. It also showed that sugars/acids had significantly positive correlation with sweetness taste/ sourness. The difference of sugars/acids among cultivars was mainly based on the concentration of oxalic acid, quininic acid, L-malic acid, citrate acid and succinic acid, but little correlation with the sugars. According to the flavor traits, "Qingpi"and "Yushizi" were considered as the cultivars of more sweetness taste, while "Baipi" and "Manaozi" were the cultivars of more sweetness taste.%采用高效液相色谱法测定4种石榴成熟期果实中糖和酸的组成,并对其味感值和糖酸组分与果实风味指标间的相关性进行分析.结果表明,石榴果实中可溶性糖组分有蔗糖、葡萄糖、果糖和山梨醇,其中葡萄糖和果糖含量最高,分别占总糖含量的43.84% ~48.36%和49.18% ~50.67%.4个品种中, “玉石籽”的总糖含量最高,“白皮”的最低.石榴果实

  8. Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Dry Yellow Soybean Sauce Made in Beijing%北京产干黄酱中挥发性风味成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗志伟; 柳金龙; 官伟; 刘玉平

    2011-01-01

    The volatile flavor compounds of 5 different brands of commercial dry yellow soybean sauces in Beijing were extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction(SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Totally 69 volatile compounds were identified,including 9 acids,22 esters,8 aldehydes,4 ketones,3 phenols,13 herterocylic compounds and 3 sulfur-containing compounds.The common compounds appeared in all five dry yellow soybean sauces were ethyl acetate,ethyl hexadecanoate,ethyl 9-octadecenate,ethyl 9,12-octadecadienoate,ethyl(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate,3-methyl butanal,benzeneacetaldehyde,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol,3-(methylthio)-propanal,and furfural,1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-ethanone.These compounds constituted the basic flavor of the five dry yellow soybean sauces,while other flavor compounds were responsible for the unique part of their flavor.%以北京地区5种知名品牌的干黄酱为原料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取并结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术(gaschromatography-mass spectrometer,GC-MS)对其挥发性风味成分进行分析。结果共鉴定出69种物质,其主要是酸类(9种)、酯类(22种)、醛类(8种)、酮类(4种)、酚类(3种)、杂环化合物(13种)、含硫化合物(3种)和其他化合物(7种)等;5种干黄酱中共有的成分是乙酸乙酯、棕榈酸乙酯、十八烯酸乙酯、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯、异戊醛、苯乙醛、4-乙烯基愈创木酚、糠醛、2-乙酰基吡咯、3-甲硫基丙醛等,这些物质共同形成了该5种干黄酱的相同风味,而其中不同的成分又使得该5种干黄酱香气各有特色。

  9. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques%2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳; 蒋立文; 陶湘林; 李先淼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques were analyzed by combination of SPME extraction combined with GC-MS, and the relative contents were determined by area normalization method. Totally 117 species (seven categories) volatile flavor compounds were identified, and 62 species in natural bask crude soy sauce, 84 species in low-salt crude oil with heat insulation fermentation. The identified flavor compounds include alcohols (15), phenols (10), acids (18), esters (19), aldehydes anketones (21), heterocyclics (27) and sulfur compounds (7). O-guaiacol, ethanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanal, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and trimethylpyrazine were main ingredients in two kinds of soy sauce. Although the content of most volatile organic in soy sauce was very little, the existence of them greatly enriched flavor of soy sauce.%通过用SPME萃取结合GC-MS分析了2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分,用面积归一化法测定其组分的相对含量,2种酱油中共鉴定出117种(7大类)挥发性风味化合物,天然晒露的酱油共有62种,低盐保温发酵原油有84种,所鉴定的风味化合物包括15种醇,10种酚,18种酸,19种酯,21种醛酮化合物,27种杂环化合物和7种含硫化合物.其中O-愈创木酚、乙酸、3-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛和三甲基吡嗪为2种酱油中都存在的主体物质.尽管酱油中多数香气成分含量极微,但是多种香气成分的存在极大地丰富了酱油的风味.

  10. Volatile Flavoring Compounds in Beer Produced by Wheat Extruded at Low Temperature as Auxiliary Materials%低温挤压小麦辅料啤酒挥发性风味组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何媛媛; 郑慧; 李宏军

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative&qualitative analysis of the volatile flavoring compounds in beer produced by wheat extruded at low tem-perature as auxiliary materials was done by automatic head-space sampling coupled with capillary gas chromatography. The results showed that, 8 main volatile flavoring compounds were isolated from beer including acetaldehyde, n-propanol, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, isoamyl alco-hol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl caproate and ethyl caprylate. The content of each volatile flavoring compounds were in the range of normal content of light beer. The variation coefficients of the analytic results were less than 5%and the recoveries were more than 95%, which proved good repeatability and accuracy of such method. The content of total soluble nitrogen and high, middle and low-molecular nitrogenous substances in beer detected by Lundin fraction method were 105.1 mg/100 mL, 13.9 mg/100 mL, 20.0 mg/100 mL and 71.2 mg/100 mL, respectively.%采用静态自动顶空进样结合毛细管气相色谱法对膨化小麦辅料啤酒的挥发性风味组分进行定性和定量分析。结果表明,从膨化小麦辅料啤酒中主要分离出8种挥发性风味组分,其组分及含量分别是乙醛、正丙醇、乙酸乙酯、异丁醇、异戊醇、乙酸异戊酯、己酸乙酯和辛酸乙酯。啤酒中各挥发性风味组分的含量均在淡色啤酒正常含量范围之内。该方法测量结果变异系数均小于5%,回收率均大于95%,具有很好的准确性和重复性。用隆丁区分法测量小麦辅料啤酒中总氮和高、中、低分子氮的含量分别为总可溶性氮105.1 mg/100 mL、高分子氮13.9 mg/100 mL、中分子氮20.0 mg/100 mL、低分子氮71.2 mg/100 mL。

  11. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  12. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on

  13. Effects of cinnamon additions on volatile flavor compounds of stewed chicken%肉桂添加量对卤鸡腿肉挥发性风味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 赵改名; 田玮; 柳艳霞; 孙灵霞; 刘永安

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of cinnamon additions on volatile flavor compounds of stewed chicken and provide references for cinnamon application in traditional sauced meat processing.Electronic nose and HS-SPME-GC-MS were used to detect the stewed chicken samples with different cinnamon concentrations (0%,0.05%,0.1%,O.2%,and 0.3%).Results:The electronic nose signals of different samples showed a strong cluster property.With the increase of cinnamon addition,54,60,63,65 and 80 volatile flavor compounds were identified successively.Compared with the contrast group,40 new flavor compounds (cinnamaldehyde,cineole,geranylacetone,coumarin,p-cymene,caryophyllene,etc) were found in the cinnamon groups.Terpenes content increased the most in 0.3%cinnamon group.The newly-added volatile flavor compounds in chicken samples with cinnamon were mainly contributed by the addition of cinnamon.When the addition amount of cinnamon reached to 0.3%,terpenes in chicken samples sharply increased and volatile flavour components changed greatly.%比较不同肉桂添加量对卤鸡腿肉挥发性风味成分的影响.设置5个梯度的肉桂添加量(0%,0.05%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%),采用电子鼻(EN)、顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气质联用(GC-MS)的方法对不同肉桂添加量的卤鸡肉样品进行检测分析.结果显示:不同肉桂添加量鸡肉样品的电子鼻信号表现出较强的聚类特性;按肉桂添加量由低到高的顺序经GC-MS依次检出54、60、63、65、80种挥发性风味物质;与空白组相比,添加肉桂的鸡肉样品中新增了肉桂醛、桉叶油醇、香叶基丙酮、香豆素、对异丙基甲苯、石竹烯等40种挥发性风味物质,以0.3%肉桂组增加的萜烯类物质最多.表明添加肉桂后鸡肉样品中新增的挥发性风味物质多属于肉桂添加的直接引入.肉桂添加浓度达到0.3%时,样品中萜烯类物质急剧增加,风味成分变化较大.

  14. 植物油中挥发性风味物质的富集方法研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON ENRICHMENT METHODS OF VOLATILE FLAVOR COMPONENTS IN VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从珊; 张国治; 黄纪念; 张丽霞; 葛凤全

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduced the common enrichment methods of volatile flavor components in vegetable oil, including distillation (steam distillation, vacuum distillation and simultaneous distillation extraction) , headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction and static headspace extraction) , solid phase mi-croextraction , and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. The paper also described the advantages and disadvantages of each method to provide some reference to the researchers who study the flavor of oils.%介绍了植物油中挥发性风味物质的常见富集方法,包括蒸馏法(水蒸气蒸馏法、真空减压蒸馏法、同时蒸馏萃取法)、顶空萃取法(动态顶空萃取法、静态顶空萃取法)、固相微萃取法和超临界CO2流体萃取法.描述了每种方法的优缺点,给油脂风味的研究者提供一定的参考.

  15. Volatile constituents from flower of Tianmian Cucurbita moschata Duch. by head-space solid micro-extraction coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌勤; 卢引; 李新铮; 邢晗; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the volatile constituents in flowers of Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Methods The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction,coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements to search the volatile constituents from flowers of C. moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Results 37 compounds were identified from the male flowers and 16 from the female flowers,98.24% and 94.45% of the total essential constituents respectively,the male flowers and the female had 10 common components. Conclusion =The volatile constituents were different between the female flowers and the male of C. moschata.%目的:分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),结合保留指数法,首次采用峰面积归一化法计算各化合物的相对百分含量来分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。结果:从甜面大南瓜雄花和雌花中分别鉴定出37和16种化合物,分别占总峰面积的98.24%和94.45%。其中雄花和雌花有10种共有成分。结论:发现甜面大南瓜雌雄花的挥发性成分具有差别。

  16. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  17. 萝卜炖牛腩挥发性风味成分的分离与鉴定%Analysis of volatile flavor compounds in carrot stew beef brisket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 孙杰; 蒲丹丹; 孙宝国; 张玉玉

    2016-01-01

    The volatile flavor components in carrot stew beef brisket were extracted by solid-phase micro extraction( solid-phase mi-cro extraction,SPME SPME)or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation(solvent-assisted flavor evaporation,SAFE)and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS). SPME experimentalconditions,such as Fiber type,sample weight,adsorption temperature,extraction time were optimized. The best extraction performance was achieved under se-lecting 65 μm PDMS/DVB( pink) ,sample weight at 8 g,adsorption temperature at 60℃,40 min extraction time time. A total of 98 volatile compounds were identified in carrot stew beef brisket,including 11 hydrocarbons,13 aldehydes,11 ketones,7 acids,22 alco-hols,12 esters,4 ethers,6 phenols,12 sulfur and other nitrogen-containing compounds or heterocyclic compounds. Aldehydes, e-thers,nitrogen-containing compounds and heterocyclic compounds may have an important influence on the formation of carrot stew beef brisket flavor.%采用固相微萃取(solid-phase micro extraction,SPME)法和溶剂辅助蒸发(solvent-assisted flavor evapora-tion,SAFE)法提取萝卜炖牛腩中的挥发性风味成分,利用气相色谱-质谱联用( gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry,GC-MS)技术对其挥发性风味成分进行分析。对影响固相微萃取的操作条件萃取头纤维种类、样品量、吸附温度以及萃取时间进行了优化,结果表明当选择65μmPDMS/DVB(粉色)萃取头、样品量为8 g、吸附温度为60℃、萃取时间为40 min时,萃取效果最佳。两种方法共鉴定出98种挥发性成分,包括烃类11种、醛类13种、酮类11种、酸类7种、醇类22种、酯类12种、醚类4种、酚类6种、含硫含氮及其他杂环化合物12种。其中,醛类、醚类和含硫含氮及其他杂环化合物可能对萝卜炖牛腩特征风味的形成有着重要的影响。

  18. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  19. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D{\\O}experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor atproduction, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B^0 and B_S system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from $b$ decays from...

  20. Analysis of Volatile Compounds in a Dairy Flavoring Using SPME-GC/MS%固相微萃取结合气质联用法分析一种奶味香精中的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 孙宝国; 梁梦兰

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of a foreign dairy flavoring was analyzed by GC/MS after solid-phase microextraction using 3 different types of extraction fibers.A total of 39,41 and 40 volatile compounds were identified with CAR/PDMS fiber,PDMS/DVB fiber,and CAR/PDMS/DVB fiber,respectively.The results of the three different kinds of fibers complemented each other,and a total of 51 volatile compounds were identified in this dairy flavor,among which,esters,aldehydes,ketones and lectones were the dominant components and their concentrations(26.12%,25.95%,and 15.16 %) were higher than those of others.%应用固相微萃取法采用3种不同萃取纤维,结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术,剖析1种国外奶味香精样品中的挥发性成分。结果表明;以Carboxen/聚二甲基硅氧烷(carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane,CAR/PDMS)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出39种挥发性成分,以聚二甲基硅氧烷/二乙烯基苯(polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene,PDMS/DVB)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出41种挥发性成分,以二乙烯基苯/Carboxen/聚二甲基硅氧烷(Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane,CAR/PDMS/DVB)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出40种挥发性成分;3种纤维萃取的分析结果相互补充,共鉴定出51种挥发性成分,其中酯类、醛酮类和内酯类化合物的含量最高,分别为26.12%、25.95%和15.16%,是该种奶味香精的主要组成成分。

  1. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  2. Effect of Antioxidants on Volatile Flavor Components in Sichuan Traditional Bacon during Chilling Storage%抗氧化剂对川式腊肉低温冷藏中挥发性风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范代超; 易倩; 刘洋; 周才琼

    2012-01-01

    了解低温贮藏与川式腊肉风味品质的关系以指导合理贮藏。采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用法分析抗氧化剂对川式腊肉低温贮藏中挥发性风味物质的影响。结果显示,处理A(直接真空包装)、处理B(添加0.4g/kg茶多酚后真空包装)、处理C(添加0.5g/kg异抗坏血酸钠后真空包装)的腊肉挥发性成分从原料的67种分别变化至贮藏结束(120d)时的75、64、63种;处理A、B、C的酚类、碳氢化合物及羰基化合物种类从初始的56种分别变化至结束时的55、45、44种,相对含量从初始的69.44%分别变化至结束时的59.30%、60.51%、61.87%;主体风味物质酚类相对含量从初始的34.43%分别降至结束时的24.26%、28.06%、33.41%;处理B、C的苯酚、愈创木酚、5-甲基愈创木酚、壬醛、乙酰呋喃、3-呋喃甲醇和苯甲醛相对含量高于处理A。表明添加抗氧化剂可减缓腊肉特征风味物质在冷藏中下降的趋势。%SDE-CJC/MS was used to explore the effect of antioxidants on volatile flavor components of Sichuan traditional bacon during chilling storage at 5 ℃. The results showed that freshly prepared Sichuan traditional bacon contained 67 volatile components; the number of volatile components varied to 75, 64 and 63 after 120 d of storage with treatments A (vacuum packaging), B (addition of 0.4 gag tea polyphenols and then vacuum packaging) and C (addition of 0.5 g/kg sodium D-isoascorbate and then vacuum packaging), respectively. The number of phenols, hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds changed from 56 to 55, 45 and 44 with a relative content change from 69.44% to 59.30%, 60.51% and 61.87%, respectively. The relative content of phenols as the major flavor components changed from 34.43% to 24.26%, 28.06% and 33.41%, respectively. The relative contents of phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy, 2-methoxy-5-methylphenol, nonanal, acetyl furan, 3-furanmethanol and benzaldehyde after B

  3. Effect of different pickling salt concentration on taste, texture and volatile flavor compounds of mustard root%盐分腌制对大头菜滋味、质构和挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 唐仁勇; 刘达玉; 邹强; 张坤琼; 袁婷

    2015-01-01

    为寻找适当的腌制大头菜食盐浓度,采用不同浓度食盐腌制并发酵大头菜,考察对大头菜成品的食盐含量、感官、理化、质构和挥发性物质的影响.结果发现,6%和8%低盐腌制大头菜的感官得分较高,其氨基酸态氮含量较高,pH值更低,乙醇含量也较少,芳香物质更加丰富,其中8%组的亚硝酸盐含量最低,质地感官评分最好,且TPA测试的硬度和咀嚼性较好.实验结果表明,6%~8%的食盐腌制大头菜增加乳酸菌的活力和同型发酵,提升了产品的滋味、香味和质构品质.%This study aimed to look for a proper sodium chloride concentration to pickle mustard root.The mustard root was pickled and fermented with different salt concentration.The effects on the salt concentration,sense score,chemical index,texture quality and volatile flavor compounds of pickled food were investigated.The results indicated that mustard root pickled with 6% and 8% salt concentration had better sense score,more amino acids nitrogen content,lower pH,less ethanol content,and more flavor compounds.The 8% treatment had lowest nitrite content,better texture sense score,TPA hardness and chewiness.These results suggested that using 6% ~ 8% salt concentration to pickle mustard root could not only increase lactic acid bacteria activity and homotype fermentation,but also improve taste,flavor and texture quality of the product.

  4. 大米经不同包装方式贮藏后蒸煮风味物质的变化%Study on the Changes of Cooking Flavor Volatiles by Different Packing Ways of Rice after Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜平; 张晖; 王立; 郭晓娜; 钱海峰; 齐希光

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)与气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)的方法,对在37℃、60%相对湿度的贮藏条件下,采用4种不同包装方式(自然密闭、充CO2、充N2或抽真空)的大米蒸煮后风味物质进行了比较研究.研究表明,自然密闭包装方式储藏后醛类、醇类和酮类物质较其他包装方式增加量均最为显著,这说明采用自然密闭包装方式贮藏的保鲜效果最差.通过对抽真空、充CO2或充N2这3种包装的醛类、醇类、酮类和2-戊基呋喃总量进行比较,发现抽真空包装或充CO2包装这两种包装方式可以较好的延缓米饭风味物质的劣变,保持大米的品质,充N2包装次之.%A combined headspace solid -phase microextraction (HS -SPME )with gas chromatography -mass spectromelry (GC-MS)method has been employed for the analysis of the cooking flavor volatiles of rice. The rice were storaged by different packing ways (natural hermetic storage, filling with carbon dioxide or nitrogen and vacuumizing storage )under the following conditions:temperature 37℃,relative humidity 60%. The research showed that the augmentel of aldehydes, alcohols and ketones was the moat prominent by natural hermetic packing than other packing ways after storage. Through comparing the total alcohols,aldehydes,ketones and 2 -pentylfuran of vacuumizing storage, filling with carbon dioxide and nitrogen, it was found that storage of vacuumizing and filling with carbon dioxide could postpone the deterioration of rice flavor volatiles and keep the quality of rice.

  5. Analysis of Volatile Components in Trollius chinensis Bunge Extract and Its Application in Cigarette Flavoring%金莲花浸膏挥发性成分分析及其卷烟应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬小明; 赵华新; 李冰洁; 于建军

    2011-01-01

    采用GC-MS法分析了金莲花浸膏的挥发性成分,并进行了卷烟加香实验.结果表明:①金莲花浸膏中共鉴定出38种挥发性成分,主要有月桂酸(9.70%)、十四酸(9.52%)、十六酸乙酯(7.85%)、二十三烷(7.76%)、二氢猕猴桃内酯(7.72%)、亚麻酸乙酯(6.56%)、棕榈酸(5.85%)、十四酸乙酯(5.63%)、芳樟醇(2.31%)、β-紫罗兰酮(1.79%)、植酮(1.74%)、脱氢芳樟醇(1.68%)、顺茉莉酮(1.00%)等,这些物质是构成卷烟香味的重要物质;②金莲花浸膏具有改善和修饰卷烟吸味、丰满烟气、减轻刺激性的作用.%The volatile components in the extract of Trollius chinensis Bunge were identified by method of GC - MS, and the application of the extract in cigarette flavoring was studied as well.The results show that: ① there were 38 kinds of volatile compounds, including lauric acid (9.70% ), myristic acid (9.52% ), ethyl palmitate (7.85 % ), tricosane (7.76% ), dihydroactinidiolide (7.72% ), linolenic acid ethyl ester ( 6.56% ), hexadecylic acid ( 5.85% ), tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester ( 5.63% ), linalool ( 2.31% ), β-ionone ( 1.79% ), 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone ( 1.74% ), dehydrolinalool (1.68%), cis-jasmone (1.00%) etc, most of which are the important components in cigarette flavoring.②the extract plays an important role in enhancing the aroma quality of cigarettes, significantly reducing the irritation and smoothing the smoke.

  6. Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daisuke; Igarashi, Toshinori; Aoyama, Kenji

    2014-02-19

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus establish a symbiotic relationship in milk; however, S. thermophilus predominantly grows in soymilk. This study determined that excess diacetyl was notably generated mainly by S. thermophilus in soymilk, and this flavor compound created an unpleasant odor in fermented soymilk. The addition of l-valine to soymilk reduced the amount of diacetyl and increased the levels of acetoin during fermentation by S. thermophilus . In addition, it was found that the expression of the ilvC gene was repressed and that of the als and aldB genes was stimulated in S. thermophilus by l-valine. Sensory evaluations with the triangle difference test and a preference test showed that the soymilk fermented with l-valine was significantly preferred compared with that without l-valine. In this study, we successfully controlled the metabolic flux of S. thermophilus in soymilk and produced more favorable fermented soymilk without the use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria strains.

  7. Baryons in chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1996-01-01

    Beyond the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a flavor-spin chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks. One cannot exclude, however, the possibility that this flavor-spin interaction has an appreciable vector- and higher meson exchange component.

  8. Constituintes químicos e efeito ecotoxicológico do óleo volátil de folhas de Eucalyptus urograndis (Mirtaceae Chemical constituents and ecotoxicological effect of the volatile oil from leaves of eucalyptus urograndis (Mirtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Oliveira Lino de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oil from the leaves of E. urograndis was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It was identified 10 compounds in which, orto-cimene (41.4% and 1,8-cineol (25.8% were the main constituents. The induction of deleterious effect to aquatic organisms due to the presence of volatile oil lixiviated from E. urograndis leaves was studied using Daphnia laevis and D. similis as bioindicators. Through the results of toxicological tests it was possible to show that the litterbag of E. urograndis represents a risk factor for the aquatic ecosystem of lakes and rivers that are in the surrounding area of large scale Eucalyptus plantations. The method can be used for monitor the quality of these types of aquatic environments.

  9. 微波萃取莪术挥发油及其成分分析%Extraction of Volatile Oil from Curcumae rhizoma with Microwave -Extracting and Analysis of Its Constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶晶

    2012-01-01

    The volatile oil of Curcumae rhizoma was extracted by microwave - extracting and detected by GC - MS.Results showed that the extraction yield of volatile oil using microwave was 3.36%, higher than that by steam distillation. The main constituents of the volatile oil were the curzerenone achieving 20. 14%, followed by curcumol of 18.34%. This experiment has practical significance for the effective use of Curcumae rhizoma and its volatile oil.%采用微波萃取的方式提取莪术中的挥发油,并通过气相色谱一质谱联用技术对其化学成分进行了分析。实验结果显示,用微波萃取莪术挥发油的得率为3.36%,高于水蒸汽蒸馏法;挥发油中莪术呋喃烯酮含量最高,达到20.14%,其次是莪术醇,为18.34%。该实验可为莪术药材及其挥发油的有效利用提供依据。

  10. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  11. 杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响%Effect of sterilization methods on volatile flavor compounds of instant carrot slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米瑞芳; 刘俊梅; 胡小松; 吴继红

    2016-01-01

    为研究不同杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响,运用固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分别对新鲜胡萝卜片和经巴氏杀菌、超高压杀菌、热辅助超高压杀菌处理的即食胡萝卜片及其贮藏期间(4℃,60 d)的挥发性组分进行对比分析。试验结果表明:新鲜胡萝卜片的主要芳香成分为萜烯类物质。与未杀菌组相比,经不同杀菌处理后,即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量均有所降低,其中巴氏杀菌组降低的最多。在贮藏前期(20~30 d),超高压处理即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质的含量最高,超高压杀菌在短期内较好地保持了胡萝卜特有的香气,即食胡萝卜片品质较好;其次是热辅助压力杀菌组,热辅助压力杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的β-蒎烯、β-石竹烯的含量较其他处理组较高,较好地保持了胡萝卜的松树树脂香气以及辛香气味;而巴氏杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量最低,即食胡萝卜片的品质相对较差。研究结果可为新型杀菌技术在即食产品领域的应用提供参考。%The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of 3 different sterilization methods on the flavor of prepared carrot slices from raw materials during cold storage at 4℃. The samples were pretreated by pasteurization (90℃, 30 min), high hydrostatic pressure sterilization (550 MPa, 25℃, 10 min), pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (550 MPa, 50℃, 10 min) and stored at 4℃ for 60 d. The solide-phase micro-extraction (SPME)/chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology was used to detect and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in fresh carrot and sterilized carrot slices during storage. Results showed that carrots had a complex volatile characteristic. Fresh carrot sample’s volatiles mainly consisted of terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and alkanes. Among these, terpenes were

  12. 气质联用法分析香茶菜不同部位挥发油的化学成分%GC-MS Analysis on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Different Fractions of Isodon Amethystoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 朱冬青; 王贤亲; 林崇良

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences of chemical constituents of the volatile oils in different fractions from the Isodon amethystoides.Methods:The volatile oils of Isodon amethystoides were extracted by steam distillation and were identified by GC-MS.The percentage composition of the volatile oils were calculated according to Peak area normalization method.Results:The major constituents of the volatile oils were alkanes,alcohols,acids and esters.8 compounds were identified from the stems,24 from the leaves,17 from the inflorescences,8 from the roots,and 32 from the rhizomes.Conclusion:It provides a basis for further development and utilization of Isodon amethystoides.%目的:研究香茶菜不同部位挥发油化学成分的差异.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,利用GC-MS计算机联用仪定性分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发油中化学成分的百分含量.结果:香茶菜挥发油主要成分以烷烃、醇、酸、酯为主,香茶菜茎鉴定出8个化合物,香茶菜叶鉴定出24个化合物,香荼菜花序鉴定出17个化合物,香茶菜根鉴定出8个化合物,香茶菜根茎挥发油中鉴定出32个化合物.结论:为进一步开发利用香茶菜提供依据.

  13. Separation and Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in High-Salt Liquid State-Fermented Soy Sauce%高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献礼; 赵谋明; 崔春; 曹鸣凯; 李丹

    2009-01-01

    分别采用固相微萃取(SPME)、同时蒸馏萃取(VSDE)和直接溶剂萃取(DSE)法对高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质进行分离、浓缩,并利用气质联用色谱(GC-MS)对其挥发性风味物质进行鉴定.试验共鉴定出147种风味化合物,其中酸类17种、醇类12种、醛类16种、酯类36种、呋喃(酮)类12种、酮类13种、杂环化合物14种、酚类8种、吡喃(酮)类6种、吡嗪类4种、吡咯(酮)类3种、含硫化合物6种.研究结果表明,主要挥发性风味化合物为酯、酸、醛、杂环化合物和醇类,其中酯类化合物的数量和相对含量最多;此外,有16种日式和韩式酱油中的关键风味化合物在国产高盐稀态酱油中被检出.%In this paper, such technologies as solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), simultaneous steam distillation-extraction (VSDE) and direct solvent extraction (DSE) were employed to separate and concentrate the volatile flavor compounds in high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce, and the extracts were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 147 flavor compounds, including 17 kinds of acids, 12 kinds of alcohols, 16 kinds of aldehydes, 36 kinds of esters, 12 kinds of furan(one)s, 13 kinds of ketones, 14 kinds of he-〖JP2〗 terocyclic compounds, 8 kinds of phenols, 6 kinds of pyran(one)s, 4 kinds of pyrazines, 3 kinds of pyrrol(idon)es〖JP〗 and 6 kinds of sulfur-containing compounds, were then identified. The results indicate that, in the dominant volatile flavor compounds in the soy sauce, namely, esters, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds, esters are of the most species and of the highest relative content; and that 16 aroma-impact compounds of Japanese and Korean soy sauces were detected from Chinese high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce.

  14. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  15. 3种百合科植物挥发物成分分析%Constituent analysis of volatile organic compounds in three Liliaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青; 高群英; 张汝民; 高岩; 侯平

    2011-01-01

    为了探究百合科Liliaceae植物挥发物(VOCs)成分组成,采用活体植物动态顶空套袋采集法收集吊兰Chlorophytum comosum,一叶兰Aspidistra elatior和文竹Asparagus plumosus 3种百合科植物VOCs,利用热脱附-气相色谱/质谱联用法分析了这3种植物VOCs的主要成分.结果表明:吊兰释放34种VOCs,包含萜类、酯类、醇类、醛类、酸类等5类化合物,其中二氢香茅醇相对含量最高(28.79%);一叶兰释放VOCs共鉴定出25种,包含醛类、酯类、醇类、萜类、酮类、烃类等6类化合物,其中壬醛(相对含量为12.12%)为其主要成分;文竹释放出38种V0Cs,包含萜类醛类、酯类、醇类、醛类等4种化合物,主成分为牻牛儿醇(相对含量为27.90%).3种百合科植物挥发物中都含有萜类化合物、醇类化合物、醛类化合物、酯类化合物.研究结果为百合科植物的综合开发利用提供了理论依据.%To understand the constituents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Liliaceae, VOCs from Chlorophytum comosum, Aspidistra elatior, and Asparagus plumosus were collected using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method.Then, the main VOCs compounds were identified with thermal desorption system-gas chromatography/mass spectrum(TDS-GC/MS). Results showed that C. comosum emitted 34 types of VOCs (mainly as terpenoids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and acids) with dihydro-citronellol the most abundant compound (28.79%). Aspidistra elatior emitted 25 types of VOCs (mainly as aldehydes, esters, alcohols, terpenoids, ketones, and hydrocarbons) with Nonanal the most abundant compound (12.12%). Asparagus plumosus emitted 38 types of VOCs (mainly as terpenoids, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes) with lemonol the most abundant compound(27.90%). Thus, these three species, with alcohols, terpenoids, aldehydes, and esters all found in the VOCs, will provide a theoretical basis for multiple utilization and development of Liliaceae.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Citrus aurantium L.-Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae and its Single Herb%枳实-白术及其单味药中挥发油成分的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华美玲; 熊峻; 佘金明

    2014-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从枳实、白术及其药对中提取挥发油成分,利用气相色谱-质谱法( GC-MS)分离检测它们,并通过交互移动窗口因子法( AMWFA)对其共有组分进行比较分析,最后通过质谱库结合保留指数、面积积分法进行定性定量分析。枳实、白术及其药对中挥发油分别定性46、45和82个成分,占各自总量的92.51%、91.56%和82.09%。药对与枳实、白术的共有组分分别为38个和37个。药对中挥发油主要成分是: D-苧烯(34.88%)(主要来自枳实);1,2,3,4-四氢-1-丁基异喹啉(22.31%)、大根香叶烯D(4.74%)(主要来自白术);里哪醇(6.17%)(新增)等。实验表明药对种类与含量变化并不是单味药的简单相加。%The volatile constituents in Citrus aurantium L.( CaL ) -Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae ( RAM ) and its single herb were extracted by steam distillation , and comparison analysis of these volatile constituents by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) combined with alternative moving window factor analysis ( AMWFA ) , finally by mass spectrometry library combining retention indices for qualitative and to quantitative by adopting total area in integral method.In total, 46, 45 and 82 volatile chemical components in volatile oil of CaL , RAM and its herbal pair CaL -RAM were separately determined qualitatively , accounting for 92.51%、 91.56% and 82.09% of total contents , respectively.The results showed that there were 38 common volatile constituents in herbal pair and single herb CaL , and 37 common volatile constituents in RAM.The volatile principally components in HP were D -limonene ( 34.88%) (mainly came from the CaL), 1,2,3,4 -four hydrogen -1 -butyl isoquinoline (22.31%), Germacrene D(4.74%) ( mainly came from the RAM ) , Farnesol ( 6.17%) ( added new ) , etc.Their relative kinds and amount in HP were not equal to the two single herbs.

  17. Analysis and comparison of cooked high-value sea fish surimi volatile flavor%高值海水鱼糜熟制后挥发性风味的分析及对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩宸; 阮东娜; 江银梅; 许刚; 黄建联

    2015-01-01

    研究白姑鱼糜、铜盆鱼糜、金线鱼糜和飞鱼鱼糜熟制后挥发性风味的异同.以顶空固相微萃取-气质联用技术结合相对气味活度值法,对4种高值海水鱼糜熟制后的挥发性风味成分进行鉴定和分析;以电子鼻和感官风味评价,对整体挥发性风味进行识别和评定.4种熟制鱼糜的关键风味成分主要是醛类和硫醚类化合物.熟制铜盆鱼糜关键风味成分包括二甲基二硫醚、3-甲基丁醛等,熟制金线、飞鱼鱼糜关键风味成分包括二甲基三硫醚、二甲基二硫醚和其他醛类,而熟制白姑鱼糜关键风味成分中无含硫化合物.电子鼻分析中,传感器阵列对熟制铜盆鱼糜的响应值显著大于其他样品,且响应值雷达图轮廓也有别于其他鱼糜.主成分分析和线性判别分析均表明白姑、金线鱼糜的熟制风味具有相似性,但与铜盆鱼糜和飞鱼鱼糜的熟制风味差异显著.感官风味评价表明,熟制铜盆鱼糜的鱼香味较佳,熟制白姑、金线鱼糜的气味描述强度轮廓较相似,而熟制飞鱼鱼糜油脂味和鱼腥味最强.%The similarities and differences on volatile flavor of 4 kinds of cooked sea fish surimi including A.argentatus,P.edita,N.virgatus and Exocoetus were studied.The volatile components were identified by HS-SPME-GCMS and analyzed with ROAV.Overall odor was discriminated and evaluated by electronic nose and sensory odor evaluation.The key odor components of 4 kinds of cooked surimi were mainly aldehydes and sulfoether compounds.The key odor components of cooked P.edita surimi included dimethyl disulfide,3-methyl-butanal etc.The key odor components of cooked N.virgatus surimi and cooked Exocoetus surimi included dimethyl disulfide,dimethyl trisulfide and other aldehydes.But sulphur compounds were absent from the volatile flavor components of cooked A.argentatus surimi.Electronic nose analysis indicated that the response radar chart of cooked P.Edita surimi was

  18. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P whey samples were also different (P whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  19. GC-MS分析秀丽海桐叶挥发油成分%Analysis of the Chemical Constituent of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Pittosporum pulchrum (Pittosporaceae) by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云峰; 李振麟; 赖茂祥; 胡琦敏

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取秀丽海桐(Pittosporum pulchrum Gagnep.)叶中的挥发油,应用GC-MS联用技术进行挥发油成分分析.结果从秀丽海桐叶挥发油中分离出51个组分,确认出其中的37种成分,其主要成分为a-蒎烯(29.27% ),β-蒎烯(17.84%)、坎烯(3.90%)和桃金娘烯醇(3.60%).确认的37种成分为首次从该植物中鉴定出来.%The volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum was extracted by hydrodistillation method and the constituents were analysed with capillary gas chromatography and GC-MS-DS.51 compounds were obtained and 37 of them were identified. α-Pinene(29.27%), β-Pinene (17.84%), Camphene(3.90%) and Myrtenol(3.60%) were the major chemical constituents of volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum . Among the 51 compounds, 37 of them were first identified from this plant.

  20. Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce,Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fan YANG; Shen-ru CHEN; Hui NI; Xing-qian YE

    2008-01-01

    Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl ace tate extraction fol-lowed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modem analysis methods.

  1. Approximate flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Rašin, Andrija

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  2. Research on Cholinesterase Inhibitory Action and Chemical Constituents in the Volatile Oil of Radix Peucedani%前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制作用及化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚旻; 宋波; 李宗阳; 姜保平; 潘瑞乐

    2012-01-01

    Using micro plate high-throughput screening assay to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory action, and analyzing the main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani by the means of Gas Chromatography-Masa Spectrometer combined with Kovats index. The result shows that the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani has significant inhibitory activities of both Acetylcholinesterase ( AChE) and Butyr-ylcholinesterase (BuChE) ,the inhibition ratio of which were (63.76±1.99) % ,(51.53 ±1.70) % .respectively, when the content of the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani was lμL/mL. Meanwhile,32 main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peueedani has been identified,the main constituents are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, 1 -Methyl-3 - (1 -methylethyl) -benzene, (R ) -1 -Methyl-4- (1 -methyl-ethenyl)-cyclohexene,2-(4-Methtlcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol,2-hydroxyl-5-methyl-acetophenone,etc. The result suggests that Radix Peucedani maybe have a certain curative effect on neurodegenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer's disease.%运用微孔高通量筛选方法研究前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制活性,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术辅以Kovats 指数鉴定挥发油的主要化学成分.结果显示前胡挥发油对乙酰胆碱酯酶和丁酰胆碱酯酶均具有明显的抑制作用,当前胡挥发油浓度为1 μL/mL时,其抑制率分别为(63.76±1.99)%和(51.53±1.70)%;其挥发油共鉴定出32种化学成分,主要有α-蒎烯、左旋-β-蒎烯、月桂烯、1-甲基-3-(1-甲基乙基)苯、(R)-1-甲基-4-(1-甲基乙烯基)环己烯、萜品醇、2-羟基-5-甲基苯乙酮等.本研究结果提示前胡有可能对老年痴呆等神经退行性疾病有一定的治疗作用.

  3. Volatile Constituents from leaves of Piper betle L by Head-space Solid Micro-extraction Coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析蒟酱叶挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹震花; 王微; 顾海鹏; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    To study the volatile constituents from leaves of Piper betle L. ,the volatiles were analyzed by head- space solid micro-extraction,coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements. The results showed that 27 compounds were identified from the leaves, accounting for 97.53% of the total essential constituents. The structure types of volatiles compounds included aldehyde, acids,esters,phenols,alkenes,aromatic hydrocarbons,and alkanes. 2-Methoxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (42. 89% ) ,4-(2-propenyl)-phenol acetate ( 12. 49% ) ,2-methoxy-4-( 1-propenyl)-phenol ( 13. 42% ) ,4-allyl-l, 2-diace-toxybenzene (9.47% ) ,4-(2-propenyl)-phenol (2. 89% ) ,y-cadinene (2. 74% ) .eugenol (2. 66% ) and 2-methoxy-4-( 1-propenyl)-phenol acetate (2.06% ) were the main volatile constituents.%首次采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GCMS),结合保留指数法,用峰面积归一化法测定蒟酱叶中挥发性成分及相对百分含量.结果表明,从蒟酱叶中鉴别出27个化学成分,占峰面积的97.53%,化合物结构类型包括醛、酸、酯、酚、烯烃、芳香烃和(环)烷烃.2-甲氧基-5-甲基苯甲醛(42.89%)、胡椒酚醋酸酯(12.49%)、异丁香酚(13.42%)、4-烯丙基-1,2-二乙酰氧基苯(9.47%)、胡椒酚(2.89%)、γ-毕橙茄烯(2.74%)、丁香酚(2.66%)和乙酸异丁香酚酯(2.06%)是蒟酱叶的主要挥发性成分.

  4. 广东尾叶桉叶挥发油化学成分的气相色谱-质谱分析%GC-MS analysis of volatile oil constituents from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blakely leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 周晓农; 朱丹; 李明亚; 庞小雄; 何启华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blakely leaves collected in Guangdong Province of China. Methods The volatile oil was extracted with steam distillation method,and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The relative amount of each constituent was calculated by peak area normalization. Results Thirty-eight constituents in volatile oil from Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blakely leaves in Guangdong Province were identified,amounting to 97. 76% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were eucalyptol (38.13% ) ,alpha-pinene(10.71% ) .menthol (9. 79% ) ,alpha-terpineol (7.41% ) ,neomenthol(5. 51% ), (R)-citronellol(5. 22% ) , alpha-terpinyl acetate (5.03% ) and so on. Conclusion The constituents of the volatile oil from Eucalyptus wophyllaS. T. Blakely leaves in Guangdong Province were successfully identified. Compared with the reports, our findings suggest great similarity and little differences, which provides the foundation for further comprehensive utilization of the volatile oil.%目的 研究广东尾叶桉叶挥发油的化学成分.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取广东尾叶桉叶挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分离测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用气相色谱峰面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量.结果 首次确定了广东尾叶桉叶挥发油中38个化合物,所鉴定成分占总馏出峰面积的97.76%.主要成分为1,8-桉叶素(38.13%)、α-蒎烯(10.71%)、薄荷醇(9.79%)、α-松油醇(7.41%)、异蒲勒醇(5.51%)、右旋香茅醇(5.22%)、乙酸松香酯(5.03%)等.结论 确定了广东尾叶桉叶挥发油的化学成分,与文献报道尾叶桉挥发油的成分具有相似性,但仍存在一些差异,为综合利用桉叶挥发油奠定了基础.

  5. 废电池浸出液对荆芥生理及挥发性成分含量的影响%Effects of waste batteries leaching solution stress on resistance physiological indices of volatile constituents from Schizonepeta tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金凤; 王俊霞; 康文艺

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The effect of waste batteries leaching on the seedling growth and volatile constituents in leaves of Schi-zonepeta tenuifolia was assayed. Method; The different concentrations of waste batteries leaching on the seedling growth were discussed. Volatile compounds were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass speetrome-try (GC-MS). Result; The results indicated that 5. Tenuifolia showed resistance to heavy metal polluting, but the high rate of waste batteries leaching had the inhibiting effect to seedlings growth. The waste batteries leaching cause the major volatile constituents in leaves of S. tenuifolia was changed greatly under waste batteries leaching solution stress. Conclusion; Heavy metal leached by waste batteries had great effect on growth of S. Tenuifolia, reducing its value for food and medical purposes.%目的:研究废旧电池浸出液对荆芥幼苗生长及叶片挥发性成分的影响.方法:探讨不同浓度废旧电池浸出液对荆芥幼苗生长的影响,并用固相微萃取技术与气相质谱联用对叶片中挥发性成分进行分析.结果:荆芥幼苗对废电池浸出液具有一定的抗性,但高质量分数废电池浸出液对荆芥的生长有一定的抑制作用;不同浓度废电池浸出液对荆芥挥发性成分影响较大.结论:废旧电池在水中渗出的化学物质对荆芥产生很大影响,降低荆芥的食用和药用价值.

  6. Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves and Stems of Ancient Pithecellobium dulce by GC-MS%古牛蹄豆茎、叶挥发油成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰晶; 简蓝; 曾靖; 江智伟; 李超

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of volatile oils from leaves and stems of ancient Pithecellobium dulce, the analyzing sample was water vapor distillation, the volatile oils of leaves and steins were analyzed and determined by GC-MS. 36 peaks were isolated from the leaves by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 93.377% and only 2 peaks were isolated from the stems by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 100.000%. The main chemical constituents are alkanes, heterocyclic, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons compounds,and types of volatile oils from leaves and stems differed largely.%利用水蒸气蒸馏法制备古树牛蹄豆(Pithecellobium dulce)待测样品,采用气质联用法分析牛蹄豆古树茎、叶中挥发油的化学成分.结果表明,从叶中分离出36个峰,占总化学成分种类的93.377%,从茎中分离出2个峰,占总化学成分种类的100.000%.古树牛蹄豆叶中挥发性油主要化学成分为烷烃、杂环、酯、芳香烃化合物,茎叶中挥发油物质种类相差很大.

  7. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing ...

  8. Analysis on Volatile Constituent of Ocimum basilicum Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum%罗勒挥发性成分的气相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竹君; 罗亚男; 王道平; 陶晨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测罗勒挥发性成分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对罗勒的挥发性成分进行了分析.[结果]共鉴定出53种化学成分,其中含量最多的成分是草蒿脑(64.55%),其次为甲基丁香酚(12.16%)、1,8-桉叶素(8.355%),T-荜澄茄醇(1.50%)、E-细辛脑(1.412%)、(E)-β-罗勒烯(1.028%).[结论]罗勒的挥发油的化学成分较复杂,其中4种醚类化合物占74.455%、3种酚类化合物占12.208%、22种烯烃占5.401%,9种醇类化合物占1.751%、并含有少量的酮类、酯类、酸类物质等.%[Objective] The aim was to detect volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum. [ Method] The gas chromatography - mass spectrum technology was used to analyze the volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum. [Results] 53 chemical compositions were identified, among which estragole occupied most(64. 55% ) ,followed by methyl eugenol( 12. 16% ) , 1,8-Cineole(8. 355% ) ,T-cubebol( 1. 50% ) , E-asarin (1.412% ) , ( E) -β-ocimene( 1.028% ). [ Conclusion] Volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum were complex, among which 4 kinds of e-thers compounds occupied 74.455% , 3 kinds of phenol compounds accounted for 12.208% , 22 kinds of alkene occupied 5.401%,9 kinds of alcohol compounds accounted for 1.751% , and there were also few ketones, the ester, the acids material and so on.

  9. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  10. Rapid identification of volatile constituents of Kangbingdu oral liquid by GC-MS%GC-MS法对抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分的快速鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施法; 侯峰; 孙苓苓; 刘晓秋

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析鉴定抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法从抗病毒口服液及其处方药材中提取挥发油,GC-MS法鉴定挥发油类成分.结果:抗病毒口服液中共检出28个色谱峰,鉴定22个化合物,并对其进行归属,占挥发油总量的93.51%,其中含量最高的是4-松油醇,约占总量的42.03%.结论:首次建立GC-MS法鉴定抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分,方法简便、快速、准确,为该制剂的质量控制提供依据.%Objective : To analyze the volatile constituents of Kangbingdu oral liquid. Methods : The volatile oil was extracted from Kangbingdu oral liquid and medicinal matenals in prescription by warer - steam distillation method and separated by capillary column chromatography. The components were quantitatively determined with normalization method and identified by GC - MS. Results :28 chromatografic peeks were detected and 22 compounds were identified and assigned, which were composed of 93. 51% of the total essential oil. The highest constituent in essential oil was 4 - terpineol, which was composed of 42. 03% of the total essential oil. Conclusions : The GC - MS method to identify the essential oil of Kangbingdu oral liquid is reported for the first time. The established method is simple,rapid and accurate. The study provides basis for quality control of the preparation.

  11. 顶空气相色谱-质谱联用法分析灵芝发酵物中的挥发性物质%Head-space gas chromatographic analysis for the volatile flavor compounds from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高强; 王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    采用顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用法对灵芝发酵物的风味物质进行了定性和定量测定.结果表明,灵芝发酵物中至少含有31种风味物质.对其中21种主要成分进行了鉴定,这些物质大多是酮类、醇类和内酯类化合物.所有物质中4,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮的含量最高,达64.12%.此外,3-戊烯-2-酮和戊基乙烯基原醇是已知的食品香料成分.结果有助于初步理解灵芝发酵物产生清淡香味的原因.%The volatile flavor from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth was investigated by head-space gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than thirty different volatile flavor compounds from the broth were detected, and twenty-one compounds were identified, which were mainly ketones, alcohols and lactones. Among all the compounds detected in the broth, the compound with its characteristic retention peaks at 22.41min was 4,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, and its content was 64.12% of the total content of all the volatile flavor compounds. In addition, 3-penten-2-one and amyl vinyl carbinol with their characteristic retention peaks at 9.78min and 18.10min, respectively, were the known food spice substances.The results were useful to preliminarily understand the mechanism of light aroma emitted from the submerged-cultured broth of G. lucidum.

  12. Flavor Tagging at the Tevatron, including calibration and control

    CERN Document Server

    Moulik, T

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D{\\O}experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor atproduction, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B^0 and B_S system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from $b$ decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B^0 mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  13. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Maijon Purba

    2014-01-01

    Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty), while removal of carbonyl c...

  14. 山东产蛇床子挥发油化学成分研究%Studies of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil of Cnidii Fructus in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱缨; 谈如蓝; 吴芝园; 俞迪佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cnidii Fructus in Shandong by GC - MS. Methods The volatile oil was extracted from Cnidii Fructus by steam distillation. The volatile components were identified by GC - MS method and the relative component percentage of each component was determined by GC area normalization method. Results 39 major components were identified. High relative content of chemical components were as follows: limonene(18. 90% ), alpha - pinene(16. 40% ), borneyl ac-etate(11. 00% ), camphene(7. 44% ), etc. Conclusion This method has good separation effect, is accurate and fast, and can be used as the quality monitoring for Cnidii Fructus.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱(GC - MS)法分析山东产地蛇床子果实挥发油的化学成分。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法从蛇床子果实中提取挥发油,运用 GC - MS 法对其挥发性成分进行分析鉴定,归一法测定其相对百分含量。结果鉴定了39种主要成分,相对含量高的有柠檬油烯(18.90%)、α-松萜(16.40%)、醋酸冰片酯(11.00%)、莰烯(7.44%)等。结论该法分离效果好、准确、快速,适用于中药蛇床子的药材质量监控。

  15. Analysis of Volatile Constituents from the Sporocarp of Armillaria luteo-virens by SPME-GC-MS%SPME-GC-MS分析黄绿蜜环菌子实体挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永生; 杨振; 郑敏燕; 高鹏

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents from the sporocarp of Armillaria luteo-virens (Alb. El Schwein.; Fr.) Sace. Were obtained by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography spectrometry-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The effects of sampling by different fiber hair, temperature and time of adsorption on detecting results were also discussed. The resulls showed that volatile constituents from the sporocarp could be effectively extracted by the fiber hair of DVB/CAR/PDMS at 80℃ for 35 minutes. These volatile compounds mainly included 3,7-dimelhyldecane (13. 89 %) , zingiberene (9. 10 %), 2,3-dimethyldodecane (8.76 %), α-bergamotene (4.62%), octadecane(3. 65%). 2-nonanone (3.41 %), 2,3 ,5,8-tetramethyldecane (2.89 %), α-curcumene (2. 83 %) , 6-octen-2-one (2.80 %) and /3-bisabolene (2.42 %).%利用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术(SPME-GC-MS)研究黄绿蜜环菌子实体的挥发性成分,探讨了不同纤维头取样、不同温度、不同吸附时间等条件对分析检测结果的影响.结果表明,80℃条件下吸附35 min,二乙烯苯/碳分子筛/聚二甲基硅氧烷(DVB/CAR/PDMS)纤维头能够有效地吸附黄绿蜜环菌子实体的挥发性成分:其主要挥发性成分为3,7-二甲基癸烷(13.89%)、姜烯(9.10%)、2,3-二甲基十二烷(8.76%)、佛手柑油烯(4.62%)、十八烷(3.65%)、2-壬酮(3.41%)、2,3,5,8-四甲基癸烷(2.89%)、姜黄烯(2.83%)、6-辛烯-2-酮(2.80%)以及β-红没药烯(2.42%)等.

  16. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  17. Neutrino Flavor Oscillations without Flavor Mixing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Sarcevic, Ina

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that sizable neutrino flavor oscillations can be generated in a model with large extra spacetime dimensions even if the physics on the brane is flavor-diagonal, the bulk neutrino theory is flavor-neutral, and the brane/bulk couplings are flavor-blind. We also discuss several phenomenological aspects of the ``bulk-mediated'' neutrino oscillations inherent in this model. [Based on talks given at Neutrino 2000 (Sudbury, Canada, June 2000), the Aspen Workshop on Neutrinos with Mass (Aspen, Colorado, July 2000), and DARK 2000 (Heidelberg, Germany, July 2000).

  18. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils from Small Leaves Ku-Ding-Cha%小叶苦丁茶挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武宏伟; 赵丽元; 郑宜婷; 相婷; 李银

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To compare the chemical components of volatile oil from small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha which belonged to the family Oleaceae. [Method] Volatile oils of small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha in different production areas were extracted hy the technique of steam distillation; then,the components of volatile oils were analyzed by gas chromalography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). [Result] A total of 55 compounds were identified. There was great similarity in the old leaves and buds of Ku-Ding-Cha in different batches. Linalool had the highest content (48.34% -79.25% ) ; α-terpineol, geraniol and nerol had relatively high content. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific references for the quality control and reasonable utilization of the small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha.%[目的]分析比较不同品种或产地木犀科小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中挥发油成分的异同.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别对不同品种或产地的小叶苦丁茶中的挥发油进行提取,利用气质联用技术分析所提取的挥发油成分.[结果]共鉴定55个化合物,7个不同批次小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中的成分具有较大的相似性,相对含量最高的均为以芳樟醇(48.34%~79.25%)为主的单萜类成分,其他含量较高的成分有α-松油醇、香叶醇何橙花醇等.[结论]该方法为小叶苦丁茶的质量控制和资源合理开发利用提供了科学依据.

  19. Flavor Tagging at the Tevatron, Including Calibration and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, T.; DØ Collaboration; CDF Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and DØ experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a b quark or an anti-quark. quark flavor content and hence the decay products do not identify the B flavor content at production. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B0 and Bs0 system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B0 mixing as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  20. 白术挥发油光照氧化及成分分析%Sunlight Oxidation of Volatile Oil from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Constituent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 阎克里; 赵丽; 刘焕蓉

    2011-01-01

    将样品分别置于-20℃保存和室外(20~29℃)进行光照氧化,然后利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)跟踪检测,通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对光照前后挥发油化学成分及含量的变化进行分析比较.从光照氧化前白术挥发油中鉴定出32个组分,占挥发油总成分的98.01%;从光照氧化后白术挥发油中鉴定出27个组分,占挥发油总成分的90.70%.光照氧化后增加了2个组分,消失了7个组分;含量降低的有8个,增加的有17个.含量降低最明显的组分是苍术酮和y-榄香烯;含量增加最明显的组分是白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ、β-桉叶醇、广木香内酯、Isovelleral和17-(1,5-二甲基已基)-10,13-二甲基-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-十四氢化-1H-环戊[a]3-菲酚.%To investigate the effect of sunlight oxidation on the composition and content changes of volatile oil, two volatile oil samples extracted from Atractylodes rnacrocephala Koidz were treated by preservation at -20℃ without sunlight and sunlight oxidation at 20 ~ 29℃, respectively. High performance liquid chromatagraphy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to analyze ingredients and their contents of the treated samples. 32 and 27 components were identified in the volatile oil without sunlight oxidation and with sunlight oxidation, which account for 98. 1% and 90.70% of the total components in the oil, respectively. After sunlight oxidation, 2 new components were found and 7 components disappeared. 8 components decreased and 7 components increased in their contents, in which Atractylon and γ-Elemene decreased remarkably, while Attractyenolide Ⅰ, Attractyenolide Ⅲ,β-Eudesmol, Costunolide, Isovelleral, and 17 ( 1,5 Dimethylhexyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1 H-cyclopen ta[a]phe-nanthren-3-ol increased dramatically.

  1. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  2. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  3. Gras flavoring substances 24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Mcgowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.; Williams, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) presented safety and usage data on 236 GRAS flavor ingredients in its 24th publication. The publication revealed that these 236 flavor ingredients were of Japanese origin that were granted GRAS status. It revealed that the G

  4. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil of Ocimum basilicum from Two Different Sources%两产地罗勒挥发油化学成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭江; 林励; 谭翠明

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较分析广东广州与安徽毫州产罗勒挥发油化学成分差异.方法:用水蒸气蒸馏法提取罗勒挥发油,用气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对挥发油成分进行分析,并通过峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量;采用薄层色谱法进行比较分析.结果:广州产罗勒挥发油鉴定出29种化合物,并确定了其相对含量,占总含量的99.90%,主成分为对烯丙基茴香醚(83.082%)、芳樟醇(4.734%)、Τ-杜松醇(2.715%)、桉叶油素(2.251%).毫州产罗勒挥发油鉴定出31种化合物,并确定了其相对含量,占总含量的98.65%,主成分为芳樟醇(26.909%)、肉桂酸甲酯(21.85%)、T-杜松醇(17.411%)、喇叭茶醇(14.154%):薄层色谱显示广州产罗勒挥发油比毫州产者多了2个特征斑点.结论:产地对罗勒挥发油化学成分具有显著影响,气质联用和薄层色谱法均可用于罗勒挥发油的鉴别和产地分析,提示罗勒开发利用应明确品质产地.%Objective; To analyze the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Ocimum basilicum collected in two different sources. Method: The volatile components were extracted by steam distillation method, and analyzed by GC-MS. Peak area normalization method was used for the relative content of volatile oil. TLC was used for the identification of two samples. Result; Twenty-nine components were identified in 0. basilicum from Guangzhou, which accounted for 99.90% of the total relative content. The main components were p-allylanisole (83.082%), linalool 4. 734% ), tau-cadinol (2.715%), eucalyptol (2.251%). Thirty-one components were identified in 0. basilicum from Bozhou, which accounted for 98.65% of the total relative content. The main components were linalool (26.91%), methyl cinnamate (21.85%), tau-cadinol ( 17.41%), ledol (14. 154% ). Two characteristic spots could not be identified in 0. basilicum. from Bozhou but from Guangzhou. Conclusion: The volatile oil from different

  6. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  7. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  8. Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Elsholtzia Seed and Its Oil%香薷籽及其油脂中挥发油成分的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽涛; 和承尧; 李建成; 和春

    2016-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Elsholtzia seeds,oils and its meal of Mosla chinensis Maxim were extracted respectively under the same conditions by gas chromatography analysis.The results are com-pared.By gas phase chromatography -mass spectrometry analysis of the components of the volatile constit-uents of Elsholtzia seeds,30 kinds of chemical components were detected,26 compounds were identified,its content accounted for 96.79% of the total oil.The main chemical components were dehydrogenation of Elsholtzia ketone (84.62%),3 -aminopyrazole (5.373%),Elsholtzia ketone (2.97%),beta bourbon-ene (1.41%),2,5 dimethyl 3 vinyl 1,4 hexadiene (1.36%),trans -2,4 -decadienal (1.06%).%对香薷籽、香薷油脂及其粕中的挥发性成分进行了提取,在同一条件下分别进行气相色谱分析,对其结果作了比较。香薷籽中的挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用法分析其成分,检出30种化学成分,确认了26种化合物,其含量占全油的96.79%。主要化学成分为脱氢香薷酮(84.62%),3-氨基吡唑(5.373%),香薷酮(2.97%),β-波旁烯(1.41%),2,5-二甲基-3-乙烯基-1,4-己二烯(1.36%),反式-2,4-癸二烯醛(1.06%)。

  9. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  10. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  11. Effects of Bagging on the Flavor Compounds Fruit sugar and Acid Constituents of Yali Pear%套袋对鸭梨果实香气及糖酸组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 魏树伟

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds, sugars, organic acids of the fruits tested were identified and quantified using static headspace and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) and high - performance liquid chromatog-raphy ( HPLC). Results showed that: Bagging reduced volatiles varieties and relative contents of Yali Pear fruit. There were 3 categories and 18 kinds of volatiles in bagged Yali Pear; and 3 categories and 26 kinds of volatiles in non -bagged Yali Pear fruit. The major volatile compounds of Yali Pear were; Acetic acid hexyl ester N Hexanoic acid ethyl ester%Butanoic acid ethyl ester. 3 sugars and 4 organic acids were detected from the samples. Fructose was the most dominant sugar, followed by sucrose and glucose, while malic acid was the principal organic acid, followed by acetic, citric and oxalic. The contents of sugars and organic acids among samples were different.%采用静态顶空和气相色谱一质谱联用技术、高效液相色谱技术,研究了生长期套袋对鸭梨果实挥发性成分、糖酸组分等风味物质的组成和含量的影响.结果表明:套袋导致鸭梨香气物质种类减少和相对百分含量降低.套袋鸭梨采收时测定的香气成分有3类18种,其中酯类15种、烯类2种、醇类1种;不套袋鸭梨采收时测定的香气成分有3类26种,其中酯类23种、烯类2种、醇类1种.鸭梨的主要香气成分是乙酸己酯、己酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯.套袋和不套袋鸭梨均检测到3种糖、4种有机酸组分,其中糖组分主要为果糖,其次为蔗糖、葡萄糖,有机酸组分主要为苹果酸,其次为乙酸、柠檬酸、草酸,但不同处理间含量存在差异.

  12. On GC fingerprint analysis of fennel volatile constituents%小茴香挥发性成分 GC 指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 云琦; 高晓黎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a GC fingerprint analysis method for the quality control of fennel.Meth-ods Fennel oil was extracted by steam distillation method.The fingerprint analysis of volatile oil was con-ducted by GC and the fingerprint peaks were identified with GC-MS.Results The batch of fennel were an-alyzed by GC,and ten common peaks were shown in the fingerprints,nine of which were identified.The established fingerprint analysis method was validated .The similarities of samples were over 0.95.Conclu-sion The fingerprint analysis method is simple,practical and suitable for the quality control of fennel.%目的:建立小茴香挥发性成分气相色谱指纹图谱分析方法,对挥发油成分进行分析,为控制小茴香挥发油质量提供依据。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取小茴香挥发油,对10个产地小茴香进行气相色谱分析,用气相色谱建立挥发油指纹图谱分析法,并用 GC-MS 对指纹峰进行鉴别。结果指纹图谱中共有10个共有峰,其中8个成分得到鉴定,所建立指纹图谱分析方法学各项目符合规定,各批样品相似度>0.95。结论所建立指纹图谱方法分析简便易行,为更好控制小茴香的质量提供了新的方法。

  13. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific common ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific ...

  14. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6% and thymol (9.6% in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7% and tetracosane (24.0% in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS. 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

  15. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  16. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, Alistair; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.

  17. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  18. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...... with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception....

  19. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  20. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  1. Flavored Orbifold GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-01-01

    Orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs) solve several problems in GUT model building. Therefore, it is intriguing to investigate similar constructions in the flavor context. In this letter, we propose that a flavor symmetry might emerge due to orbifold compactification and be simultaneously broken by boundary conditions of the orbifold. The combination of the orbifold parities in gauge and flavor space determines the zero modes. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10)\\times S_4 orbifold GUT model.

  2. 朝鲜苍术挥发油成分GC-MS分析%Analysis of the Volatile Oil Constituent of Atractylodes Coreana (Nakai)Kitam by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧娟; 姚慧敏; 卜书红; 陆晓彤; 张健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the volatile oil constituent of Atractylodes coreana(Nakai) Kitam. Methods The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation, analyzed by capillary GC. The relative content of chemical components was calculated by peak area normalization method, the chemical components were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results We found that 58 components were isolated, 55 components were identified, the identified chemical components account for 79.94 % of the total volatile oil, including l,2-Bis-[4-pyridine-N-oxide]ethane (31.1831%)、 [5,6]cholestan -3 -ol,3',6 -dihydro - , (3.beta.,5.beta.,6.alpha.) -Cyclopropa (12.3086 %)、5α -Spirostan (11.2161%)、1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-l,8a-dimethyl-7-(l-methylethenyl)-,[lR-(l.alpha.,7.beta.,8a.alpha.)]-Naphthalene(7.05606%), y-Elemene(4.24732%)^ 8(14)-en-3-ol,(3.beta.)-Ergost(2.11089%)、Caryophyllene(1.44473%)、 decahydro -4a -methyl -1 -methylene -7 -(1 -methylethenyl) - , [4aR -(4a.alpha.,7.alpha.,8a.beta.)] -Naphthalene (1.43541%)、9,10-dehydro-isolongifolene(1.21445%),α-Caryophyllene(0.72132%). Conclusion We concluded that the main chemical components of Atractylodes coreana(Nakai) Kitam. Volatile oil are sesquiterpenoids.%目的 研究朝鲜苍术挥发油成分,为朝鲜苍术的药用价值及合理开发利用提供参考.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,GC毛细管柱色谱法进行分析,峰面积归一化法确定其相对含量,气相色谱-质谱联用技术辅助人工检索鉴定其化学成分.结果 从朝鲜苍术的挥发油中分离出58种,鉴定出55种化学成分,鉴定出的挥发性化学成分占挥发油总量的79.94%,主要成分有苍术酮(31.1831%)、3-羟基-6β-环丙烷-5β-胆甾烷(12.3086%)、5α-螺甾烷(11.2161%)、巴伦西亚橘烯(7.05606%)、γ-榄香烯(4.24732%)、菜油甾醇(2.11089%)、石竹烯(1.44473%)、β-桉叶烯(1.43541%)、9,10-脱水-异长叶烯(1.21445%)、α-石竹烯(0.72132

  3. Flavor violation in supersymmetric theories with gauged flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study flavor violation in supersymmetric models with gauged flavor symmetries. There are several sources of flavor violation in these theories. The dominant flavor violation is the tree-level $D$-term contribution to scalar masses generated by flavor symmetry breaking. We present a new approach for suppressing this phenomenologically dangerous effects by separating the flavor-breaking sector from supersymmetry-breaking one. The separation can be achieved in geometrical setups...

  4. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-03-18

    Flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations can modify liking for a flavor CS, while flavor-flavor associations can also modify the sensory experience of the trained flavor. Less is known about how these associations modify behavioral responses to the trained CS. To test this, 60 participants classified as sweet likers were divided into five training conditions with a novel flavor CS. In the flavor-flavor only condition, participants consumed the target CS in a sweetened, low-energy form, with energy (maltodextrin) but no sweetness added in the flavor-nutrient only condition and both energy and sweetness (sucrose) in the combined flavor-flavor, flavor-nutrient condition. Comparison groups controlled for exposure to the CS, and repeat testing. Training was conducted in a hungry state on four non-consecutive days. To test for acquired changes in evaluation and intake, the flavor CS was processed into a low-energy sorbet, which was evaluated and consumed ad libitum on test days before and after training. Liking for the flavor CS increased only in the sucrose-sweetened condition, but intake increased significantly in both high-energy conditions. In contrast, rated sweetness of the sorbet increased in both sucrose-sweetened and aspartame-sweetened conditions. These findings suggest that liking changes were maximal when flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations co-occurred, but that behavioral changes were specific to flavor-nutrient associations.

  6. GC-MS analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cinnamomum camphora leaves by different extraction methods%GC-MS分析不同方法提取的樟树叶挥发油成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 章挺; 江香梅; 罗丽萍; 杨海宽; 郭夏丽; 刘星星; 李桂兰

    2015-01-01

    为确定樟树叶挥发油最佳的提取方法,采用传统水蒸气蒸馏法、微波辅助蒸馏法、超声波辅助蒸馏法和同时蒸馏萃取法提取樟树叶挥发油,并用GC-MS法对其化学成分进行分析比较。实验结果,MAHD挥发油得率为3.1%,略高于SDE的2.8%。4种提取方法所得挥发油共鉴定出79种化学成分,共有成分达到37种,其主要组成成分相近,主要为芳樟醇(64.156%~69.464%)、石竹烯(3.188%~3.814%)、桉叶油醇(2.559%~3.511%)、樟脑(2.015%~4.215%)等。综合分析,SDE成本投入少,简便,耗时短,是一种高效快速提取植物性挥发油的方法。%In this paper, the volatile oil form the Cinnamomum camphora leaves was obtained by hydro-distillation (HD), microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD), ultrasound assisted hydro-distillation (UAHD) and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method. Then its chemical composition was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The results showed that the yield of MAHD was 3.1%, which was a little more than that of SDE(2.8%). 79 chemical constituents were separated and identified from above methods, there were 37 common components. The main compounds were linalool(64.156%~69.464%), caryophyllene(3.188%~3.814%), eucalyptol(2.559%~3.511%), camphor(2.559%~3.511%), etc. The SDE method offers important over traditional method, lower cost, easy and shorter extraction time. So SDE is an effective method for extract volatile oil from aromatic plants and has advantages of higher yield and quick exaction.

  7. Microextraction techniques in the analysis of food flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz

    2012-08-13

    Food flavor compounds due to the complexity of food as a matrix, and usually their very low concentrations in a product, as well as their low odor thresholds, create a challenge in their extraction, separation and quantitation. Food flavor volatiles represent compounds of different polarity, volatility and chemical character, which determine method of extraction for their isolation from food. Microextraction techniques, mainly SPME and SBSE have been used for food flavor compounds analysis for two decades. Microextraction methods other than SPME and SBSE are seldom used despite their analytical potential. The review discusses the nature of food flavor compounds, and different approaches to food flavor analysis. It summarizes the use of microextraction methods in food flavor compounds analysis based on papers published in the last 5years, and discusses the potential of microextraction methods in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...

  9. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  10. Multisensory Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace provides state-of-the-art coverage of the latest insights from the rapidly-expanding world of multisensory flavor research. The book highlights the various types of crossmodal interactions, such as sound and

  11. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...

  12. The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life%茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜的气味成分变化。结果表明:茶多酚抑制乳酸菌生长量,泡菜的主要风味物质是酮、酸、酯、醛、烯、醇。其中3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、壬醛、石竹烯、1-辛烯-3-醇是含量较高的气味成分。泡菜后期醛类、酯类比例显著上升。另外,苯衍生物、烯、烷、萘类也有较多比例增加。壬醛、癸醛、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、丁酸-3-甲基丁酯的大量增加可能是引起泡菜后期异味的主要原因。苯衍生物、烯、萘类增加可能也促进异味。茶多酚处理大幅度降低酸类、酮类,降低后期酯类、醛类,提高醇类和后期烯类,导致其他类中咔唑类消失,蒽醌物质上升,腙类消失,酚类出现。茶多酚处理显著降低了3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、异硫氰酸酯、壬醛,显著提升了后期 D-柠檬烯。茶多酚处理泡菜后期主要气味物质是 D-柠檬烯、3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、1-辛烯-3-醇。%Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol

  13. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  14. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  15. Volatile Constituents of Romanian Coriander Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tsagkli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Romanian coriander fruits ( cultivar “Sandra” were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds were identified in the total essential oils. Monoterpenes were the most dominant class of compounds, with linalool (48.4-54.3% being the major component. Other significant compounds were γ-terpinene (9.2-12.1%, α-pinene (5.5-9.3% and limonene (4.7-6.3%.

  16. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GLECHOMA HIRSUTA WALDST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, ... Although also widely utilized in the same way as G. hederacea, little or nothing is ..... The financial support of this work by the Ministry of Science and ... Janković, M.M. Rod Glechoma L. in Flora SR Srbije, Josifović, M. (Ed.), SANU: Beograd;.

  17. A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Eggink, P.M.

    2013-01-01

      This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in ma...

  18. 调控氧化猪脂影响因素及其挥发性风味物质消长规律的研究%Study on Factors Affecting Controlled Oxidation of Lard and Dynamic Changes of Volatile Flavor Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏运; 吴肖; 孔令会

    2011-01-01

    Peroxide value(POV),anisidine value(p-AV) and acid value(AV) of oxidation products of lard were used as the physical and chemical indicators.The factor that may affect the controlled oxidation reaction of lard was investigated in the paper,including ventilation,temperature and time.The dynamic changes of volatile flavor oxidation products were analyzed.The results showed that the oxidation temperature and time were the key factors.The main volatile flavor compounds of oxidation production were aldehydes,alcohols and acids.The content of lactones and esters changed slightly and showed no regularity with each other.When the oxidation temperature was 130~140 ℃,reaction time was 3~4h,not only the oxidized products of lard got higher POV and p-AV values,but also the possible characteristic flavors,such as 2,4-decadienal,1-octen-3-ol,2-pentylfuran were concentrated in large quantities.%以猪脂氧化产物过氧化值(POV)、茴香胺值(p-AV)和酸值(AV)为理化指标,分别考察通气量、反应温度和反应时间等氧化反应控制因素对氧化产物的指标影响,并对猪脂控制氧化条件下的挥发性风味产物的消长规律进行分析.结果表明,反应温度和反应时间是猪脂调控氧化主要影响因素.氧化过程产生的挥发性风味物质主要是醛类、醇类和酸类,内酯类或酯类含量变化幅度不大,且不呈规律性.猪脂调控氧化反应温度为130~140℃,反应时间为3~4 h时,不仅获得较高的POV、p-AV数值,可能的特征性风味物质如2,4-癸二烯醛、1-辛烯-3-醇及2-戊基呋喃也大量富集.

  19. Response Surface Optimization of Maillard Reaction Conditions and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of MRPs Derived from the Hydrolysate of Pneumatophorus Japonicns Heads%响应面优化鲐鱼头酶解液Maillard反应条件及其产物挥发性风味物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大伦; 束玉珍; 杨文鸽; 楼乔明; 薛长湖

    2013-01-01

    Using the enzymolysis from pneumatophorus japonicns head as raw material,the effects of xylose additives,reaction time and temperature on the sensory evaluation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined by response surface method.Then the volatile flavor components of MRPs were isolated and identified by GC-MS.The results showed that the optimum conditions of Maillard reaction were as follows:xylose 2.5%,Gly 1.6%,ginger pop 10%,at 117 ℃ for 55 min.73 kinds of volatile flavor component were obtained,in which 2-ethyl furan,2-pentyl furan,ω-Heptaldehyde,(Z)-4-Heptenal,(E)-2-Octenal,(E,E)-2,4-Decadienal,4-Ethylbenzaldehyde,3-ethyl-Phenol,4-pentylphenol,Benzothiazole,4-Methylthiazole,Dimethyl trisulfide had an important contribution to the MRPs flavor.%以鲐鱼头酶解液为原料,通过响应面法研究木糖添加量、反应温度和时间对鲐鱼头酶解液美拉德反应产物(MRPs)感官的影响.用GC-MS分离鉴定MRPs中的挥发性风味物质,结果表明:鲐鱼头酶解液Maillard反应条件是:木糖、甘氨酸、姜汁添加量分别为2.5%、1.6%和10%,117℃反应55 min.经GC-MS分析鉴定,MRPs共含73种挥发性物质,其中2-乙基呋喃、2-戊基呋喃、ω-庚醛、(Z)4-庚烯醛、(E)-2-辛烯醛、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛、4-乙基苯甲醛、3-乙基苯酚、4-戊基苯酚、苯并噻唑、4-甲基噻唑和二甲基三硫化物等化合物对MRPs的风味有重要贡献.

  20. Flavored Co-annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debtosh; Vempati, Sudhir K

    2011-01-01

    In minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) or CMSSM, one of the main co-annihilating partners of the neutralino is the right handed stau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_R$. In the presence of flavor violation in the right handed sector, the co-annihilating partner would be a flavor mixed state. The flavor effect is two fold: (a) It changes the mass of the $\\tilde{\\tau}_{1}$, thus modifying the parameter space of the co-annihilation and (b) flavor violating scatterings could now contribute to the cross-sections in the early universe. In fact, it is shown that for large enough $\\delta \\sim 0.2$, these processes would constitute the dominant channels in co-annihilation regions. The amount of flavor mixing permissible is constrained by flavor violating $\\tau \\to \\mu$ or $\\tau \\to e$ processes. For $\\Delta_{RR}$ mass insertions, the constraints from flavor violation are not strong enough in some regions of the parameter space due to partial cancellations in the amplitudes. In mSUGRA, the regions with cancelations within LFV amplitudes do no...

  1. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  2. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...

  3. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Mennella; Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.

  4. The Mechanism of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Cantonese Sausage and Its Changes During the Storage%广式腊肠挥发性风味物质的形成机理及贮存与蒸煮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周非白; 孙为正; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取技术(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分离鉴定广式腊肠挥发性风味物质,研究贮存和蒸煮对挥发性风味物质的影响;广式腊肠中共鉴定出挥发性风味物质52种,其中烘烤结束时为32种,贮存1个月时为37种,蒸煮后为42种。在鉴定的化合物中主要以醇类、酯类和醛类物质为主。试验结果表明:风味形成的主导因素为曲酒的添加及脂质的降解与氧化,氨基酸降解、微生物和美拉德反应的作用为辅助因素。贮存和蒸煮可促进广式腊肠风味形成,其中贮存主要影响来源于脂质降解和氧化的风味物质,蒸煮主要影响来源于氨基酸降解和美拉德反应的风味物质。%The profile of volatile compounds of Cantonese sausage was analyzed by GC-MS using a solid-phase microextraction(SPME).Effect of storage and cooking method on generation of volatile compounds of Cantonese sausage was studied.Fifty two different substances were isolated from the sample after drying,among them,32 were isolated after baking,37 were found after one month storage,and 42 after cooking.The group of alcohols,esters and aldehydes were the major compounds.Wine added to sausage at the formulation stage,oxidation of lipolysis and lipid were the most important factors for the characteristic of the flavor.Amino acid catabolism and microbial activity also plays an active role.Storage and cooking could accelerate formation of volatile compounds.Storage mainly affected volatile compounds formed via lipolysis and lipid oxidation.Cooking induces the volatile compounds from amino acid degradation and Maillard reaction.

  5. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  6. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  7. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  8. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  9. Study on characteristics of lactic acid bacteria with cheese and the analysis of volatile flavor Gouda cheese model%干酪用乳酸菌的特性研究及其在高达干酪模型中风味分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宜; 刘振民; 莫蓓红; 郭本恒; 吴正钧

    2015-01-01

    41 Lactococcus lactis and 47 Lactococcus strains were screened in cheese simulation environment test,5 strains of Lactococcus lactis and 3 Leuconostoc could grow in cheese high salt and low pH environ-ments. These strains were tested for the ability of produce acid and viscosity,fermented milk flavor assess-ment,and evaluation of its proteolytic ability;The Lactococcus lactis combined with Leuconostoc mesente-roides with different characteristics to produce Gouda cheese model and conducted analysis of volatile fla-vor substances sensory analysis. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis BD3170,BD2263,BD164 and BD2263,BD164,BD401 combined with Leuconostoc mesenteroides LM79 inoculated 1∶1∶1∶1 with good flavor,have the potention to be developed into cheese starter cultures.%对41株乳酸乳球菌和47株明串珠菌进行干酪模拟环境测试,筛选出能够在干酪高盐低pH环境下生长的5株乳酸乳球菌和3株明串珠菌。对乳酸乳球菌进行发酵产酸、产黏测定,凝乳性能和发酵牛乳风味评估,同时对其蛋白水解能力进行评价;并与风味优良的肠膜明串珠菌进行组合,制作高达干酪模型,进行风味分析。结果表明,BD 3170、BD 2263、BD 164和BD 2263、BD 164、BD 401与肠膜明串珠菌LM 79按1∶1∶1∶1接种制作的干酪,与对照组相比,具有良好的风味,具备开发成干酪发酵剂的潜力。

  10. 复合发酵剂和黑胡椒对羊肉发酵干香肠挥发性风味成分的影响%Effect of combinations of starter cultures and black pepper on the volatile flavor compounds of dry fermented mutton sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 靳烨; 马长伟; 张美枝; 李艳梅

    2011-01-01

    The dry fermented mutton sausages were manufactured with mutton and tail fat,and with various combinations of starter cultures and black pepper.The volatile flavor compounds were extracted and identified by dynamic headspace sampling(DHS)and purge-trap(P T)methods and GC/MS system during ripening.52 volatile flavor compounds were detected with capillary column HP-5,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:alkanes,alcohols,aldehydes,ketones,aromatic hydrocarbons,acids,esters,nitrogen-containing compounds,furans compounds and terpenoids.These showed different changing rules,especially alkanes(10)were the most in all kinds,whose proportions were 19.23%,and terpenoids took second place.At the same time,pentanal,3-methyl-butanal,3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 3-Carene,D-Limonene and so on were detected,which were originated from lipid degradation and oxidation,amino acid Strecker reaction,the carbohydrate catabolism and black pepper,which contributed to dry fermented mutton sausages odor together.%以内蒙古羊肉和羊尾脂肪为原料,接种复合发酵剂和黑胡椒生产羊肉发酵干香肠,利用动态顶空制样(DHS)/吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气-质联机(GC-MS),分析鉴定了羊肉发酵干香肠在成熟后挥发性风味成分的变化情况,结果检出了52种挥发性风味成分,主要由醛类、酮类、酸类、醇类、萜类、烷烃类、酯类、芳烃类、呋喃类和含氮化合物等十类化合物组成,种类数最多的是烷烃类(10种),占总种类数的19.23%,其次是萜类(9种)。同时检出了来源于脂肪水解氧化和氨基酸的Strecker降解以及碳水化合物代谢产生的戊醛、3-甲基

  11. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  12. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  13. Altering the fat content affects flavor release in a model yogurt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauss, M S; Linforth, R S; Cayeux, I; Harvey, B; Taylor, A J

    1999-05-01

    Flavored yogurts differing in fat content were eaten, and the release of flavor volatiles was measured by monitoring the volatile composition of air from the nose in real time by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Low-fat yogurts (0.2%) were found to release volatiles more quickly and at higher intensity but with less persistence than yogurts containing fat at 3.5 and 10% fat. Yogurts with increasing fat content had higher viscosity and lower relative particle size. Lipophilic compounds were more affected by fat for maximum volatile intensity, but not time-to-maximum intensity or persistence. Sensory assessment of the yogurts found significant differences in intensity and speed of onset of flavor, but not overall length of perception.

  14. Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Four Kinds of Aromatic Rice Marketed in Beijing%4种市售香米中挥发性成分提取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 苗志伟; 陈海涛; 黄明泉; 孙宝国

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of 4 kinds of aromatic rice marketed in Beijing were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).According to MS spectrum and retention index comparison,51 compounds were identified,including 31 hydrocarbons,6 esters,5 nitrogen-containing compounds,5 organic acids,2 aldehydes,1 acetal and 1 ether.Nineteen compounds shared by four rice were 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene,ethyl acetate,3-methyl-2-pentene,methylcyclopentane,ethyl i-butyl ether,2,3-dimethyl-1-pentene,benzene,2-methylhexane,2,3-dimethylpentane,3-methylhexane,cyclohexene,trichloroethylene,hexanal,N,N-dimethylaniline,benzothiazole,tetradecanoic acid,n-hexadecanoic acid,linoleic acid and oleic acid.However,the characteristic compound of aromatic rice,2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was not found in the extracts.%分析香米中的挥发性成分。采用水蒸气蒸馏的方法对北京市场上销售的4种香米中的挥发性成分进行提取。提取物经气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析,结合计算分离出的成分保留指数。结果共鉴定出51种成分,其中烃类31种、酯类6种、含氮化合物5种、有机酸类5种、醛类2种、缩醛类和醚类各1种;采用面积归一化法确定其相对含量;4种香米中均鉴定出的挥发性成分有19种,分别是2,3-二甲基-2-丁烯、乙酸乙酯、3-甲基-2-戊烯、甲基环戊烷、乙基异丁基醚、2,3-二甲基-1-戊烯、苯、2-甲基己烷、2,3-二甲基戊烷、3-甲基己烷、环己烯、三氯乙烯、己醛、N,N-二甲基苯胺、苯并噻唑、十四酸、十六酸、亚油酸、油酸;在4种香米中未鉴定出香米的特征香成分2-乙酰基吡咯啉。

  15. Optimization of the Process Conditions and Change of Volatile Flavor Components of Longan Pulp Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria%龙眼乳酸菌发酵工艺条件优化及其挥发性风味物质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 汪浩; 张名位; 张雁; 张瑞芬; 唐小俊; 邓媛元

    2015-01-01

    苯甲醛1.25μg·g-1、乙酸乙酯2.19μg·g-1、苯甲酸甲酯1.05μg·g-1、水杨酸甲酯1.93μg·g-1、3-羟基-2-丁酮1.085μg·g-1、反式-罗勒烯97.81μg·g-1、别罗勒烯1.923μg·g-1、乙酸1.84μg·g-1,其中苯甲醛和乙酸乙酯由发酵产生,乙醇、乙醛、别罗勒烯及乙酸经发酵后含量增加。【结论】乳酸菌发酵显著增加龙眼果浆的总酸及挥发性风味物质,通过优化控制发酵条件,可以开发风味独特的龙眼乳酸菌饮料新产品。%Objective]The optical fermentation conditions of longan pulp by lactic acid bacteria were established, and the change of volatile flavor compounds of longan pulp before and after fermentation was clarified. This research can guide the development of functional longan beverage.[Method]Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgavicus﹕Streptococus thermophilus=1 ﹕1) was domesticate in the medium containing 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% longan pulp and 10% skim milk. The acidity and pH of longan pulp were analyzed during the domestication. The conditions of fermented longan pulp by lactic acid bacteria were optimized through Box-Benhnken central composite experimental design based on the indicators of total acid. A regression model of four factors was established including the fermentation time, fermentation temperature, the content of skim milk powder and inoculation amount of lactic acid bacteria. Separation and analysis of the main volatile flavor compounds in longan pulp before and after fermentation were performed by headspace solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry.[Result]The lactic acid bacteria with good fermentation ability was obtained in longan pulp with high concentration. After 12 h of fermentation, the acidity of 90% longan pulp increased from 9.5ºT to 104.4ºT, and pH decreased from 7.12 to 4.44. The acidity of 90% longan pulp was significantly higher than that of 60% and 70% longan pulp (P<0.05), there was no significant

  16. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  17. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  18. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  19. The mystery of flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed.

  20. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  1. Gluino Meets Flavored Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizabl...

  2. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of chemical constituents of volatile oil from different parts of mentha haplocalyx briq%薄荷不同部位挥发油成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平晟; 朱才会; 晏婷; 朱敏; 陈功; 王丽梅

    2015-01-01

    研究武汉地区野生薄荷根茎叶挥发油的成分及含量。用水蒸气蒸馏法( SD )分别提取薄荷不同部位的挥发油,然后用气相色谱-质谱法分析薄荷不同部位挥发油的化学成分。结果表明:叶片挥发油出油率是0.45%,茎挥发油出油率是0.2%,根挥发油出油率是0.02%。用气相色谱-质谱法分析三种不同部位挥发油,共鉴定出43种化合物,叶和茎挥发油主要成分是薄荷醇,根挥发油的主要成分是二十四烷。用薄荷不同部位提取的挥发油含量和成分有较大差别。为获得较高产率的薄荷醇成分,以薄荷叶获取挥发油为最佳原料。%To study the volatile components and contents of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq cultivated in Wuhan.The volatile oil of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq was extracted by steam distillation( SD) .The chemical components of volatile oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS).The yield of volatile oil from the leaf was 0.45%, The yield of volatile oil from the stem was 0. 2%, The yield of volatile oil from the roots was 0.02%.43 main vo1atile compounds were identified.Levomentho was main component of volatile oil from the leaf and the stem ,Tetracosane was main component of volatile oil from the root.There was great difference in volatile components and contents which were extracted from different part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.In order to obtain higher yield of Levomentho, leaf of Mentha haplocalyx Briq was the best Material.

  4. Instanton-dyon Ensembles III: Exotic Quark Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    "Exotic quarks" in the title refers to a modification of quark periodicity condition on the thermal circle by introduction of some phases -- known also as "flavor holonomies" -- different quark flavors. These phases provide a valuable tool, to be used for better understanding of deconfinement and chiral restoration phase transitions: by changing them one can dramatically modify both phase transitions. In the language of instanton constituents -- instanton-dyons or monopoles -- it has a very direct explanation: the interplay of flavor and color holonomies can switch topological zero modes between various dyon types. The model we will study in detail, the so called $Z_{N_c}$-symmetric QCD model with equal number of colors and flavors $N_c=N_f=2$ and special arrangement of flavor and color holonomies, ensure "most democratic" setting, in which each quark flavor and each dyon type are in one-to-one correspondence. The usual QCD has the opposite "most exclusive" arrangement: all quarks are antiperiodic and thus al...

  5. Analysis of Volatile Constituents from the Fresh Leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum(L.)L Her.ex Ait.by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶挥发性成分的HS-SPME/GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建刚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶中的挥发性成分.[方法]采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶挥发性化学成分进行分离鉴定,用色语峰面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量.[结果]从豆蔻天竺葵叶挥发性物质中分离出了68个组分,鉴定出了61个组分,并测定了各组分相对含量,包括D-柠檬烯(61.18%),芳樟醇(4.09%),大牻牛儿烯(3.38%),4-蒈烯(2.92%),按叶醇(1.31%),α-蒎烯(2.19%),桧烯(2.15%),异松油烯(2.86%),1,7,7-三甲基双环[2.2.1]庚-2-乙酸酯(1.98%)等.[结论]通过对豆蔻天竺葵挥发性成分的研究,为豆蔻天竺葵资源的进一步开发利用提供了试验依据.%[Objective] To analyze volatile constituents from the fresh leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. ) L Her. Ex Ait.. [ Method] Volatile constituents were isolated from fresh leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. ) L Her. Ex Ait. And identified by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), contents of which were determined by area normalization method. [ Result ] 68 constituents were isolated, 61 of which were identified including D-limonene (61.18%), linalool (4.09% ) , germacrene (3.38%), 4-carene (2.92%), eucalyptol (1.31%), alpha-pinene (2.19%), sabinene (2.15%), terpinolene (2.86%) and 1, 7, 7-trime-thylbicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl acetate(1.98% ). [Conclusion] The study on the volatile constituents could provide a test basis for further development and utilization of Pelargonium odoratissimum ( L. ) L Her. Ex Ait. Resources.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Peaches: Identification of the Key Individual Characteristic Flavor Compounds by Integrating Consumers' Acceptability with Flavor Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng XI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the key flavor compounds influencing the consumers' choice for honey peach, nectarine, and flat peach and provide important information for orientation breeding, sugars, organic acids, and aroma volatiles in 3 types of peaches were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and their key individual characteristic flavor compounds were identified by multivariate analysis integrated with consumers' evaluation. No significant differences in sugar and organic acid were observed between 3 types of peaches. In hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA models, 3 types of peaches could not be differentiated by sugars or organic acids, but could be identified completely by aroma volatiles or by flavor compounds. A partial least squares regression (PLSR model revealed that the key individual characteristic volatiles in nectarine, honey peach, and flat peach are C9 compounds and terpenic compounds, norisoprenoids and C6 compounds, and benzaldehyde, γ-decalactone, and δ-dodecalactone, respectively. These results suggest that sugars and organic acids form the background flavor of peach fruit and lactones shape the typical peach aroma. However, the individual aroma volatiles play the decisive role in unique flavor determination of different types of peaches.

  7. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  8. 刺五加叶挥发性化学成分的提取与气相色谱-质谱分析%Extraction and GC/MS analysis of volatile constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张肖宁; 孙妍; 曹飞

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较不同提取方法对刺五加叶中挥发性化学成分的得率,并对其挥发性化学成分进行分析.方法:采用同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)与常规提取法(水蒸气蒸馏法、溶剂法)对刺五加叶药材挥发性化学成分的提取收率进行比较研究,用GC/MS法对其挥发性化学成分进行分离鉴定,用峰面积归一化法得出各化学成分在挥发性组分中的相对百分含量.结果:共分离出51个成分,确认了其中39种化学成分,主要为萜类及其含氧衍生物(68.85%)和芳香族类化合物(6.32%),其中,(+)-匙叶桉油烯醇含量最高,达19.89%,其余依次为1-甲基-5-亚甲基-8-[1-甲基乙基]-1,6-环癸二烯(7.02%)和1-甲基-1-乙烯基-2,4-二异丙烯基-环己烷(5.59%)等.结论:同时蒸馏萃取法是提取刺五加叶挥发性物质的优良方法.采用GC-MS法可以高效、适用、准确地分析、鉴定药材中挥发性物质的组成,对深入探索中药的药用价值具有积极的促进作用.%Objective: To determine the volatile constituents extracted from Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr.et Maxim. ) Harms leaf by different methods. Methods: Simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction ( SDE),traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent extraction were applied to analyze the volatile constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr. et Maxim. ) Harms leaf. The volatile constituents were identified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry and the relative contents of the constituents were determined by an area nomalization method.Results: Totally 51 peaks were separated, of which 39 compounds were identified and quantified. The main components were terpenoids, and their oxo-derivatives (68.85%) and aromatic compounds (6.32%). The main volatile chemical components were ( + )-spathulenol (19.89%); 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-[ 1-methylethyl]-1,6-cyclo-decadiene (7.02%); l-methyl-l-vinyl-2, 4-isopropenyl-cyclohexane (5.59%) and others. Conclusion: Simultaneous

  9. Chemical composition of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed; El-Massry, Khaled F; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2007-10-31

    A total of 36 compounds, which comprised 99.4% of the extract, were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the volatile dichloromethane extract obtained from Egyptian corn silk. The main constituents of the volatile extract were cis-alpha-terpineol (24.22%), 6,11-oxidoacor-4-ene (18.06%), citronellol (16.18%), trans-pinocamphone (5.86%), eugenol (4.37%), neo-iso-3-thujanol (2.59%), and cis-sabinene hydrate (2.28%). Dried Egyptian corn silk was also directly extracted with petroleum ether, ethanol, and water. All extracts from solvent extraction and the volatile extract described above exhibited clear antioxidant activities at levels of 50-400 microg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/linoleic acid assay. The ethanol extract inhibited DPPH activity by 84% at a level of 400 microg/mL. All samples tested via the beta-carotene bleaching assay also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity with clear dose responses. This study indicates that corn silk could be used to produce novel natural antioxidants as well as a flavoring agent in various food products.

  10. 发酵鸭肉肠加工工艺优化及挥发性风味物质检测%Optimal Processing and Volatile Flavor Compounds of Fermented Duck Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石江涛; 王武; 邓诗诗; 魏玲

    2015-01-01

    以鸭腿为原料,选择嗜酸乳杆菌(L. plantarum)和戊糖片球菌(P. pentosaces)为发酵菌种,以感官评分为评价指标,采用单因素结合响应面试验方法优化发酵鸭肉肠的加工工艺,并采用固相微萃取和气质联用技术检测发酵鸭肉肠中挥发性风味物质的组成。结果表明:发酵鸭肉肠较佳的加工工艺条件为:发酵剂添加量106 CFU/g、发酵时间54 h、发酵温度27℃,此工艺下制作的发酵鸭肉肠具有较好的感官品质。从发酵鸭肉肠中检测出37种挥发性成分,包括醛类、醇类、烃类、酸类、酯类以及含氮类化合物等。%The process optimization using combination of single factor method and response surface methodology (RSM) for the production of fermented duck sausage from duck leg meat using a 1:1 mixture ofL. plantarum andP. pentosaces as starter culture was conducted in this study. The response was sensory evaluation score. Volatile compounds in fermented sausage were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that the optimal processing parameters of fermented duck sausage were 106 CFU/g starter culture, 54 h of fermentation time, and 27℃ of fermentation temperature. Totally 37 volatile lfavor compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, acids, esters and nitrogenous compounds were identiifed in fermented duck sausage.

  11. Analysis of Volatile Chemical Constituents in Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Chinesis Fructus by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS联用分析醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶欣; 卢金清; 曹利; 林杰; 万丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and compare the volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus.Methods:The volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fruc-tus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus were extracted by headspace solid phase-microextraction (HS-SPME) and quali-tatively analyzed by GC-MS.Results:Totally 20 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.55%of the total volatile components , and totally 21 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.90% of the total volatile components .Conclusion: The type and content of volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus are quite different , and the study can provide scientific basis for the two traditional Chinese medicinal materials .%目的:分析和比较醋制南北五味子挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法( HS-SPME)萃取醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分,结合GC-MS法对其挥发性成分进行分析。结果:从醋制南五味子中鉴定出20种化学成分,从醋制北五味子中鉴定出21种化学成分,分别占各自挥发性成分总量的99.55%和99.90%。结论:醋制南北五味子的挥发性成分在种类和含量上差异较大,为快速鉴定醋制南北五味子提供科学依据。

  12. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  13. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  14. The supersymmetric flavor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, Savas; Sutter, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The supersymmetric SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1) theory with minimal particle content and general soft supersymmetry breaking terms has 110 physical parameters in its flavor sector: 30 masses, 39 real mixing angles and 41 phases. The absence of an experimental indication for the plethora of new parameters places severe constraints on theories posessing Planck or GUT-mass particles and suggests that theories of flavor conflict with naturalness. We illustrate the problem by studying the processes \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma and K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing which are very sensitive probes of Planckian physics: a single Planck mass particle coupled to the electron or the muon with a Yukawa coupling comparable to the gauge coupling typically leads to a rate for \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma exceeding the present experimental limits. A possible solution is that the messengers which transmit supersymmetry breaking to the ordinary particles are much lighter than M_{\\rm Planck}.

  15. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  16. The mystery of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peccei, R.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Comparison of volatile constituents in two types of mugwort leaves (produced in Qichun and Nanyang) using the headspace GC-MS%顶空进样GC-MS比较蕲春与南阳产艾叶的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元; 康利平; 滕中秋; 詹志来; 南铁贵; 周爱香; 郭兰萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察比较湖北蕲春与河南南阳两个产地艾叶的挥发性成分的种类。方法:采用顶空加热提取艾叶挥发性成分并进行气相色谱-质谱(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)分析,结合美国国家标准与技术研究院(National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST)提供的标准数据库进行定性分析,以峰面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量。结果:从湖北蕲春产艾叶中鉴定出59种化合物,从河南南阳产艾叶中鉴定出51种化合物,主要为单萜类、倍半萜及其含氧衍生物,及其他的醛、酮、烷及苯系化合物。两地艾叶药材挥发性成分中有32种共有成分,具有一定差异;所鉴定化合物的色谱流出峰面积占湖北蕲春艾叶GC-MS色谱总流出峰面积的96.38%,占河南南阳艾叶的95.54%。结论:顶空加热提取结合GC-MS技术可以便捷地揭示不同产地艾叶的挥发性成分异同,为艾材的质量评价和筛选提供一定科学依据。%Objective:To compare the volatile constituents in mugwort leaves produced in Qichun, Hubei Province and Nanyang, Henan Province. Methods:The volatile constituents were extracted using headspace heating and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then a qualitative analysis was made according to the standard database provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the relative contents of each constituent were calculated using the peak area normalization method. Results:A total of 59 compounds were identified from the mugwort leaves from Qichun and 51 compounds were identified from the mugwort leaves from Nanyang. These mainly include monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, CxHyOz and other compounds involving the aldehyde, ketone, alkane and benzene. The mugwort leaves from Qichun and Nanyang share 32 common volatile constituents. The chromatographic peak area of identified compounds accounting for 96.38% of GC-MS total

  18. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics. Sau......, and valine, or from microbial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, sulfur compounds arising from added garlic correlated positively with mature flavor....

  19. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  20. Changes in the hop-derived volatile profile upon lab scale boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Tatiana; Van Opstaele, Filip; Steenackers, Bart; De Brabanter, Joseph; De Vos, Dirk; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Hop terpenes might be oxidized during kettle boiling into more water soluble compounds that could contribute to 'hoppy' aroma of kettle hopped lager beers. Our current research proves that the boiling process induces significant changes in the hop oil volatile profile. The discrimination between volatile profiles of unboiled and boiled hop essential oil was evaluated via principal component and cluster analysis (PCA and CA). HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis revealed quantitative changes (e.g. increases in the levels of oxygenated α-humulene and β-caryophyllene derivatives) as well as qualitative changes (i.e. detection of compounds, not found in unboiled hop essential oil) in the hop oil volatile profile upon boiling. Many of these compounds were previously found in lager beer and may therefore contribute to beer flavor. Interestingly, the analytical difference between unboiled and boiled hop essential oil proved to be more pronounced as the initial hop essential oil concentration used for boiling was increased. In addition, lager beers spiked with boiled hop oil were described as 'hoppy/spicy' during sensory evaluations. Therefore, the newly formed products and hop oil constituents that are characterized by an increased recovery after boiling, are candidate compounds for 'hoppy' aroma in real brewing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... quality or flavor of the finished product. In the case of bulky flavoring ingredients such as pimento, the...

  2. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alan H; Pillet, Jeremy; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Whitaker, Vance M; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-04-17

    There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing durable molecular markers to follow these genes in breeding populations. In this report, fruit from two cultivars, varying for presence-absence of volatile compounds, along with segregating progeny, were analyzed using GC/MS and RNAseq. Expression data were bulked in silico according to presence/absence of a given volatile compound, in this case γ-decalactone, a compound conferring a peach flavor note to fruits. Computationally sorting reads in segregating progeny based on γ-decalactone presence eliminated transcripts not directly relevant to the volatile, revealing transcripts possibly imparting quantitative contributions. One candidate encodes an omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme known to participate in lactone production in fungi, noted here as FaFAD1. This candidate was induced by ripening, was detected in certain harvests, and correlated with γ-decalactone presence. The FaFAD1 gene is present in every genotype where γ-decalactone has been detected, and it was invariably missing in non-producers. A functional, PCR-based molecular marker was developed that cosegregates with the phenotype in F1 and BC1 populations, as well as in many other cultivars and wild Fragaria accessions. Genetic, genomic and analytical chemistry techniques were combined to identify FaFAD1, a gene likely controlling a key flavor volatile in strawberry. The same data may now be re-sorted based on presence/absence of any other volatile to identify other flavor-affecting candidates, leading to rapid generation of gene-specific markers.

  3. GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Rose Damascena Mill%突厥玫瑰挥发油化学成分的 GC-MS分析及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓宝; 陈德力; 赵祥升; 杨新全

    2016-01-01

    The volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was extracted by steam distillation.The chemical con-stituents of volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.were analyzed by a GC-MS.The antioxidant activity of vola-tile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was determined by a DPPH+FRAP method.The relative content of volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was determined by a peak area normalization.Total 42 compounds were identi-fied,accounting for 79.57% of the total volatile oil content.The main chemical constituents of volatile oil were citronellol(26.1 1%),α-geraniol(5.89%),β-nerol(4.36%),α-geranial(3.56%),terpinen-4-ol(SG)(3.48%), phenethyl alcohol(2.64%),α-guaiene(2.33%),ocimene(2.32%),and neryl acetate(2.17%).The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of volatile oil was 58.9%,and the FRAP value was 402.1 μmol·L-1 .The results provide reliable experimental data and a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of Rose damascena Mill..%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取突厥玫瑰挥发油,并通过气质联用仪(GC-MS)对其化学成分进行分析,采用 DPPH+FRAP 法对其抗氧化活性进行测定。采用面积归一化法对突厥玫瑰挥发油中的主要成分进行了定量分析,共鉴定出42种化合物,占挥发油总成分的79.57%,主要成分为香茅醇(26.11%)、α-香叶醇(5.89%)、β-橙花醇(4.36%)、α-香叶醛(3.56%)、松油-4-醇(3.48%)、苯乙醇(2.64%)、α-愈创烯(2.33%)、罗勒烯(2.32%)、乙酸橙花酯(2.17%);突厥玫瑰挥发油对 DPPH 自由基的清除率最高为58.9%,FRAP 值为402.1μmol·L-1。为突厥玫瑰的进一步产业化开发提供了可靠的实验数据和理论依据。

  4. 顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用分析费约果叶片挥发性香气成分条件优化%Optimization of headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry conditions of volatile flavor from Feijoa sellowiana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白俊英; 黄仁华; 陆云梅; 余游; 王丹

    2016-01-01

    To establish the appropriate extraction conditions for the analysis of volatile constit-uents from Feijoa sellowiana leaves by headspace solid phase micro-extraction( HS-SPME ) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS),the extraction conditions were investigated by orthogonal tests. The sum of the peak areas and total peak numbers of the volatile constituents were used as indices to optimize the extraction conditions by using L9(34) orthogonal array design. The results showed that the influence of temperature was larger and that of the sample amount was smaller for total peak numbers and peak areas. The optimum HS-SPME parameters were selected as follows:0. 6 g sample,extracted for 50 min at 50 ℃, and then desorbed for 6 min. Under these conditions,a total of 88 substances were detected. These substances can reflect the fragrant chemical components of Feijoa sellowiana leaves, and provide some references for the development and utilization of the leaves.%为了建立适合费约果叶片香气成分检测的顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱( HS-SPME-GC-MS)分析方法,考察HS-SPME中不同萃取条件对香气萃取效果的影响,采用L9(34)正交试验,以出峰个数和总峰面积为考察指标确定最佳萃取条件。结果表明,萃取温度对出峰个数和总峰面积的影响较大,而加样量的影响较小。实验得出的较优萃取条件为:加样量0.6 g,萃取温度50℃,萃取时间50 min,解吸时间6 min。在此萃取条件下能够得到88种物质,这些物质能更真实地反映费约果叶片香气成分的化学构成,为费约果叶片的开发利用提供有价值的数据。

  5. Interpretation of Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a charged-lepton flavor violating process would be a definite sign for physics beyond the Standard Model, but would actually only prove that one particular linear combination of lepton numbers is violated. We categorize lepton-flavor-violating processes by their quantum numbers and show how their discovery can be interpreted model-independently, studying in particular which processes are required to establish that the entire flavor group is broken. We also comment on total lepton number, seeing as lepton number violation practically implies lepton flavor violation as well.

  6. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  7. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  8. The Mystery of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Peccei, Roberto D

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher-dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. The twin roles that family symmetries and GUT's can have on the spectrum of quarks and leptons is emphasized, along with the dominant role that the top mass is likely to play in the dynamics of mass generation.

  9. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  10. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency $\\Delta m^2/2E$. However, even in the simple case of a $\

  11. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  12. Identification of flavor compounds and enhancement of flavor characteristics in space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Samooel; Jung, Yeonkook; Lee, Hyeonjeong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To minimize the deterioration of sensorial quality of irradiated bulgogi and dakgalbi, the microbial safety and volatiles were examined. The total aerobic bacterial population of dakgalbi was eliminated by 40 kGy of irradiation, But, the lipid oxidation and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen were significantly increased by 40 kGy of irradiation, and off-flavor was significantly higher in irradiated sample. The amount of volatile compounds was increased by irradiation including hexane, heptane, propanal, hexanal, pentanal, and nonanal Totally 7 natural materials and red wine were added into ground beef for manufacturing bulgogi and evaluated the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. When garlic, onion, or red wine were added into the ground beef with concentrations 1 to 5%, the RRS increased significantly. Also, garlic or onion used as ingredient of dakalbi significantly increased RRS against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytohenes garlic or red wine were selected to increase of RRS and combined with charcoal packaging to reduce the off-odor of ground beef by irradiation. The combination treatment of garlic or red wine with charcoal packaging reduced the total volatile compounds. Sensory evaluation confirmed that the use of combination treatment of natural materials with charcoal packaging enhance the sensorial quality of ground beef. As the result, it is possible to reduce the required irradiation dose by increasing RRS, which can minimize sensory deterioration of the products. And, charcoal packaging can reduce sensory deterioration

  13. Advances in the Studies of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Volatile Components from Mentha L.%薄荷属植物挥发性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智坤; 梁呈元; 任冰如; 于盱; 李维林

    2013-01-01

    薄荷属(Mentha L.)植物广泛分布于世界各地,有着悠久的药食两用史.目前,薄荷属植物挥发性物质主要应用于医药、食品、化妆品、香料、烟草等工业.现代研究表明其挥发性成分主要含有多种单萜类化合物,药理学研究显示其具有抗氧化、抗菌、抗辐射、抗癌、降血压等生物活性.本文主要对该属植物挥发性化学成分及药理作用的研究现状进行综述,以期为进一步开发和利用该属植物提供科学依据.%Mentha L.species widely distribute around the world.They had been used in foods and medicines for more than 2000 years.Currently the volatile components(or essential oils) from mint were widely used in medicine,food,cosmetics,perfume,tobacco and others industry.Recent researches show that the volatile components are mainly composed by monoterpenoids and have the biological activity such as antioxidation,antibacterial,antiradiation,anticancer,lowering school pressure,and etc.In this paper,we review progresses on botany,chemistry and activity of volatile components about this species,in order to provide the evidence for utilizing this resource better.

  14. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae by GC-MS%金银花、连翘药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学锋; 陈飞龙; 罗佳波

    2009-01-01

    目的 考察金银花、连翘药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对金银花、连翘药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对金银花、连翘药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现金银花挥发油中检出的香叶醇、十四烷酸甲基酯、十六烷酸乙基酯、荧蒽、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸甲基酯、亚油酸等成分和连翘挥发油中检出的樟脑烯、α-松油烯、紫苏醇、蒎烯、棕榈醛、β-水茴香萜等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有柠檬烯、异长松叶烯、十九烷等.结论 金银花、连翘药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.%Objective To discuss the influence of drug compatibility on the components of the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae, Fructas Forsythiae and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that gerani]o, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, fluoranthene, 9, 12, 15-Octadeeatrienoic acid ethyl ester and linoleic acid was detectable in Flos Lonicerae but was undetectable in the drug pair; camphene, alpha-terpinene, perillaalcohol, 2-beta-pinene, beta-hexadecanal, phellandrene was de-tectable in Fructus Forsythiae but was undetectable in the drug pair; limonene, isolongifolene, nonadecane was detectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae.

  15. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  16. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  17. Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Coupled with Solid-phase Microextraction for Determination of Volatile Constituents of Chinese Ginger%固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱分析生姜的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国新; 邓春晖; 吴丹; 胡耀铭

    2003-01-01

    采用固相微萃取(SPME)技术结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了生姜中的挥发性化合物.用膜厚为100 μm的聚二甲基硅氧烷纤维头萃取新鲜生姜中的挥发性化合物,纤维头在温度为250 ℃气化室进样口脱附3 min.通过顶空SPME-GC-MS方法从生姜中共分离和鉴定出36个化合物.其中主要的化合物为α-水芹烯,莰烯,里哪醇,香叶醛,姜烯,倍半水芹烯,橙花醛,α-没药烯,α-姜黄烯,由色谱峰的峰面积比例计算出各个化合物的相对含量. 研究和讨论了影响SPME条件的参数,包括吸附时间、温度、脱附时间等.%Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS) was developed for the determination of volatile compounds of ginger. The volatile constituents of fresh ginger were extracted by SPME with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The fibers were desorbed in a GC injection liner at 250 ℃ for 3 min. With headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis, thirty-six peaks in ginger were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds included α-phellandrene, camphene, linalool, geranial, zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene, neral, α-bisabolene, α-curcumene etc and their relative contents were calculated on basis of peak area ratio. SPME extraction conditions including time, temperature and desorption time were investigated.

  18. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  19. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  20. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary O(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-...

  1. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Hassanpouraghdam; F Shekari; J. EMARAT-PARDAZ; SAFI SHALAMZARI, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8%) were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%). The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E)-caryophyllene (44.6%) caryophyllene oxide (14.8%), germacrene D...

  2. Study of production and pyrolysis characteristics of sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhu, Yalun

    2014-05-25

    Flavor plays an important role and has been widely used in foods. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the flavor. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. This work focused on the study of production of a sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex, and investigated the combination of flavor and β-CD by thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the flavor-β-CD inclusion complex were determined. The results showed that the flavor-β-CD inclusion complexes can form large aggregates in water. During thermal degradation of blank β-CD and flavor-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. The thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 250°C, while the TG curve of flavor-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sheepmeat flavor and the effect of different feeding systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Peter J; Frank, Damian; Singh, Tanoj K; Young, Owen A; Warner, Robyn D

    2013-04-17

    Lamb has a unique flavor, distinct from other popular red meats. Although flavor underpins lamb's popularity, it can also be an impediment to consumer acceptance. Lack of familiarity with sheepmeat flavor itself can be a barrier for some consumers, and undesirable feed-induced flavors may also compromise acceptability. Against the backdrop of climate uncertainty and unpredictable rainfall patterns, sheep producers are turning to alternatives to traditional grazing pasture systems. Historically, pasture has been the predominant feed system for lamb production in Australia and around the world. It is for this reason that there has been a focus on "pastoral" flavor in sheep meat. Pasture-associated flavors may be accepted as "normal" by consumers accustomed to meat from pasture-fed sheep; however, these flavors may be unfamiliar to consumers of meat produced from grain-fed and other feed systems. Over the past few decades, studies examining the impacts of different feeds on lamb meat quality have yielded variable consumer responses ranging from "no effect" to "unacceptable", illustrating the diverse and sometimes inconsistent impacts of different forages on sheepmeat flavor. Despite considerable research, there is no consensus on which volatiles are essential for desirable lamb aroma and how they differ compared to other red meats, for example, beef. In contrast, comparatively little work has focused specifically on the nonvolatile taste components of lamb flavor. Diet also affects the amount of intramuscular fat and its fatty acid composition in the meat, which has a direct effect on meat juiciness and texture as well as flavor, and its release during eating. The effect of diet is far from simple and much still needs to be learned. An integrated approach that encompasses all input variables is required to better understand the impact of the feed and related systems on sheepmeat flavor. This review brings together recent research findings and proposes some novel

  4. Volatile Constituents from Three Parts of Cucurbita Moschata Duch. (Miben) by Head-Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析蜜本南瓜3个部位的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 彭涛; 卢引; 顾雪竹; 李昌勤; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the volatile constituents from flower, stem tip and seed of Cucurbita moschata Duch.(Miben). The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction, coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time . The results showed that 22 compounds were identified from the flower , 20 from the stem tip and 21 from the seed of the C. moschata (Miben). The total essential constituents from each part were 91 . 89%, 89 . 24% and 96 . 26%, respectively . A total of 10 compounds in the flower and stem tip were mutual. And 3 compounds in the flower, stem tip and seed were mutual. It was concluded that the β-bourbonene (17.57%) and heneicosane (11.90%) were the highest components of the total essential constituents of the flower of C. moschata (Miben). Decanal (28.77%) was the highest components of the stem tip and hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (29.12%), 2,3-butanediol (16.90%) and linoleic acid ethyl ester (16.52%) were the highest compo-nents of seed of C. moschata (Miben).%目的:对蜜本南瓜花、茎尖和籽的挥发性成分进行分析。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),结合保留指数法,首次分析蜜本南瓜3个部位的挥发性成分。结果:从蜜本南瓜花、茎尖、籽中分别鉴定出22、20和21个挥发性成分,占总峰面积的91.89%、89.24%和96.26%。其中花和茎尖共有10个共有成分,花、茎尖和籽有3个共有成分。结论:蜜本南瓜花中茁-波旁烯(17.57%)和二十一烷(11.90%)含量较高;蜜本南瓜茎尖中癸醛(28.77%)含量最高;籽中棕榈酸乙酯(29.12%)、2,3-丁二醇(16.90%)和亚油酸乙酯(16.52%)含量较高。

  5. Comparative analysis of volatile constituents in herbal pair Ramulus Cinnamomi-Atractylodes macrocephala and its signal herb by GC-MS%药对桂枝-白术及其单味药中挥发油成分GC-MS的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘金明; 钟明; 梁逸曾; 彭友林; 张茂美; 谭斌斌

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从桂枝、白术及其药对中提取挥发油成分,通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对其进行分离检测,结合直观推导式演进特征投影法(HELP)对重叠色谱峰进行分辨解析;同时,利用程序升温保留指数辅助定性.研究结果表明:从单味药桂枝、白术及其药对中鉴定出66,29和55个组分,分别占挥发油成分总量的94.43%,95.93%和96.35%;单味药与药对共有4种组分,占药对挥发油总含量的13.14%;组成药对后,新增4种组分,单味药桂枝消失33种组分,白术消失7种组分;药对中挥发油主要成分是2-(2-甲氧基)苯甲氧基苯酚、γ-芹子烯和桂皮醛等,它们主要来自于白术;药对种类与含量变化并不是单味药的简单相加,其作用机理有待进一步研究.%The volatile constituents were extracted from Ramulus Cinnamomi(RC), Atractylodes macrocephala(AM) and herbal pair(HP) RC-AM by steam distillation. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with heuristic evolving latent projections(HELP), a useful chemometric resolution method which can be used to resolve overlapping peaks in chromatogram, was employed to identify and comparatively analyze the volatile constituents,together with the temperature-programmed retention index for assistant identification. The results show that there are 66,29 and 55 kinds of constituents of the essential oils being identified respectively from single herb RC, AM and HP-RC-AM, and the relative amount accounts for 94.43%, 95.93% and 96.35 % of the total relative contents in order.There are 4 common volatile constitutions in single herb and HP, and accounting for 13.14% total contents in HP. There are 4 components increasing in HP, while there are 33 and 7 components losing in the single herb CR and AM respectively. The volatile principally components in HP are 2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)phenol, γ-Selinene and Cinnamaldehyde, et al., and they are mainly from single herb

  6. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  7. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gilbert

    Full Text Available Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001 were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70, texture (R2 = 0.68, and flavor (R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their

  8. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Frankincense and Myrrh by GC-MS%乳香、没药药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 王团结; 宿树兰; 段金廒; 付小环

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence ot drug compatibility on the components ot the volatile oil in Frankincense and Myrrh. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Frankincense,Myrrh and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that cadina-1 ( 10 ) ,4-diene, yl-2H-1-Benzopyran, 3,5,6,8 a-tetrahydro-2,5,5,8 a-tetramethyl-, trans- was detectable in Frankincense but was undetectable in the drag pair; Phenol,2-(1,2-dimethyl-2- cyclopenten-l-yl)-, acetate, Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l,6-dimethyl-4 -(1-methylethyl)-,(1 S-cis)-, Azulen-2-ol, 1,4-dimethyl-7-(l-methylethyl)- was detactable in Myrrh but was undectable in the drug pair;1-ethenyl -1-methyl - 2,4-diisopropyl -cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4- tetrahydro-1-methyl -8-Isopropylnaphthalene was dectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Frankincense and Myrrh.%目的 考察乳香、没药药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对乳香、没药药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对乳香、没药药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现乳香挥发油中检出的trans-3,5,6,8 a-四氢-2,5,5,8a-四甲基-y1-2H-1-苯并吡喃、荜澄茄-1(10),4-二烯等成分和没药挥发油中检出的2-(1,2-二甲基-2-环戊烯-1-y1)乙酸苯酯、(1S-cis)-1,2,3,4-四氢-1,6-二甲基-4-(1-甲基乙基)-萘、1,4-二甲基-7-(1-甲基乙基)-Azulen-2-醇、(-)-匙叶桉油烯醇等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有1-乙烯基-1-甲基-2,4-二异丙基-环己烷、1,2,3,4-四氢-1-甲基-8-异丙基萘等.结论 乳香、没药药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.

  9. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  10. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  11. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  12. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  13. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  14. Flavor-diagonal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The focus of this brief review is on new physics (NP) sources of CP violation, especially related to the flavor-diagonal phenomena of electric dipole moments (EDMs) of elementary particles and atoms. Using weak scale supersymmetry as an example, we illustrate various aspects of the "new physics CP-problem". We also explore the interplay between flavor-changing and flavor-diagonal CP violation in the context of the recent hints from the Tevatron for new sources of CP violation in the B-meson systems.

  15. Establishment of Method for Determination of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Soy Sauce and Comparision of the Components%酿造酱油挥发性风味成分测定方法的建立与组成比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 蒋予箭; 张海珍; 徐高丹

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of volatile flavor components (VFCs) in soy sauce using head space solid-phase microextractior (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using 3-octanol as internal standard, the aroma of soy sauce was detected in a rapid and accurate quantitative analysis. The optimized conditions were 75 pm CAR/PDMS fiber, temperature of 50 ℃, adsorption time of 40 min, and NaCl concentration of 220 g/L. It was demonstrated that this method had satisfactory recoveries (81.3%~105.9%). This method was applied to evaluate soy sauce samples. Sixty-four VFCs were discovered in high-salt liquid soy sauce and total contents were 3 749.1 μg/L,while 36 VFCs were detected in low-salt solid soy sauce and total contents were 3 022.9 pg/L. These two kinds of soy sauce showed significant differences in the acids, aldehydes, esters, furans and ketones levels.%为建立一种测定酿造酱油中挥发性风味成分的顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱方法(HS-SPME-GC-MS),以3-辛醇作为内标,应用HS-SPME-GC-MS技术,对酱油中的香气成分进行快速、准确的定量分析.优化的SPME条件是:75μm CAR/PDMS萃取头、萃取温度50℃、萃取时间40min、NaCl质量浓度220g/L,回收率在81.3%~105.9%之间.使用该方法,从低盐固态酱油中鉴定出挥发性风味成分36种,总含量均值为3022.9μg/L;从高盐稀态酱油中鉴定出挥发性风味成分64种,总含量均值为3 749.1μg/L.两种酱油在酸类、醛类、酯类、呋喃酮类物质的含量上有显著的差异.

  16. 新疆圆柏叶挥发油化学成分变化的研究%Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Sabina vulgaris Ant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭平; 高莉

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对新疆圆柏(Sabina vulgaris Ant.)鲜叶和贮存1年的干燥叶中的挥发油化学成分进行检测,鲜叶中的成分鉴定了31种,干叶中的成分鉴定了23种,共有成分15种.与鲜叶比较,干叶中含量减少的成分是:2,7-二甲基-3-辛烯-5-炔(51.88%,15.29%,前者为鲜叶中的量,后者为干叶中的量,下同)、1-柠檬烯(1.65%,1.13%)、α-异松油烯(0.92%,0.58%)、3,7-二甲基-甲基酯-2,6-辛二烯酸(2.88%,0.50%)、α-长叶蒎烯(1.91%,1.46%)、α-雪松醇(12.69%,10.81%),含量增加的成分是:β-侧柏酮(1.01%,1.98%)、4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)-3-环己烯-1-醇(0.22%,2.83%)、β-香茅醇(0.22%,10.83%)、乙酸香桧酯(4.37%,39.83%),新疆圆柏鲜叶和干叶中的挥发性成分及其含量差异甚大,但是特征成分种类基本一致,随着叶的干燥贮存时间的延长,其挥发性成分及其含量在逐渐减少.%The volatile composition from fresh leaves and dry leaves of Juniperus sabina L. storaged for one year were analyzed by steam distillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 31 compounds from fresh leaves were indentified, and 23 compounds from dry leaves were indentified. The same composition between fresh leaves and dried leaves were 15 kinds. The compounds of contents decreased were ( E) 2, 7-dimethyl-3-octen-5-yne ( 51.88 % , 15.29 % ) , limonene ( 1.65 % , 1. 13 % ), α-terpinolene(0.92 % , 0. 58 % ), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoicacid methyl ester(2.88 % , 0.50 % ), α-longip-inene (1.91 % , 1.46 % ) , α-cedrol ( 12. 69 % , 10. 81 % ). The compounds of contents increased were β-thujone (1.01 % , 1.98 % ) , 4-methyl-l -( 1 -methyl ethyl) -3-cyclohexen-l -ol (0. 22 % , 2. 83 % ) , β-citronellol (0.22 % , 10. 83 % ) , sabinyl acetate(4. 37 % , 39.83 % ). The difference of heterogeneous were significantly. The difference of volatile composition from the fresh leaves and dry

  17. Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L; Boitano, Scott

    2016-05-17

    The potential for adverse respiratory effects following exposure to electronic (e-) cigarette liquid (e-liquid) flavorings remains largely unexplored. Given the multitude of flavor permutations on the market, identification of those flavor constituents that negatively impact the respiratory tract is a daunting task. In this study we examined the impact of common e-liquid flavoring chemicals on the airway epithelium, the cellular monolayer that provides the first line of defense against inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants. We used the xCELLigence real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) as a primary high-capacity screening tool to assess cytotoxicity thresholds and physiological effects of common e-liquid flavoring chemicals on immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). The RTCA was used secondarily to assess the capability of 16HBE14o- cells to respond to cellular signaling agonists following a 24 h exposure to select flavoring chemicals. Finally, we conducted biophysical measurements of well-differentiated primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cells with an Ussing chamber to measure the effects of e-cigarette flavoring constituents on barrier function and ion conductance. In our high-capacity screens five of the seven flavoring chemicals displayed changes in cellular impedance consistent with cell death at concentrations found in e-liquid. Vanillin and the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethylpyrazine caused alterations in cellular physiology indicative of a cellular signaling event. At subcytotoxic levels, 24 h exposure to 2,5-dimethylpyrazine compromised the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to signaling agonists important in salt and water balance at the airway surface. Biophysical measurements of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine on primary MTE cells revealed alterations in ion conductance consistent with an efflux at the apical airway surface that was accompanied by a transient loss in transepithelial resistance. Mechanistic studies confirmed

  18. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  19. Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we first outline the role and mechanisms of the chemical senses (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) in the perception of the flavor of a food or beverage. We then describe research findings, much of them from our laboratories, on the ontogeny of flavor perception and the interacting roles of innate responses and learning in the establishment of flavor preference of infants and children. Broadly, taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami, or savory) preferences have a strong innate component. Sweet, umami, and salty substances are innately preferred, whereas bitter and many sour substances are innately rejected. Nevertheless, these innate tendencies can be modified by pre- and postnatal experiences. Volatile components of flavor, detected by the olfactory system, are strongly influenced by early exposure and learning beginning in utero and continuing during early milk (breast milk or formula) feedings. These experiences set the stage for later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. As many of the diseases plaguing developed and developing societies involve excess consumption of some foods, an understanding of factors that determine choice and ingestion, particularly an understanding of the early factors, is important in designing strategies to enhance the health of the infant, child, and adult.

  20. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  1. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  2. Real-Time Flavor Release from French Fries Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using both assessors (in vivo) and a mouth model system (in vitro). Several volatiles measured with APCI were identified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time, salt addition, and a

  3. Changes in dark chocolate volatiles during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Lia M; Cadwallader, Keith R; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2012-05-09

    Chocolate storage is critical to the quality of the final product. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to a change in crystal structure, which may eventually cause fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The impact of various storage conditions on the flavor quality of dark chocolate was determined. Dark chocolate was stored in different conditions leading to either fat or sugar bloom and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of storage. Changes in chocolate flavor were determined by volatile analysis and descriptive sensory evaluation. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least-squares regression analysis (PLS). Volatile concentration and loss were significantly affected by storage conditions. Chocolates stored at high temperature were the most visually and texturally compromised, but volatile concentrations were affected the least, whereas samples stored at ambient, frozen, and high relative humidity conditions had significant volatile loss during storage. It was determined that high-temperature storage caused a change in crystal state due to the polymorphic shift to form VI, leading to an increase in sample hardness. Decreased solid fat content (SFC) during high-temperature storage increased instrumentally determined volatile retention, although no difference was detected in chocolate flavor during sensory analysis, possibly due to instrumental and sensory sampling techniques. When all instrumental and sensory data had been taken into account, the storage condition that had the least impact on texture, surface roughness, grain size, lipid polymorphism, fat bloom formation, volatile concentrations, and sensory attributes was storage at constant temperature and 75% relative humidity.

  4. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  5. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Components of Hairtail Surimi and Its Thermally Inducted Gel%电子束辐照对带鱼鱼糜及其热诱导凝胶挥发性风味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕梁玉; 官爱艳; 张单阳; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 林娴萍; 周星宇

    2016-01-01

    To obtain data supporting the application of electron beam (EB) irradiation for improving the gel properties of serimi, the effects of EB irradiation on the odor quality of hairtail surimi and surimi gel were studied. The volatile flavor components of hairtail surimi and surimi gel were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the key odor compounds were determined based on their relative odor activity values (ROAV). A total of 25, 41, 20, and 44 volatiles were identified in the control and irradiated groups of surimi and surimi gel, respectively. After EB irradiation, the fish smell of surimi and surimi gel was slightly reduced, but did not become worse. Compared with surimi, the fish smell of surimi gel was enhanced by heat induction. There was little influence of EB irradiation at 7 kGy on the key odor compounds of surimi and surimi gel. Decanal, octanal, 3-methylbutanal and 1-octen-3-ol were the key odor compounds of hairtail surimi. The key odor compounds of the surimi gel included methanthiol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and 3-methylbutanal. These sulfur compounds enhanced the fish smell of cooked surimi. Apart from improving the gel properties of serimi, 7 kGy EB irradiation caused little influence on the smell and key odorant compounds of surimi and surimi gel.%分析电子束辐照和热诱导对鱼糜及鱼糜凝胶嗅感的影响,为电子束技术用于提高鱼糜凝胶性能提供数据支持。采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合相对气味活度值和感官评定,分析带鱼鱼糜及其鱼糜凝胶挥发性风味成分的变化,确定其中的关键嗅感成分。结果表明:从对照组鱼糜和鱼糜凝胶、辐照组鱼糜和鱼糜凝胶中分别鉴定出25、41、20、44种挥发性化合物,辐照后的鱼糜和鱼糜凝胶感官上鱼香味略有减弱,但没有辐照异味,鱼糜通过热诱导后鱼香味增强;辐照对鱼糜及鱼糜凝胶嗅感起关键作用和有修饰作用的

  6. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  7. Approximate Flavor Symmetry in Supersymmetric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the maximal approximate flavor symmetry in the framework of generic minimal supersymmetric standard model. We consider the low energy effective theory of the flavor physics with all the possible operators included. Spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking leads to the approximate flavor symmetry in Yukawa sector and the supersymmetry breaking sector. Fermion mass and mixing hierachies are the results of the hierachy of the flavor symmetry breaking. It is found that in this theory i...

  8. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.

  9. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  10. Chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly%番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯歌; 邱雪兰; 杜虎斌; 曾鑫年

    2012-01-01

    The chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) was studied. Guava fruit flesh volatiles were analyzed by GC - MS, and the differences of amount of responded oriental fruit fly adults and eggs laid by oriental fruit fly effected by guava fruit flesh volatiles and other lures. Result of chemical constituents analysis indicated that 18 kinds of components were detected. The highest content component was (Z) -3 -Hexen - 1 - ol acetate, followed by caryophyllene, and their relative contents were 40. 07% and 23. 55% respectively. The results of oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly tests showed that attractant effect of guava fruit flesh was significantly higher than that of sucrose, water control and blank control. But its attractant effect was lower than protein hydrolysate's. Guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate had the effect of attracting oriental fruit fly to lay eggs. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly with guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate after 24 h were 6. 80 ±0.23 and 7.07 ±0. 16 egg/tube respectively, which were significantly higher than other treatments. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly were increased with the increase of weight of guava fruit flesh which can produce volatiles. Maximum eggs were collected, when the weight of guava fruit flesh increased to 11 g. The amount of eggs laid by oriental fruit fly would tend to be unchanged while adding more guava fruit flesh.%本文研究了番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响.通过气相色谱与质谱联用对番石榴果肉挥发物进行了分析,并比较了番石榴果肉挥发物和不同引诱物对桔小实蝇成虫诱集虫口数和产卵量的差异.化学组成分析结果表明,检出的番石榴果肉挥发物共18种化合物,含量最高的为乙酸叶醇酯,占40.07%,其次为石竹烯,占23.55%.桔小实蝇成虫产卵行为生

  11. 海鲜类香精的调配%Compounding of seafood flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 季大伟

    2011-01-01

    According to the market demand for the seafood flavorings, we chose suitable materials and adopted different techniques including Maillard reaction and perfumery technology to blend savory flavors. Enzyme hydrolysis, extracts and Millard materials were used. The crab flavor, seaweed flavor and tuna fish flavor were used as examples showing the processing of compounding natural reaction flavor and volatile fragrance to meet the requirement for seafood flavor. The sea food enzymatic hydrolysis and Millard reaction were briefly discussed.%根据市场对海鲜类咸味香精的要求,选取合适的已开发原料,运用不同的加工技术,包括美拉德反应技术和调香师的调香技术研发出适合市场需要的各类海鲜香精.并简单涉及到酶解物,萃取物和反应物.通过天然反应香精和头香香气的完美搭配来体现海鲜的头香和口味一致性.本文仅探讨几个具有一般代表性的海鲜香精:蟹味,海苔和金枪鱼香精,同时简单叙述了海鲜酶解物以及海鲜反应物的生产工艺流程及要点.

  12. Flavor Analysis of Nucleon, Δ , and Hyperon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmoser, Martin; Choi, Ki-Seok; Plessas, Willibald

    2017-03-01

    By the analysis of the world data base of elastic electron scattering on the proton and the neutron (for the latter, in fact, on ^2H and ^3He) important experimental insights have recently been gained into the flavor compositions of nucleon electromagnetic form factors. We report on testing the Graz Goldstone-boson-exchange relativistic constituent-quark model in comparison to the flavor contents in low-energy nucleons, as revealed from electron-scattering phenomenology. It is found that a satisfactory agreement is achieved between theory and experiment for momentum transfers up to Q^2˜ 4 GeV^2, relying on three-quark configurations only. Analogous studies have been extended to the Δ and the hyperon electromagnetic form factors. For them we here show only some sample results in comparison to data from lattice quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Condensed milk storage and evaporation affect the flavor of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs. RO) on the flavor of NFDM and investigate mechanisms behind flavor differences. For experiment 1, skim milk was pasteurized and concentrated to 30% solids by E or RO and then either stored for 24h at 4°C or concentrated to 50% solids by E and spray dried immediately. To investigate mechanisms behind the results from experiment 1, experiment 2 was constructed. In experiment 2, pasteurized skim milk was subjected to 1 of 4 treatments: control (no E), heated in the evaporator without vacuum, E concentration to 30% solids, or E concentration to 40% solids. The milks were then diluted to the same solids content and evaluated. Volatile compounds were also measured during concentration in the vapor separator of the evaporator. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and instrumental volatile compound analysis was conducted to evaluate volatile compounds. Interaction effects between storage and method of concentration were investigated. In experiment 1, E decreased sweet aromatic flavor and many characteristic milk flavor compounds and increased cardboard and cooked flavors in NFDM compared with RO. Liquid storage increased cardboard flavor and hexanal and octanal and decreased sweet aromatic flavors and vanillin concentration. Results from experiment 2 indicated that the characteristic milk flavors and their associated volatile compounds were removed by the vapor separator in the evaporator due to the heat and

  14. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  15. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-11-17

    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  16. Encapsulation of liquid smoke flavoring in ca-alginate and ca-alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Guillermo; Gianelli, María Pia; Bugueño, Graciela; Celan, Raymond; Pavez, Constanza; Orellana, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation is a technique used in foods that may protect some compounds with sensory impact, in particular flavoring as liquid smoke. We used the dripping method, obtaining two different layers for encapsulation of liquid smoke: calcium alginate and calcium alginate-chitosan. The results show that the load capacity of liquid smoke encapsulation reached values above 96 %. The beads exhibit syneresis at room temperature, but in opposite side, refrigeration temperature stabilizes the hydrogel of beads, allowing the samples loss weight less than 3 % after 72 h. Heated capsules with liquid smoke released several volatile compounds in the headspace and may identify 66 compounds. Among these volatile compounds, phenols derivatives can be considered sensory descriptors to contribute to the specific flavor of smoke. We conclude that the dripping method is highly efficient to encapsulate liquid smoke and released several volatile compounds, although it is necessary to minimize syneresis at room temperature.

  17. Effect of beta-cyclodextrin on aroma release and flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Avinash; Linforth, Robert S T; Hort, Joanne; Taylor, Andrew J

    2004-04-07

    Binding and release of volatile compounds to and from beta-cyclodextrin were measured in model aqueous systems using static equilibrium headspace and dynamic headspace dilution. Beta-cyclodextrin decreased the static equilibrium headspace for some volatiles (e.g., ethyl octanoate and decanone) due to binding, but dilution studies demonstrated that binding was readily reversible. Dynamic release of hydrophobic volatile compounds was similar to that observed from emulsions. When beta-cyclodextrin was added to fat free yogurt, the release of a commercial lemon flavoring was modified and was similar to release from a regular fat yogurt. Sensory difference testing confirmed the release results. The data demonstrate that beta-cyclodextrin can be used to modify flavor delivery in both model and real systems; the effects in the latter are sensorially significant.

  18. Contextual control of flavor neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Díaz, E

    2013-06-13

    The role of context in the retrieval of learned information has been widely analyzed in the associative learning domain. However, evidence about the effect of context on flavor memory retrieval is more limited. We have carried out four experiments with rats testing for possible interactions between neophobia habituation and the context in which flavors are presented, by manipulating prior experience with contexts. Our results point to the relevance of context familiarity for the establishment and recovery of a safe taste memory trace. More specifically, the use of the animals' home cages as experimental context favored neophobia habituation (Experiments 1A and 2), reduced dopamine levels induced by administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 disrupted neophobia habituation when tested in presence of a new context (Experiment 1B), and testing in the animal's home cage increases the amount of flavor consumed, even when such flavor had a previous history of aversive conditioning (Experiment 3). We propose that exploring context without aversive consequences generates a safe memory trace of such context that becomes in the basis of increased flavor consumption.

  19. Lepton-Flavor Violating Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Galon, Iftah; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV $\\gamma$-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  20. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  1. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  2. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  3. True Morels (Morchella) - Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition, Health Benefits and Flavor: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Masaphy, Segula

    2017-03-28

    Morels are edible mushrooms appreciated worldwide for their savory flavor. Morels have been in use in traditional medicine for centuries, due to their health-related benefits, and current research demonstrated their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, in addition to immunostimulatory and anti-tumor properties. In spite of the high demand for morels and their increasing economic importance, their cultivation is limited, and they are either used as wild harvested or fermented in culture, for consumption as a functional food and for food-flavoring. Morel's health benefits were attributed mainly to polysaccharides as the active compounds, and to various phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D. Morel's nutritional composition was reported, including sugar, amino acid, fatty and organic acid and mineral profile. Information regarding Morel's flavor is limited, and while some of their taste attributes have been described, including the role of umami taste, details about their volatile aroma profile are scarce, and it was reported to include eight carbon volatiles, the main aroma volatiles typical to most mushrooms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review presenting morels' nutritional and phytochemical composition, health benefits and flavor, and we will review the available information in current literature regarding these aspects in light of morels phenotypic plasticity.

  4. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  5. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  6. Flavored axion-monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raymundo

    2016-10-01

    In this talk we consider the breaking of a flavor-symmetric potential as the origin of the pseudo-Goldstone bosons responsible for inflation. The breaking of flavor symmetry generates the fermion mass hierarchy while the breaking of accidental symmetries leads to pseudo-Goldstone bosons with an axion-monodromy potential appropriate for inflation. We deal with models where the inflaton is a linear combination of two fields. We will show that the mechanism by which inflation ends depends on the choice of parameters.

  7. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  8. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  9. Natural Gas Price Volatility in the UK and North America

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a commonly held definition, volatility is an often over-generalised term with different meanings to different constituencies. This does not detract from the importance of the subject. To traders volatility is a source of revenue, to energy intensive industrial end-users it is often perceived as a threat. Midstream utilities actively work to risk-manage volatility in order to deliver a ‘dampened’ price offer to end-user customers. In this working paper Sofya Alterman summarises ...

  10. Flavor issues in the Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which the flavor structure of SUSY model induces, either radiatively or through mixing, new flavor-violating interactions in the Higgs sector. The radiative flavor mediation mechanism is illustrated using the minimal SUSY extension of the SM (MSSM) with generic trilinear A-terms, and applied to evaluate the corrections to Lepton Flavor-Violating (LFV) and Flavor-Conserving (LFC) Higgs vertices. Flavor mediation through mixing is discussed within the context of an $E_6$-inspired multi-Higgs model, suplemented with an abelian flavor symmetry. Tevatron and LHC can probe the flavor structure of these models through the detection of the LFV Higgs mode h->tau mu, while NLC can perform high-precision tests of the LFC mode h ->tau+ tau-.

  11. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Van Ba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 μg/g, 60 (15.75 μg/g, 49 (107.61 μg/ml and 50 (7.20 μg/g volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05. Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature. This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

  12. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep......-lat

  13. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  14. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if

  15. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raidal, M.; van der Schaaf, A.; Bigi, I.; Mangano, M. L.; Semertzidis, Y.; Abel, S.; Albino, S.; Antusch, S.; Arganda, E.; Bajc, B.; Banerjee, S.; Biggio, C.; Blanke, M.; Bonivento, W.; Branco, G. C.; Bryman, D.; Buras, A. J.; Calibbi, L.; Ceccucci, A.; Chankowski, P. H.; Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A.; DeMille, D. P.; Deppisch, F.; Diaz, M. A.; Duling, B.; Felcini, M.; Fetscher, W.; Forti, F.; Ghosh, D. K.; Giffels, M.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giudice, G.; Goudzovskij, E.; Han, T.; Harris, P. G.; Herrero, M. J.; Hisano, J.; Holt, R. J.; Huitu, K.; Ibarra, A.; Igonkina, O.; Ilakovac, A.; Imazato, J.; Isidori, G.; Joaquim, F. R.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; King, S. F.; Kirch, K.; Kozlov, M. G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, O.; Lusiani, A.; Ma, E.; Marchiori, G.; Masiero, A.; Masina, I.; Moreau, G.; Mori, T.; Muntel, M.; Neri, N.; Nesti, F.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Paradisi, P.; Petcov, S. T.; Picariello, M.; Porretti, V.; Poschenrieder, A.; Pospelov, M.; Rebane, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Ritz, A.; Roberts, L.; Romanino, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A.; Rueckl, R.; Senjanovic, G.; Serra, N.; Shindou, T.; Takanishi, Y.; Tarantino, C.; Teixeira, A. M.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Turzynski, K. J.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Vempati, S. K.; Vives, O.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the report of the "Flavor in the era of the LHC" Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the ma

  16. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if th

  17. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  19. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  20. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  1. Flavor Constraints on New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    This talk highlights, from a theoretical point of view, some recent exciting results in flavor physics, as well as future prospects. We discuss possible implications of a subset of the experimental results in tension with the standard model, such as the $4\\sigma$ deviation in the $B\\to D^{(*)}\\tau\\bar\

  2. Three Neutrino Flavors are Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to account for all three experimental indications for neutrino oscillations with just three neutrino flavors. In particular, we suggest that the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies are to be explained by the same mass difference and mixing. Possible implications and future tests of the resulting mass-mixing pattern are given.

  3. Lepton-Flavored Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Huai-Ke; Liu, Tao; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We explore lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis, driven by CP-violation in leptonic Yukawa sector, using the $\\tau-\\mu$ system in the two Higgs doublet model as an example. This setup generically yields, together with the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, a tree-level Jarlskog-invariant that can drive dynamical generation of baryon asymmetry during a first-order electroweak phase transition and results in CP-violating effect in the decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$. We find that the observed baryon asymmetry can be generated in parameter space compatible with current experimental results for the decays $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and $\\tau \\rightarrow \\mu \\gamma$, as well as the present bound on the electric dipole moment of the electron. The baryon asymmetry generated is intrinsically correlated with the CP-violating decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau\\mu$, which thus may serve as "smoking guns" to test lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis.

  4. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p applications.

  5. Flavor Mixing Phenomenology in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the flavor mixing effects in supersymmetric models on electroweak precision observables, Higgs boson mass predictions, B-physics observables, quark flavor violating Higgs decays, lepton flavor violating charged lepton decays and lepton flavor violating Higgs decays. The flavor mixing effects are studied in model independent way i.e. by putting off-diagonal entries in the sfermion mass matrix by hand as well as in the minimal flavor violating constrained MSSM, where mixing can originate from CKM matrix in the case of squarks and from PMNS matrix in the case of sleptons. We found that flavor mixing can have large impact to some observables, enabling us to put new constraints on parameter space in supersymmetric models.

  6. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  7. APPLICATION OF ULTRASOUND THERMAL PROCESS ON EXTRACTING FLAVOR AND CAFFEINE OF COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, our focus is the use of ultrasound thermal process to extract flavor and caffeine from coffee. The different operating conditions for extraction experiments are executed and the results are also compared. The results show that coffee flavor is not enhanced with the increase of temperature because the volatile degree of coffee flavor components is quick and easy to be reached at high temperatures. From the experimental results, it can be found that using low vibration frequency is better than using high vibration frequency. Also, caffeine will be reached into the saturated state at the 15th second of the extracting time and the quantity of caffeine augments with the increase of temperature.

  8. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  9. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid and Its Primary, Precursor Pathway to Enhance the Flavor of Fruits and the Aroma of Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas Peled-Zehavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diverse repertoire of specialized metabolites that have multiple roles throughout their life cycle. Some of these metabolites are essential components of the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits. Unfortunately, attempts to increase the yield and prolong the shelf life of crops have generally been associated with reduced levels of volatile specialized metabolites and hence with decreased aroma and flavor. Thus, there is a need for the development of new varieties that will retain their desired traits while gaining enhanced scent and flavor. Metabolic engineering holds great promise as a tool for improving the profile of emitted volatiles of domesticated crops. This mini review discusses recent attempts to utilize metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid and its primary precursor pathway to enhance the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits.

  10. 雪里蕻腌菜特征风味物质的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Typical Flavor Componentsof Potherb Mustard Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 汤坚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    运用色-质(GC/MS)联用技术对雪里蕻腌菜的风味物质进行了研究,以期发现能显著影响其风味特性的关键性成分.首先,对雪里蕻腌菜卤汁的乙醚萃取浓缩液组分进行了鉴定,结果发现有机酸组分8个,醇类组分4个,腈类组分2个,酯类组分1个,芳香烃2个.经动态顶空吸附雪里蕻腌菜挥发性组分并进行组分离,在GC-MS图谱上进行组分的分离鉴定,其特征风味在碱性组分中嗅感强烈.雪里蕻腌菜挥发性成分经GC-MS检测解析为烃类、醇类、酯类、腈及杂环化合物,其中丁烯腈及苯并噻唑与雪里蕻腌菜特征风味形成密切相关.%The spectra patterns of volatile flavor components in potherb mustard pickles detected by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectometry(GC/MS) were investigated in order to identify key compounds in the pickles. The constituents from pickle brine extracted with ethyl ether and identified by GC-MS. In the result, 8 acids, 4 alcohol, 2 nitriles, 2benzines and 1 ester were identified. The application of dynamic headspace trapping using a glass column trap contained HayeSep Q as absorbent combined with GC-MS technique for the volatile flavor analyses and identification was studied. The volatile components from the trapping were collected and presented into acidic, weak acidic, neutral and basic fraction, the basic fraction contained character-impact compounds by means of olfactory evaluation. Two key compounds, butenenitrile and benzothiazole, were found.

  11. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hazard, Derek E

    2016-01-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays $M \\to \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ of quarkonium states $M$ with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating $M \\to \\gamma \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  12. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  13. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  14. Scent of a mite: origin and chemical characterization of the lemon-like flavor of mite-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cheese infested with cheese mites is usually treated as unpalatable. Nevertheless, some traditional cheese manufactories in Germany and France intentionally use mites for fermentation of special varieties (i.e. Milbenkäse and Mimolette). While their production includes different mite species, both are characterized by a "lemon-like" flavor. However, the chemical nature and origin of this flavor-component is unknown. The cheese mites possess a pair of opisthosomal glands producing blends of hydrocarbons, terpenes and aromatics. Here, we describe the chemical profiles of the astigmatid mite species Tyrolichus casei (Milbenkäse) and Acarus siro (Mimolette). Although the chemical profiles differ in several aspects, both mite species produce neral (a volatile flavor component of lemon oil), which was absent from the headspace of both cheeses without mites. We conclude that the lemon-like flavor of mite cheese is not a consequence of fermentation of the cheese itself but a component from secretions of the cheese mites.

  15. Identification of prenyl ethyl ether as a source of metallic, solvent-like off-flavor in hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schwager, Hugo; Meier, Roberto; Frey, Peter; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2010-11-10

    In a large batch of ground hazelnuts, a metallic, solvent-like off-note was detected. In this investigation, the volatiles from the batch showing off-notes were compared to a batch without off-notes. On the basis of gas chromatography (GC) sniffing and instrumental analysis, a terpenoid compound, prenyl ethyl ether, was identified as a key contributor to the off-note. The compound was quantified, and its contribution to the metallic, solvent-like off-flavor was confirmed by spiking experiments and sensory evaluation. Analytical and sensory experiments found that the off-note was still present in hazelnut cakes. Fat oxidation did not contribute to the off-flavor. Analysis of market products demonstrated the correlation between the identified terpenoid and the off-flavor. It is assumed that fungi are involved in off-flavor formation.

  16. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (u anti-u, d anti-d and s anti-s) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of q anti-q pairs leads automatically to an excess of anti-d over anti-u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data.

  17. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  18. Flavors of Supersymmetry Beyond Vanilla

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the territory of supersymmetry beyond the vanilla MSSM. With a viewpoint guided by electroweak naturalness, the review focuses on constructions that weaken or bypass current LHC constraints. Models of SUSY containing Dirac gluinos, compressed spectra, flavor-violating squarks, R-parity violation, stealth sectors, exotic detector objects, and more are discussed. In addition to presenting ways of hiding SUSY, these models highlight a few opportunities to improve LHC coverage.

  19. Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass

  20. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  1. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Flavor effects on leptogenesis predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, S; Bari, Pasquale Di; Blanchet, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Flavor effects in leptogenesis reduce the region of the see-saw parameter space where the final predictions do not depend on the initial conditions, the strong wash-out regime. In this case we show that the lowest bounds holding on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass and on the reheating temperature for hierarchical heavy neutrinos, do not get relaxed compared to the usual ones in the one-flavor approximation, M_1 (T_reh) \\gtrsim 3 (1.5) x 10^9 GeV. Flavor effects can however relax down to these minimal values the lower bounds holding for fixed large values of the decay parameter K_1. We discuss a relevant definite example showing that, when the known information on the neutrino mixing matrix is employed, the lower bounds for K_1 \\gg 10, are relaxed by a factor 2-3 for light hierarchical neutrinos, without any dependence on \\theta_13 and on possible phases. On the other hand, going beyond the limit of light hierarchical neutrinos and taking into account Majorana phases, the lower bounds can be relaxe...

  3. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  4. Flavor Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C S; Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resultant flavor changing neutral current processes in the SU(3) \\otimes SU(3)_\\text{color} gauge-Higgs unification scenario. To achieve flavor violation is a challenging issue in the scenario, since the Yukawa couplings are originally higher dimensional gauge interactions. We argue that the presence of Z_2-odd bulk masses of fermions plays a crucial role as the new source of flavor violation. Although introducing brane-localized mass terms in addition to the bulk masses is necessary to realize flavor mixing, if the bulk masses were universal among generations, the flavor mixing and flavor changing neutral current processes are known to disappear. We also discuss whether natural flavor conservation is realized in the scenario. It is shown that the new source of flavor violation leads to flavor changing neutral current processes at the tree level due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. As a typical example we calculate the rate of K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing due to th...

  5. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  6. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2, confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet.

  7. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum) in Human Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2), confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet. PMID:27916960

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Black Tea Extract and its Application in Cigarette%红茶提取物挥发性成分GC/MS分析及在卷烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢清桃; 王坤波; 董颖; 姚瑞; 谢春桥; 李建军; 董德华

    2012-01-01

    为开发和丰富烟用天然香精香料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取正山小种红茶提取物挥发性成分,用GC/MS法对挥发性成分进行了分离鉴定,共鉴定出35种挥发性成分,主要有苯乙醛、香叶醇、芳樟醇及氧化物、苯乙醇、苯甲酸苄酯、棕榈酸乙酯、植醇、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯等。将该提取物用于卷烟加香,能够明显丰富烟香,减小刺激性和改善卷烟余味。%In order to develop a new natural cigarette flavor, the volatile oil from the Lapsang Souchong black tea ex-tract was extracted by SDE and analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that 35 volatile constituents were identified in the oil and the major components were benzeneacetaldehyde, (E) - geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, phytol, linoleic acid ethyl ester and linolenic acid ethyl ester. The black tea extract was added into cigarettes as tobacco flavoring and evaluated by panelists, and the results indicated that the ex-tract could enrich the tobacco flavor, reduce the irritancy of smoke, and improve taste obviously.

  9. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  10. Baryons in a chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1998-01-01

    In the low-energy regime light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons as well as by vector and scalar mesons. The flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the spin-spin force reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. There is a cancellation of the tensor force from pseudoscalar- and vector-exchanges in baryons. The spin-orbit interactions from $\\rho$-like and $\\omega$-like exchanges also cancel each other in baryons while they produce a big spin-orbit force in NN system. A unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework is presented. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of spin-spin interaction between the constituent quarks induces a strong short-range repulsion in $NN...

  11. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H.; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity. PMID:26553982

  12. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2015-11-24

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

  13. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...... (APCI). An interface was designed to sample the breath directly from the nose. The repeat-ability in vitro for seven different flavor compounds came out with relative standard derivation less than 10% in most cases, which is acceptable. In vitro quantification was carried out by a determination...... of the concentration in the gas phase over a flavor solution by GC/MS, followed by measurements of intensities by the APCI ion trap. Ion suppression by acetone in the breath was negligible at concentration levels relevant in these experiments. The instrumental limits of detection for menthone and menthol coincide...

  14. New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the IceCube collaboration announced the first detection of extra-terrestrial ultra high energy neutrinos. Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools to investigate the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this paper, we study the effect of new physics in the context of the ultra high energy neutrino flavor content. We find that in new physics dominated scenarios, the flavor content at Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content at Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  15. Holographic Thermodynamics and Transport of Flavor Fields

    CERN Document Server

    O'Bannon, Andy

    2008-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  16. Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Andrew Hill

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  17. Bioactive and volatile organic compounds in Southern Brazilian blackberry (Rubus Fruticosus fruit cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Carolina Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cultivar Tupy, an expanding fruit crop in southern Brazil, is greatly appreciated for its flavor and bioactive potential with limited characterization of its metabolite content. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bioactive and volatile organic compound (VOC content of mature blackberry fruit of cultivar Tupy. Gallic acid, (--epicatechin, ferulic acid, and quercetin were the main phenolic compounds found in mature fruit. Among the VOCs identified in 'Tupy' blackberry were important flavor components characteristic of fruit berries, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and terpenoids. Some of the VOCs had not been previously found in blackberry, while others have been associated with typical blackberry flavor.

  18. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor...

  19. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  20. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun

    2013-07-01

    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils.

  1. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  2. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, M.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; Muntel, M.; Rebane, L. [National Inst. for Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Schaaf, A. van der [Physik-Inst. der Univ. Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bigi, I. [Univ. of Notre Dame du Lac, Physics Dept., Notre Dame, IN (United States); Mangano, M.L.; Ceccucci, A.; Felcini, M.; Giudice, G.; Lebedev, O.; Masina, I. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abel, S.; Underwood, T.E.J. [Durham Univ., Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Albino, S. [Univ. of Hamburg, II. Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Antusch, S.; Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Arganda, E.; Herrero, M.J.; Joaquim, F.R. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica (Spain)]|[IFT/CSIC-UAM, Madrid (Spain); Bajc, B. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Physics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Blanke, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Bonivento, W.; Serra, N. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFN Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Branco, G.C.; Rebelo, M.N. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. de Fisica (Portugal)]|[Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Bryman, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, TRIUMF, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Buras, A.J.; Duling, B.; Poschenrieder, A.; Tarantino, C. [TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Calibbi, L. [SISSA (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]|[Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain)]|[Dipt. di Fisica ' G. Galilei' (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy); Chankowski, P.H. [Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A. [Univ. Lyon-1, IPNL, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    2008-09-15

    This chapter of the report of the ''Flavor in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. (orig.)

  3. Minimal Flavor Violation in the Lepton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Grinstein, Benjamin; Isidori, Gino; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    We extend the notion of Minimal Flavor Violation to the lepton sector. We introduce a symmetry principle which allows us to express lepton flavor violation in the charged lepton sector in terms of neutrino masses and mixing angles. We explore the dependence of the rates for flavor changing radiative charged lepton decays (ell(i) -> ell(j) + gamma) and mu-to-e conversion in nuclei on the scales for total lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation and the neutrino masses and mixing angles...

  4. Theoretically palatable flavor combinations of astrophysical neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the particle physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of each flavor to the total flux. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the full range of received flavor ratios for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. With just standard neutrino mixing, this range is quite small. Even when a broad class of new-physics effects is included, it remains surprisingly small. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their measurements imply standard, new, or truly exotic physics.

  5. Neutrino flavor oscillations in rotating matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of the neutrinos system in rotating matter. Neutrinos are supposed to be mixed massive particles interacting with background fermions by means of the electroweak forces. First we find the solutions of wave equations for the neutrino mass eigenstates in matter. Then we study the behavior of neutrino flavor eigenstates in background matter. The problems of neutrino bound states and neutrino flavor oscillations are discussed. We also derive the analog of the quantum mechanical evolution equation for the system of two flavor neutrinos in rotating matter and analyze its solution for the particular initial condition for neutrino flavor eigenstates.

  6. GC-MS和平滑预处理及SFA法用于茵陈挥发性成分的分析%Analysis of the volatile constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.by GC-MS, smoothing and SFA methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉林; 朱丹晖; 冯晓亮; 贺云彪; 黄兰芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究茵陈的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取茵陈挥发油,用GC-MS检测.重叠色谱峰用粗糙惩罚平滑法处理后,用子窗口因子分析法(SFA)分辨,从而获得每一组分的纯色谱和质谱,依靠每一组分纯质谱在NIST质谱库进行相似性检索而定性分析,用总体积积分法定量分析.结果:共分辨出67个色谱峰,鉴定出48个化学成分,占总含量的89.03%.主要组分为n-十六烷酸、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸、镰叶芹醇、反式-Z-α-环氧红没药烯和大(拢)牛儿烯D.结论:本法不仅可使鉴定的化合物数目增加,而且也提高了定性准确度,该法能用于茵陈的进一步开发和质量控制.%Objective: To study the volatile chemical constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Methods: The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. The chemical compositions were detected by GC -MS. After the overlapping of chromatographic peaks, which were first treated with roughness penalty smoothing method , were resolved into pure chromatograms and spectra with subwindow factor analysis method (SFA) , qualitative a-nalysis was performed by similarity search in NIST library with the obtained pure mass spectrum of each component and the quantitative results were obtained by overall volume integration. Results: A total of 67 chromatographic peaks were separated, and 48 chemical components in the essential oil of the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. were identified, which accounted for 89. 03% of the total content. The main components were n - hexade-canoic acid,9,12,15 - octadecatrienoic acid,Artemisia capillaris falcarinol,trans - Z - alpha - bisabolene epoxide and germacrene D. Conclusions: Not only more components were identified by the established method,but also the accuracy of the qualitative analysis of components was improved. The established method can be used for further development and quality control of Artemisia

  7. Thermodynamics for two flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; Tar, C D; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kärkkäinen, L; Neile, C M; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Wingate, M; Gottlieb, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We conclude our analysis of the N_t=6 equation of state for two flavor QCD, first described at last year's conference. We have obtained new runs at am_q=0.025 and improved runs at am_q=0.0125. The results are extrapolated to m_q=0, and we extract the speed of sound as well. We also present evidence for a restoration of the SU(2) X SU(2) chiral symmetry just above the crossover, but not of the axial U(1) chiral symmetry.

  8. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my hand-written notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that someone may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  9. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my handwritten notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that some may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  10. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  11. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Efrati, Aielet; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-01-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  12. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Aielet; Falkowski, Adam; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-07-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  15. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Grinstein, B.

    2017-01-01

    Two short introductory lectures on Flavor Physics delivered at CLASHEP 2015. Among included topics: The KM matrix and the KM model of CP-violation, Determination of KM Elements, FCNC and GIM, New Physics and Flavor, Neutral Meson Mixing and CP Asymmetries. Many problems for the student, and solutions to selected problems, included.

  16. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  17. Quark-flavored scalar dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; Dupuis, Grace; London, David

    2015-01-01

    It is an intriguing possibility that dark matter (DM) could have flavor quantum numbers like the quarks. We propose and investigate a class of UV-complete models of this kind, in which the dark matter is in a scalar triplet of an SU(3) flavor symmetry, and interacts with quarks via a colored flavor-singlet fermionic mediator. Such mediators could be discovered at the LHC if their masses are $\\sim 1$ TeV. We constrain the DM-mediator couplings using relic abundance, direct detection, and flavor-changing neutral-current considerations. We find that, for reasonable values of its couplings, scalar flavored DM can contribute significantly to the real and imaginary parts of the $B_s$-$\\bar B_s$ mixing amplitude. We further assess the potential for such models to explain the galactic center GeV gamma-ray excess.

  18. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  19. Collective neutrino flavor conversion: Recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino flavor evolution in core-collapse supernovae, neutron-star mergers, or the early universe is dominated by neutrino-neutrino refraction, often spawning "self-induced flavor conversion", i.e., shuffling of flavor among momentum modes. This effect is driven by collective run-away modes of the coupled "flavor oscillators" and can spontaneously break the initial symmetries such as axial symmetry, homogeneity, isotropy, and even stationarity. Moreover, the growth rates of unstable modes can be of the order of the neutrino-neutrino interaction energy instead of the much smaller vacuum oscillation frequency: self-induced flavor conversion does not always require neutrino masses. We illustrate these newly found phenomena in terms of simple toy models. What happens in realistic astrophysical settings is up to speculation at present.

  20. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  1. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  2. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  3. Evaluation of noni (Morinda citrifolia) volatile profile by dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A.; M. A. SOUZA NETO; GARRUTI, D. dos S.; Sousa, J. A.; BRITO, E. S. de

    2010-01-01

    Noni is a fruit that has interested the scientific community due to its medicinal and functional activities. Different products that contain noni are already in the market, but their consumption could be impaired by their distinctive unpleasant aroma and flavor. The aim of this work was to evaluate the noni pulp volatile profile by dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty seven volatile compounds were detected, mainly alcohols (63.3%), esters (26.9%), cetones (7.4%),...

  4. Identification, synthesis, and characterization of novel sulfur-containing volatile compounds from the in-depth analysis of Lisbon lemon peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert J; Kazimierski, Arkadiusz; Curto, Nicole L; Li, Jing; Trinnaman, Laurence; Jańczuk, Adam J; Agyemang, David; Da Costa, Neil C; Chen, Michael Z

    2015-02-25

    Lemons (Citrus limon) are a desirable citrus fruit grown and used globally in a wide range of applications. The main constituents of this sour-tasting fruit have been well quantitated and characterized. However, additional research is still necessary to better understand the trace volatile compounds that may contribute to the overall aroma of the fruit. In this study, Lisbon lemons (C. limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon) were purchased from a grove in California, USA, and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Fractionation and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were utilized to separate, focus, and enhance unidentified compounds. In addition, these methods were employed to more accurately assign flavor dilution factors by aroma extract dilution analysis. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in lemons, including a series of branched aliphatic aldehydes and several novel sulfur-containing structures. Rarely reported in citrus peels, sulfur compounds are known to contribute significantly to the aroma profile of the fruit and were found to be aroma-active in this particular study on lemons. This paper discusses the identification, synthesis, and organoleptic properties of these novel volatile sulfur compounds.

  5. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  6. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  7. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  8. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liang [Hebei Normal University, Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China); Qiao, Cong-Feng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub bs} x [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub du} tetraquark currents with J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m{sub s}, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle. (orig.)

  9. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector.

  10. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R J

    2001-01-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector. (8 refs).

  11. Flavor Physics and Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, C M

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to resolve new physics effects is, largely, limited by the precision with which we calculate. The calculation of observables in the Standard (or a new physics) Model requires knowledge of associated hadronic contributions. The precision of such calculations, and therefore our ability to leverage experiment, is typically limited by hadronic uncertainties. The only first-principles method for calculating the nonperturbative, hadronic contributions is lattice QCD. Modern lattice calculations have controlled errors, are systematically improvable, and in some cases, are pushing the sub-percent level of precision. I outline the role played by, highlight state of the art efforts in, and discuss possible future directions of lattice calculations in flavor physics.

  12. ABJM with Flavors and FQHE

    CERN Document Server

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    We add fundamental matters to the N=6 Chern-Simons theory (ABJM theory), and show that D6-branes wrapped over AdS_4 x S^3/Z_2 in type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 give its dual description with N=3 supersymmetry. We confirm this by the arguments based on R-symmetry, supersymmetry, and brane configuration of ABJM theory. We also analyze the fluctuations of the D6-brane and compute the conformal dimensions of dual operators. In the presence of fractional branes, the ABJM theory can model the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with RR-fields regarded as the external electric-magnetic field. We show that an addition of the flavor D6-brane describes a class of fractional quantum Hall plateau transition.

  13. Characterization of flavor and texture development within large (291 kg) blocks of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A; Gerard, P D; Barbano, D M

    2007-07-01

    Cheddar cheese is a natural product that has a variable flavor and texture profile. Many companies produce 291-kg blocks of Cheddar cheese, which are subsequently cut and shipped, or stored and subsequently cut. Previous research has shown that compositional differences exist within 291-kg blocks and that these differences may influence flavor and texture development. The objectives of this study were to systematically characterize flavor and texture differences within 291-kg blocks. On 2 different occasions, a 291-kg block was manufactured at each of 4 manufacturing facilities. After 7 d, the 291-kg blocks were sliced into sixteen 18-kg sample portions using a predetermined diagram, and each portion was labeled appropriately (outer corner, inner corner, etc.) and stored at 7 degrees C. Cheese from different locations within the 291-kg blocks was evaluated at 1, 4, 8, and 12 mo. At each time point, two 18-kg portions representing an inside and outside location with the 291-kg block cross-section (from inside to outside) were sampled. The moisture content was lower in the inner than outer locations within the 291-kg blocks. Protein hydrolysis was higher in the inner location and inner locations developed aged Cheddar flavors sulfur, nutty, and brothy more rapidly than the outer locations. However, plant-to-plant differences in aging were often larger than differences caused by block location. These differences were due to differences in cheese manufacturing practices among plants. Dynamic headspace results for flavor volatiles were consistent with descriptive sensory flavor results, documenting differences between inner and outer locations within 291-kg blocks. The inner locations were more fracturable and the outer locations were more cohesive and had more residual in the mouth. Inner locations had greater fracture strain than outer locations. Documenting the differences in aging of 291-kg blocks of Cheddar cheese is important in understanding how to make a

  14. A Flavor Protection for Warped Higgsless Models

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D higgsless models and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) satisfying electroweak and flavor constraints. The "new custodially protected representation" is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and RS-GIM for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming CKM-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero mode approximation, which are...

  15. A flavor protection for warped Higgsless models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Curtin, David

    2009-07-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D Higgsless models on a Randall-Sundrum (RS) background, and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) which satisfies electroweak and flavor constraints. The “new custodially protected representation” is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and an “RS-GIM” mechanism for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual Higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero-mode approximation, which are significant for Higgsless-type models.

  16. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  17. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  18. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yosef Nir; Yael Shadmi

    2004-12-01

    We argue that neutrino flavor parameters may exhibit features that are very different from those of quarks and charged leptons. Specifically, within the Froggatt–Nielsen (FN) framework, charged fermion parameters depend on the ratio between two scales, while for neutrinos a third scale – that of lepton number breaking – is involved. Consequently, the selection rules for neutrinos may be different. In particular, if the scale of lepton number breaking is similar to the scale of horizontal symmetry breaking, neutrinos may become flavor-blind even if they carry different horizontal charges. This provides an attractive mechanism for neutrino flavor anarchy.

  19. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  20. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  1. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times, but could be inadequate in the crucial shock revival/explosion epoch of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new paradigm in supernova modeling.

  2. Effect of culture of accumulation white mold volatile aromatic compounds in cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukova, Y.; MALOVA V.; KOROL TS.; KOZLOVA L.; PHEDIN PH.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different cultures of white mold Penicillium caseicolum and Geotrichum candidum on the content of aromatic compounds in a soft cheese have been investigated, methodical approaches to the definition of aromatic compounds by capillary gas chromatography have been developed, a number of characteristic volatile compounds identified and defined that have a specific cheese flavor.

  3. Changes in volatile compounds in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been recommended for use in emergency aid programs, but it is often stored overseas without temperature and relative humidity (RH) control, which may cause it to be rejected because of yellowing, off-flavors, or clumping. Therefore, the volatile compounds present ...

  4. Development of a screening system for the evaluation of soybean volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumyan, Pattana; Kato, Marie; Hajika, Makita; Matsui, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Flavor properties are important factors of soybean seeds in their utilization as food materials. In order to isolate novel varieties and mutants of soybean having preferable flavor properties, a simple and efficient screening system was established using an automated headspace sampler coupled to gas chromatography. With this system, five major volatile compounds were analyzed within 12 min. By applying this screening system to 626 soybean varieties collected worldwide, we isolated four soybean varieties that showed unique compositions of volatile compounds. Through biochemical analysis, it was found that the uniqueness of three of them was possibly independent of lipoxygenase enzyme, and thus perhaps this screening system can expand the subject of flavor properties beyond lipoxygenase and thus be useful in discovering new types of soybeans.

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  6. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  7. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  8. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  9. Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2014-03-01

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

  10. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  11. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  12. Elucidating the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors in mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fallik, Elazar; Porat, Ron

    2011-11-09

    To elucidate the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors, 'Mor' mandarins were exposed to anaerobic atmospheres for 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days to gradually increase juice ethanol and acetaldehyde levels through enhanced fermentation. Exposure to anaerobic atmosphere caused progressive decline in fruit sensory quality, from nearly "good" to "very bad", because of decreased typical mandarin flavor and increased sensation of 'musty' and 'ethanol' off-flavors. GC-MS analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in the contents of 12 aroma volatiles, including the ethanol fermentation metabolites ethanol and acetaldehyde, and several fatty acid and amino acid catabolism derivates, 7 of which were ethyl esters, which suggests that they were esterification products of ethanol and acyl-CoA's derived from fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. These de novo synthesized anaerobiosis-regulated ethyl esters impart 'pungent', 'ethereal', 'waxy', 'musty', and 'fruity' notes. Overall, these results suggest that besides the direct effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, downstream ethanol esterification products may also be involved in causing off-flavor sensation in mandarins.

  13. 顶空萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定一种儿童专用防痱止痒水的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in One Type of Remove Philippine and Itching Water by Headspace Extraction-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 熊爽; 田福林; 赵海波

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空萃取-气相色谱/质谱法分析鉴定防痱止痒水的挥发性成分。结果表明:共检测出35种挥发性成分,主要成分为乙醇和酞酸二乙酯,其它成分主要包括醇、烯、酯、甘菊环等。检出的物质中,α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、桉叶醇、樟脑、α-萜品醇、龙脑、醋酸异龙脑酯、石竹烯为野菊花挥发油的有效成分;苯甲酸甲酯、苯甲酸苄酯、丁香酚为金银花挥发油的有效成分;广藿香醇为广藿香提取物的主要成分。α-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、薄荷醇、丁香酚等成分都具有较强的驱避蚊虫的作用。%The volatile components in one type of remove philippine and itching water were analyzed by headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS).The results showed that HS-GC/MS is effective in the analysis of remove philippine and itching water.35 components are separated and identified.The main components are ethyl alcohol and diethyl phthalate acid,the others are alcohols,terpenes,esters and azulenes.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-pinene,camphene,eucalyptol,camphor,p-menth-1-en-8-ol,borneol,isobornyl acetate,caryophyllene are the effective components of the volatile oil in chrysanthemum indicum L.Benzoic acid methyl ester,benzyl benzoate,eugenol are the effective components of the volatile oil in flos lonicerae.Patchouli alcohol is the effective components of the volatile oil in pogostemon cablin(blanco) benth.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-myrcene,beta.-pinene,camphene,menthol,eugenol are all effictive repellent.

  14. Parton Distribution in Pseudoscalar Mesons with a Light-Front Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the distribution amplitudes of the pion and kaon in the light-front constituent quark model with the symmetric quark-bound state vertex function. In the calculation we explicitly include the flavor-SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in terms of the constituent quark masses of the up (down) and strange quarks. To calculate the kaon parton distribution functions~(PDFs), we use both the conditions in the light-cone wave function, i.e., when $\\bar{s}$ quark is on-shell, and when $u$ quark is on-shell, and make a comparison between them. The kaon PDFs calculated in the two different conditions clearly show asymmetric behaviour due to the flavor SU(3)-symmetry breaking implemented by the quark masses.

  15. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  16. Constituents of Doubly Periodic Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as constituent locations. To support this picture, the action density is computed analytically and numerically within a two dimensional slice containing the two constituents. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. Such objects comprise a single constituent.

  17. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono4

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

  18. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  19. Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2012-01-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  20. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B

    2016-01-01

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  1. Slepton Flavor Physics at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Thomas, S; Dine, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Thomas, Scott

    2001-01-01

    If low energy supersymmetry is realized in nature it is possible that a first generation linear collider will only have access to some of the superpartners with electroweak quantum numbers. Among these, sleptons can provide sensitive probes for lepton flavor violation through potentially dramatic lepton violating signals. Theoretical proposals to understand the absence of low energy quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents are surveyed and many are found to predict observable slepton flavor violating signals at linear colliders. The observation or absence of such sflavor violation will thus provide important indirect clues to very high energy physics. Previous analyses of slepton flavor oscillations are also extended to include the effects of finite width and mass differences.

  2. Neutrino Mass Matrix with Approximate Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Riazuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Phenomenological implications of neutrino oscillations implied by recent experimental data on pattern of neutrino mass matrix are disscussed. It is shown that it is possible to have a neutrino mass matrix which shows approximate flavor symmetry; the neutrino mass differences arise from flavor violation in off-diagonal Yukawa couplings. Two modest extensions of the standard model, which can embed the resulting neutrino mass matix have also been discussed.

  3. Collective flavor transitions of supernova neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, Guenter; Esteban-Pretel, Andreu; Pastor, Sergio; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2009-01-01

    We give a very brief overview of collective effects in neutrino oscillations in core collapse supernovae where refractive effects of neutrinos on themselves can considerably modify flavor oscillations, with possible repercussions for future supernova neutrino detection. We discuss synchronized and bipolar oscillations, the role of energy and angular neutrino modes, as well as three-flavor effects. We close with a short summary and some open questions.

  4. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  5. Flavor Unification and Discrete Nonabelian Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, D B; Kaplan, David B.; Schmaltz, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Grand unified theories with fermions transforming as irreducible representations of a discrete nonabelian flavor symmetry can lead to realistic fermion masses, without requiring very small fundamental parameters. We construct a specific example of a supersymmetric GUT based on the flavor symmetry $\\Delta(75)$ --- a subgroup of $SU(3)$ --- which can explain the observed quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. The model predicts $\\tan\\beta \\simeq 2-5$ and gives a $\\tau$ neutrino mass $m_\

  6. Twisted flavors and tribimaximal neutrino mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-07-28

    A new framework for handling flavor symmetry breaking in the neutrino sector is discussed where the source of symmetry breaking is traced to the global property of right-handed neutrinos in extra-dimensional space. Light neutrino phenomenology has rich and robust predictions such as the tribimaximal form of generation mixing, controlled mass spectrum, and no need of flavor mixing couplings in the theory.

  7. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas; Gadatsch, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of “flavor.” However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no “new physics” with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if there is “new physics” at the TeV scale, it must be “minimally flavor violating.” This has become a widely accepted assumption for “new physics” models. In this paper we propose a model-independent scheme to test minimal flavor violation for the anomalous charged Wtq, q∈{d,s,b} and flavor-changing Vtq, q∈{u,c} and V∈{Z,γ,g} couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e., in a model-independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II, under the assumption that the top-quark is produced at a high-energy collision and decays as a quasi-free particle.

  8. A Couplet from Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In such a scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. The ratios of the line energies are completely determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a firm prediction of this framework. For dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 ke...

  9. Flavor Symmetry and Vacuum Aligned Mass Textures

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, S; Shingai, T; Tanimoto, M; Yoshioka, K; Kaneko, Satoru; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Shingai, Takaya; Tanimoto, Morimitsu; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The mass matrix forms of quarks and leptons are discussed in theory with permutation flavor symmetry. The structure of scalar potential is analyzed in case that electroweak doublet Higgs fields have non-trivial flavor symmetry charges. We find that realistic forms of mass matrices are obtained dynamically in the vacuum of the theory, where some of Higgs bosons have vanishing expectation values which lead to vanishing elements in quark and lepton mass matrices. Mass textures are realized in the true vacuum and their positions are controlled by flavor symmetry. An interesting point is that, due to the flavor group structure, the up and down quark mass matrices are automatically made different in the vacuum, which lead to non-vanishing generation mixing. It is also discussed that flavor symmetry is needed to be broken in order not to have too light scalars. The lower bounds of Higgs masses are derived from the experimental data of flavor-changing rare processes such as the neutral K meson mixing.

  10. LHC Benchmarks from Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ierushalmi, N; Lee, G; Nepomnyashy, V; Shadmi, Y

    2016-01-01

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark - stop, scharm, or sup - is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. We find that, even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM's are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  11. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  12. Heavy Flavor Production in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, T

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS prepares a program for measurements of production cross sections both of b-hadrons and quarkonia in central proton-proton collisions at a new center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV at the LHC. Dedicated triggers based on muon, di-muon or electron signatures are designed to accommodate large statistics already in the first several months. Starting from semi-inclusive measurements at the very early stage, exclusive channels will soon dominate the measurements, allowing for tests of QCD in the Heavy Flavor sector already with 10 pb−1 of data. With larger statistics, polarization measurements are being prepared for J/psi and Lambda_b. It is expected, that 30 fb−1 of data collected at a luminosity of 10^33 cm−2s−1 will allow specific measurements not accessible with the statistics collected at the Tevatron. In particular, a Lambda_b polarization measurement will be achieved using Lambda_b -> J/psi Lambda decays. For J/psi, a polarization measurement will allow to confirm or exclude model predictions within ...

  13. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  14. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled.

  15. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  16. Contribution of the novel sulfur-producing adjunct Lactobacillus nodensis to flavor development in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elaine; Mills, Susan; Dobson, Alleson; Serrano, L Mariela; Hannon, John; Ryan, Siobhan P; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Brandsma, Johannes B; Meijer, Wilco C; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2017-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of Lactobacillus nodensis CSK964 as an adjunct culture in Gouda cheese under various industrial conditions. We set up 4 different systems: a direct vat inoculum with and without adjunct using the calf rennet Kalase, and an undefined bulk starter culture with and without adjunct using the microbial rennet Milase (both rennets from CSK Food Enrichment, Ede, the Netherlands). During ripening, we subjected the cheeses to the following analyses: viability of starter and adjunct cells, composition, proteolysis, and flavor development by detection of sulfur compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. In general, the presence of Lb. nodensis increased secondary proteolysis and influenced cheese flavor, particularly in relation to volatile sulfur compounds; hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol were present in higher abundances in cheeses containing Lb. nodensis. The primary starter also influenced the range of volatile sulfur compounds produced. Methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide were more abundant in the nisin-producing direct vat inoculum cheese with adjunct; hydrogen sulfide was more prevalent when bulk starter culture was used with Lb. nodensis. Sensory analysis revealed that the direct vat inoculum cheese with adjunct scored significantly better in terms of smell and taste than the direct vat inoculum cheese without adjunct and lacked the dominant sulfur flavors of the bulk starter cheese with adjunct. Subsequent analysis using lead acetate paper and modified motility broth as indicators of hydrogen sulfide production confirmed that Lb. nodensis produced hydrogen sulfide in broth and in the cheese matrix. This study suggests that the inclusion of Lb. nodensis as an adjunct culture can significantly alter the flavor profile of the final cheese. However, the selection of a suitable primary starter is imperative to ensure a desirable product. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile release from aqueous solutions under dynamic headspace dilution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M; Baek, I; Taylor, A J

    1999-11-01

    Static equilibrium was established between the gas phase (headspace) and an unstirred aqueous phase in a sealed vessel. The headspace was then diluted with air to mimic the situation when a container of food is opened and the volatiles are diluted by the surrounding air. Because this first volatile signal can influence overall flavor perception, the parameters controlling volatile release under these conditions are of interest. A mechanistic model was developed and validated experimentally. Release of compounds depended on the air-water partition coefficient (K(aw)) and the mass transport in both phases. For compounds with K(aw) values 10(-)(3), mass transport in the gas phase became significant and the Reynolds number played a role. Because release from packaged foods occurs at low Reynolds numbers, whereas most experiments are conducted at medium to high Reynolds numbers, the experimentally defined profile may not reflect the real situation.

  18. Identification of volatile compounds in codfish ( Gadus) by a combination of two extraction Methods coupled with GC-MS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yufei; Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang

    2016-06-01

    Codfish is a kind of abyssal fish species with a great value in food industry. However, the flavor of codfish, especially the unpleasant odor, has caused serious problems in its processing. To accurately identify the volatile compounds in codfish, a combination of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method was used to extract the volatiles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with Kovats indices (KI) and authentic standard compounds were used to identify the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 86 volatile compounds were identified in codfish, of them 24 were extracted by SDE, 69 compounds by SPME, and 10 compounds by both SDE and SPME. Seventy volatile compounds were found to have specific odors, of them 7 typical compounds contributed significantly to the flavor of codfish. Alcohols ( i.e., (E)-2-penten-1-ol and 2-octanol), esters ( i.e., ethyl butyrate and methyl geranate), aldehydes ( i.e., 2-dodecenal and pentadecanal) contributed the most to fresh flavor while nitrogen compounds, sulphur compounds, furans, as well as some ketones ( i.e., 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone) brought unpleasant odor, such as fishy and earthy odor. It was indicated that the combination of multiple extraction methods and GC-MS analysis can enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide a reference for the further study on flavor of aquatic products.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  20. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during